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COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION

University of the Philippines Diliman

FORMAT GUIDEBOOK FOR


THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY


APRIL 2016
Version 1
This document is designed as a guide for preparing and presenting theses and
dissertations at the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication.

This guidebook uses inputs from the style manuals of the UP School of Library and
Information Science and the Ohio University. It was originally developed in 2008 by the
Thesis Format Committee organized by Dean Elena Pernia. The committee was chaired
by Dr. Fernando D. Paragas with Prof. Yvonne T. Chua, Ms. Luzviminda J. Matulac, Dr.
Perlita G. Manalili, and Dr. Arminda V. Santiago as members. It was subsequently
revised by Dr. Fernando D. Paragas on April 2016 following new guidelines for public
access to theses and dissertations.

Guidebook 2016, page 2


CONTENTS OF THE GUIDEBOOK

I. General Guidelines
A. Formatting of Text
B. Formatting of Charts, Pictures and Illustrations, and Tables and Matrices
C. Submission Procedures

II. Formatting Guidelines


A. Sample Cover
B. Sample Spine
C. Sample Title Page for B.A. Theses
D. Sample Title Page for M.A. Theses and Dissertations
E. Sample University Permission Page
F. Sample Approval Sheet Page for B.A. Theses
G. Sample Approval Sheet Page for M.A. Theses and Dissertations
H. Sample Biographical Page
I. Sample Acknowledgment Page
J. Sample Dedication Page
K. Abstract Page Samples
L. Sample Table of Contents
M. Sample Lists
N. Sample Page Layout
O. Sample First Page of a Chapter
P. Subheads
Q. Sample Tables
R. Sample Chart
S. Sample Graphics (Pictures, Illustrations)
T. Sample Matrix

III. Supplementary Materials


A. Basic Outline of Chapters and Sections
B. Basic Writing Guidelines
C. Memorandum No. FRN 15-038

IV. Online Resources


Please consult the following websites for citation and reference styles:
- APA Style Guide: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/10/
- MLA Style Guide: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/section/2/11/

Guidebook 2016, page 3


I. GENERAL GUIDELINES

A. Formatting of Text

Use the following for the entire document:

1. Citation and references: Use APA (American Psychological Association) 6th


Edition or MLA (Modern Language Association) for in-text citation and the listing of
references. Do not mix citation styles.
2. Font: Times New Roman 12 points or Arial 11 points normal, for the entire
document, except for footnotes (see below). No other font may be used, even for the
preliminary section.
3. Paper: White, 8.5 x 11, 80gsm. No special paper may be used in any part of the
document, except for photo paper for pictures, graphics, and other illustrations.
4. Margin: 1.5 for the left margin, 1.0 for the top, right, and bottom margins
5. Justification. Use ragged right margin because this is more readable than forced
justify margin.
6. Spacing: Double spacing for the entire document. No additional spacing between
paragraphs. Add an extra double space between sections.
7. Page numbers: Place page numbers in the header, on the top right corner. Follow
these formatting guidelines for specific pages in the document. Examples are in
Sections III and IV.
a. For all pages preceding the first chapter, use lowercase Roman numerals (i, ii,
iii). However, page numbers shall first appear on the Table of Contents.
Although the Title, Approval Sheet, Biographical Data, Acknowledgment,
Dedication, and Abstract pages are counted in the pagination, their page numbers
are not shown.
b. For the body, use Hindu-Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3). Numbering should begin
with the first page of the first chapter, but the page number should not appear on
the first page. Similarly, the first page of each succeeding chapter should have no
page number.
c. Page numbers stand alone, with no special formatting. Do not use dashes (-2-) or
the word Page (Ex.: Page 2) to identify page numbers.
8. Footnotes should be used instead of endnotes to promote readability. Place
sequentially numbered footnotes at the bottom of the appropriate page. Footnotes
must be single-spaced, using Times New Roman 11 points or Arial 10 points.
Footnotes must be separated from the main body by a short line.

B. Formatting of Charts, Pictures and Illustrations, and Tables and Matrices

1. Charts, pictures and illustrations, and tables and matrices should appear on the same
page or on the following page after they are mentioned in the text. Put an extra double
space before and after these items. Photo paper may be used for charts, pictures, and
illustrations.

Guidebook 2016, page 4


2. Images must fit and be centered within margins. If a table, figure, or picture does not
fit in a portrait page layout, change to a landscape layout. Put this landscaped page
immediately after the page that cites the table, figure, or picture. The landscaped page
must have a 1.5 margin at the top, and 1.0 margin on all others. Landscaped pages
must be oriented away from the binding.
3. No text should appear to the left or to the right of the charts, pictures and illustrations,
and tables and matrices.
4. Label charts, pictures and illustrations, and tables and matrices chronologically using
Hindu-Arabic numerals.
5. Put titles at the top of the charts, pictures and illustrations, and tables and matrices.
Ensure that these titles match those in the Table of Contents and in the document.
Titles must be flush left, rather than centered, on the page.
6. Place captions at the bottom of the pictures and illustrations. Captions must be single-
spaced. Separate captions from the text with an extra double space.

C. Submission Procedures

The deadline for submission of loose leaf theses and dissertations is at least one
workweek before the last day for the submission of grades for graduating students to
provide sufficient time for content and format checking, corrections and binding. For
example, if the deadline for submission of grades is June 7, theses and dissertations
must be approved for binding by the adviser before May 31.

Undergraduate and masters theses must be hardbound using maroon leatherette with
gold lettering. Doctoral dissertations must be hardbound using black leatherette with gold
lettering.

The filenames for the digital files (either the document version or the digital version of
the production work) should be as follows: Last Name, First Name Middle Name; the
month and year of graduation; and the title of the thesis/dissertation (Ex.: De la Cruz,
Juana Santos 04-07 A Case Study of the University of the Philippines College of Mass
Communication)

The CD/DVD must be submitted in a thin transparent plastic case without any special
cover or label. Simply write the title and the name/s of the author/s on the disc itself using
an alcohol-based CD/DVD marker. The ink of ordinary pentel pens penetrates the disc
and destroys the files. Consult the CMC Library for an example.

