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Gv u

(Engineering Drawing)
Hux EUSu ux vmhz
uzu sk. \u[P vmhhkQ
vmhk | EUSv. Au vmhhkQ
uh [P Au EUS SS uP
[Su sk. CuS zu hv FhPS.
hv FhPzv h Jh. AuP EP
v FhPzv kzx B Q v vmh
E (Sketches) kzxuS. Aux Gu u EPn[
P kQ S. vmh E kzv
UPmh [P zv UP.
u, Aih P G uh Cu x
Pzu U P. G
EUSu AuS uPP uk. A G
EUSUS \P U PkUPU Ti J
G Czu sk. A Gv u
(Engineering drawing) G hxxh, u~mP
uPP hxxh, u ~mP uPP
UP FhPP Ax x.
ChPzv kzv Hux Aux
EPn, Pmhh EUSx uh
ux, x Pzu UP i.
Pnkx Gv u {[P
PnkQ. C, Pv Pou (Geometry) uUP v
]uP Aih Pmimk. mP Pmhh,
Pmhh PP, Czv EPn[P GS C
{[P EUPmk. Gv u Aih ]uP
uh UP UPkx C |UPS.
CuPP Gx |hQ C[P kzukx
C[P u {[P {Pzv hmk SRI LANKA
STANDARD 409 ENGINEERING DRAWING PRAcTIcE G {S. Cx
zu HUPmh BS 308 {zv
JzuuS.

1
1'1 vmh hP
Hux uS Szu {[PUP Pmk
v hx vmhS. CUPmk v hzv
]zvU Pm]P (Pictorial View) Ax |GPU Pm]
P x Pmh. CP Csk kzumk
vmhP kQ.
J hzx AihPU Psk ]] [Ph
Czvmh x k. CSv Cv, PmhhUP,
\, Czv hzxPUS mh vmh
P kPU Pn.

1'1'1 Cv hzx

EzvUPP kQ vmhP Sv (Part drawings)"


JnUPmh (Assembly drawings)" ]u (Exploded
drawings) u zv (Developments drawings) J
\zv ]zvU Pm]z uU Ti (Pictorial view) P
EhUPk. SvP EUSPUS ASv EUS
uSz u SvP P [Pk. h 1.1 a
Sv PmhkQx.

2
E 1'1 a - Sv
CP PnkQ uP ]zux AP u
Sv \P. C C EUSuS
USz u SvP EUPmk iu
ASvP Jh J \UPh (CnUPh)
sk. AuPP J\UPmh h (Assembly drawing) kz
uk. A J\uP AP (Dimensions) zv
ShmiUS 1.1 b Tmk Pmhmkx.

2
53

134
107

E 1'1 b - Tmk
]u x Hux Sv iUPmh
Au xzuUS Emkzx \uzv Av SvP
Ax Psk u PmhPkuS, Au J
\UPmk n[P CSP PmkuPP
kzukQx.

3
E 1.1 c ]u
hv Pm] kzxu EUP si
(Aih) i G Gu CSP Ax
P i. EunP E 1'1 d C P hv Pm]
Pmhmkx.

E 1'1 d - P hv Pm]

Cv hzxUS Ezu EUSuS u


vmhx 1'1e hzv Pmhmkx. Cu Sv
EUSuSz u \P AP (Dimensions) kzukQ
APP (Scale) EUSuS kzxQ mP

4
EUSuS u H uP C[S
EhUPmixh C[S GU Pmk (Projection principle) G
Gu PskiUPU Ti Pm] miUS.

E 1'1 e

M10

E 1'1 e, f -Cvzx kzukQ vmh


Azxh AP USx M Gzxh CUP
kzumk U PniQx. Cx \h AS.
H APUS A v zv kzumkx.
M Gzv kzvu AuS mU C () (Metric
thread) kzumku PmkQx. C[S CUPzv
P Amk v PmhkQx. Aux CUP 10
GU Px. A P 10 () C C[S
Cux PzuS. Au Sx A v
Pmhmi Ax mhzv mh Gu PzuS.
E Ami vx Au mhzv A vS.

5
EunP SmkUS 22 hmi Ax 22
mh GU Pxu sk. Azxh ] A vP Ax
+ Ax - Eh v Pmhmiu PnUTiuP CUS.
ASv \uS [Pmk _zu (Tolerance)
v Gu Au PzuS.

1'1'2 PmhhUPhzx
PmhhUP hzx PmhhU PmkuS uUPmh
vmhh 1'2 (a) (b) hzv Pmhmkx.

E 1'2 a - PmhhUPzx kzukQ vmh h

6
E 1'2 b - PmhhUPzx kzukQ Qhh
Pmhh AuSz uUPmh Qhh Pz
u (Front elevation)" Qhh (Plan)" UPz u (Side elevation)"
SUSmkPz u (Cross sectional view) G J Ax
, Azvz uP (Foundation details)" , Pu [P (Doors and
windows schedule)" Ch Ah (Site plan) P EhUPh
sk. Cx Em] { Ax u\ \
Ax AuSa \ \ Av UPuPP
uUPmh QhhS. CUQhhzv ] uPUS
AP kzuk. EunP UP, SUSUPz
u, Qhzu, UPz u P kx 1 :
100 Ax 8 AiP 1 A[S AS. G Azvz uP 1 : 20
Ax 2 AiP 1 A[S A k. C[S (1 : 100, 1 : 20 G
U AhS
Azxh Pmhh AuS PU Qhh k.
AUQhhx, {n h GU Tk. {n hzv
Pmhhzv \P uP Aux A (Structural)" iP
(Drainage systems)" \h uP (Special details)" \ EPn[P
(Electrical components) zxu, }US A (Plumbing
system) PU PmhU Ti Qhh k.
1'2 c hzv mkUP } [P }Sz Qhh
Pmhmkx.

7
mk } umix Q u S
0'7 l /s

S mh : 0'3 l /s
S mh: 32 mm
40 mm

0'4 l /s

S mh:
32 mm
S

E 1'2 c - mkUP }[P }US vmh

1'1'3 \ Czv hzx


\ Czv hzxUS vmhP ] 1'3 hzv
Pmhmkx. C 1'3 (a) (b) (c) vmhh[P Pmhh
\ \u[P zxuPP mhuS.

E 1'3 (a) - \ Czv xP kzukQ vmh h

8
h 1'3 (b) - PP _ AUPmk h

h 1'3 (c) P hmh mk A ~m h

\zvmhx n vmh (Complete plan)" _ h


(Circuit diagram) A [P (Quantity schedule)
EhUQuS. n vmhzv [P P (Distribution board)
AUPmk Ch, o, S, ] GP
JS PP Chmk P GP iU
S PmhmiUS.
_U S (Electrical meter)" [P P (Distribution board)
~m _ h (Miniature circuit breaker) GP A~m _
hUS \SvP (Electrical components) GP
ShmiUS. A zv \ SvPUS
mi, GzxUPUS kzukQ SkP,
] () SkP (Graphic symbols) J SvPUS
ukQ AP Amhn PmhmiUS.

Cv mh SkP uP Pmhmi
US. C G uPP [PkQ Gu Ax

9
P sk. CuS vPP \ x \ Q
PmkQ mh hU Sh \U PP zukQ
U Pmk SUPh vmh x mkx.
hzxUPP kzukQ SkP, _UP EkP
R Pmhmk.
1' Gv PmhhUP hzx
2' \ Czv hzx
3' Cv hzx

Amhn 1.1 Gv PmhhUP hzx SkP

10
Amhn 1.2 \ hzx kzuk SkP

Smk _ Eh mk

u u m
_ma

u Cmh
m _ma

C u m
_ma

zv _ma

Pih Ti
Azx mh
_ma (\un
\u[P vu)

Pih Ti
Azx mh
_ma (\un
\u[P
hmk)
Pih Ti
Azx mh
_ma (J
hmixh
C
\kzvh
vUS.)

11
Smk _ Eh mk

a\

S
US

EQ

\QSu

] (Fan)

a\U
Pmkmka \

v Kmha _
h

_h

12
Amhn 1.3 Cv hzx kzuk SkP
i[ (CnU Sk)
Flanged Single-bevel
butt weld butt weld
U butl weld
Square Tee butl
Single-bevel weld
butt weld weld
Single - v Single-bevel
Cap weld
butt weld tee weld
Filet weld Line weld Edge joint weld
Plug weld S - weld Surface weid
Single - bevel
Spot weld S - weld
Inclined weld
Folded weld

Cvkzu SkP mkU SkP


Sk b
a
= e d
= US \x
N8 =
5
USQhP Gumhx
3.2

Gumhx

M
N8

M
N8 3.2 3.2
C
C
R
R

13
1'2 vmhh[P EUSuSz u
PP P
vmhh[P EUSx E uzv PP, u
mP kzxu uzv Tix \x
vmhz uuP C QhUP.
u PP mP uhP, AUPPa \P
kzxx uhP, { AP, \UP AP
uhP, { PmkPP uhP, AUPkP
kzxx uhP, h\ kzukQ
{a \mhP u Amhn G uhP { GzxPP
uhP CSv Pxhk.

