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December 2014 Quarterly


Demand for Solar Energy licenses

Other highlights


REGIONAL COOPERATION: Tanzania’s regulator
sends Board Member to learn about renewable energy

OUR ROLE in National Electricity Supply

Gains and benefits of ENERGY CONSERVATION



12 Energy Conservation
03 Editorial
Gains and Benefits

04 Director General’s Message
13 News in Pictures

06 Preparing the Grid Code for a brighter
15 ERC’s role in national electricity supply

17 LPG Safety and Awareness
08 Tanzanian official visits ERC,
learns about renewable energy
19 Too much water is dangerous for your
09 ERC regulatory role highlighted at
sector meeting with MPs
20 ERC’s new staff
Welcome aboard!
10 Solar Energy Licenses Growing in

The Energy News Team Quarterly

Antoinette Kamau

Editorial Committee
Antoinette Kamau
Engineer Joseph Oketch
Edward Kinyua
Kimani Muhoro
Laura Wanyika
Godfrey Mwaloma

Godfrey Mwaloma
Eliakim Mwalo 09 Energy Retreat
Eng. Buge Wasioya
Eng. Joseph Oketch

Connect with ERC on social media

The opinions expressed in the Energy EnergyRegulatoryCommissionKE @energy_ke
News are not necessarily those of the
Energy Regulatory Commission.

Energy News 2 November 2014

market-driven and investor-friendly the Energy News. policy makers in line with our customer-centred orientation. Have a pleasant reading! The country’s energy sector is so vibrant that Antoinette Kamau something new is happening almost every day.. Commission of Kenya. From the consumer standpoint. oil marketing stakeholders on various aspects of the energy companies. We are continuously there is already vibrant conversation with engaging with legislators.. energy sector from a regulator’s perspective. but did you know that too stakeholders for the benefit of the energy much of it is harmful? There’s a fascinating sector as expressed in the symmetrical model article on Page 19 about hyponatremia. consumers and sector. a quarterly e-newsletter energy sector. published by the Energy Regulatory we have an article on how to use LPG gas safely. Quarterly IN THIS ISSUE Welcome to the November 2014 edition of to a safe. The Energy News is not all business though. Symmetrical communication ERC is active on social media after a revamp of utilizes dialogue and negotiation to promote our Facebook and Twitter outlets. energy utilities. As The Energy News e-newsletter highlights the its said. We are reminded to take adequate water to We strive to develop relationships with boost our health. of communication. all work and no play . EDITOR The Energy News e-newsletter brings you the stories that show the regulator’s contribution Energy News 3 November 2014 . Both of mutual understanding between the organization these accounts are monitored continuously and and its stakeholders.

we provide to consumers. There is ongoing work on mission which is to facilitate access to standardizing ERC certificates and efficient and sustainable energy through enhancing their security features to ensure enabling regulation that will contribute to credibility. I welcome you to this edition of the ERC Energy News and I wish you pleasant However. We encourage you to get in touch with us Eng. and public sector investment in the We plan to hasten the approval cycle for electricity. petroleum and renewable stakeholders seeking licenses in the energy energy subsectors. We are DIRECTOR GENERAL already increasing our engagement with stakeholders and the public at large Energy News 4 November 2014 . better quality of life in Kenya. From the Director General K enya’s energy sector is experiencing rapid transformation thanks to private through the media and through various forums. consumers and to support county governments in entrepreneurs to learn more about ERC’s implementing their mandates under role in the energy industry. In the medium to long term. I see ERC This newsletter is a great avenue for gaining a greater presence at regional level energy stakeholders. Joseph Ng’ang’a on all matters related to energy. sector as we strive to support business ERC is facilitating investment as part of its activity in Kenya. and the value devolved government. the newsletter should not be reading! seen as a one-sided channel of information. investors and other stakeholders.

000MW within 40 months. at a sensitization workshop held for LPG stakeholders in Mombasa County on 18 September 2014. senior management. Ichung’wah suggested that the Kenya National Audit Office (KENAO) use ERC as a reference point. ERC JOINS INVESTOR POWER PLAN CAMPAIGN In anticipating Kenya’s energy needs. Hon. The Public Investments Committee was examining ERC financial reports for the financial years ERC’s Senior Manager for Petroleum Edward Kinyua (right) 2006/2007 to 2012/2013. focused Joseph Ng’ang’a accompanied by the Commission’s on the licensing of LPG businesses. large and medium scale users of electricity are requested to provide information on expansion plans that will require additional power. MOMBASA COUNTY HOST ERC commended by parliamentary watchdog LPG STAKEHOLDER WORKSHOP The Public Investments Committee of the National Assembly has praised the Energy Regulatory Commission for submitting clean financial records spanning seven years. an initiative launched in September 2013 to fast track an increase in Kenya's generating capacity by 5. organized with the county government of Mombasa. an online portal has been established to collect data on private sector electricity needs. The workshop. Energy News 5 November 2014 . Through the portal. ERC was represented by Director General Eng. The Vice Chairperson of the Committee Hon. The sitting was held on 13 Photo: Mombasa County Government November 2014. The Investor Power Plan ties in with Project 5000+ MW. Kimani Ichung’wah commended ERC for setting an example to other public bodies. the Ministry of Energy and Petroleum. To this end. the Energy Regulatory Commission and electricity utilities are working with the private sector to accurately determine how much electricity the country will be required to generate in the coming years. CLEAN FINANCIAL RECORDS! ERC.