Guidebook 2016, page 5


To be considered for graduation, an undergraduate student should submit the following to
his/her Department Secretary:

1. For Broadcast Communication


- Three hardbound copiesone each for the library, the department, and the
student
- Four CD/DVD copies of the consolidated thesis in PDF formatone each for the
library, the department, the adviser, and the student
- Four CD/DVD copies of any production workone each for the library, the
department, the adviser, and the student

2. For Communication Research


- Three hardbound copies and three CD/DVD copies of the consolidated thesis in
PDF formatone each for the library, the adviser, and the student.
- One additional CD/DVD copy of the consolidated thesis in PDF format for the
department

3. For Film
- Four hardbound copiesone each for the library, the Institute, the adviser, and
the student
- Four DVD copies of the production workone for the library, the Institute, the
adviser, and the student. These DVD copies may use a designed cover.
- One CD/DVD copy of the consolidated thesis in PDF format for the library
- One mini-DVD copy for the Institute

4. For Journalism
- Four CD/DVD copies of the consolidated thesis in PDF formatone each for the
library, the department, the adviser, and the student
- One hardbound copy for the library

According to the 2006 UP CMC Rules for MA and PhD Students, an applicant for
graduation must submit to the Graduate Studies Department at least five (5) bound copies
and at least one digital copy of the approved masters thesis as a prerequisite for
graduation.

Moreover, PhD students who are applying for graduation must submit to the Graduate
Studies Department at least one pre-print (or pre-publication) paper on the approved
doctoral dissertation, where applicable, as another prerequisite for graduation.

Guidebook 2016, page 6


II. FORMATTING GUIDELINES

External features

A. Cover
B. Spine

Preliminary Section

C. Title page
D. University Permission page
E. Approval Sheet page
F. Biographical page
G. Acknowledgment page
H. Dedication page
I. Abstract page
J. Table of Contents
K. List of Tables

Body

L. Page layout
M. First page of a chapter
N. Subheads
O. Tables
P. Chart
Q. Graphics (Pictures, Illustrations)
R. Matrix

Guidebook 2016, page 7


A. SAMPLE COVER
The title should
appear 2.5 from
the top edge of
the cover.

AN ACADEMIC LIFE:
A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION

The full title must appear centered within Your FULL name must
the cover, with the creative title (if any) on appear about 5.5 from
the first line. Use all caps for the title. the top edge of the
cover. Use all caps. In
case of multiple
authors, vertically
center your names
Alphabetically list multiple authors
around 5.5 from the
according to their surnames.
top edge of the cover.

JUANA SANTOS DE LA CRUZ

All theses and dissertations must be hardbound. They must use gold lettering and
Times New Roman, 14 points, on the cover. Theses must be covered in deep maroon
leatherette and dissertations in black leatherette. Bound copies must measure 8.5
by 11.

All text in the cover must be single-spaced.

COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION


UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES DILIMAN
The name of the
College and the
University must
Only one of the following
appear about 3.5
may appear on the cover:
above the bottom edge
October for First
of the cover. Please
Semester, April for Second
Semester, and May for APRIL 2008 note the correct
spelling of UP
Summer graduation. Use
Diliman.
all caps.

The month and the year of


graduation must appear
about 2 above the bottom Guidebook 2016, page 8
edge of the cover.
B. SAMPLE SPINE

The spine must use The first 3 must contain the


gold lettering and name/s of the author using
Times New Roman, 14 this format: Surname, First
points. All caps must be name initials Middle name

DE LA CRUZ, JS
used. initials. For streamlined look,
remove periods after initials.
(Use DE LA CRUZ, JS.
Do not use DE LA CRUZ J.S.)
Name/s must be horizontally
and vertically centered within
this space.

East Asian names may omit


the comma.

AN ACADEMIC LIFE: A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE


PHILIPPINES COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION

There is a single 6-
point gold line at
the top and bottom The middle 6 must contain
areas of the spine, the full title, which must be
as well as between horizontally and vertically
the main items in it. centered within this space.

The bottom 2 of the spine


APRIL 2008
UP CMC

must contain the initials UP


CMC as well as the month
and the year of graduation.

Guidebook 2016, page 9


SOME NOTES ON THE FRONT SECTION OF THESES AND DISSERTATIONS

The required first three pages of theses and dissertations are as follows:
1. Title page
2. University Permission page
3. Approval page (this is the page where faculty members sign)

The first two pages are based on Memorandum No. FRN 15-038 issued by UP Diliman
Vice Chancellor for Research and Development Fidel R. Nemenzo, DSc to clarify and
revise guidelines for public access to Theses and Dissertations.

As the Memorandum indicates, theses and dissertations will be classified into one of only
four categories:
- I: has patentable or registrable invention or registration
- P: author wishes to publish the work personally
- C: confidential information of a third party is embedded
- F: a regular work, i.e., it has no patentable invention or creation, the
author does not wish for personal publication, there is no confidential
information.

Most theses and dissertations perhaps fall into the F category. If theses and dissertations
are classified in any of the other categories, please consult the Memorandum which is
included the third chapter of this guidebook.

Guidebook 2016, page 10


Top margin: 1
C. SAMPLE TITLE PAGE FOR
B.A. THESES
Two double spaces from the top
Please follow the
margin for the 1x1 UP logo. The
system of capitalization full UP name should be typed on the
as indicated in this
third double space, followed by the
example. degree and program name.