1'2'1 u u (Drawing papers)


Gv uUS \h u kzuk. C u
sP
{ AUS HhuPzu ({ AU Psi
zu)
Tku U Psizu
\un Phu] h ]x \ \ Svh
C Czu
u Phu]US \\ ukuP Pn
Au ] u P UQa \x Au
CSP kzxx, uP Cu Evkzxx
Csk Pn[PUPPS.
\u\ u { Ax (ISO) u uP
Pkzvx.
Pkzu A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6
841 594 420 297 210 148 105
1189 841 594 420 297 210 148
Amhn 1.4 \u\ { AP Phu] Pkzu
CPkzuUS A0 A10 Ah z u
zux Gxh, vmh US kzukx A0 uhUP
A4 u Phu] AS. G \h \u[P A0
hU Tku Ah Ti 2A0 4A0 u u kzuk.
Czu uix AUPkx \x Q PnUQ (grams
per square meter - gsm) AihS.

14
\x US Q A AvPUSx u AvPUS.
AuP 70 gsm" 80 gsm" 120 gsm G ShkQ u
uP PnkQ. Azxh CzuPUS vPP vmh
x vz uP (Tracing papers) kzuk.
CPz uP kzv kQ vmh Tku
PzvS xPP zvUP i.

1'2'2 ] (Pencils)
vmh x PUQ SvP J SvP
]U Sh. Pmh ] PP
kzukQ. 1.4 hzv Pmhmk mh,
mh J h SUSmk izxh Ti
]P PnkQ.

E 1'4 SUSmkizxh ]P

vmh h[P uS mh i ]P x
P zux. mh i ] kzxx
] u JuP zvuPP ]
US |kUS Ch zx ] _uS
ChUP i. G Ph uS u
G (Straight edge) ] kzu siUS.
A[S ] USx AuP kzukQ G
US P UPzvSa \P CUS
P ] zvx UQuS. Ax 1.5 hzv
Pmhmkx.

15
E 1'5 - ] kzu si

1.6 hzv Pmhmk ] uP


Pmhmk. ] Ezv\u {, v, ]
P G GUS UQ uPS. UQP ]
Sv CvUS AszuuP Gzx CUP Ax Gzx
zv ShmiUS.

AB DE fG AAc BE fG

AB DE fG AAc BE fG

AB DE fG AAc BE fG

AB DE fG AAc BE fG

AB DE fG AAc BE fG

AB DE fG AAc BE fG
AB DE fG AAc BE fG

AB DE fG AAc BE fG

AB DE fG AAc BE fG
AB DE fG AAc BE fG

AB DE fG AAc BE fG

AB DE fG AAc BE fG

E 1'6 - Ph]Sv Kzv Gzx CUP Shmk ] \u[P

] Px 8B, 7B, 6B,... 2B, B, HB, 2H...G Pkz


umkx. Cu GzxUP, CUP[P G ] EQzx
kQ PkP {zv PmkQ. ]
{zv PkzuP h 1.7 PmhkQx.

16
E 1'7 - ] { PkzuP

H Gzv Pzv Piz (Hard) u ShkQx. H Gzxh


\zx kzumk CUPzv v AvPUSx Au
Pizu AvPu Ti v Psh ]
USx ux QuS Ax mkkuS
Chsk. Azxh zu i Pzv
A S. Au Su {zxh Pmi uS
iUS.

B Gzv Shkx Pzv x (Soft) u


S. Aux zuS. B Gzxh kzu
mk CUPzv v AvPUSx Au
u AvPu Tku vU Psh ]
kzxu z u kQ Pmi iQ
Pzv () A AvPUS. A Pk { PkP
{uS Cu kzu i. G ] (T) Bx
uhx AvPS. vmh h[PUS TkuP 2B, HB 2H
]P kzukQx. ]U TUSx Gzx,
Ax Gzx CUP E UPzu TUSvx uzx P
sk. ] TUQ CUP si Ax 1.8
hzv Pmhmkx.

17
24 mm

8 mm
E 1'8 - ] TUQ CUPsi A
] PSv () 8 CUP skxh
P TUPsi A 24 Ax 25 P Czu
sk. Pk Rx Sv uhu AiUPi ]
U TUQU P siUS. Ax
J[SkzvU PuS nPhu]z xsh kzu
i. ] T J[SkzvU PuS ]
n Phu] uUS x ] _uS UPU Thx.
Azxh \u CuP n Phu] Aa_ (Sand paper block) G
J P PnkQx. Ax 1.9 a hzv PmhkQx. ]U
TUSuS Pzu PP Cx { TUP
PS.

E 1'9 a - n Phu] Aa_


\un ]kzv vmh x ]
ChUQh TUP siUS. Ci Pmi J
vP Cv x ]x PiP CUS.
CUPi {z uzxU PuPP \h ] P
Ezv \mkx. C] P C \u
uPU Pn. Ua ], G PkP UTi
P () T ] G C TkuPU PnU Ti
]PS. A 1.9 b hzv Pn. A 0'35" 0'5" 0'7" 1'0
SkPh PnkuU Pn. A v
Pmhmkxh Au Pzx ]UPP kzu si
T mh BS.

E 1'9 b -] AP

18
C] kzxu Pmi J vP
u Cv n i. C] kzx x
u Phu]US \[SzuP zxUPv P \zxu
sk.

1'2'3 A (Eraser)

u Hk P AuPP
A kzuk. CuPP \
Az u \x UQS. A
Cuhzx u A_zuPU
Pnk. CuPP C P
uUPmh HUPhzuUP A
P kzu sk. C
{zvvUS. Cu AUSx ]P
}UPmk {zuh uhvUS.
1'2'3 Aimh (Ruler)

CPnx iU, ukzumh P Ax EP


Ezv \miUS. Cu AkP v
U P, u AU Szu, A m]zu
P[PUS kzu i. kzukQ
Aimh[P ] 1.10 hzv Pmhmkx.

E 1'10 Aimh PP
xP Cu Aimh[P 300 mm (1Ai), 900 mm (3Ai)
}[PU PshuP uUPmk. Aimh[P
AmkU SkPU Su CSkzxuS Csk UP
P T (Taper) P uUPmk. Azxh
Cu Aimh[P Csk UP PUS AsP ]x
EmUPP Amk vP SUPmiUS. Cv J

19
UP K[P uha]P \ AS vP
SUPmixh AkzuUP K[P A[S
ASP SUPmiUS.
\ 1 C yx 10 \ SvPP UPmixh
Av ] J Sv 1 Gk. J A[Sz yx
\SvP 8 BP 1 6 BP Ax 32 BP zxU PmhmiUS
J A[Sx 8 SvPP UPmiUSx Au 1 Sv J
""'' Gk. Cu 1/8 G Sh. ] Aimh[P
J A[S Ax \ 10 SvPP Ax 20 SvPP
UPmiUS. J A[Sz xx 10 SvPP UPmiUS
x Au J Sv u\ J A[S 1" Gk.
10
Cuh Ah Aimh GkQ \h Aimh
P PnkQx. Cu Ah Aimhx
i[P Ezv \mkxh C UPn
izuU PsiUS. J UPzvS Ah AP
]uS H Bzv SUPmiUS.

1'2'4 Pzv Pou EPnzuSv


vmh x kzukQ Pzv Pou EPnz
uSv Aih Csk PP PkzvU Pmh i.
Aux
h\ kzukQ Pzv Pou
EPnzuSv
u DkmkPUPP uUPmk Pzv Pou
EPnzuSv
u \PUPP uUPmk Pzv Pou EPnz
uSvx E uzvU Psixh, Cu EzvUPP
kzumk mP { Ex Gu
Tkux. Pzv Pou EPnz uSv PP ]
.
Aimh
mh
P (Pn)
P (mh P)
P
A (A P)

Smh J PP C P .

20
Aimh (Ruler)
Pv Pou EPnz uSv Aimhx
JUTi iUQS. Au } 150 mm G
SUPmk. Aimhzv Au x ]x u "0'
Bx SUPmkx. Cu PnP Aimh US Hux
v Hmh \ A U PU TiuUS.
Gv AP U PuS zv Aimh
kzuku Aukzv PkP U Thx.
mh\i (Setsquares)
{ mh\i PnkQx. JUTi
iUQ mh EUPkQx. mh[P J
900 U Psh C\UP UPn S. C mhx
450 mh AUPk. 450 mhx 1.11 hzv
Pmhmkx. C UPn i.

