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International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm

Issue 2, Vol.6 (September 2012) ISSN 2249-6149

International Journal of Emerging trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm Issue 2, Vol.6

An Experimental Investigation of Tensile Strength of Glass Composite Materials With Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 ) Filler

Mukul Kant Paliwal #1 , Sachin Kumar Chaturvedi #2

#1, #2 Al-Falah School of Engineering & Technology, Dhauj, Faridabad, India. Pin 201308

ABSTRACT

Composites materials are used in almost all aspects of the industrial and commercial fields in aircraft, ships, common vehicles, etc. Their most attractive properties are the high strength-to-weight ratio. However, these materials also have some problems such as fiber fracture, matrix cracking and delamination. Matrix cracks and fiber fractures play an important role in laminates under tensile load. Delamination may be formed due to a wide variety of foreign object impact damage, poor fabrication process, and fatigue from environment cycle. Materials added to the matrix help improving operating properties of a composite. This experimental study has targeted to investigate the tensile strength of glass fiber and epoxy resin based composite with CaCO 3 as a filler. E-glass/epoxy composites were first manufactured to fabricate the specimens, using Hand lay-up technique. The tensile tests were carried out on the specimen for the determination of its mechanical properties.

Key words: Glass fiber, Epoxy resin, Calcium Carbonate, Tensile strength.

Corresponding Author: Mukul Kant Paliwal

1. INTRODUCTION

When two or more materials with different properties are combined together, they form a composite material. In general, the properties of composite materials are superior in many respects, to those of the individual constituents [1]. The composites provide various advantages such as; they are dimensionally stable in space during temperature changes. They constitute an outstanding feature of high strength to weight ratio. Besides these, they also possess high corrosion resistance properties. This has provided the main motivation for the research and development of composite materials.

A few researchers such as V.K. Srivastava et al., studied the effect of fly-ash filler in short glass fiber and random glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin were studied under tensile loading. The results showed that the fracture properties of short and random glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin can be increased by filling fly-ash particles and coating of fibers [1]. Youjiang Wanget et al., performed a study on woven fabric/epoxy composites focusing on their mechanical properties under uniaxial tensile, flexural, compressive, short beam shear and interlaminar fracture loading conditions [2]. Manwar Hussainet et al., investigated the mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced composites and Al 2 O 3 particles dispersed carbon fiber hybrid reinforced composites [4]. Shiqiang Deng et al., performed a systematic experimental investigation on glass fiber/epoxy composites with fibers of different cross-sectional shapes (round, peanut-shaped and oval) in order to

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evaluate the influence of the fiber cross-sectional aspect ratio on Mode I and Mode II inter-laminar fracture toughness, inter-laminar shear strength, and Charpy impact properties [5]. E. Zaretsky et al., investigated the dynamic response of a woven glass fibers reinforced epoxy composite to a planar impact loading [7]. Kazuya Okubo et al., presented a research work development of composites for ecological purposes (Eco- composites) using bamboo fibers and their basic mechanical properties [8].

The present paper is a study on composite materials with and without filler. The filler utilized for the purpose of study is CaCO 3. The study focuses on the determination on its mechanical properties, mainly tensile strength.

  • 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS

    • 2.1. Fiber Material

Fiber is the reinforcing phase of a composite material. The present research work, glass fiber is taken as the reinforcement in the epoxy matrix to fabricate composites. Glass

fibers are amorphous solids. Chemically, glass is composed of primarily of a silica (SiO 2 ) backbone in front of (SiO 4 ) tetrahedra. Modifier ions are added for their contribution to glass properties and manufacturing capability. Chemical composition variation within a glass type is from differences in the available glass batch raw materials, or in the melting and forming processes, or from different environmental constraints at the manufacturing site. These compositional fluctuations do not significantly alter the physical or chemical properties of the glass type. Very tight control is maintained within a given production facility to achieve consistency in the glass composition for production capability and efficiency.