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Bachelor of Arts in Broadcast Communication


Two double spaces from the top
margin. Your name should be in the
third double space. List multiple
Left authors alphabetically, separated y
margin: single spaces
1.5 JUANA SANTOS DE LA CRUZ
After your name/s, type your thesis
JUAN REYES DE LOS SANTOS
title in italics.
A Case Study of the College of Mass Communication of the University of the Philippines

Thesis Adviser:

[State Rank, Name of Adviser, Degree]

College of Mass Communication Two double spaces above


the date of submission,
Make sure you indicate University of the Philippines indicate your adviser: e.g.,
the correct degree and Professor Bituin N.
program: Masinag, PhD
Date of Submission
BACHELOR OF ARTS IN
Two double spaces above
- BROADCAST 31 May 2016 the Thesis Classification
COMMUNICATION
line, indicate the actual date
- COMMUNICATION
of submission of the bound
RESEARCH
copy.
- JOURNALISM Thesis Classification:
- FILM
F
Type these three lines,
This thesis is available to the public. separated by double spaces,
from the bottom of the page.

Bottom margin: 1 Guidebook 2016, page 11


Top margin: 1
C. SAMPLE TITLE PAGE FOR
M.A. THESES & PhD DISSERTATIONS
Two double spaces from the top
Please follow the
margin for the 1x1 UP logo. The
system of capitalization full UP name should be typed on the
as indicated in this
third double space, followed by the
example. degree and program name.

UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Master of Arts in CommunicationTwo double spaces from the top


margin. Your name should be in the
third double space.
Left
margin: After your name/s, type your title in
1.5 italics.
JUANA SANTOS DE LA CRUZ

A Case Study of the College of Mass Communication of the University of the Philippines

Two 1.5 spaces above the


Thesis/Dissertation Adviser:
date of submission, indicate
[State Rank, Name of Adviser, Degree] your adviser and reader:
.e.g.,
College of Mass Communication
Make sure you indicate Professor Bituin N.
the correct degree and University of the Philippines Masinag, PhD
program:

MASTER OF ARTS IN Thesis/Dissertation Reader:


COMMUNICATION [State Rank, Name of Adviser, Degree]
(COMMUNICATION
RESEARCH) College of Mass Communication
Two 1.5 spaces above the
University of the Philippines Thesis Classification line,
MASTER OF ARTS IN indicate the actual date of
MEDIA STUDIES
Date of Submission
submission of the bound
- (BROADCAST)
copy.
- (FILM) 31 May 2016

MASTER OF ARTS IN Type these three lines,


JOURNALISM Thesis Classification: separated by 1.5 spaces,
F from the bottom of the page.
DOCTOR OF
PHILOSOPHY IN This thesis is available to the public.
- COMMUNICATION
- MEDIA STUDIES
Bottom margin: 1 Guidebook 2016, page 12
Top margin: 1
D. SAMPLE UNIVERSITY PERMISSION
PAGE
Two double spaces from the top
margin for the 1x1 UP logo. The
full UP name should be typed on the
third double space.

UNIVERSITY PERMISSION PAGE

I hereby grant the University of the Philippines a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free


license to reproduce, publish and publicly distribute copies of this thesis or dissertation in
whatever form subject to the provisions of applicable laws, the provisions of the UP IPR
policy and any contractual obligation, as well as more specific permission marking the
Title Page.

Specifically I grant the following rights to the University:

a) To upload a copy of the work in the thesis database of the


college/school/institute/department and in any other databases available on the
public internet;

b) To publish the work in the college/school/institute/department journal, both in


print and electronic or digital format and online; and

c) To give open access to the above-mentioned work, thus allowing fair use of the
work in accordance with the provision of the Intellectual Property Code of the
Philippines (Republic Act No. 8293), especially for teaching, scholarly, and
research purposes.

JUANA S. DE LA CRUZ
JUAN REYES DE LOS SANTOS
College of Mass Communication
University of the Philippines

Guidebook 2016, page 13


E. SAMPLE APPROVAL SHEET FOR B.A. THESES

Top
Four single spaces from the topmargin: 1
margin. The title begins on the fifth
single space.

AN ACADEMIC LIFE:
Nine single spaces from the title.
A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
TheTHE
wordPHILIPPINES
by must be typed on
COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION
the tenth single space. Remove a
space for every additional line in
the case of a long title.
CHOOSE ONE:

Department of
Broadcast
Communication

Department of
Communication Research by Seven single spaces
between the line of the Right
Department of Journalism JUANA SANTOS DE LA CRUZ first authors name and margin:
(Author 2) the line has been 1
Film Institute (Author 3) approved for.
(Author 4)
Department of Graduate
Studies

Four
has been approved forsingle spaces from the preceding line.
Type the name of the adviser on the fifth
the [State your Department/Institute]
singleof
and the University of the Philippines College space.
MassMake sure you have the correct
Communication
by name and degree of your adviser.

Ex: Four single spaces between


the advisers name and the
Professor Bituin N. Masinag, PhD [State Rank, Name of Adviser, Degree] deans name. Type the
name of the dean on the
sixth single space.

[State Rank, Name of the Dean, Degree]


Dean, College of Mass Communication

Guidebook 2016, page 14


Left
margin:
1.5
E. SAMPLE APPROVAL SHEET FOR
M.A. THESES & Ph.D. DISSERTATIONS

AN ACADEMIC LIFE:
A CASE STUDY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION

Eight single spaces from the title.


The word by must be typed on
the ninth single space. Remove a
space for every additional line in
CHOOSE ONE: the case of a long title.

