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December 2014 Quarterly

ON THE RISE:

Demand for Solar Energy licenses

Other highlights

ERC FINANCIAL RECORDS GET RAVE REVIEW

REGIONAL COOPERATION: Tanzania’s regulator
sends Board Member to learn about renewable energy

OUR ROLE in National Electricity Supply

Gains and benefits of ENERGY CONSERVATION

ALSO INSIDE: NEW STAFF | EVENTS PICTORIAL | LPG SAFETY

Contents

12 Energy Conservation
03 Editorial
Gains and Benefits

04 Director General’s Message
13 News in Pictures

06 Preparing the Grid Code for a brighter
15 ERC’s role in national electricity supply
future

17 LPG Safety and Awareness
08 Tanzanian official visits ERC,
learns about renewable energy
19 Too much water is dangerous for your
health
09 ERC regulatory role highlighted at
sector meeting with MPs
20 ERC’s new staff
Welcome aboard!
10 Solar Energy Licenses Growing in
Popularity

The Energy News Team Quarterly

Editor
Antoinette Kamau

Editorial Committee
Antoinette Kamau
Engineer Joseph Oketch
Edward Kinyua
Kimani Muhoro
Laura Wanyika
Godfrey Mwaloma

Writers
Godfrey Mwaloma
Eliakim Mwalo 09 Energy Retreat
Contributors
Eng. Buge Wasioya
Eng. Joseph Oketch

Connect with ERC on social media

The opinions expressed in the Energy EnergyRegulatoryCommissionKE @energy_ke
News are not necessarily those of the
Energy Regulatory Commission.

Energy News 2 November 2014

We are reminded to take adequate water to We strive to develop relationships with boost our health. As The Energy News e-newsletter highlights the its said. Symmetrical communication ERC is active on social media after a revamp of utilizes dialogue and negotiation to promote our Facebook and Twitter outlets. oil marketing stakeholders on various aspects of the energy companies. Have a pleasant reading! The country’s energy sector is so vibrant that Antoinette Kamau something new is happening almost every day. published by the Energy Regulatory we have an article on how to use LPG gas safely.. Commission of Kenya. energy sector from a regulator’s perspective.. energy utilities. but did you know that too stakeholders for the benefit of the energy much of it is harmful? There’s a fascinating sector as expressed in the symmetrical model article on Page 19 about hyponatremia. Both of mutual understanding between the organization these accounts are monitored continuously and and its stakeholders. We are continuously there is already vibrant conversation with engaging with legislators. of communication. consumers and sector. policy makers in line with our customer-centred orientation. The Energy News is not all business though. market-driven and investor-friendly the Energy News. Quarterly IN THIS ISSUE Welcome to the November 2014 edition of to a safe. From the consumer standpoint. a quarterly e-newsletter energy sector. all work and no play . EDITOR The Energy News e-newsletter brings you the stories that show the regulator’s contribution Energy News 3 November 2014 .

sector as we strive to support business ERC is facilitating investment as part of its activity in Kenya. I see ERC This newsletter is a great avenue for gaining a greater presence at regional level energy stakeholders. and public sector investment in the We plan to hasten the approval cycle for electricity. We are DIRECTOR GENERAL already increasing our engagement with stakeholders and the public at large Energy News 4 November 2014 . In the medium to long term. I welcome you to this edition of the ERC Energy News and I wish you pleasant However. Joseph Ng’ang’a on all matters related to energy. From the Director General K enya’s energy sector is experiencing rapid transformation thanks to private through the media and through various forums. We encourage you to get in touch with us Eng. and the value devolved government. we provide to consumers. the newsletter should not be reading! seen as a one-sided channel of information. There is ongoing work on mission which is to facilitate access to standardizing ERC certificates and efficient and sustainable energy through enhancing their security features to ensure enabling regulation that will contribute to credibility. petroleum and renewable stakeholders seeking licenses in the energy energy subsectors. investors and other stakeholders. better quality of life in Kenya. consumers and to support county governments in entrepreneurs to learn more about ERC’s implementing their mandates under role in the energy industry.