E 1'11 - 45o mh

Akzu mhx J 600 Pnzu H C P


300 zu 900 u Pshu UPnS. Cx
300 Ax 600 \u mh G AUPk. 300 Ax 600
\u mhx 1.12 hzv Pmhmkx.

E 1'12 - 30x Ax 60x \u mh


Cu \u mh \i Euh G PkP 600, 450, 300
\UPkP \[SzxUPkP \vUPkP
Gua ]UP ixh, J EPnzu zv uP
kzxu Auh G kzxx P

21
zux. \u mh \i kzv UTi
BPU Su Pnzv v 150 BS.
P (Protractor)
Cu EPnx JUTi iUQ EUP
mkxh Amhzv izu Cx PsiUS. P
E 1.13 C Pmhkx.

E 1'13 - P
Pkzv 1 uhUP 1800 Pn
0
AP
UP. C[S AP 00, 100, 200, 300........
G
SUPmkxh ASvPUSh yx sk 10
SvPPUPmk. Au ] Sv v 10 BS.
BP Pmhmk P BPa ] Ak 10 BS.
P (Compass)
Cu EPnx PiUPu EUS EPzv, Ax
iUQ Ax sPzv
\miUS. EPzv EUPmh
Pzv U \miUS. Cu J
Sv F] \mkxh AkzuSv
] zuU Ti
EUPmkx. Azxh EPnzv C
UP[P ]uu x hu
Czu sk. Pzv h 1.14 C
E 1'14 - P Pmhmkx.

Cu EPnzu kzv mh, Amh u, Hux


Ah K Chzvx ChzvS v \u,
\ Pn[P Azu, Pzv Pou
BUP[P \. Pzukzxx US
_mkUSh Pzv u _UTi P zxU
P sk. Azxh AmiU SUSx Pzv
CUP[P PUQh Cu EvkzvU P
sk.

22
P C TU P (Divider)
P P Jv AU Psiu,
CsiSh UQ k Pzv ]
CnUS SvUSvP sPzv \mh
Cv CnUPmiuS. CPnzu kzv
AkP UP, AkPU Szu, P
P ixh Au kzxx CUP[P
hu zxUPuS Au CPUQh
\P {zvv E P \zxu sk.
Pzv Pou EPnz uSv h \Pz uUPmh EPn[
P \u UP ixh J EPnzu
uzuP U P i.

1'2'5 u P, xnP[P
(Drawing boards and components)

u u zvUPuPP u P kzuk.
u P ] \h sP PnkQ A,
u P J 900 PshuP
Czu sk.
P x Pkiu umh AU
PshuP EUPmizu sk.
u |_[Pu Ehu EUPmizu
sk.
u Px uP P iUQ
uUPmiUS. CPx A0, A1, A2, A3, A4 u
A hU Smh APzv }zv TkuP CUS
P EUPmkx.

P EUPmk u P
(Wooden drawing boards)
Cv J x { P Cxh Ax
uhU (UPU) Ti C\UPhU Ti
uUPmh P uUPmiUS. C zzTZZ
mhP SQ Pix Pz uk P
zx QhUPkP u sk. Azxh CP i
kuz uuPP P RSv C iUP
CnUPmk. P uUPmh u P
1.15 hzv Pmhmkx.

23
E 1'15 - P uUPmh u P

CP PP A3 A uP kzxuS
zu uUPmk. ChxP UPh
PUS, x P UPhPUS CP u
PP PnkQ. x PUP UPhPUS
uUPmk Px Chx PUPP { x
AUPmkxh Chx PUP hPUS uUP
mk u P { x x UP CUS
uUPmkx.
iUQ uUPmk u P
(Plastic drawing boards)
iU P uUPkQ u PP A3 A4
AhuP, A P PskPUTi u
P (Portable drawing boards) G, A2 Ah u Px
_ u P (Bench drawing boards) G, A1, A0 Ah u
P, u Cv (Drawing machines) G AUPk. Azxh
CPUS \hPz uUPkQ _ a _U Ti u
u (Swivelling drafting head) u x zu.
Au Gu Svh \ PkP CSP .

T Aimh (T - rule)
P uUPmh u
P kzv vmhzv
x QhUPkP uS
kzxx zzTZZ AimhzvS.
Cu zzTZZ Aimh ukzumh
P \mkx. zzTZZ
Aimhx uP C SvPU
E 1.16 & T Aimh
Pshx Aux zzTZZ
SPi BS. Ax h 1.16 C Pmhmkx.
zTZZ Aimhzv J x SP i
S 900 Pn AUS P EUPmkx. Cu zzTZZ

24
Aimh ] kzukQ CSP
C PsuS i AUPmkx.
Au Akzu \P mh i mhmkx.
u P zzTZZ Aimh Csk PP PkzvU
Pmhi. Aux,
Chx UP UPhPUP uUPmk zzTZZ Aimh
x UP UPhPUP uUPmk zzTZZ Aimh
u P PP (Drawing clips)
u P u u
A\u zvUPu
P UQ hS.
AuPP u P i
(PP) (Drawing clips) kz
uk u PP (clips)
hzv Pmhmk.

E 1'17 -u PP (clips) ] Cu u P (clips) Bx P


iu C \mkx.
Azxh Ca \miPP \ |h (Cellotapes) u P F]
P (Drawing pins / Thumb tracks) kzuk.

1'3 Qhh x kzukQ


{[P (Standards)
C[S { GU Pukx vmh x
kzukQ {[P uhS.

1'3'1 { AP (Standard scales)


Hux \zu x, Au A ha
]uP Ax uP u AhP u
Gk. uP Cu SvPP Pkzu i.
Aux
AU Psh AP
uUQ (\UQ) AP
]uUQ AP

25
Es (\) AU Psh A PP
(True scales)
Es E }, AP, E G Au A
u u k Ax AhuP
kQ vmhS. Au QuPU Pmkx 1 : 1
GU SmkU Pmhk.

xkzv (\UQ) APP (Enlarging


scales)
Hux ] EunP _UPiP ]
\UP Au E AP u x Auz
uUS |US Ax US |US Au ]v ]UPP
Hk. C \UQ x Au
Ah Jk \x Hux Qu Aih
h sk. \UQ Q AP ShkQ
P R PmhkQx. Aux Cu AP Qu Aih
GvUPmhk.
2 : 1, 5 : 1,10 : 1,20 : 1,50 : 1,100 : 1 GS.

EunP Azvmh 10 : 1 G u u APPPU


PmhkQ Sv \ A Av zv JS.

]uUPU Ti A PP (Reducing scales)


Pmhh Es Ami u x
Cu PS. Au Au E AP G
Qu Aih K ]uUQ u k. AuPP
kzukQ A ]uUPU Ti A Gk.
10 Eh Pmhh vmhzv si
\u u\u A 1 US \ 1 G
A GkuP Px. Au Pzx G Pmhhzv
Es A 1 Gx vmh 1 \
PmhkQuuS. ]uUQ kQ AP Qu[P
R Pmhmk.
1 : 2, 1 : 5,1 : 10,1 : 20, 1 : 50, 1 : 100, 1 : 200, 1 : 500,1 : 1000, 1 : 2000
EunP Azvmh 1 : 100 G, u u 1 \
Pmhmk yzv Es y 100 \ S.
Pmih[P Qhh[P x Azvmh[P

26
kzuk. Aux,

8 Ai 1 A[S G Ax 1:100 G
2 Ai 1 A[S G Ax 1:20 G
1 \[Q 1 A[S G Ax 1:1000 G BS.
1 \[Q = 66 Ai

1'3'2 mh A P (Diagional scales)


h] , \ , , , Ai, A[S
J Czua \u ASP J ]UPU Ti
Azvmh EUQU Px mh APS.
A AP J[SkzxQ CSv UPk.
EunP h] , \ , , ASP
J ]UPU Ti 40 J h]
PmkQ mh A h 1.18 C Pmi
.

Shsi y 2 h] , 3 \ , 4 G
Gk.
40 J h] Pmhku, Sh
si y 2 h] hU Tku A Gu 1.18
hzv Pmhmk 40 }zuU Psh
SvPh G QhUPh u sk.