Department of by
Broadcast
Communication JUANA SANTOS DE LA CRUZ Right
margin:
Department of Four single spaces between 1
Communication Research authors name and the line
has been approved for.
Department of Journalism has been approved for
the [State your Department/Institute]
Film Institute and the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication
by
Department of Graduate Four single spaces from the preceding line.
Studies Type the name of the adviser on the fifth
single space. Make sure you have the correct
name and degree of your adviser.
[State Rank, Name of Adviser, Degree]
Adviser

Four single spaces

[State Rank, Name of Adviser, Degree] [State Rank, Name of Adviser, Degree]
Reader/Critic Member

Example for faculty entries:


Professor Bituin N. Masinag, PhD Four single spaces

[State Rank, Name of Adviser, Degree] [State Rank, Name of Adviser, Degree]
Member Member

Four single spaces

[State Rank, Name of the Dean, Degree]


Left Dean, College of Mass Communication
margin:
1.5
Guidebook 2016, page 15
Bottom margin: 1
F. SAMPLE BIOGRAPHICAL DATA SHEET

BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

PERSONAL DATA

Name Juana S. De la Cruz

Permanent Address Line 1

Line 2

Telephone Number (+63-Area Code) First Three Digits-Last Four Digits

Date & Place of Birth Day Month Year, Manila

EDUCATION

Secondary Level Honor (if applicable), School, City/Municipality, Province

of School Limit to one page per


author. No pictures and
Primary Level special paper.
Honor (if applicable), School, City/Municipality, Province
Example for educational
of School
level: Valedictorian,
Philippine School for the
Arts, Los Baos, Laguna
ORGANIZATIONS Position, Organization
For work experience,
Position, Organization cite the three most
recent/comprehensive
jobs you have had in
college.
WORK EXPERIENCE Position, Office, Months working
For achievements, cite
Position, Office, Months working the three most
prestigious. Combine
Position, Office, Months working similar achievements in
one line. Example:

College scholar: 1st and


ACHIEVEMENTS Achievement 1 2nd semester, AY2014-
2015, 2nd semester, AY
Achievement 2 2015-2016.

Guidebook 2016, page 16


G. SAMPLE ACKNOWLEDGMENT PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The following thesis, while an individual work, benefited from the insights and

direction of several people.

First, my Thesis Adviser, Dr. Bituin N. Masinag, exemplifies the high quality

scholarship to which I aspire. In addition, Mr. Pasencioso N. Masigasig provided timely

and instructive comments and evaluation at every stage of the thesis process, allowing me

to complete this project on schedule. Next, I wish to thank the complete Thesis

Committee. Each individual provided insights that guided and challenged my thinking,

substantially improving the finished product.

In addition to the technical and instrumental assistance above, I received equally

important assistance from family and friends. My colleague, Lito N. Glito, provided on-

going support throughout the thesis process, as well as technical assistance critical for

completing the project in a timely manner.

Finally, I wish to thank the respondents of my study (who remain anonymous for

confidentiality purposes). Their comments and insights created an informative and

interesting project with opportunities for future work.

This is an optional page. If you decide to write one, make it sound professional
since the thesis/dissertation is an academic document. The example in this page is
culled from http://www.gradschool.uky.edu/ThesisExample11.pdf.

Limit your acknowledgments to one page only, focusing on those who directly
helped you in conducting your study. Consolidate your acknowledgments if you
are part of a group.

Double-space and justify your text. Note that there is no e after the letter g
in acknowledgment.

Guidebook 2016, page 17


H. SAMPLE DEDICATION PAGE

DEDICATION

To my parents

Victorio and Milagros de la Cruz

For instilling in me

From an early age

The desire to obtain a UP degree

This is an optional page. If you decide to write one, make it sound professional
since the thesis/dissertation is an academic document.

Limit your dedication/s to one page. Consolidate your dedications in one page if
you are part of a group.

Double-space and horizontally and vertically center your text.

Guidebook 2016, page 18


I. ABSTRACT PAGE SAMPLES Include the proper citation of
your work.
ABSTRACT

De la Cruz, J.S. (2007). Rhetoric and Riot in Rio de Janeiro, Unpublished Doctoral

Dissertation, University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication.

This dissertation examines the role of newspaper editors in the political turmoil

and strife that characterized late First Empire Rio de Janeiro (1827-1831). Newspaper

editors and their journals helped change the political culture of late First Empire Rio de

Janeiro by involving the people in the discussion of state. This change in political culture

is apparent in Emperor Pedro I's gradual loss of control over the mechanisms of power.

As the newspapers became increasingly numerous and powerful, the Emperor lost his

legitimacy in the eyes of the people. To explore the role of the newspapers in the political

events of the late First Empire, this dissertation analyzes all available newspapers

published in Rio de Janeiro from 1827 to 1831. Newspapers and their editors were

leading forces in the effort to remove power from the hands of the ruling elite and place it

under the control of the people. In the process, newspapers helped change how politics

operated in the constitutional monarchy of Brazil.

Your abstract must be 200 words or less. (The text above has 163 words). It must
succinctly contain the following: a statement of your problem/s and objectives
based on a synthesis of your related literature review and theoretical framework,
a short description of your methodology, and a brief discussion of your most
pertinent findings and interpretation. If your thesis has a production component,
include a concise explanation of how it relates to your research.

The abstracts above and on the next page were downloaded from
http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/abstracts.html.
Guidebook 2016, page 19
I. ABSTRACT PAGE SAMPLES Include the proper citation of
your work.
ABSTRACT

Andrews, K.T. (1997). 'Freedom is a constant struggle': The dynamics and consequences

of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1984, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation,

State University of New York at Stony Brook.

This dissertation examines the role of newspaper editors in the political turmoil

and strife that characterized late First Empire Rio de Janeiro (1827-1831). Newspaper

editors and their journals helped change the political culture of late First Empire Rio de

Janeiro by involving the people in the discussion of state. This change in political culture

is apparent in Emperor Pedro I's gradual loss of control over the mechanisms of power.

As the newspapers became increasingly numerous and powerful, the Emperor lost his

legitimacy in the eyes of the people. To explore the role of the newspapers in the political

events of the late First Empire, this dissertation analyzes all available newspapers

published in Rio de Janeiro from 1827 to 1831. Newspapers and their editors were

leading forces in the effort to remove power from the hands of the ruling elite and place it

under the control of the people. In the process, newspapers helped change how politics

operated in the constitutional monarchy of Brazil.

