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F.E.G.-2
Foundation Course in English-2
2016-17
Q.1.Read the following passage and make notes in an appropriate format:

Ans: Demographic Features.


Situated in Carpathiach Basin
Slovakia inNorth.
Romania in East
Serbia in South
Croatia in South-west
Austria in North-west
UKraine in North-East
Budapest-Capital
Member of Europain Union, NATO, OECD, the viregrad ro group and schenger Area.
Hungarian-Language.

Geography
Two main was water ways- Danube and Tisza rivers
Tripartite divisionDunantul, Tiszantul and Duna-Tisza Koze

Culture
Folk music
Classical music
Famous music acadamy by Ferenc Erkel and Franz Lisz

Cuisine
Goulash
Paprika
Sour cream
Fishermans soup

Textile
Oriantal Design
Altar Cloths

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KIRTI EDUCATION CENTRE
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Q.2. Write a summary of the passage and suggest a suitable title.

Ans: Hungary - Al Masaood Travel

Hungary is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Its capital, Budapest, is bisected by the Danube
River.
Its cityscape is studded with architectural landmarks from Budas medieval Castle Hill and grand
neoclassical buildings along Pests Andrssy Avenue to the 19th-century Chain Bridge. Turkish and
Roman influence on Hungarian culture includes the popularity of mineral spas, including at thermal
Lake Hvz. Hungary's geography has traditionally been defined by its two main waterways, the
Danube and Tisza rivers. The Duna-Tisza kze and Tiszntl are characterized mainly by the Great
Hungarian Plain (Alfld), which stretches across most of the eastern and southeastern areas of the
country. Notable architectural styles in Hungary include Historicism and Art Nouveau, or rather
several variants of Art Nouveau. The music of Hungary consists mainly of traditional Hungarian
folk music and music by prominent composers such as Liszt and Bartk, considered to be the
greatest Hungarian composers.

Q. 3. Write a paragraph of 100-150 words on any one of the following topics:

Ans: Friendship

Friendship is a feeling of love and affection of one person for another. This feeling of love must be
reciprocated. Otherwise friendship cannot be possible. Friendship does not exist where tastes,
feelings and sentiments are not similar.
The famous essayist Bacon has warned against the friendship between a very rich person and a very
poor person. Economic disparity damages friendship. Thus friendship is a feeling of affection
between two likeminded persons of uniform status.
It is said that a friend in need is a friend in deed. There may be many friends at the time of
prosperity. But most of them desert at the time of adversity. We can examine the sincerity of a friend
during our time of hardship and trouble. Only a sincere and faithful friend remains with us at the
time of our trouble. All others leave us. It is very painful when our friends turn traitors.
Money is an enemy of friendship. Everybody has an attraction for money. When lending or
borrowing of money is done between two friends, there is great risk. Friendship may be affected. So
it is wise for true friends to avoid monetary transaction. Vanity is another element which breaks
friendship. Everybody has self-respect. When a person tries to criticise his friend, their friendship is
affected. So friendship must be treated very delicately.
Very often some hypocrites pretend to be friends. They are more dangerous than avowed enemies.
By telling soft words they bring enormous ruin to us. A true friend never exploits. He rather
surrenders. But at present, the meaning of friendship has changed.
There are many fair-weathered friends. They terminate their friendly tie as soon as their interests are
fulfilled. It is very difficult to find a true friend today. It is better to establish true friendship with

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KIRTI EDUCATION CENTRE
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either a dog or an elephant. Both these beasts will remain faithful to their human friends. Today,
friendship between two persons is short-lived.
Good friends exercise good influence. They always help their friends, in distress and inspire them to
walk on the right path. But evil friends ruin us completely.

Q. 4. Write a composition of 250-300 words based on any one of the pictures given below:

Ans:

Agriculture in India
The importance of agriculture to our economy can hardly be over-emphasized. It is the most
important source of raw materials to feed our industries It provides employment to about 70 percent
of our total labour force. It contributes more than 40 percent to our total national income. And it is
one of the major foreign exchange earners for our economy. But unfortunately, it does not .appear to
be as sound as it should have been.
The basic industry of India is agriculture. India is the greatest grower of sugarcane in the world and
she stands second in the production of rice and tobacco. In cotton, only the U.S.A. can surpass her.
She is second to none in the world in the production of groundnuts. She is the biggest producer of
tea, except China. In jute and lac, she holds monopoly in the world. In the light of this, it is indeed
sorrowfully surprising that India is faced with deficit in her food requirements. It requires a complete
analysis of the situation.
A variety of factors, natural, technological, institutional, economic and social can be cited to explain
the backwardness of our agriculture Nature is bounteous and gives us all, but it gives erratically and
often snatches with one hand what it gives with the other. If monsoons are kind, fields look
resplendent with bright green saplings but hailstorms lash there mercilessly or floods wash them
away, and if we are fortunate enough to escape the wrath of all this, we are sure to be oppressed by
locusts and other pest epidemics. The last three years saw severe drought conditions in the country
especially in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Technological factors include primitive equipment, lack of
irrigation facilities and inadequate availability of fertilizers. Institutional factors imply uneconomical
size of holdings and defective land-tenurial system. Social and economic factors include the
ignorance and superstitiousness of the farmers and their vulnerability on financial issues.
The problem of agriculture in India should be tackled on a scientific basis. The programme of
intensive cultivation should be launched upon. We should raise the low yield of every crop by
bringing into service all the knowledge and implements which the modern science has given us. The
Indian farmer is conservative, orthodox and illiterate and is not readily willing to give up the age-old
methods of cultivation which are out of date now. Her unprogressive outlook is the greatest hurdle in

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the way of improvement in agriculture. The National Government has to make a great change in the
farmer's outlook before launching upon any scheme for agricultural development in India. It is the
duty of the Government to supply better seeds and fertilizers. Farmers have to be trained in the use
of scientific implements and chemical fertilizers, Cow dung and other animal droppings should be
checked from being used as fuel.

Irrigation is a very important factor m Indian agriculture. The farmers should not be left any longer
at the mercy of rains. India has big resources of water, but at present, the bulk of this water moves
about in ferocious floods causing great damage to life and property. This water has to be utilized
properly. New canals should be dug out and tube wells should be bored in such a number that Indian
farmers may -get sufficient water for irrigation in time.

The total area under cultivation should be increased by means of reclamation. The fallow land
should be brought under the plough and there, should be proper distribution of land. In spite of
ceiling on land, some people in India have too much of land while some are still landless. Co-
operative farming in our country is not possible at present. It may be adopted on a small scale or for
the sake of experiment. If it has to prove useful, it should be adopted on a large scale. As a national
scheme, it should be adopted at least for three decades. Within this time, Indian farmers will be
mentally and technically intelligent enough to understand the advantages of cooperative farming.
Cattle have been the greatest source of wealth in India. Unluckily, Indians are indifferent towards
their bullocks who form the backbone of Indian agriculture. They are of poor quality. All the farmers
of India can never be in a position to have tractors. They will have to depend on bullocks more or
less. So, they should have healthy and good bullocks.

Improvement of our agricultural productivity calls for the fulfillment of three basic conditions. An
economically viable technology should be easily available so that farmers can dispense with out-
moded implements of agriculture. Next, they should find within easy approach cheap credit and an
efficient network so that they can avail themselves of the technology available to them. Finally, land
reform programme should be implemented more genuinely so that the benefits of an easily available
technology can really percolate to the small farmer. There can be hardly any meaningful growth
unless technology, cheap credit and land reforms coincide.

Social organizations should be set up to fight pest epidemics. Greater attention should be paid to the
public storage system so that our agricultural produce can be satisfactorily preserved both
qualitatively and quantitatively. If we need efficient technology to promote growth, we need equally
efficient post-harvest technology to preserve what we have produced. Last of all, if this agricultural
produce can be equitably distributed, it will ensure optimum utilization of our production.

Indian farmers lack in initiative. They require guidance, mechanization, better seeds and fertilizers,
technical education to farmers, sufficient means of irrigation equal distribution of land and the
introduction of scientific methods will certainly revolutionize Indian agriculture. We must try to

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make agriculture attractive and remunerative for modern youths. It is by then that Indian agriculture
will be improved.

Q.5.You are the secretary of the Literary Forum of your institution. Write a report in 250
words of a meeting held to discuss the upgrading of library facilities.

Ans: Report on Upgrading Literary Facilities in India


Literacy and level of education are basic indicators of the level of development achieved by a
society. Spread of literacy is generally associated with important traits of modern civilization such as
modernization, urbanization, industrialization, communication and commerce. Literacy forms an
important input in overall development of individuals enabling them to comprehend their social,
political and cultural environment better and respond to it appropriately.