organized with the county government of Mombasa. The Investor Power Plan ties in with Project 5000+ MW. the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum.000MW within 40 months. Kimani Ichung’wah commended ERC for setting an example to other public bodies. an initiative launched in September 2013 to fast track an increase in Kenya's generating capacity by 5. senior management. an online portal has been established to collect data on private sector electricity needs. The workshop. Through the portal. The sitting was held on 13 Photo: Mombasa County Government November 2014. at a sensitization workshop held for LPG stakeholders in Mombasa County on 18 September 2014. Hon. Energy News 5 November 2014 . ERC was represented by Director General Eng. large and medium scale users of electricity are requested to provide information on expansion plans that will require additional power. focused Joseph Ng’ang’a accompanied by the Commission’s on the licensing of LPG businesses. CLEAN FINANCIAL RECORDS! ERC. MOMBASA COUNTY HOST ERC commended by parliamentary watchdog LPG STAKEHOLDER WORKSHOP The Public Investments Committee of the National Assembly has praised the Energy Regulatory Commission for submitting clean financial records spanning seven years. The Public Investments Committee was examining ERC financial reports for the financial years ERC’s Senior Manager for Petroleum Edward Kinyua (right) 2006/2007 to 2012/2013. The Vice Chairperson of the Committee Hon. To this end. Ichung’wah suggested that the Kenya National Audit Office (KENAO) use ERC as a reference point. the Energy Regulatory Commission and electricity utilities are working with the private sector to accurately determine how much electricity the country will be required to generate in the coming years. ERC JOINS INVESTOR POWER PLAN CAMPAIGN In anticipating Kenya’s energy needs.

Eng. Oketch describes the planning procedures. tariff chapters of the Kenya Electricity challenges to be anticipated: “Our methodologies and internal Grid Code namely. between Kenya and Uganda that “The Grid Code contains the could be extended as far as Rwanda. regulations for the electricity The requirements for transmission and distribution transmission and distribution may be On the massive Project 5000+MW network.” explains Engineer Electricity Distribution Code and system challenges are bound to shift Energy News 6 November 2014 . there is need to delink the and Tanzania through a 400KV electrical energy from generating technical requirements of the Grid transmission system. the technical requirements. massive expansion of Kenya’s liaison officer with the Eastern connection. For instance. Project 5000+MW. who is also ERC’s requirements for planning. Consumer Affairs at ERC. This is to reduce is a primary technical document of It has now become necessary to the bulkiness of the Grid Code and the electricity supply industry. there transmission systems. Kenya National interconnected electricity grid regulations. document specifies the technical new technologies and because of the Eng. operation and use of the electricity network as envisaged in Africa Power Pool (EAPP) says National Power Grid.” says Eng. the National Power Grid “The Grid Code needs to regional integration of the various refers to the network of incorporate technological national grids.developed in 2008 . Main story Preparing the Grid Code for a brighter future ERC’s Engineer Joseph Oketch explains why the rules for the national grid are about to undergo a transformation T he Kenya Electricity Grid Joseph Oketch. The revise the Grid Code in response to make implementation easier. Code from commercial include a new transmission line considerations. Oketch. In electrical grid with that of Ethiopia the movement and supply of addition. Oketch. distribution developments and improved industry are plans to connect Kenya’s systems and connection points for best practices. reforms to the Grid Code will foster In turn. put under separate codes or as projects. Senior Manager for Kenya National Electricity Code . Transmission Code. Additional plans stations to consumers.

cognisance of these power projects and model their incorporation into was brought on board in November The consultant has presented both the system by prescribing 2013 to guide the process. the proposed plans. Once the draft is the country’s economy. The consultant’s key deliverables presented to ERC. Mombasa. it will be subject to are: broad stakeholder consultation. A drafts of the Kenya Electricity interconnection and operational Technical Review Working Group Transmission Code and the Kenya requirements which will not (TRWG) composed of key technical Electricity Distribution Code for compromise electricity grid system and legal staff from all the energy comments and consensus seeking stability. and energy sources like wind and solar. Oketch says.” Eng. This is in line with ERC sector organizations was formed to among the energy sector planning principles of “adequate. final draft. On the other hand. a consultancy firm.” provided assistance under the Grid • revised Kenya Electricity Grid Management Support Programme Code incorporating findings of the The revised Grid Code must take (GMSP). revised Kenya Electricity Grid Code(s) plants like the proposed 960MW • system stability study report will be in place by the beginning July coal-fired electricity generating representing system expansion 2015. High voltage transmission lines at Kipevu. Nexant. 700MW LPG station and many more. system stability is bound to improve with • the current System Operational “We are optimistic that the the introduction of large power Gap Analysis (SOGA) report. work closely with the consultant organizations before preparing the reliable and affordable” power for during the exercise.greatly due to the injection of more The reform of the Grid Code • renewable energy generators power from intermittent renewable received a boost from USAID. above three items. station at Lamu. Energy News 7 November 2014 . which integration study report.