Your abstract must be 200 words or less. (The text above has 163 words). It must
succinctly contain the following: a statement of your problem/s and objectives
based on a synthesis of your related literature review and theoretical framework,
a short description of your methodology, and a brief discussion of your most
pertinent findings and interpretation. If your thesis has a production component,
include a concise explanation of how it relates to your research.

The abstracts above and on the next page were downloaded from
http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/abstracts.html.
Guidebook 2016, page 20
I. ABSTRACT PAGE SAMPLES Include the proper citation of
your work.
ABSTRACT

Andrews, K.T. (1997). 'Freedom is a constant struggle': The dynamics and consequences

of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1984, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation,

State University of New York at Stony Brook.

This dissertation examines the impacts of social movements through a multi- layered

study of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement from its peak in the early 1960s through

the early 1980s. By examining this historically important case, I clarify the process by

which movements transform social structures and the constraints' movements face when

they try to do so. The time period studied in this dissertation includes the expansion of

voting rights and gains in black political power, the desegregation of public schools and

the emergence of white-flight academies, and the rise and fall of federal anti-poverty

programs. I use two major research strategies: (1) a quantitative analysis of county-level

data and (2) three case studies. Data have been collected from archives, interviews,

newspapers and published reports. This dissertation challenges the argument that

movements are inconsequential. Indeed, some view federal agencies, courts, political

parties, or economic elites as the agents driving institutional change. Typically these

groups acted in response to movement demands and the leverage brought to bear by the

civil rights movement. The Mississippi movement attempted to forge independent

structures for sustaining challenges to local inequities and injustices. By propelling

change in an array of local institutions, movement infrastructures had an enduring legacy

in Mississippi.

Guidebook 2016, page 21


The first page number vii
J. SAMPLE TABLE OF CONTENTS appears on the page of the
Table of Contents. Locate
it 0.5 from the top and
Use this as a checklist for the needed TABLE OF CONTENTS align it with the right
pages/sections in your thesis: margin. Use Times New
Roman 12 points. Page

Title Page Insert a two-column table, with the i


right column width pegged at 0.5
Approval Sheet ii

Biographical Data iii

Acknowledgments iv

Dedication v

Abstract vi

Table of Contents vii

List of Tables x

List of Matrices xi

List of Figures xii

I. INTRODUCTION 1
The subheads indicated here are only
A. Background of the Study for formatting purposes. They are not 1
the required minimum contents for
B. Statement of the Problem and Objectives each chapter. 5
Note that only the first-level subhead is
C. Significance of the Study included in the Table of Contents. 7

D. Scope and Limitations 10

Guidebook 2016, page 22


K. SAMPLE LISTS

The following examples serve as a guide for the look of your lists of tables,
matrices, and figures (which includes charts, illustrations, pictures, and other
graphics). In your actual document, begin a new page for each list.

Make sure that the titles in these lists are the same as those in the body of your
document. Also, number all your tables consecutively using Hindu-Arabic
numerals without decimal places (E.g. 1, 2, 3 and not 1.0., 1.1., 1.2.) . Details for
the titling of tables and other collaterals are in Section IV.

In creating these lists, insert a three-column table and label each column
accordingly. The first column has a width of 0.75 while the third column has a
width of 0.5.

Single-space titles, but put a double space between titles.


LIST OF TABLES

Number Title Page

1 Profile of Respondents 1

2 1

3 5

4 7

5 10

LIST OF FIGURES

Number Title Page

Guidebook 2016, page 23


The page number
Top appears on the second
margin: 2
L. SAMPLE PAGE LAY-OUT page of each chapter.
1 Locate it 0.5 from the
top and align it with the
Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate right
velitmargin. Use
esse quam nihil
Times New Roman, 12
points.
molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo voluptas nulla pariatur?

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor

incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud

exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu

fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui
Use superscripted Hindu-Arabic
officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum. 1 numerals for footnotes. Use footnotes
rather than endnotes.

Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium

doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et

quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo (Cicero, 1995). Nemo enim ipsam

voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni
Left Right
margin: dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt. margin:
1.5 1
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor

incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud

exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.


Footnotes are located at the bottom of each page, separated from
the main text by a line. Footnotes are numbered consecutively using
Hindu-Arabic numerals. The text uses the same font and font size
as the main body. The footnote text is single-spaced and the
justification is ragged right. Its first line is indented by 0.5.

Make sure that the footnote and its referent are on the same page.

1 Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur,
adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore
magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem.

Guidebook 2016, page 24


Bottom margin: 1
There is no page number
M. SAMPLE FIRST PAGE OF A CHAPTER on the first page of each
chapter.

The chapter must be labeled with the


appropriate Roman numeral and title, in
all caps. CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor

incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud

exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu

fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui

officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium

doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et

quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo (Cicero, 1995). Nemo enim ipsam

voluptatem quia voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni

dolores eos qui ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt.

Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur,

adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore

magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. Ut enim ad minima veniam, quis nostrum

exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi

consequatur?

At vero eos et accusamusParagraphs


et iusto odiomust be indented,
dignissimos ducimusragged right justify,
qui blanditiis
and double-spaced. There are no extra spaces
praesentium voluptatum delenitibetween paragraphs.
atque corrupti But there
quos dolores is an
et quas extra double
molestias excepturi
space between sections.
sint occaecati cupiditate non provident, similique sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt
READ the supplementary materials for details about
mollitia animi, id est laborum etin-text
dolorum citation,
fuga. Etusing
harumeither APA
quidem or MLA.
rerum facilisDo
estnot
et
mix citation styles.
expedita distinctio.

Do not use any footer. The bottom part of the page must be devoted to footnotes, if any.

Guidebook 2016, page 25


N. SUBHEADS

The chapter must be labeled with the appropriate I. INTRODUCTION


Roman numeral and title, in all caps.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor

incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud

exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat.

Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu

fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui

officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.