27
2 h] 3 \ 4

]
}

}
10
9
8
7
6
5 }
4
3
2
1
}
0
-1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2
E 1'18 - h] 3 \ , 4 U PmkQ \UP A

Au ChxUPzvx x UPzvS -1, 0, 1, 2 G


CUPh
-1,0 yzv 10 \SvPP UP (10 \ 1
h] G)
Au 0 uhUP Chx UPP 1, 2, 3 ...G CUPh.
&1 CUPzvx Gu EzvS {USzxU
Ph , AUPmi 10 \ SvPP UP (10
, 1 \ G)
Au 1,2,3 ... G CUPh
hzv } {zv Pmhmk {USzuP,
QhP PkP .
Au &1,0US Qh UPmh CUP[PUQh
mhU PkP (mhU Pk, ] {zv
Pmhmkx).
Au Sh si yzu Av SUP. 2 h]
Gu 2 h], 3 \ Gu QhUPmi
UPmh -&1 US 0 USh CUP 3 mhU Pmi
BP Akzu v 4 Gu CUP 3
mhU Pmi CUP 4 uhUP \ Qha_U
Pmk \vUS ChzvU SUP. Au Chzvx h]
SUPmh Pmi Ph] y SuSz
u yS.

28
Au , Ai, A[S G kzv mh
AP EUSQ x Cu UPkQx.
Cx h 1.19 C Pmhmkx.

SuPP y 3 2 Ai 3 A[S GU Px.


Av 1 U PmkuPP EPkzxQ y 1 A[S
G Gkzx 3 US Tku yzuU Pmh siu 4
A[SU Ph .
Au 1.19 hzv Pmhmk A[Szu 4 SvPP
zx -&1,0,1, 2 ...G Chx UPzvx CUP[P Ch.

3 2 Ai 9 A[S

12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1 2 1 0 1 2 3
E 1'19 - 3 2 Ai 9 A[Szu Pmk mh A

-&1 US 0CSh yzu 3 \ SvPP UP


(3 Ai = 1 GP)
CUP -&1 uhUP {USzx Ph x Au 12 \
SvPP UP. (12 A[S = 1 Ai G P)
Au hzv Pmhmk {USzx, QhUPkP
.
1, 2, 3 G Qha_UPmi 0 Ax 1 C Qh
CUP[Px mhU Pmi P.
SuS A C[S SUP. 3 Gu
u 3 CUP[P, 2 Ai Gu 0, &1 Sh yzv 2

29
SvP 9 A[S Gu mhU Pmi CUP 9 Pk
\vUS Chzv h.

1'3'3 { PkP PP (Standard line types)

vmh x kzukQ { PmkPP


PnkQ. CUPmkPP \u\ u A HU
Pmh u{[P S. vmh GkQ
GzuP CUPkP kzukQ. {UPkP
kzv mh vmhP ] h 1.20 Pmhmkx.
\vUS Chzu
u A Pmk Pk

Amk zv Pk
v
30

AU
Pk
u
UPk
B

1 Phanlorn line 5 Hidden line (Thread sym) 9 Break line (zig zag)
2 Section line 6 Hidden line 10 Visible Object line
3 Cutting - plane line 7 Center line 11 Break line (freehand)
4 Leader line 8 Extension line 12 Dimension line

E 1'20 - {U PkP kzumk mh vmh P

Azxh PmkPP, AUPmkP Jx A


Ek G PmkQ Amhn R Pmhmkx.

30
{U Pk kzukQ
{U Pk {U Pmi
\u[P
uhPkP kQ
Thick line U Pmku
AP Ch, Ch
zv uhUPk
mkUPkP Pmh
(medium line)
BUPUPkP Pmh
UPk
u PU Pmh
(hidden line)

U Pk zv Aa_ {x GuU
(center line) Pmh
C
UPh si ChzvU Pm-
UPk
kuS
(sectione line)
uh Azz Sv U Pm-
AvUPk kuS
Amhn 1.4 - {U Pmk PP kzxQ \u[P

Hux vmh h[P x A


u uSv S, Au CvU Pmk
ChzvS Ch Pk kx uhPmi
kzvS. A PsqUS hu S
U Pmi kzxu sk. Au Hux
ChS mh AUPk. }sk \ Pk SP
Pmk Pk PkP kx uh Pmi
kzvS. Q x {[PUSmmhu Au
{ Aa]U PmkuS zv Ph k CuPP
U Pk kzuk. Azxh Cx
}zv \Pu PnP Auz uPz Pmk P
vmhzu EUP ixi (_UPPU PmkuS) Aa\uzv
UPkPh Ax k. AuPP _uvP P
kQ Pk k. \h \uzv Sv
Jkzv Au x Pmh si Akzu
P si ChzvU PmkuPP U Pk
kzuk.

1'3'4 {a \mhP (Standard frame)


Gv x u \mhP k.
Ca\mhPzv u Au CUS Gv x
PsqUSz uP kxh APuP uS \h

31
uzu zu. Ca\mhPzv x kzxQ
Pmi uh P \zxu sk. Ca\mhPx
{ uUPmk {a \mhP G Cx
AUPkQx. Azxh { \mhPzv EhUPh si
h[P ] E. Cv EhUPh si h[P |kPU
P, {[PUP, hSvUP A ]]
kP \UPmk, SUPmk CuU PniQx.
G Aih h[P [P C. h\
mhzv A4 Ah u u kzukxh,
u ~mU PP A3 Ax A2 AP kzukQx. A4
Ah uUS zu J[PUPmk h 1.21 C
Pmhmkx.

5
5

15

5
E 1'21 - A4 Ah u uUS u u J[PUPmk
u u R R h uhkzv u
Amhn (Note column) AUPmk Pn iQx.
Czu Amhnx J hzvP {zvP
|miP, [Ph uUPmkx. h\
PUS H h 1.22 C Pmhmk u Amhnx
uUPmkx.
30 30 25 30

20

20

30 30
E 1'22 (a) - { Amhn
AP Pmhmk

32
vPv
u~mU
STS2 ux 2015$01$02 u P
m]zux 2015$02$21
A \Sv C
1(1 01
E 1.22 (b) - { Amhn nh PnkQ

A4 z u , vPv, ux , m]zux , Azvmh,


CUP, P P 3'5 Ezv
0'35 mm Pmk o, 2B ] kzv
GzxUP CUP[P Gxu sk. Azxh C[S
h\ Ax {zv GvU Pmhsi Gzv
Ex 5 S. Azxh Au Pmi 0.5mm
BP CUP skxh, ] kzxu HB ]
kzuh sk. Azxh u GvU Pmhsi
Gzx Ax CUPzv E 7 mm BP Cxh, Au Pmi
0'7 mm BS. ] kzxu AuPP 2B ]
kzxu sk. zu u Amhn
kzumk h 1.23 C Pmhmkx.

E 1.23 - zu u Amhn kzumk

Azxh Cu u u R h 1.24 C Pmhmk


.

33
E 1.24 zu u Amhn kzumk

Cux Pkzx {x US P vmh


P sk. A3 zux UP
zu SQ UPx uP {USzuP CUS
P Pkzu {x Chx UPP CUS P
EUPmkx. 1.25 hzv Cx Pmhmkx.

E 1.25 - Cv u hzv A3 A.0x AuhU Tku AU


Psh u Amhn AUPk

Azxh Pmhhzvmhx A2 zu h E
zu A kzuk. AuPP kzukQ J
P Pkzu { h 1.26 Pmhmkx.

E 1.26 - ] x (A2) Ax AuhU Ti v


Psh zu u Amhn uUPkQ

34
C[S u Amhn Ax , Av Ah[Q
h[P USx Cvzv hzvS, hzvS
kQ h[P kPU Pni.
1'3'5 { GzxUP CUP[P (Standard letters and figures)

Pmk PP, GzxUP, CUP[P SkP G vmh


h uPPU PmkuPP kzukQ. CuS
Pmk PP uhP | Ax Psh. { GzxUP,
CUP[P uh Cu Pxk.
{ GzxUP
u Amhn GzxUP, CUP[P GvUPmkx
HUPmh \mhvmh[P PnkQ. Cu GzxUP,
CUP[P G {[PUP kzuku u
Amhn ]x CSS. GzxUP Jk
u ES. Cu GzxUP, CUP[P Gu si
P ] PnkQ A Aih Csk PPP
PkzvU Pmh. Aux
{ B[Q GzxUP - {USzx/Czu
{ ][P GzxUP

{ B[Q GzxUP - {
- USzx
Gv u TkuP Cu Gzx kzukQx.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMN
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n, 0 1 2 3 4 5
{ B[Q GzxUP $ Czu

ABCDEFGHIJKLMN
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n, 0 1 2 3 4 5
Cx Tkxh {PPzv ]
\u[P kzukQx. {USzv CUP 15 x
UP \UQ Czux Guk. GzxUP x

35
GzxUP (Capital letters) si E, Pmi
G {[PUP Pmhmk. \P AP
SUPmk.

Gzv E 2'5 3'5 5 7 10 14 20


Gzv '25 '35 '5 '7 1 1'4 2
Amhn 1'5 - Capital letters si E

{ u GzxUP.