Higher levels of education and literacy lead to a greater awareness and also contributes in
improvement of economic and social conditions. It acts as a catalyst for social upliftment enhancing
the returns on investment made in almost every aspect of development effort, be it population
control, health, hygiene, environmental degradation control, employment of weaker sections of the
society.

The Census 2013 provisional reports indicate that India has made significant progress in the field of
literacy during the decade since the previous census in 1991. The literacy rate in 2001 has been
recorded at 64.84% as against 52.21% in 1991. The 12.63 percentage points increase in the literacy
rate during the period is the highest increase in any decade. Also for the first time there is a decline
in the absolute number of non-literates during the past 10 years.

The total number of non-literates has come down from 328 million in 1991 to 304 million in 2001.
During 1991-2000, the population in 7+ age group increased by 176 millions while 201 million
additional persons became literate during that period. Out of 864 million people above the age of 7
years, 560 million are now literates. Three-fourths of our male population and more than half of the
female population are literate. This indeed is an encouraging indicator for us to speed up our march
towards the goal of achieving a sustainable threshold literacy rate of 75% by 2007. The Census 2001
provisional figures also indicate that the efforts of the nation during the past decade to remove the
scourge of illiteracy have not gone in vain. The eradication of illiteracy from a vast country like
India beset by several social and economic hurdles is not an easy task. Realising this the National
Literacy Mission was set up on 5 May 1988 to impart a new sense of urgency and seriousness to
adult education. After the success of the areas specific, time bound, voluntary based campaign
approach first in Kottayam city and then in Ernakulum district in Kerala in 1990, the National
Literacy Mission had accepted the literacy campaigns as the dominant strategy for eradication of
illiteracy. Out of 600 districts in the country, 597 districts have already been covered under Total
Literacy Campaigns.

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The number of continuing education districts is 328. The creditable performance of the National
Literacy Mission received international recognition when it was awarded the UNESCO Noma
Literacy Prize for 1999.

Raman

6. Write a report in 250 words of an interview you had with the President of your students
union regarding his/her plans for making your institution environment-friendly.

Ans. Report
Dated: 7.10.2016
Recently I met the president of the student union to make the plan regarding how to increase the
awareness of students about the environment. And I am sharing all my experiences in this report.
Living on a college campus means that everything is easy to access and convenient. Too often this
convenience leads students to become wasteful and thoughtless about their impact on the
environment. Instead of producing more garbage and wasting energy, consider taking a green
approach. Here are 5 ways for college students to be environmentally friendly on campus.

1. Since college students aren't responsible for paying their electric bills, many disregard their use of
lights and electronics. However, using unnecessary energy is wasteful and increases your carbon
footprint tremendously.
Get in the habit of turning off equipment, lights, computers and other electronics when you are not in
the room and when you aren't using them. These simple changes in your daily habits can help save a
watt and make your campus greener.

2. When eating in the dining hall, avoid the to-go trays and containers. While these are convenient
when you are running to class or back to your dorm, only use them when necessary. Disposable
utensils, plates and bowls are really bad for the environment and get thrown away after one use. If
you have to use them, try recycling whenever possible. If you can, the best option is to eat in the
dining hall and use reusable plates and metal forks that can be washed and used again. This reduces
your waste and is a more sustainable practice.

3. At the end of a semester, often students have lots of old items or even furniture that they no longer
have use for. All too often you will see tons of these items stack in the dumpsters around campus.
Sadly many of these items are in good condition and the owners simply have no more use for them.
Instead of throwing them away as trash, consider recycling them by giving them to an
underclassmen, donating them to a Good Will store, or even selling them on Craig list to earn a few
extra bucks and get the items off of your hands.

4. Get involved on campus. Often campuses will have an environmental club. If they don't already
have one, consider getting some friends together to start one! This is a great way to spread awareness

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about eco-friendly habits and daily choices so that the campus as a whole can make strides towards
maintaining an environmentally friendly campus. Plus, your college or university will appreciate this
and will likely help you out since many campuses are striving to go green to improve their business
practices and improve the reputation and appearance of the school.

5. Finally, talk to your dining services about making green choices in the dining hall. Your school
can go green by buying local or organic foods. This is good for the environment, student health, as
well as the local farming economy. In addition, your dining services can make a difference by
switching to energy efficient light bulbs and low-flow water dispensers.
Pankaj