This is the only subhead that appears in
The first-level subhead must be centered and
labeled with the appropriate letter in caps. A. The First Subhead the Table of Contents (TOC). It must be
the same as the one in the TOC.

Sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium

doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore veritatis et

quasi architecto beatae vitae dicta sunt explicabo. Nemo enim ipsam voluptatem quia

voluptas sit aspernatur aut odit aut fugit, sed quia consequuntur magni dolores eos qui

ratione voluptatem sequi nesciunt.


The second-level subhead must be centered,
italicized, and labeled with the appropriate
Hindu-Arabic numeral. 1. The Second Subhead

Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur,

adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore

magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem. Ut enim ad minima veniam, quis nostrum

exercitationem ullam corporis suscipit laboriosam, nisi ut aliquid ex ea commodi

consequatur?
There must only be three levels of subheads to promote readability. The flush-left
a. The Third Subhead third-level subhead is labeled with a lowercase letter.

Quis autem vel eum iure reprehenderit qui in ea voluptate velit esse quam nihil

molestiae consequatur, vel illum qui dolorem eum fugiat quo voluptas nulla pariatur?

Guidebook 2016, page 26


O. SAMPLE TABLES

Neque porro quisquam est, qui dolorem ipsum quia dolor sit amet, consectetur,

adipisci velit, sed quia non numquam eius modi tempora incidunt ut labore et dolore

magnam aliquam quaerat voluptatem.


Number tables consecutively using Hindu-Arabic numerals.
Extra double space before a table. Separate Table Numbers from the Table Title

Titles must be concise and italicized. Ensure that titles are the
Table 2. Profile of Respondents (N=365) entered the same way in the TOC. N indicates total sample size.

Gender Frequency Percentage


Male 44.4
Female 55.6
Age
21 to 34 50.3
35 to 57 49.7
Notes:

Instructions:
1. Consolidate similar data in one table with spanner heads, as shown in the example.
Column heads and spanner heads (e.g. Gender) must be centered within the cell,
while row entries must be flush left.
2. Single-space the table. Include an extra double space before and after the table.
3. Figures must be aligned right, then centered in the cell. Distinguish percentage figures
from frequencies through a single decimal place.
4. Do not compute percentages for sample sizes where the units of analysis number less
than 100. Use either raw frequencies or proportions.
5. Include notes on the last merged row of the table. Examples of notes include sources,
multiple response items, among others.
6. Place a table immediately after the paragraph in which it is first cited. If it does not fit
on the page where it is first cited, place it on the immediately succeeding page.
Remember that since tables are visual aids, they must be located after they are cited.
In other words, the discussion must precede the table.

Guidebook 2016, page 27


Table 3. Change in Job by Gender and Age

Sample Gender Age


Change in job Male Female 21 to 34 35 to 57
(N=320)
years old years old
(n=142) (n=178) (n=161) (n=159)
First employment 27.2 19.7 33.1 26.7 27.7
Underemployed 13.4 7.7 18.0 12.4 14.5
The same 56.9 68.3 47.8 59.0 54.7
Better 2.5 4.2 1.1 1.9 3.1
2 (3, N = 320) = 30.30, 2 (3, N = 320) = 1.06,
Chi-square
p < .01 p = .79

Instructions:
1. For cross-tabulations, put independent variables on the columns and dependent
variables on the rows.
2. Indicate the sub-sample sizes with a small letter n.
3. For bi-variate and multi- variate tables with Chi-square tests of significance,
remember to include the following statistics:
- 2 (1, N = 320) = 1.00, p = .32 2 (Degree of freedom, N = Sample size),

Computed Chi-square value, p = Significance score


4. For t-tests and ANOVA, create a table that shows mean scores and standard
deviation. Include the following statistics:
- t (318 = 3.99, p < .01) t (Degree of freedom = Computed T-test value, p =
Significance score)
- F (3,316 = 5.76, p < .01) F (Degree of freedom, Sample size = ANOVA value,
p = Significance score)
5. If SPSS shows p = .00 change the notation to p < .01

Guidebook 2016, page 28


P. SAMPLE CHART

Chart 1. Annual Deployment of Overseas Filipino Workers, 1984-2002

1,000

800
Number (in 000)

Total
600
Land-based
400

200
Sea-based
0
1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2003 2004
Year
Source. Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. (2005). Overseas Employment
Statistics [Data in Microsoft Excel files]. Retrieved March 17, 2008 from
<www.poea.gov.ph>.

Instructions:
1. Consecutively number charts using Hindu-Arabic numerals.
2. Streamline charts, removing extra lines, zeroes, etc.
3. Do not use color in distinguishing the categories in the charts. Instead, use patterns or
a palette of black, white, and distinct shades of gray.
4. Single-space the text in the chart. Include an extra double space before and after the
chart.
5. Include notes at the bottom of the chart. Examples of notes include sources and
multiple response items. For sources, follow APA guidelines, as shown in the
example above.
6. Place a chart immediately after the paragraph in which it is first cited. If it does not fit
on the page where it is first cited, place it on the immediately succeeding page. As
with other visual aids, charts must be located after they are cited. In other words, the
discussion must precede the chart.

Guidebook 2016, page 29


Q. SAMPLE GRAPHIC

Figure 1. Images from the 2005 Philippine Fiesta in America

Clockwise, from top left: Last years beauty pageant winners; a booth selling Philippine
cable TV services, food items sold turo-turo (point-point) style; a booth with a traditional
hut; and a parade of colors.

Instructions:
1. Consecutively number figures using Hindu-Arabic numerals. Include all pictures,
illustrations, and graphics under figures.
2. Consolidate similar images in a collage as shown above. Crop pictures to save space.
3. Single-space the caption. Include an extra double space before and after the chart.
4. Include notes after the caption. Examples of notes are sources, in which case, follow
APA guidelines.
5. Place a figure immediately after the paragraph in which it is first cited. If it does not
fit on the page where it is first cited, place it on the immediately succeeding page. As
with other visual aids, figures must be located after they are cited. In other words, the
discussion must precede the figure.

