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CONTENTS

TRANSLATOR'S FOREWORD

THE OLD KALEVALA


POEM

. Lnnrot's prologue; the birth of Vinminen; a Lapp fells


the horse Vinminen is riding and drops him into the sea
where, from the broken eggs of an eagle, he creates the
world
2. Vinminen and Louhi of North Farm; his promise of a
Sampo
3. Vinminen and the maiden of North Farm; his wounded
knee
4. The origin of iron; blood-stanching charms; the healing of
Vinminen's knee
5. Ilmarinen forges the Sampo
6. Lemminkinen bewitches North Farm
7. Lemminkinen woos the maiden of North Farm; after fail-
ing on the first try he captures the Demon's elk, also bridles
the Demon's gelding; while going to shoot the swan of
Death's Domain he is shot dead by a blind old man of
Waste Land Farm; the origin of dogs; huntsmen's charms;
the origin of horses
8. At home blood on his brush reveals Lemminkinen's death;
his mother finds and reassembles the pieces and restores
him to life
9. Vinminen's boat-building and his visit to Death's Do-
main

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10. Vinminen exacts charms from tortured Antero Vipunen;


banishment charms and charms against disease and misad-
venture 48
11. Vinminen and Ilmarinen sue for the maiden of North
Farm 56
12. T h e maiden of North Farm accepts Ilmarinen; Ilmarinen's
three qualifying tasks 62
13. T h e slaughtering of the big Karelian steer; preparations for
the wedding feast at North Farm; the origin of beer 67
14. T h e wedding feast at North Farm; wedding lays 73
15. W e d d i n g lays: tormenting and consoling a bride, the gov-
ernment of a bride and of a groom, the going away; Ilmari-
nen and the maiden of North Farm set out for home; the
bride's discontent 79
16. A t home Ilmarinen and his bride are ceremoniously received 86
17. Lemminkinen intrudes upon the wedding at North Farm;
snake charms; the duel at North Farm 91
18. Lemminkinen's hasty return from North Farm; his self-
exile on an island; Louhi's big freeze; charms against Jack
Frost 101
19. Kullervo, sold as a child to Ilmarinen, performs all assigned
tasks stupidly; he is made a herdsman; cattle, milk, and bear
charms; the death of Ilmarinen's lady 109
20. Ilmarinen's unsatisfactory gold and silver bride; his vain
wooing of the younger daughter of North Farm; his report
ontheSampo 117
21. T h e expedition of Vinminen, Ilmarinen, and Lemmin-
kinen to steal the Sampo 121
22. Vinminen's pikebone harp; rapids charms; Vinminen
plays the harp. 126
23. T h e theft of the Sampo from North Farm; the sea and
air battle for the Sampo; the lucky preservation in the
Kaleva District of some fragments of the Sampo 132
24. Vinminen gets Sampsa to plow and sow the land; the
great oak; Louhi of North Farm threatens the well-being of
the Kaleva District; a charm to gain God's support 138

25. Pregnant from the wind, Loviatar, mistress of North Farm,


bears nine sons who plague the Kaleva District; Vinmi-
nen exorcizes the pains with healer's and protective charms 143

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26. T h e mistress of North Farm steals the sun and the moon;
the disappearance and recovery of Ukko's fire; a fisherman's
charm; a charm against burns 148
27. Ilmarinen's silver sun and golden moon; Vinminen's
duel at North Farm; the mistress of North Farm releases
the true sun and moon 156
28. T h e slaying of the bear in Tapio's Domain; the great feast;
a bear-hunter's charm; the origin of bears 160
29. Vinminen's new birchwood harp 169
30. Vinminen's defeat of Joukahainen in a contest of wis-
dom; the pledging of Joukahainen's sister to Vinminen;
maxims 173
31. Vinminen's ill-fated wooing of Joukahainen's sister; her
drowning; his unsuccessful fishing for her 177
32. T h e virgin Marjatta's immaculate conception; her son is
designated King of Woodland; Vinminen's discomfiture
and flight 182

Lnnrot's epilogue 186

THE PROTO-KALEVALA
POEM

1. A Lapp fells Vinminen's horse under him. T h e creation


of the world 189
2. Vinminen and Louhi of North Farm; his promise of a
Sampu 191
3. Vinminen and the maiden of North Farm; his wounded
knee; the healing of the knee 193
4. Ilmarinen forges the Sampu 196
5. Lemminkinen woos the maiden of North Farm. He skis
down the Demon's elk, bridles the Demon's gelding and,
while going to shoot the swan in the river of Death, is shot
dead by Death's son; his mother finds the pieces of his
body, reassembles them, and restores him to life 199
6. Vinminen's boat-building, his visit to Death's Domain;
he exacts charms from Antero Vipunen; banishment and
exorcising charms 204
7. Vinminen and Ilmarinen sue for the maiden of North
Farm; the maiden of North Farm accepts Ilmarinen; Il-
marinen's qualifying tasks 210

IX

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CONTENTS

8. Preparations for the wedding feast at North Farm; the


slaughtering of the big Karelian steer; the origin of beer;
the wedding feast; wedding lays; Ilmarinen and the maiden
of North Farm set out for home 216
9. Lemminkinen intrudes upon the wedding at North Farm;
snake charms; the duel at North Farm; Lemminkinen's
hasty return from North Farm and his self-exile on an island 226
10. Kullervo, a precocious child, is sold to Ilmarinen; serving as
a herdsman he causes the death of Ilmarinen's lady; Ilma-
rinen's gold and silver bride 235
1 1 . The expedition of Vinminen, Ilmarinen, and Lemmin-
kinen to North Farm to steal the Sampu; Vinminen's
pikebone harp and the playing of it 238
12. The theft of the Sampu from North Farm; the sea and air
battle waged over it; Sampsa sows the wilderness and a big
oak springs up; Louhi of North Farm threatens Vinmi-
nen with crop failures and other disasters 245
13. The mistress of North Farm steals the sun and the moon;
Ilmarinen's silver sun and golden moon; Vinminen's
duel at North Farm; the mistress of North Farm releases
the true sun and moon 251
14. Vinminen's birchwood harp 254
15. Vinminen's defeat of Joukahainen in a contest of wis-
dom; the pledging of the latter's sister; Vinminen's ill-
fated wooing of the girl and her drowning 256
16. The virgin Marjatta's son is baptized King of Woodland;
Vinminen's discomfiture and flight 261

APPENDICES
I. CERTAIN ANTECEDENTS OF T H E PrOtO-KaleVdld
A. "Reinhold von Becker," A Biographical Sketch 265
B. Von Becker, "On Vinminen," Turku Weekly
News, 1820 267
C. Elias Lnnrot's Dissertation on Vinminen 275

II. TRANSLATOR'S APPENDIX


A. Concordances 289
B. Glossary of Proper Names 290
C. Reference List of Finnish Names 306
D. List of Charms, in Order of Occurrence 308
E. Corrigenda for the 1963 Kalevala 310


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