2.2 Matrix Material

Among different types of matrix materials, polymer matrices are the most commonly used because of cost efficiency, ease of fabricating complex parts with less tooling cost and they also have excellent room temperature properties when compared. Polymer matrices can be either thermoplastic or thermoset. The most commonly used thermoset resins are epoxy, vinyl ester, polyester and phenolics. Among them, the epoxy resins are being widely used for many advanced composites due to their many advantages such as excellent adhesion to wide variety of fibers, good performance at elevated temperatures and superior mechanical and electrical properties. In addition to that they have low shrinkage upon curing and good chemical resistance. Due to several advantages over other thermoset polymers as mentioned above, epoxy (LY 556) is chosen as the matrix material for the present research work. It chemically belongs to the ‘epoxide’ family and its common name of epoxy is Bisphenol-A- Diglycidyl-Ether [21].

  • 2.3. Particulate Filler Material

Particulate fillers are plays an important role for the improvement of performance of polymers and their composites. Various types of fillers of natural or synthetic, both organic and inorganic is already being used as reinforcement in polymeric composites. Among them, alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), silicon carbide (SiC), silica (SiO 2 ), titania (TiO 2 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) etc. are most widely used as conventional fillers. Due to the many advantages, different weight percentages of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) particulate is used as filler material for fabrication of glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites in the present work.

  • 2.4. Specimen Preparation

2.4.1. Raw Materials

The castings of the above materials are put under load for about 24 hours for proper curing at room temperature. Specimens of suitable dimension are cut using a diamond cutter for physical characterization. The mix is stirred manually to disperse the fibers in the matrix. The

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cast of each composite is cured under a load of about 50 kg for 24 hours before it removed from the mould. Then this cast is post cured in the air for another 24hours after removing out of the mould. Specimens of suitable dimension are cut using a diamond cutter for mechanical testing. Table 1 shows the mixing ratio and the properties of the mix. Table 2 shows the designation of the composite without filler and Table 3 shows the designation of the composite with filler.

Mixing Ratio

Epoxy LY 556

100

parts by weight

Hardener HY 951

10

parts by weight

Table 1. The properties of the mix

 

Properties of the mix

Viscosity

at 25°C

1700mPa-s

Gel time

at 25°C

40-50 minutes

 

Table 2. The designation of the composite without filler

Composites

 

Compositions

GF1

 

Epoxy+30wt% glass fiber

GF2

 

Epoxy+40wt% glass fiber

GF3

 

Epoxy+50wt% glass fiber

 

Table 3. The designation of the composite with filler

Composites

 

Compositions

GFC1

Epoxy + Glass Fiber (50wt%)+CaCO 3 (5wt%)

GFC2

Epoxy + Glass Fiber (50wt%)+ CaCO 3 (10wt%)

GFC3

Epoxy + Glass Fiber (50wt%)+ CaCO 3 (20wt%)

  • 3. RESULTS AND DISSCUSSIONS

3.1 Characterization of the composites (Tensile Strength)

The tension test is generally performed on flat specimens as shown in figure 1. The figure 1 shows the flat specimen before testing and the figure 2 shows the flat specimen after

testing. The most commonly used specimen geometries are the dog-bone specimen and straight-sided specimen with end tabs. A uni-axial load is applied through the ends. The ASTM standard test recommends that the specimens with fibers parallel to the loading direction should be 19 mm wide. Length of the test section should be 165 mm. The test-piece used here was of dog bone type and having dimensions according to the standards. The tension test was performed on all the three samples as per ASTM D3039-76 test standards.

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Fig.1: Flat Tensile test specimen before test.

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The tensile strength of the composite for Glass Fiber reinforced epoxy without filler and filler is shown in Table 4.