Guidebook 2016, page 30


R. SAMPLE MATRIX

Matrix 1. Sample Episode Codes for Sex and the City

Episode 9. The Man, the Myth, and


Item Episode 7. The Chicken Dance
the Viagra
Alcohol They drink at the footsteps of the Carrie drinks wine at the dinner
apartment next to Mirandas while with Big. Miranda drinks at the
chatting. They even walk with Comic bar then when she meets
open containers. Samantha looks Steve. Cocktails at Denial. Brunch
drunk at the wedding reception. with alcohol. Samantha is at a bar
drinking wine when she meets the
old guy.
Nutrition Meals are served during the love Brunch al fresco at Vermouth.
triangle date, the going-away party Mountains of vegetables. Miranda
for Jeremy, during their regular eats rice pudding.
meal at Caf, caf and also during
the wedding.

Instructions:
1. Include only summary matrices in the body of the document. Place extended
matricessuch as those that include verbatim interview transcriptsin the
appendices. Since these extended matrices organize transcripts, raw transcripts must
no longer be included in the thesis.
2. Vertically and horizontally center column heads.
3. Matrices must be formatted the same way as the other organizing tools. Notice the
title format and the single-spaced text, for instance. Also, include an extra double
space before and after the matrix.
4. Consecutively number matrices using Hindu-Arabic numerals.
5. Place a matrix on the same page, or on the next page immediately after the page,
where it is cited.

Guidebook 2016, page 31


III. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS

A. Basic Outline of Chapters and Sections

The following are suggested chapters and sections that may be used for theses and
dissertations.

Title Page
Approval Sheet Page
Biographical Data Page
Abstract
Table of Contents
Lists of Tables, Matrices, Figures (if any)

I. Introduction
II. Review of Related Literature
III. Study Framework
IV. Methodology/Research Design
V. Results and Discussion
VI. Summary and Conclusion
VII. Implications and Recommendations

Bibliography
Appendices

B. Basic Writing Guidelines

I. INTRODUCTION. This chapter provides an overview of the entire work.


A. Background of the Study. This section must contain the following:
1. An introduction of the communication or media concern that the work seeks
to discuss using historical and baseline data (e.g., timelines, statistical trends,
population data, media facts and figures), and qualitative insights (e.g.,
quotations, anecdotes, reviews);
2. An introduction and explanation of the chosen cases (e.g., a media
organization, the population of young adults, a specific geographical area) that
are going to be used to study the communication or media concern.
[For example, the introduction first introduces corruption in media outlets by
explaining envelopmental and checkbook journalism. It then explains why beat
reporters are the best people to study for this type of corruption in media.]
B. Statement of the Problem and Objectives. This section must not only be a listing
of the problem and objectives. Instead, it must link the problem to the arguments
presented in the background of the study (ideally, in a 100-word paragraph). The
research problem itself must be a clearly articulated research question or a series
of questions.
C. Significance of the Study. This must state why the study is being done. It must
draw arguments from the background of the study, the related literature, the study

Guidebook 2016, page 32


framework to explain 1) how the study can illuminate a specific communication
or media concern and 2) why the chosen cases can best address this concern. It
must provide a preview of the implications and recommendations.

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE. This chapter must provide a substantive


review of the findings, methods, and theories from previous studies as published in
academic and scholarly-reviewed documents such as journals, research anthologies,
theses, and dissertations. Some helpful tips in writing the review:
- Begin the literature with a description of the concepts that are being explored in
the chapter. Do not say, This chapter reviews related literature.
- The literature that is being reviewed must be organized according to substantive
concepts/themes that adhere to the objectives of the study. Thus, refrain from
organizing the literature into local studies and foreign studies unless the
research objective of the study is to compare territorial perspectives. Also, never
organize the related literature review according to document type (e.g., journals,
books, theses, dissertations).
- The literature must not be an enumeration of previous studies. In other words, it
must not appear as an extended annotated bibliography. (An example would be to
have a series of paragraphs that begin with A thesis by, Another thesis
by, and Yet another thesis by.)
- The literature links your study to previous research. Thus, a review must cogently
compare and contrast what has been argued in literature on the communication or
media concern that is at the heart of the current work; afterwards, explain how
these arguments relate to your own research. Group together similar findings, then
contrast these with dissenting results. Provide a critique of the literature being
reviewed.
- Textbook definitions and the etymologies of concepts must appear in the
introduction, not in this chapter.
- In citing related literature, use the past tense (e.g., Cicero (1945) said/argued/
wrote; According to Cicero (1945), pleasure was). However, in relating related
literature to your own research, use the present tense. Please use the appropriate
APA or MLA in-text citation format.
- Conclude this chapter with a synthesis of research gapswhat is known and what
is unknown, what has been done and what has not been done, what theoretical
approaches have been used and which have not been used as regards your
research question. This facilitates the connection of your study to previous
knowledge and helps you articulate the significance of your research.

III. STUDY FRAMEWORK. This chapter presents the theoreticalsociological, critical,


humanisticfoundations of your research. Further, it explains how previous
scholarly arguments inform your research. Finally, it serves as a blueprint as to how
the variables/concepts in your study relate to one another.

There are generally two ways of presenting the study framework. One approach that
is perhaps useful for qualitative research is a conceptual framework that combines the
theoretical concepts and conceptual constructs that are used in the research. Another

Guidebook 2016, page 33


approach that is perhaps useful for quantitative research is the three-level
operationalization process, which is discussed below.

The use of models is encouraged since this helps visualize the relationships among
variables and measure or concepts and indicators.