A B C D E F G H I J K J
J GzxS E, Au EzvS zu
Pmi , Azv ] Gzv AuP
GzxUPUQh UP si Ch A G
Amhn 1.6 C Pmhmkx.
u Gzv E 2.5 3.5 5 7 10 14 20
] Gzv E .25 0.5 .5 .7
Pmi 0.25 .35 0.5 0.7 1.0
Csk
GzxUPUQh 05 0.7 1 1.4 2
Ch
Amh 1.6

36
]

(1) h 1'27 Pmhmk G u hzv [Pmk


AP EPkzv { \mhP 1:1 A P.
({ kzv AP Ch UQx.)
40
20 R10
20 10

40

R5

30
100

30
50

0 15
R3
20

20
80

E 1'27 -G u h

1'4 hv Pm] (Pictorial View)

Hux }, AP E AP
Pmk P kQ hv Pm] (Pictorial view)
Gk. u S uh u SvP hv
Pm]U Shi. Cx Gv
mkzvmh, Ax Pmhhzvmh, Czv, \
xPUS kzuk.

37
Pmhh Ax mkzvmh ~mP Pmhh Pmi iUP
mh G Pm]US GuU PmkuS,
{[P v EzvP \u APkzxuS,
Gv hz xP Sv EUSuS, J
\zu, PP SvP Pm] PmkuS,
]zv[PUS Cx kzuk.
i v hUPm]P u \[P [P
UP iu SvP uh CSP h[P [Pa
\uP v Cu U P.
hv Pm]P P ixh Pzv Pou
EPn[P kzv x uuS. hv Pm]
P ] PPP PkzvU Pmh i.
u (Pm]) (Perspective method)
\v (Parallal method)
Cmh Sv (Dimetric method)
\ G (Isometric method)

1'4'1 uU Pm] (Perspective method)


C h ~mP kzu
kxh, mkzvmh~mP ux BUPzv uS u
HPUS PmkuS C kzx. C
kQ Pm]P, P i. Aux,
J h hv Pm] (1 - Point Perspective view)
C Ph hv Pm] (2 - Points Perspective view)
Ph h vU Pm] (3 - Points Perspective view)
J hP hv Pm] (1 - Point perspective view)
J h hv Pm]x \v EPU Pm] G
Shk. C[S J Gv Pukx hx
BPa \Q \P PkP J \[PUS GuS.
Ax 1.28 hzv Pmhmkx.

38
ukU Pk

E 1'28 - J h uUPm] kzv mh h

1'28 hzu USx UP Pzuzv Qh, { UP[P


US \vP mk. G BP Kk Pk \Px
J Chzv \[PUPkQ. Au Ch Ax EUQ
QhUPhx ukU Pk G AUPkQx. Cu
Pkzu. Aux

|UQUQ Psomhx uk UPmi


R {kzv zvUS
|UQUQ Psomhx uk UPmi
U PmiS {kzv zvUS
|UQ US Pso mhx uk UPmi
{kzv UPk
GS. 1.29 hzv Ca\ux PmhkQx.

39
E 1.29 - J h Pm] AUPUTi \u[P

Csk Ph uU Pm] (2 - Points perspective view)


C[S Csk Ph Pm] Gvx Pukx uk
U Pmix x \ C P AUPmk
GuS. C P kzv mh h[P
] h 1.30 C Pmhmk.

Qh Pk
(Horizon)



(Vanishing (Vanishing
point) point)

E 1'30 - Csk Ph uUPm] kzv mhh

40
Cx Pn u h G Shk
hzvP UP, {kzu G
Csk UP[PUS Pn A mk.
C[S BP oUS \P PkP (J SvUS)
PsqUS hu Ch[P \[PUS.
Ph uU Pm] (3 - Points Perspective view)
P kzv mh hx 1.31 hzv
Pmhmkx.
x x
\ \

x
\
E 1'31 - Ph uU Pm] kzv mh E
1.31 hzvP UP P, ChUPP C UP PnP
mkx. C[S BP Szx i oUS \P
PkP J \[PUS.

1'4'2 \v (Parallel method)


Cu EPU Pm]x }, AP, E AP
kzv h sk. CP Phu] x
1.32 hzv Pmhmk {USzua_ Qha_h 450 \
Aa_P kzuk.

41
{USzua_ {USzua_

\U Ax \U
Pk Pk

45o Qha_ 45o

E 1'32 - \v Aa_UP {oUPk


uSz u }, AP G u Ax
Au } A Qha] E A {USzx Aa] SUP.
BzuU PmkuS \U Pmi Es Bzv A \P
A] \UPmi v. Au hzvS zu
H PkP u sk. EunP \v
kzv kQ x R UPmkx. CuPP
1.33 h kzumkx.

60
25

20
45o
40 0
E 1'33 - \v kzv mk h

\v kzv u PkQ

ux {USzx, Qh C Aa_UP P. Qha]
40 yzuU SUP. {USzxU Pmi 20
EzvU Szx Qha_USa \vP Ph
AUPmi APzvS P. vu { PnkQ
C KP Csh CnUP. AUPhx {USzx
Aa_US \vPU Pnk. Au {USzx Aa] B
x Qha] 450 \ UTi 25
yzvS Ph . AUPmi Cvx
{USzua_US \vP 60 yzvS Ph P.
Au sk 5 yzvS \ PmiS \vP

42
ChxUPP P. AU Pmi Cvx {USzx Aa_US
\vP R|UQ 40 US Ph P. Au Cv
\ PmiS \vP Qha_ {zu
Ph P. H \P PkP AiUPkPUS
\vP x u PkP Azx APh.

1'4'3 n (Dimetric method)


Chv Pm]x u Aa_P kzv
k. Cv PUPzv si Aa_ {USzv
70 \P Axxh, Akzu Aa_, Aux Au Ezu x
Pmh si Aa_ {USzuP k. BzuU
Pmhsi Aa\x {USzuP 420 \ AUPmkx.
CuPP h 1.34 kzumkx.

7o 42o
7o 42o
(a) (b)
E 1'34 - (a) n Aa_P AUPk (b) n
kzv mh h

Chv Pm] Sx 70 PmkUS \vP Akzu


PUPuv APzuU Pmk PkP \Px mkxh,
E SUPmk PmkUSa \vP EzuU
PmkQ H \P PkP mkxh A BzuU
PmkUQ PmiS \vP H B[P Pmk PkP
\Px ozx. Gx uQx.
Azxh Ezv Ax hzv EP,
}x hzv }P SUPh sk Gxh,
Bx hzv E A A]PU SUPh sk.

43
1'4'4 \ (Isometric method)
C Aa_UP kzv k. Cu
UQzvzx G, Aa_UPx Pn[Px
v \ vU PsiuS. Aux 1.35 (a) hzv
Pmhmk UP \P Pn[Px v 1200 BS.

120o y

120o 120o x z

(c)
(a) (b)
E 1'35 - (a) (c) \ UP Aa_UP AUPkQ (b) \UP
kzv mk h

C kzv h P x 1.35 c hzvi


y Aa] {USzuP, AuS 1200 \P Csk UP[P x
z Aa_U P AUPk. C{USzx h x
AiUP[ PUS \vP H AiUP[P h
sk.

C[S si G Pzv Pou E[PUSa \U


Pm]P uS AP [PmiUP sk.

b
c

44
Z X
i 1: B o GU Szu
X, Y, Z G \ Aa_UP
30o 30o
. CuPP T Aimhzxh
300, 600 \u
mh[P kzu.
Y

i 2: ox, oz, oy AP E N
Aa_UP OQ=b, Op=a, OR=c Q
BS P P, Q, R GU R b
c
SUP. O M
T a
P

i 3: OQ \u RN \u PM (OQ// RN// PM) G


PkP: OR \u PT \u QN (OR// PT//
QN) G PkP: OP \u RT \u QM
(OP// RT// QM) G PkP u n
vs E .

C Gu PzvPou P Ex \z
uzv i.
| Cx 1.35 (b) hzv Pmhmk \z uzv
.

a b
Aihz
Original vs
E 1' 35 - (b)

45
Y P
E
Z X R
Q
} B
O
i 1 i 2
N N
L1
R R
a Q L2 Q
b E2
O O
D1 C
E1
T c T D M
M
a b
P P
i 3 i 4
L1
R
L2 E2
D1
E1
T D
M
a b
P

R [Pmk h[PUS {USzx G h[P

46
E

AP B
i 1 i 2 i 3

i 4 i 5

i 1: Qh Ph T mhzv Euh P.
AUPmiSa \P T mh 300, 600
mhzu zx 300 \U Pmh OX, OZ v\P
xh Qh PmkUSa \[SzuP O C OY
Pmh x PP.
i 2: OX, OY, OZ Aa_UP OQ = b, OR = a, OP = c
BS P P, Q, R GU SUP.

i 3: OQ \u RN \u PM (OQ// RN// PM)PkP:
GR \u QN \u PT (OR// QN// PT)PkP:
OP \u QM \u RT (OP// QM// RT)PkP
u P nP P.
i 4: ix 3 hzv Pmhmh PO C PD yzu, PT
C PE yzu Szx P D, E G P.
Au PM// DD1, PE//DE1P. Au DE1// D1 E2 , DD1// E1
E2 P. Au DO// E1 L2, AuSa \uP E1L2// E2L1
Pmh x E i. (C[S E1, E2,
L1, L2 P u \u[P A
AUPkP hzv Pmhmku P.)