Tanzania helping cut energy costs. 2014. energy sources including geothermal. the While Kenya has been generating electricity from renewable energy for On the first day of his visit. On the last day of his visit. Mbwanji also went for a tour During his three day visit to ERC Director-General Eng. Tanzania has vast reserves of fossil largest in Kenya. An important lesson learnt at Hills are new. However. Nicholas Mbwanji (left) with ERC Mr.” explained Eng. A board member of 10. A lot of the new generating increase geothermal generating was very impressed at Kenya's capacity will come from renewable capacity by 280MW come December investment in renewable energy.” said from its solar panels. electricity generating output to Energy News 8 November 2014 . “this is a very attract investors into the power very important in developing a important lesson that I will take back sector while keeping energy prices as renewable energy subsector. electricity using renewable energy. The turbines have automated hydroelectric stations. Water Utilities Regulatory Authority biggest challenge lies in attracting The university has a weekly cleaning (EWURA) was in Kenya early October investors. Olkaria Geothermal Field by 5. having been Strathmore University is that solar commissioned a few months prior to Tanzania plans to increase its panels need to be kept clean because Mr. Mbwanji (right) tours Strathmore At the Ngong Wind Farm with KenGen Director General Eng. University’s solar electricity system. Mr. wind and solar energy. Joseph Ng’ang’a. Mr Nicholas Mbwanji met Ng'ang'a gave Mr. photovoltaic installation is among the changing wind speeds and direction. Olkaria was buzzing with senior management of ERC and toured overview of Kenya's own plans of activity as KenGen contractors renewable energy sites at Strathmore raising electricity generating capacity installed the piping systems and University. Mr. Mbwanji's visit. engineers and ERC staff. Many of the wind turbines at Ngong fuel including coal and natural gas. low as possible. Joseph of KenGen's Olkaria Geothermal Field Kenya. “The electricity output by as much as 20%. systems designed to optimize largely relies on thermal power Strathmore University's solar electricity generation by adapting to generation. Mr.” he said. unlike Kenya. Ng'ang'a. Apart from a few University to learn how solar energy is 25MW. observed. Mbwanji an at Naivasha. Mr. Mr. the same is not the Mbwanji visited Strathmore Wind Farm whose installed capacity is case in Tanzania.” he to Tanzania.000MW by 2025. News Tanzanian director in study tour of Kenya’s renewable energy subsector Mr. hence the dust on the surface can reduce Tanzania's Energy and interest in renewable energy. Mbwanji was impressed by the “I have seen a very strong commitment by the Kenyan “The regulator [ERC] ensures that depth of knowledge displayed by the government to invest in renewable tariffs are competitive enough to engineers at Olkaria. “Human capital is energy. Mbwanji. At 600kw. Tanzanian guest toured the Ngong several decades.000MW through Project 5000+ equipment that is expected to and Ngong Wind Farm. Mbwanji MW. licensing and balancing the schedule to ensure optimal output with a specific interest in generating various stakeholder interests.