A. Theoretical Level. This section explains why a chosen theory best informs the
research. It discusses the theorys author/s and historical roots as well as the
original context for which it was developed. It explains each concept in the theory
and the inter-relations among these concepts. Moreover, the section includes a
literature-based critique of the theory. Thus, the discussion of the theoretical level
must not solely depend on a textbook compendium of theories (such as
Littlejohns), but on a thorough research of the theorys evolution itself and a
comprehensive analysis of its concepts and arguments using various scholarly
sources.
Should the research involve several theories, each individual theory must be
discussed as described in the preceding paragraph. Then, a discussion of how the
theories integratewhich concepts are either included or excluded, for instance
must be included.
Remember that theoretical framework must be parsimonious. Thus, avoid
unnecessarily complicated models and arguments that cover a bigger ground than
what the research does.
B. Conceptual Level. This applies the theory or the integrative theory into the
thesis/dissertation. It explains the soundness of how a concept as originally
defined by its author translates into the current effort.
C. Operational Level. This section explains the specific measures for the measures or
indicators that are being used in the study to explore particular variables and
concepts. This section must match the components of the research instrument.
D. Operational Definition of Terms. This section includes terms that are used
differently from their dictionary definitions.
E. Statement of Hypotheses. Quantitative studies that involve statistical analysis must
include this section. Each hypothesis (labeled as H1, H2a, H2b) must be
introduced by an explanatory paragraph.

IV. METHODOLOGY. This chapter describes and explains the logic behind the
gathering and analysis of research data. In the proposal stage, this chapter is written in
the future tense. Thus, during thesis writing stage, make sure that this chapters text is
changed into past tense.
A. Research Design and Methods. This section explains the choices in the conduct of
the research. Did the study use a qualitative, a quantitative, or a triangulate
approach? Did it use a one-shot, cross-sectional, or longitudinal approach? Which
specific methods were used? Why?
B. Concepts and Indicators/Variables and Measures. This links the framework and
the methodology. Thus, this section discusses how specific variables or concepts
were operationalized into particular measures or indicators.

Guidebook 2016, page 34


C. Research Instruments. This section describes the questionnaires that were used to
gather data. Rather than simply regurgitating the elements of the instruments, this
section must explain the logic behind the design of these questionnaires.
D. Units of Analysis and Sampling. This section explains how specific units (e.g.,
households or groups, newspapers or news articles) were chosen for the study.
Also, it explains how these units were selected using probability or non-
probability sampling.
E. Data Gathering/Generation and Construction. This section describes in detail the
protocols that were followed during data gathering, especially in the
implementation of the sampling scheme, and the rationale behind these protocols.
It can also include a timetable or a budget report. This section also explains any
changes between the proposed and the implemented data gathering procedure.
F. Data Analysis. This section explains how and why the data were organized,
analyzed, and interpreted accordingly.
G. Scope and Limitations. This section must explain the parameters of the study. An
important caveat is that a concern that is not within the scope of the study must
not be considered as a limitation. For instance, do not say that a qualitative study
is limited by its inability to provide representativeness and generalizability
because, in the first place, a qualitative study is not designed to do so.

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION*. This chapter presents the findings of the study. To
ensure that the research does address what it originally sought to do, this chapter must
be organized according to the specific objectives.
In the case of studies that use triangulation, this chapter must not be organized
according to methods to promote consistency across theses and dissertations and ease
of access to their findings. Thus, a section in the Results and Discussion chapter must
draw from both quantitative and qualitative data to address the objectives. Findings
can only be organized by method if the study is primarily methodological in nature.
Thus, an answer to a specific objective must draw from both quantitative and
qualitative data.
This transmutation table below must be used for quantitative data. Never use
percentages for sample sizes where the units of analysis number less than 100.
Instead, use proportions or ratios.
Percentage Proportion/Fractions Ratios
20 1/5 1 out of 5 2 out of 10
25 1/4 1 out of 4 2 out of 8
33.3 1/3 1 out of 3 More than 3 out of 10
50 1/2 1 out of 2 5 out of 10
51 Majority
60 3/5 6 out of 10 A big majority
66.7 2/3 2 out of 3 About 7 out of 10
70 Exactly 7 out of 10
75 3 out of 4 6 out of 8
80 4/5 4 out of 5 8 out of 10
90 9 out of 10 Almost all
95-99 Most
100 All

Guidebook 2016, page 35


Some helpful items to remember in writing the results and discussion:
- Discussion must precede any visual aid such as tables, charts, pictures or
matrices.
- All direct quotes must be italicized and attributed to specific informants (use
pseudonyms if needed). Quotes that are longer than three manuscript lines must
be indented by 0.5. Non-English quotes from interviewees and FGD participants
must be followed by an English translation in brackets.
- When discussing data, use the past tense because there were gathered weeks
before the write-up is composed. However, use the present tense when making
inferences across findings.
- The findings of the study must be linked to the earlier chapters. To compose a
sound and solid thesis or dissertation, compare and contrast the findings with
what has been earlier found in literature or argued in theory. Thus, cite previous
studies and theories in making your arguments.

VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION. This chapter must include the following:
A. Summary. This answers the general objective by discussing the findings
across specific objectives. In doing this, cite previous studies and theories to
support various arguments.
B. Conclusion. This succinctly answers the research question.

VII. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Any research must ultimately


answer the question So what? This chapter directly answers this question on at
least three levels (see below). There are other possible implications and
recommendations.
A. Theoretical Issues. This section explains 1) the theoretical value of the
findings and 2) the soundness of the original study framework. It must chart
future research directions on the same topic but from or with a different
theoretical perspective. It may also offer a new theorythis is particularly
important for a dissertation.
B. Methodological Issues. This section explains the soundness of the
methodology as it was implemented. It discusses the implications of the
methods, the units of analysis, sampling scheme, research instruments, and
data gathering procedures on the resultant findings. It must chart future
directions for studies on the same topic but which use a different
methodology.
C. Practical Issues. This section discusses the practical implications and
applications of the findings. Examples include recommendations on
improving media literacy and communication practice.

Guidebook 2016, page 36


C. Memorandum No. FRN 15-038

Guidebook 2016, page 37


Guidebook 2016, page 38
Guidebook 2016, page 39
Guidebook 2016, page 40