C kzv x A
E, AP, B G Au }, AP BP kzv
k.
hv Pm]P \P \u[P GPh zv
kv H E SvP Chzv

47
kxukuS. \ G Ei
mP x PmkuS \h kzuk.
\ mh (Iso circle) Gk.

\ h[P mh u
1.36 hx \ mh kzumk mh
hS.
C

A
B

E 1'36 - \ mh[P kzv mh


Sv h

CSv A G x B G Ah
C G }miU PsiUS ]h Pmhmkx.
C Ch[P uS kzukQ P R
UPmk.

A Gzv PmhkQ \ mhzu EUSu


1.37
hzv Pmhmk mhzvS \P AiSvh
\\x \UP[P kzv P.
A

I D
G

B E f

30o C
E 1.37 - A Aa] PmhkQ \ mhzu EUS \

A[S A, B, C, D G P kP. Szu hzvP


AC Ax }sh Ph P. AB, BC, CD, DA PkP
|kU SUP.
Au B x DC Pk Ph QhUPmk

48
\vP P. A[S mhU Pk AC \vUS Chzu E
G DC Pmh \vUS Chzu F G kP.

Au Dx AB PkU PhU QhUPmkUSa


\uP QhUPmi P. Ax AC Pmha \vUS
Chzv G G AB Pmha \vUS ChzvS I G kP.

Au BF BP Gkzx B C kzv F Cx
AD Pmi ukUS mh P. Ax D
P Gkzx DI yzu BP Gkzx I x BC z
uk mh P EF C BP
Gkzx E kzv F Cx BC Pmi uk P
C mh G P Psk GI BP
Gkzx I Cx AD Pmhz uk mh P.
Cu u \ mh QhUP.

B Gzv PmhkQ \ G mhzu EUSu

1.38hzv Pmhmk mhzv mhzvS \P


\y 300 \ P. Av P A, B, C, D G
kP. Au AC I CnUP. Ax }zv Tku mhzuU
PsiUS.
C

D H
I

f G
B
30o
A
E 1'38 - B Gzv PmhkQ {USzx G mhzu EUS i

Au AiUPmiSa \uP Dx BC AiU


Pk B x DA AiU Pk CPkP D, B
Gx P. B x u AiU Phx AD Pmi
\vUS Chzu F G AUPk mh AC a \vUS
Chzu G, G SUP. Au D x BC AiUPk ,
u Pk BC a \vUS H G AUPk AC a \vUS
Chzu I G SUP. BF C BP B C P Gkzx

49
F x DC Pmi uk P mh P.
Au DI kzv DH yzu BP Gkzx H x
BA AiU Pmhz uk P mh P. FG
BP Gkzx G C PU Psk Fx AB AiU Pmiz
uk P mh P. Au IH yzv
BPU Psk II PU Psk H x DC Pmi uk
P mh P. Au uSz u
\ G mh QhUP .
C Gzv u \ G mhzu u
1'39 hzv Pmhmk uk mhzxUSa \ UPh
\\x UP[P QhUS 300 Pn \vUP AUS P
\\x A,B,C,D P.
c
E

f B
D H
G
30o 30o
A
E 1'39 - C Gzv PmhkQ \ G mhzu EUS i

Au P |P A, B, C, D G kP. DB
GkQ mhU Pmh P. A,x CB Pmi
zv Ph P. AUPk CB AiU Pmh \vUS
Chzu E G, DB Pk uk F G kP.
Cx AD Pmi zv uk P Ph
x DA AiUPmi \vUS Chzu G G, DB Pk\vUS
Chzu H G kP. FE yzv BP F
P Psk Ex Ph AB Pmh
uk P. Au HG BP H P
Psk G x Ph DC AiUPmi uk
P. AE yzv BP AH P Psk
Ph DC AiUPmi uk P. CG
BP C P Psk G x
AB Pmi uk P. Ax \ G }mh i
QhUP. Ca\ G } zu kzv Gu
{USzx G hU Pm] x Pmhi.

50
1.40 hzv \ G mh[P kzv mh
Sv Pmhmkx.
C h Cu mh
mkx

A h Cu B h Cu
mh mh mkx
mkx

E 1'40 - \ G mh[P kzv mh Sv

{USzx G |P AUPkQ J
300 \ PsiUS. Ax 1.4.1 hzv Pmhmkx.

30o
{USzx G |
| AUPk

3'0

2'0

1'5
R0'5

2'0
1'0

E 1'41 \ G | AUPkQ

51
G | PnkQ mh {USzx G
AUSx G sk Gu 1.42
hzv ukzvUP.
60 {USzua_

20
40

30o
O O
Qha_
| Pnk \UPk
uuP {USzx Qh Aa_UP P. {USzx Aa_ Qh
Aa_ \vUS Chzu 0 G kP. 0 Cx Qh Aa] Chg
_P CUPU Ti 300 \ Ph P. Au
{USzx Aa] | PnkQ EzuU SUP. Au
ih Chzvx \ PmiS \vP |
PnkQ 60 yzu Av Szx, Ax
RP {USzx US \v 20 Ph
P. Au ih 0 CnUP. Ax
| PnkQ \ Ph A Q
U Pn.
C1
C1 D1
B1 E1
D C
C1 D1 D1
B1 E1
A1 A1
y1
5 6
x 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 y x1 1 2 3
0
e1 d1 e1
a1 d1 a1 c1 B1
b1 c1 b1
A B 30o
A1 Qh
E 1'42 (a) | EQ mh E 1'42 (b) QhUPk
E 1.42 - | PnkQ \ PkP
mhzv AiSv uk P \x P. Au Ea]
P A, B, C, D G kP.
A[S mhzv mh xy C x 1, 2, 3.. Ga \Sk
PU SUP. APhP x {USzxU Pk
mhzu mia \Q ChP A1, B1, C1, D1 E1 GU SUP.

52
A,B,C,D \xzvS \ G A1B1C1D1 Gk \ \xzu P.
Ca \ \xzv D1 A1 C1 B1 PkP GvUP zv x1 , y1
GU SUP.
h 1.42 (a) hzv mhzv PUP 1, 2, 3, 4.......... G
Pa \\xzv zv Aa] Szx, APhP
{USzuP zv PmiS \vPU PkP P.
h 1.42 (a) C CUP 01 uhUP a yzv P
Euh Gkzx \\xzv x {USzxU PmiP
A,B,C,D,E U SUP {[PU Pzv Psk AuP
R UPP.
E P _wP PP CnUP.

1'5 | GP Ax { GP
vmhh EUSx Es
izu, Au \z u PmkuS hv
Pm] kzu i. Ax Au }, AP, E
G J AuUP iu, x UP
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uP hx. A u Ph Pmh iu
zux uuP Pnk. C
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si Hh. C \x A BUS |
][PUS EhUP. A \u[P EUSuSz
u h 1.43 C Pmhmkx.

E 1'43 (a) - uuS kzx

53
1.43 (a)
hzv Pmhmk z uuSz u
[Pz uP, \P, vmh ~m Au
EUSUS [Su sk. Cu [P kzv
vmh~m vmhzu PmuS HUPmh
J Svx |P zx Au Pm]
{USzxU QhUP[PUS GuS. Ax | GP Ax
{ GP Gk.
h 1.43(b) hzv | GP mh \zv , ,
Chx, x, , R UP[P Pm]P Pmhmk.

To
p

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ft ck
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E 1'43 (b) - Chx, x, , R UP[P Pm]

Cx | | GP UPuPP
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hzv Pmhmk Au K[PUS Aux Au PUS
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F
D

A
H

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C

B
E 1'44 - Psni \mh mi

54
Cu GzxUP kzv Psni Ax
P. Aux A B C D \[Szu
Gz u\x AuP H UP k. G

ABCD {USzx (. {. )
CDEH xUP {US (. {. )
EFGH UP {USzx (. {. )
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(C. {. )

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E 1'45 - SUPmh mi h

hzvi CUPsni \mh


1.46
A[S \P |k u[P hmkuP Px.

55
E Psni mi

u[Phmk
F
D

A
H
H

G
C

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E 1'46 u[P hmk h Ti Psni mi
C[S Pmhmk v\PUSa \ Smh |iP
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1.47 hzv i ` J iUSx QhUS
Pmhmkx.