of Energy and Petroleum. Cabinet Secretary Davis Chirchir. ERC Chairman of the Departmental Parliamentary Departmental demonstrated that petroleum prices Committee on Energy. Information and electricity tariffs in Kenya are Communication & Information. Joseph relationship between the Ministry In addition. Chirchir assured the MPs of “ERC is meant to be a market. Committee on Energy. Hon. Hon. those of other countries that do not excellent relationship between the The retreat was organized to subsidize energy. Energy News 9 November 2014 . Energy and Petroleum Other countries are already learning consumers for affordable energy. energy concerned with the prices of Cabinet Secretary Davis Chirchir sector state corporations and petroleum and electricity.” MPs told T he Energy Commission Regulatory provides balance between the viability needs a ERC attended the alongside state corporations under retreat possible. learnt in September. the MPs were very Ng’ang’a. from Kenya’s model because it is Members of the National Assembly Principal Secretary Joseph Njoroge attractive to investors. of energy investors and the desire of Petroleum. point of interest was the price tag left to self regulate as much as for new electricity connections. explained ERC’s DG. Another said the energy sector should be Parliament. intervening whenever there Parliamentary Departmental element of electricity prices as is a failure in free market Co m m i tt e e was led by its more geothermal power gets into mechanisms. production and supply otherwise retreat.000MW by 2018. present at the retreat. and Communication during a retreat very competitive when compared to Jamleck Kamau spoke of the held at Mombasa on 12th September. the national grid. Joseph Ng’ang’a told members of the In its presentation. better understand ongoing tariffs should reflect the cost of At the end of the day-long developments in the energy sector. Jamleck Kamau. Power purchase in Kenya are among the best in the world as the Ministry of Energy and there is virtually no risk of default. there was agreement that including the government’s plan to there would be no incentive for similar retreats be held in future to increase national electricity investment in the energy sector. News ERC regulatory role HIGHLIGHTED at sector-wide meeting with MPs “Kenya’s Power Purchase Agreements among the best worldwide. The a 70% reduction on the fuel cost enabler. Committee and the Ministry of enable members of the Committee “Petroleum prices and electricity Energy & Petroleum.” Director General Chairperson. and other Ministry officials were Mr.” enhance the already good production to 5.

that were already practising need to He is a Chartered Engineer. 2012 were on the ERC website.erc. ERC only recognizes training “Customers would get disappointed technician. we interviewed over 150 solar PV technician. News SOLAR ENERGY LICENSES GROWING IN POPULARITY L ast September. Maringa has over 30 years means that even those professionals experience in the electrical industry. Applicants sub-standard products and untrained licensed. Prof.” says the Professor. mechanical engineer and also a “The first interview in March university lecturer. Prof. Maringa. He register through the Commission’s technicians. produce. The group was sitting for written interviews administered by ERC as part of the application process for Solar Photovoltaic (Solar PV) licenses.” said Prof.” recalls Despite his accomplishments. supply or install Approximately 16 tertiary promote.” says Caroline Kimathi of will enable me supervise my ERC’s Renewable Energy Department. training in solar PV and solar water his employment. people. is required to be. at least a class T2 heating.go. solar water heating contractors. “This September Maringa is applying for a license as a [2014]. or have in license. A related law is the intends to import solar panels. Both laws make it a for sale in the country. Caroline Kimathi. a acquire the necessary licenses. distribute. Professor Maina Maringa held in 2013 and six scheduled for “I am applying for a Technician T3 2014 to cater for the increased gazetted to protect the public from license to get my solar business number of applicants. engaging in solar PV business to Five interviews for licenses were obtain a license from ERC. sell or install solar PV solar energy equipment without a valid institutions across Kenya offer systems. criminal offense for anyone to planning to design. The lists of licensed solar PV and employees. Today.ke) after which Energy (Solar Water Heating) lighting equipment and solar heaters they are invited for written and oral Regulations. the license Training Authority (NITA). courses offered in institutions by solar energy systems because of “Apart from fulfilling the accredited by the National Industrial wrong advice given by unqualified necessary requirements. 2013 had five applicants. Anyone interviews. solar website (www. distribute. Professor Maina Maringa sat in a room with close to 200 other people mostly younger than him. The Energy (Solar people applying for licenses as Photovoltaic Systems) Regulations technicians in solar PV and solar 2012 make it mandatory for anyone water heating. 2012. customers and employers The Energy (Solar Photovoltaic vendors and technicians are available prefer working with licensed Systems) Regulations.” she says. This Energy News 10 November 2014 . technicians and contractors.