Table 4. The tensile strength of the composite for Glass Fiber reinforced epoxy with and without filler

   

Composite with filler

Tensile

Composites without filler

Tensile

Strength(Mpa)

Strength

(MPa)

       

Epoxy+50wt%

 

GF1

Epoxy+30wt% glass fiber

  • 90.32 GFC1

glass fiber+5wt% Calcium carbonate

141.3

       

Epoxy+50wt%

 

GF2

Epoxy+40wt% glass fiber

  • 123.6 GFC2

glass fiber+10wt% Calcium carbonate

129.4

       

Epoxy+50wt%

 

GF3

Epoxy+50wt% glass fiber

  • 146.5 GFC3

glass fiber+20wt% Calcium carbonate

114.7

The effect of weight fraction of fiber on the tensile strength of the composite is shown in figure 3. As the weight fraction of fiber increases in the composites up to 50 wt%, the tensile strength of composite is increases up to 146.5MPa. Also it can be seen that the tensile strength of the composite decreases with increase in filler content. It is depicted in figure 4.

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Fig. 2 Flat specimen composites with filler content after Tensile test.

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GFC -1

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GFC - 2

GFC - 3

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Fig. 3 Effect of weight fraction of fiber on the tensile strength of the composite

Tensile Strength(Mpa)

200 150 100 50 0 GF3 GF2 GF1 Tensile strength(MPa)
200
150
100
50
0
GF3
GF2
GF1
Tensile strength(MPa)

tensile strength(Mpa)

Wt % of glass fiber

Fig. 4. Effect of filler content on tensile strength of the composite

Tensile Strength(Mpa)

150 100 50 0 Tensile strength(MPa) GFC1 GFC2 GFC3
150
100
50
0
Tensile strength(MPa)
GFC1
GFC2
GFC3

tensile strength(Mpa)

wt% of filler

CONCLUSION

The figures 3 and 4 shows the results of the research work. It can be concluded that as the

weight fraction increases the tensile strength of the composite increases rapidly. Also, form the figure 4 it can be concluded that as the filler content increases tensile strength of the composite decreases. It can further be concluded that this may be due to the higher filler loading; the interstitial volume must have been occupied by filler and there might be less matrix available to contribute for the tensile strength.

REFERENCES

[1] V .K. Srivastava. Effect of filler on fracture of short glass fiber reinforced epoxy.

1989 pp. 113-119. [2] Youjiang Wang, Jian Li and Dongming Zhao. Mechanical properties of fiber glass and Kevlar woven fabric reinforced composites.1994 pp. 1159-I 175.

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[3] Varna J, Joffe R,Berglund A. Effect of voids on failure mechanisms in RTM laminates. Compos Sci Technol 1994; 53: 2419. [4] Manwar Hussain, Atsushi Nakahira, Koichi Niihara. Mechanical property

improvement of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites by Al 2 O 3 , filler dispersion. 1995. 185-191 [5] Shiqiang Deng, Lin Ye,Yiu-Wing Mai. Influence of fiber cross sectional aspect ratio on mechanical properties of glass fiber/epoxy composites II. Interlaminar fracture and impact behavior. (1999).

[6] J. Kosoric, M. Cattani, S. Bouillaguet, Ch. Godin, & J.-M. Meyer. Reinforcement of composite resins with unidirectional glass fiber. 2002 (pages 24-25) [7] E. Zaretsky, G. deBotton, M. Perl. The response of a glass fibers reinforced epoxy composite to an impact loading. (2003) 569584. [8] Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii, Yuzo Yamamoto. Development of bamboo-based polymer composites and their mechanical properties. (2004) 377383. [9] P.V. Vasconcelos , F.J. Lino , A. Magalhaes , R.J.L. Neto. Impact fracture study of

epoxy-based composites with aluminium particles and milled fibers. (2005) 277283. [10] Hui Zhang, Zhong Zhang, Klaus Friedrich, Christian Eger.Property improvements of in situ epoxy nanocomposites with reduced interparticle distance at high nanosilica

content.(2005).

[11] V.K. Srivastava , A.G. Pawar. Solid particle erosion of glass fibre reinforced flyash filled epoxy resin composites. (2006) 30213028.

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