E 1'47 - ` kzv J a_u

C \P v\Px \[SzuPa USx,


QhUS hzv umkx.

56
B L
B
B I

I I
I I
L L L
B

B
Psni mix
AP \zx
E 1'48 - mP v\Px zx h

Smh Psni mi USx J


QhUP. Cmi h 1.49 C Pmi
R Qh u zu sk.
Psni mi zx QhUS

E 1'49 Psni mi _
CUP si

57
C[S v\x USx QhUQ UP
Pnku Au A\u zx zu
sk.
U Psh Bx UP v\
U Psh Pm] uPUSa \ uP UP
v\ UPsh uP Pn. Chx UPzv\
UPsh Pm]P PnUTi [P Jzu (\)
[P xUPx UPsh Pm]P
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BPm]P zv kzxu \P [P
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Gk. Au C[S J U Pm] (View) G Tk.

To
p

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s tf kca
edi B

fro Bo ht
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si

Top
To
p

Back Left side front Right side


fro
nt
Right side Bottom

58
1'5'1 { GP Pkzu
C{ GPU Pm]P U PuS kzxQ
PUP Cu C SvPP UP. Aux,
u Pn { GP (First angle projection)
Pn { GP (Third angle projection)
EunP u Pn GP mh h
\[Szx GP mh h R Pmhmkx.

Pn GP u Pn GP
uPzv Csk P kzumh u Pn
{ GP TkuP kzukQx. CUPmk
EUPmk u Ax P.
1.50
hzv Pmhmk JUP \[PnP
Csk UP AzxU Pu AihPU Psk Cx
EUPmkx.
y+

Cshx u P
P mh mh u
u
x- o x+
x P |Px P
mh u mh u

y-
E 1'50 - GP PP EUPmk

59
Cu mhP Gkzx Au 4 \ SvPP USx Au
JSv mhzuSv Gk. AmhzuSv Chzv
mhu[P G kzx. C[S mhu[P ux,
Cnhx, x, |Px G hmkx.
Cmh u[PUQh Hux zx {
GPU Pm] U Psh Ax u PnzuzxzvP
U Psh { GPU Pm] G, x mh uzv
kzv Hux Pm] UPk Ax
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G Shk.

v\


P
u y-
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0
x- x+

y+
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u Pn, x Pn[P { GPUPm]


U P U Pm] AQ R
UPmkx.
u Pn GP (first angle projection)
C kzv Pm] UPx h 1.52
Pmhmk ux mh uzv Azu
sk.

60
UPz v\

Chx v\

E 1'52- uPn GPx AUPkQ

HP u \u v\Px |iP
QhP \[SzuP zx QhUQ Pm] Au
Ax {kzu sk. Ax QhUQ
A.

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E 1'53 - u Pn { GPUP Pm]

v\x UPsh UPz v\x


U Psh h 1.53 Pmkxh, Chx UPzv\x
UPsh {kzxuS C[S
C. Au UPzv\, UPzv\x
UPsh Pm]P UPP E
{kzumk CuPP h 1.54 Pmhmk
vuP Chx UPzv\ UPP EUQ
Pm] A {kzxu sk.

61
v\

Chx v\

UPz v\

E 1'54 (a) - Pm] A


CUPm] J S GkuS Smh
{kzumh Pm] zu sk. UPzv\x
UPsh Pm] A xh, Chx UPzv\x
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Qhh
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C[S UPP UPsh Pm] UPz u (Front Elevation /


View) G, Chx UPP UPsh Pm] UP {h/u
(Side Elevation / View) G x UPsh Pm] Qhzu
(Plan)G Shk.

62
Pn { GP (Third angle projection)
C kzv Pm] UPuS h 1.55 C
Pmhmk x P mh uzv AzxU
P sk.

v\

v\

Chx v\
E 1'55 - Pn { GP i AQ

HP u\mh v\P AUP


mk {kzxu sk. Ax h 1.56
PmkQ QhUP.

v\

v\

Chx v\

E 1'56 - x Pn { GP i Pm] UP
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Psh h 1.56 C Pmhmk Chx UPzv\
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G UPz v\ U Psh Pm]x

63
UPzv {kzu mk CuPP h
1.57 Pmhmk vuP ChxUPzv UP
A EUQ, AUPm] A {kzxu
sk.

v\

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Chx v\

E 1'57 Pn Chx v\ { GPU PmmiP Pm] U


P
CUPm] J UPuS Smh
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1.58 C Pmhmkx.

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64
C[S v\ zx Pm] PUPm] G
Chx UP v\ zx U Psh Pm]x UP {UPm]
G v\ zxU Psh Pm]x
Qhh G Shk.
u Pn GP x Pn GP
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Jmk.

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uPn { GP UP {hzvS x UP P
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65
GP Sk

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Csk P h 1.61 Pmhmk PU


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Pn.

45o

PU u UPz u
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45o

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E 1'61 Pm] AUPk

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h 1.61 Pmhmk Jh J CnQ Chx
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,

66
GP Sk
d 114 d
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1'5'2 { GPU Pm] u

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| P u P EhUPmk.

E 1.62 - u Ph k

C J |UQ kzxuP
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1.63 hzv Pmhmk AUS Chmk v\x
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67
| , |
P u ,
Pm]zu | PU
Pm]zu

E 1.63 - Sv hU Pm]

G v\x C u E 1.64
hzv Pmhmk u x mh ,
| x |P Pm]US.

u
u P
Pm]zu
|
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Pm]zu
E 1.64 x Sv { GPUPmi

1'5'3 { GP Pm]PUS AkP Ch

vmh u zv Au EUS |US Au


EUQh ix. A E, AP, B (ui)
APU Pmku sk. C AP Ckx mh
QhhzvS Guu v Hhu zxUPu
sk. Au SvUS AkP Gkzx h 1.65
Pmhmk Pmku sk.

Sv

60
Ami v
E 1.65 { GP Pm]PUS AkP Ch

68
SvS AP Ckx AUS AU
Pmk }sk \ Pk Amk v GP E 1.66
Pmhmk Cku sk.

Sv
AUS

60

}sk \Pk Ami v


AmkUPk

E 1.66 xPUS kzukQ AkP Ck

A Ckx Amk v AmkU Pmiz


uhu, TkuP QUPu, Cku sk.
ASP Cku Amk v Ax
ASP Ckv. G AuS vP ASP
Amk vP Cku E 1.67 C Pmhmk
Au _UPUSmi Ax _UP AU Pmku sk.

70 cm 1' 1' -- 6''


E 1.67& AUPmi Amk vU Szu.
Qh AkP Ck x \P \u[P AU PmiS
Amk vP Cku sk. {USzxU UPP AU
PkP si Hmh E 1.68 C Pmhmk
AUPmiS ChxUPP Amk vP Cku sk.
10

30

40
10

E 1.68 AvP Ck x si

AP CkQ x |kPUQh ]] kPU


PshuPU PnkQx. \u\ {[PUS H Cv
hzv Cx kzukQx. G mkzvmh[P
x AP Chx ] \u[P AmkUPkP

69
CshP zx Au |k zv Avx E 1.69 C
Pmhmk SUPmiuU Pn.

60 cm 1' -- 6'' 3 cm
E 1.69 & A vP CkQ C \u
Au AUPk, }sk \ Pk J
\vUShzv AUS kzumkx. Au |kSv
P Pk P {zv {mixh, Au
Pnzv v 150 BS. G 450 \h _ PkP
zv AUS kzukQ \u[P
PnkQ. 150 AUS kzukQ E 1.70
Pmhmkx.

15o

3
0
E 1.70& 15 Pna\h AUS

CuS vPP AkP CkuS P kzu


kxh, A P ] h 1.71 C Pmhmkx.

40 60 20 40

40 60 1' - 6'' 1' - 6''

E 1.71 AkP Ck ] P

Hux US AkP Ch si Hmh


Csk P AuS kzuk. Aux J z u
\u PU Psk AP Ch, \[Q AP
ChP J Pz u \uuPU Pv AP Chx E
1.72 Pmhmkx.

70
70 70
80 80
90 90
E 1.72& z u \x AP Ch.

Sv u \u Px Ami Ck
x Sv AsUS AmiU PmkuS
AU Pmi 10 Ch A zx
kxh Au \P AkPUSh 7
x Ch UPk. Au Amk v
J^P AuS ChUPu AkP Chk.
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\[Q AP Ch
\[Q AP Ck x E 1.73 Pmhmk
J Svx } zv Chk.