Certificate of Incorporation 2. in which case the contractor shall be requested to be or have in his employment a class T3 technician. KCSE. VAT certificate 3. Training. BSc Electrical Engineering or One year of solar installation relevant degree or Higher National experience. KCSE. T3: Entitles the holder to carry out solar PV system installation work for advanced projects. V1: Entitles the holder to design. T3 BSc Electrical Engineering or 2 years of solar installation relevant degree or Higher National experience. Valid Tax compliance certificate. Diploma Classes of Solar PV Contractors/Vendors Licenses C1: Entitles the holder to carry out design and installation work for solar PV systems. Electrical Govt Trade Test 2 Verifiable 2 years solar T1 and basic solar training. Training. Diploma in Electrical and/or Verifiable 4 years solar Electronic and Advanced Solar installation experience. KCSE. Certificate in Electrical and/ Verifiable 4 years solar or Electronic and Intermediate Solar installation experience.Classes of Solar PV Technicians' Licenses T1: Entitles the holder to carry out solar PV system installation work for small systems or single battery DC systems of up to 100Wp (watts peak). Qualifications and Experience for Solar PV Technician Licenses CATEGORY OF LICENSE Academic Qualifications Experience needed KCPE. or have in his employment a class T2 technician. in which case the licensee shall be required to be. Energy News 11 November 2014 . in addition to submitting the following documents: 1. T2: Entitles the holder to carry out solar PV system installation work for medium systems or multiple batteries which may include an inverter. V2: Entitles the holder to manufacture or import solar PV systems or components. sell or install solar PV systems. Licensing requirements for Solar PV Contractors/Vendors In order to be licensed as a contractor/vendor. Training. Diploma. promote. including grid connected and hybrid systems. installation experience. distribute. in which case the licensee shall be required to be or to have in his employment a class T2 technician. one must have in his employment a licensed Solar PV systems technician. Diploma in Electrical and/or Verifiable 2 years solar T2 Electronic and Intermediate Solar installation experience.

with wood fuel providing associated with power generation. coal and methods as is the case with 50% of lowers the emission of pollutants and natural gas. Access to electricity remains by utilizing technology that improves payments. reduced of national energy consumption. attention focused on energy From the consumer perspective. Most of the energy electricity users in Kenya do not energy efficiency are clear: a consumed worldwide still comes from apply any efficiency conservation reduction in energy consumption that fossil fuels such as oil. 26% of The environmental benefits of preferences. wood being wasted through such actions as imports of energy resources have a fuel and other biomass account for turning off lights when not in use and positive effect on national balance of 68%. fuel results in emissions of carbon users. Measures of instituting electricity. with just about 18% of energy efficiency. country’s power stations defers the households connected to electricity. Consumption of fossil wood fuel users and 27% of charcoal greenhouse gases. Energy consumption could drop Energy consumption is increasing due to economic growth. need to increase generating capacity. industrial drastically if subjected to efficiency Environmental impacts development and changing consumer and conservation measures. Just about 28% of electricity dioxide and contributes to climate consumers utilize energy saving Current situation in Kenya change. While petroleum and electricity efficiency and conservation. E nergy conservation means yield direct savings on energy costs. energy efficiency benefit the the basic energy needs for rural there will necessarily be more national economy in a several ways. Energy conservation reduces As governments come under The energy sector is largely increasing pressure to improve the energy costs and improves dominated by petroleum and quality of life while limiting emissions profitability. energy efficiency and conservation Energy News 12 November 2014 . Optimized use of the low. Matters of Energy Energy conservation: Economic gains and environmental benefits A biomass cook stove. Kenya faces huge challenges of meeting its energy needs in the drive Outlook Economic factors towards Vision 2030. appliances to save on energy. account for 22% and 9% respectively preventing energy from From a national stand point. communities and the urban poor.

Members of the press (left) at a media briefing with ERC management (right). PICTORIAL Fenwicks Musonye (left) of ERC’s Renewable Energy Department. ERC staff at the control room of Gulf Power’s Athi River power station during a tour. assists a candidate during interviews for solar energy licenses in September 2014. Energy News 13 November 2014 .

ERC staff listen keenly during Risk Management training held in November 2014. Polycarp Igathe (right) when the Institute made a courtesy call on ERC in November 2014. The students had many questions for staff who shared their knowledge with them. ERC hosted secretarial students from Githunguri who came to get a feel for a modern office. PICTORIAL In October. Energy News 14 November 2014 . Chairperson of the Petroleum Institute of East Africa (PIEA) Mr. With him is PIEA General Manager Wanjiku Manyara (centre) and Total Kenya Managing Director Ada Eze (left).

and investigate The energy is then conveyed over powers to: tariff charges. review and adjust electric power purchase agreements (PPAs) regulation of the electric power sub- power tariffs and tariff approved by the Commission. The net electrical energy from Regulation of the Electricity • ensure compliance with the power generating plants is Supply Industry conditions of licenses or bought by the Kenya Power and The Commission is responsible permits. Transmission Company (KETRACO). The other statutory authorities. whether or not transmission systems owned by KPLC • issue. Electricity generation in Kenya is Commission also approves the retail • enforce and review regulations. sector and for this purpose. enforce and review undertakings. in coordination with Structure issued to it by the Commission. distribution and retail supply of the environmental. sub-sector. renew. Lighting Company (KPLC) through for economic and t e c h n ic a l • set. • propose to th e Cabinet • approve electric power both of whom are licensed by the Secretary regulations which purchase and network service Commission to provide transmission may be necessary or expedient contracts for all persons services. Matters of Energy ERC’s role in national electricity supply By Engineer Buge Wasioya The Electric Power Market accordance with licences and permits sub-sector. engaging in electric power Finally. safety • examine and approve meters electrical energy to customers in and quality standards for the used or intended to be used for INSTALLED CAPACITY IN MW AS AT NOVEMBER 2014 Energy News 15 November 2014 . KPLC carries out • formulate. health. modify. for the sub-sector. suspend a specific application has been or the Kenya Electricity or revoke licences and permits. liberalised with several licensed tariffs charged for the supply. codes and standards for the electric power producers (see table). made for a tariff adjustment. it has structures.

If the complainant has exhausted the licensee’s complaints handling procedures and remains unsatisfied.000 kW on persons who are in breach of Electrician’s licence Electric Power any of the provisions of the Act Electrical installation and Certificate of (Electrical work at the premises or its regulations.000 kW grievances over any matter for own use required to be regulated under the Act. Generation and supply of electrical energy • prescribe the requirements for Permit Energy (Electricity not exceeding 3. 2012. registration as an Installation Work) of a customer Electrical Contractor Rules. he or she may refer their complaint to the Commission. 2006 Resolution of complaints and disputes Any person dissatisfied with any aspect of a service provided by any licensee is advised to lodge a complaint directly with the licensee. energy exceeding • impose sanctions and penalties 3. 2012 appropriate skills to check accuracy of energy meters Generation. Energy News 16 November 2014 . commercial or industrial distribution and Licence supply of electrical premises.000 Licensing) accreditation of persons with kW Regulations. Full details of how one can file a complaint against a licensee are set out in the Energy (Complaints and Dis- putes Resolution) Regulations. Undertaking or Required Applicable • license electricians and register activity Authorisation Regulation electrical contractors. transmission. in accordance with the licensee’s complaints handling procedures. ascertaining the quantity of Requirement for licence or permit electrical energy. installed in residential. Generation of • investigate complaints or electricity not disputes between parties with None exceeding 1. providing documentary proof of contact with the licensee.