20 60
E 1.73 \[Q AP Ch
C[S AmkU PkP C UP[P AUS P
kzumkxh \P AmkU PkP J^P AU
Pmk. G E 1.74 C Pmhmk \[Q
AP Chk.

71
' 10 20 170
E 1.74 AP Ck C

C[S u AmkU Pmi zv Csk UP[P AUS


kzumkxh Au kzukQ \P AmkU
PkP UQ KkQ Pmi Cv AUS
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]zu sk.
Amk vx 10 h }zv S \uzv
AUS }sk \ Pmi CUP[P EmUPP
u[S P Chk. Au Amk v Au
zv GvUPmkuS x Ch Pnhu x E
1.75 Pmhmk AmkU Pmi x UPzv Sv
GvU Pmhk. J kzumh Ahx sk
kzukx Ax Au Pzu PmhU Ti kzuh
Thx.

2'5
6
E 1.75 Ch[P AP Ch
zvmh AP kzx x J UPzv
AP kzuh si Hh. Aa\uzv BPa
] Amk v SvUS QmiuP CUS,
J[S i \P \U Ti kzxv P
\zu sk.

30
20
10
E 1.76 ] AkP SvUS AszuuP Ch

E 1.76 Pmhmk ] SvP ^ AU


PshuS. ] SvP ^ Jzu APS. A
^ Jzu SvP ^ u u PmkuPP
U Pmi Cku sk. CUPmi Ck x

72
^ Aa_ {kQ Chzv Ckv P \zxu sk.
Au Sv C UP[P 2 Ax 3
A US a_u sk. C[S AP Ck x E
1.77 Pmhmk |k Aa] C UP[P AUTi
A Cku sk.

20


E 1.77 ^ Jzu zvmh[P AkP Ch.

Ax AUPkP vmhzv Kzvu Cku Thx.


}sk \ PkP Csk J \vUS P Cku
Thx. AmkU PkP Csh E 1.78 Pmhmk
J \vUS P Cku Thx.

E 1.78 PkP J \vUS x AkP Cku

Amk vP CkQ x E 1.79 C Pmhmk


Au zv Pmix Ax H PkPx vU
Pu AkP Szu sk.

36

E 1.79 Amk v Ch

73
Hux Sv mh i Pnk
mhzv zv Fhzxa \ P {USzx, QhU PkP
zv Aa]hP h sk. zv Aa]U PmkuS
G U PkP kzuk. CUPkP Csk
J \vUS Chzv _UPU PkP Csh Ax }sh,
SQ PkP PnhU Thx E 1.80 C Pmhmk
\vUS Chx C }sh PkPU PshuP Czu sk.

}sh Pk

\vUS Pk _UP Pk
\x x x

E 1.80 mh AkP Ch

zv PkP iu AUS ] mhS E 1.81


Pmhmk uh PkP zv kzuk.

E 1.81 ] mh[P AkP Ch

C[S 450 \h mh |UQ \kQ AU


Sh A mhU Sk Chk. x AU Pmi
zvhP \ _ zuuP kzv AU
PmiS \vP Amk v GvU Pmhk G
C[S mhzv Sk Chkv. Ak ChkQ \u
E 1.82 Pmhmkx.

74
60
E 1.82 C AP kzumh
mhzvS AkP CmkU Pmk x mhzv
{USzx Aa]US Ax Qh Aa_USa \vP }mk Pmi
x AUPkP Csk uk P AU Pmi .
E 1.83 Pmhmk Au A v Av
GvUPmh. AU PmiS, mhzv _ Aszu
ChzvSh x 10 BS. Azxh }iUS
Pmi AU Pmi h J uU Ru
sk.

40
1 mm

40 }10 mm 10
1 mm
E 1.83 mhzvS AkP Ch

E i (]sh i) PUP
x US x E 1.84 C Pmhmk Ax } \xPz
(\P)u.

75
E

Ph UP {h

US v\
Qhh

E 1.84 ES AkP Ch

C }\xzv PU Pm] zv G Q
\u Ex. Aa\uzv Ax mh ix GuU
PmkuP C. Au Au A vUS
P mhU Sk ChmiUS. Hux AkhS
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mhP C Psk P i. mhzu Jzu mh[P
] Pnk E 1.85 Pmhmk J mhzv zv
AP Pmku xuS. 20

30 30
E 1.85 Jzu mh[P Pnk x AP Ch
Au {USzx zv Aa_UQh xzvU Pmku
sk. mh Ax AmhP
AP Ch si Hmh Amk vUS E
1.86 Pmhmk R Gzv Cku sk. C[S R Gx
mhSv BPU Pk.

76
R1
0

E 1.86 BU PmkuP

Ti B vU Psk mh Sv
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Pmi C } \x[P Euh kzxu E 1.87
Pmhmh Au zv PmkuPP hzvS Aszu
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R1
20

v Sv Es Sv Ax
Pmhmk Ch Ch

E 1.87 Svz xzv A x AkP Ch


Amh[Ph KVPU Psh Sv
x E 1.88 Pmhmk AP Chk.

R4

40

E 1.88 mh i K[PUS ukPP u


SvPUS EmP E 1.89 Pmhmk xsh
(\mh), x, P AUPmk.

77
CUP 2

CUP 3
CUP 1

F
hUPm]
J 1.89 u Ph Sv
C[S | GPU Pm] x E 1.90 Pmhmk
Phzv CUP 3 Pmhmk x[PU Pn
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E 1.90 u U Pmku

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A \u hu P EhU (ChU
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E 1.91 { GPU Pm]


ChU PkP x si
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Pmhmk EhU PkP CsiQh Ch
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78
Ch

35

E 1.92 EhU PkP Cku


EhU Phx Svh v (umk) BP sk
Gxh, i six Au vS. EhU PkP Jh
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PkP v (umh) { Pnh sk.

E 1.93 EhU PkP \[zu


C EhU PkP JUS J GvP oUS x E 1.94
Pmhmk Csk EhU PkP \vzu sk.

E 1.94 EhU PkP Jh J \vzu


EhUPkP Csh Jh J \uP |UPP
Pmk x E 1.95 Pmhmk _UPU PkP Jh
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E 1.95 EhU PkP JUP AszuuP Avzu

u u J J x {
E 1.96 Pmhmk u zv u sk.

79
E 1.96 u u xu
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1.97 Pmhmk EhU PkP zv u sk.

E 1.97 u EhU Pmi Pmku

1.5.4 SUS mkPU PkP u

u TkuPU PnkQ {
{ GPU Pm] x E 1.98 Pmhmk
EhU PkP J x Pn i. Ax
Sv Ax EUSUS Az
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45o

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E 1.98{ GP
C \u zv Aa]S |P mk P
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{ GPU Pm] A E 1.99(a) C Pmhmkx.

80
P mk

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ChmkU
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E 1.99 (a) & \U PkP Ch (mkPU PkP Ch)

mi \vUS Chx 450 \ uh Pk


kzumk {wmhmkx. Csk PkPUS h
x, Sv Ax Ezv Pn[P
wUPk. ChmkU Pm] x
kzuh si \mh vmh[P E. A &

ChmkUPm] Chmh si ChzvU


PmkuS CUP UPkP kzuk.
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81
Bo, vPo, x, B, Sk Bo G CnUPmi
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{wmhmh PkP SvUS zu Csk
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k.

E 1.99 b Sv ] C PsuS {wmh Pmi


kzu

1'6 Ezv P (Production drawings)


EUP Au u Ax Au C
[QU PuS Ezv uuS. A P
sh EzvSz u \P uPP A vmh[Ph
Ti hzv AkP kzukQ iP, EuP
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1.6.1 Ezv US x EhUPh si uPP.

hzx G Sv J,
J ] SvP EUP
si Hk. A \u EUP si
SvPUS P Ezv Sv (Part drowing) GU
Shk. P k A Ezv P E
1.100C Pmhmk.

82
(1) Aizusk& EP

(3) EP
(2) EhSv - EP
E 1.100 & Sv

CSv x J | Ax |P, J { Ax
{[P h. G CSv P \Px
J \UPkx J {zv BS. Au Sv P
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83
53

134
107
E 1.101 & J \UPmh

Cu J \UPmh Ax Ezv J \UPmh


x J \uS u AkP uu
Gu Ak Chkv. Azxh Cu J \UPmh
kQ Pm]P GsoUP Aux Ph, UP
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J \UPmh hzv RP Ch A
kzv, u AmhnUS P Sv uS
u mP [Ph (Material List) Amhn J
uUPmkx. Amhn EUPmk x
Amhn 1.7 Pmhmkx.

84
01 03
01 Eh P 02
01 usk 01 C

u uh mh
EP P
A CUP mh

10 70 10 30 v

Amhn 1.7 &


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