ERC cylinders. • An official receipt with the cylinder’s serial number and weight should be clearly indicated upon purchase. consumption rate of 3 kg. commercial propane or any mixture The increased use of LPG in Kenya of both. the Commission is (ERC). metric tonnes which roughly individuals interested in operating Though ERC currently does not LPG business to obtain licenses from translates to a per capital have a mandate to regulate the the Energy Regulatory Commission consumption of 2. wholesale. are smoothened out. as an alternative household energy consumers in their choice of cooking The following safety measures are designed to save Kenyan taxpayers from buying substandard LPG products • All LPG dealers should have a licence displayed at their place of business at all times. exports. Compiled by Eliakim R. ERC has the reach 200. key At normal temperatures and among them being the proliferation pressures LPG is a gas but as supplied of illegal LPG operators who fill and it is a liquid under pressure. • Weigh the filled LPG cylinder to get value for your money. the brand owners. • Each LPG cylinder should be sealed. There are various licenses for below Africa’s average per capita eager to see that LPG is conveniently LPG imports. • For the safety of consumers. storage and filling of for LPG in Kenya is expected to affordable price.” highly flammable liquid which can be says ERC Director General Joseph defined as commercial butane.000 metric tonnes after plans to publish the prices of LPG mandate to stop and prosecute challenges in the current supply chain sold by various companies and unlicensed operators. • Consumers should also know that the only person authorized to fill an LPG cylinder is the person whose brand appears on that cylinder. The illegal operators liquid starts to boil and gas is evolved get LPG cylinders get from with 1 litre of liquid providing about consumers seeking cylinder refills or 250 litres of gas. for example. “Highly Flammable”. Matters of Energy LPG Safety and Awareness Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a gas from different brand owners. Butane is less outright theft of cylinders from LPG source that could reduce over marketing companies. • Check that the cylinder is well marked with appropriate safety symbols. Mwalo Energy News 17 November 2014 . for example brands without authority from the when the control valve is opened. Ng’ang’a. dependence on wood fuel and Current annual LPG consumption in The Energy Act 2006 provides a charcoal. compare them with recommended The government has Kenyan consumers need to ensure prices based on a model currently their own safety by buying LPG only acknowledged the importance of LPG being developed.000 licensing framework that requires environmental sustainability. has not been without challenges. When distribute well-known LPG cylinder this pressure is reduced. Demand available to the public at an transport. To this end. “This will empower from licensed retailers. volatile than propane. retailers should check the test date on each cylinder making sure it doesn’t exceed 8 years. On its part. hence contribute to Kenya is estimated at about 90.25 kg which is prices of LPG.

.. Not all advice is sincere Energy News 18 November 2014 . Easy corner Happens every week .

the When it’s hot or when exercising. The problem comes when you drink too much. It's very serious. But can be hot. You might the brain.. That’s how to heatstroke and exhaustion. and coma. too fast. The warning signs of hyponatremia If you don't get help right away. it means you are taking in more than your kidneys can handle. have a headache. Other early symptoms can Drinking a large amount of water within a short time can be dangerous. You have heard it several times. muscle weakness and Compiled by Eliakim R. seizures. Mwalo thing? spasms. Such cases are isolated and rare as more people tend to be dehydrated rather than having a problem with over-hydration. That's a condition called hyponatremia. Swelling of the cells is serious and if it happens in the brain then immediate treatment should be sought. The kidneys can only expel about half a liter an hour. experience there be too much of a good loss of energy. Causes Drinking too much affects the body’s sodium levels. keep your body hydrated. and water moves from your blood to inside your cells. nausea. How much is too much? Symptoms and treatment include diarrhea. What is water intoxication? If you drink a bottle of water here and there when you exercise or when you feel hot. so if you are drinking more than that. and vomiting. Energy News 19 November 2014 . It can dilute your blood and cause the concentration of salts to drop to dangerously low levels. look a lot like the symptoms of condition can quickly lead to swelling in drink lots of water. and can be fatal. You may hear it called water intoxication. making them swell.. that is fine. Drinking too much water causes an imbalance. Your health Getting the right amount . One of sodium’s jobs is to balance the fluids in and around your cells.

photos and news tips.ke/ The Energy News Quarterly is published by the Energy Regulatory Commission of Kenya (ERC). Driver Accountant Petroleum Renewable Energy Joined 3rd November Joined 10th November Joined 3rd November Joined 10th November 2014 2014 2014 2014 Congratulations and welcome to the Energy community! The Renewable Energy Portal The Renewable Energy Portal is an inter agency website aimed at providing investors with a single point of information on requirements for getting into the renewable energy sub-sector.renewableenergy. policy makers and researchers are encouraged to participate in the production of this newsletter by sending articles. ERC New Staff HAMID MOHAMMED ROBERT CHIRCHIR ANTONY KIARIE JAMES OCHIENG Technical Officer. Contact the editors at ERC Communication and Public Affairs Department (CPA). Technical Officer. consumers.go. Players in the energy industry. Visit: http://www. .