Oketch describes the planning procedures. who is also ERC’s requirements for planning. For instance. distribution developments and improved industry are plans to connect Kenya’s systems and connection points for best practices. tariff chapters of the Kenya Electricity challenges to be anticipated: “Our methodologies and internal Grid Code namely. Project 5000+MW. there transmission systems. Kenya National interconnected electricity grid regulations. put under separate codes or as projects. Oketch. Consumer Affairs at ERC. between Kenya and Uganda that “The Grid Code contains the could be extended as far as Rwanda. The revise the Grid Code in response to make implementation easier. massive expansion of Kenya’s liaison officer with the Eastern connection. operation and use of the electricity network as envisaged in Africa Power Pool (EAPP) says National Power Grid. the technical requirements. Additional plans stations to consumers. Main story Preparing the Grid Code for a brighter future ERC’s Engineer Joseph Oketch explains why the rules for the national grid are about to undergo a transformation T he Kenya Electricity Grid Joseph Oketch.developed in 2008 . Oketch. Transmission Code. there is need to delink the and Tanzania through a 400KV electrical energy from generating technical requirements of the Grid transmission system.” explains Engineer Electricity Distribution Code and system challenges are bound to shift Energy News 6 November 2014 . Senior Manager for Kenya National Electricity Code . reforms to the Grid Code will foster In turn. document specifies the technical new technologies and because of the Eng. regulations for the electricity The requirements for transmission and distribution transmission and distribution may be On the massive Project 5000+MW network.” says Eng. Eng. Code from commercial include a new transmission line considerations. In electrical grid with that of Ethiopia the movement and supply of addition. This is to reduce is a primary technical document of It has now become necessary to the bulkiness of the Grid Code and the electricity supply industry. the National Power Grid “The Grid Code needs to regional integration of the various refers to the network of incorporate technological national grids.

it will be subject to are: broad stakeholder consultation. revised Kenya Electricity Grid Code(s) plants like the proposed 960MW • system stability study report will be in place by the beginning July coal-fired electricity generating representing system expansion 2015. and energy sources like wind and solar. This is in line with ERC sector organizations was formed to among the energy sector planning principles of “adequate. the proposed plans. On the other hand. Nexant. A drafts of the Kenya Electricity interconnection and operational Technical Review Working Group Transmission Code and the Kenya requirements which will not (TRWG) composed of key technical Electricity Distribution Code for compromise electricity grid system and legal staff from all the energy comments and consensus seeking stability.” provided assistance under the Grid • revised Kenya Electricity Grid Management Support Programme Code incorporating findings of the The revised Grid Code must take (GMSP). Energy News 7 November 2014 . 700MW LPG station and many more. Oketch says. The consultant’s key deliverables presented to ERC. Once the draft is the country’s economy. above three items. station at Lamu. Mombasa. which integration study report.greatly due to the injection of more The reform of the Grid Code • renewable energy generators power from intermittent renewable received a boost from USAID.” Eng. High voltage transmission lines at Kipevu. cognisance of these power projects and model their incorporation into was brought on board in November The consultant has presented both the system by prescribing 2013 to guide the process. a consultancy firm. work closely with the consultant organizations before preparing the reliable and affordable” power for during the exercise. final draft. system stability is bound to improve with • the current System Operational “We are optimistic that the the introduction of large power Gap Analysis (SOGA) report.

Mbwanji was impressed by the “I have seen a very strong commitment by the Kenyan “The regulator [ERC] ensures that depth of knowledge displayed by the government to invest in renewable tariffs are competitive enough to engineers at Olkaria. The turbines have automated hydroelectric stations. University’s solar electricity system. Olkaria Geothermal Field by 5. Mr. However. the While Kenya has been generating electricity from renewable energy for On the first day of his visit. electricity generating output to Energy News 8 November 2014 .” said from its solar panels. systems designed to optimize largely relies on thermal power Strathmore University's solar electricity generation by adapting to generation. Mr Nicholas Mbwanji met Ng'ang'a gave Mr. energy sources including geothermal. Water Utilities Regulatory Authority biggest challenge lies in attracting The university has a weekly cleaning (EWURA) was in Kenya early October investors. Mbwanji MW. having been Strathmore University is that solar commissioned a few months prior to Tanzania plans to increase its panels need to be kept clean because Mr. Mbwanji (right) tours Strathmore At the Ngong Wind Farm with KenGen Director General Eng. hence the dust on the surface can reduce Tanzania's Energy and interest in renewable energy. unlike Kenya. Mr. Joseph of KenGen's Olkaria Geothermal Field Kenya.000MW by 2025. Tanzanian guest toured the Ngong several decades. Ng'ang'a. wind and solar energy.” he to Tanzania. Mbwanji's visit. 2014. “The electricity output by as much as 20%. Mbwanji an at Naivasha. Many of the wind turbines at Ngong fuel including coal and natural gas. photovoltaic installation is among the changing wind speeds and direction. Mr. Mr. “Human capital is energy.000MW through Project 5000+ equipment that is expected to and Ngong Wind Farm. Apart from a few University to learn how solar energy is 25MW.” he said. News Tanzanian director in study tour of Kenya’s renewable energy subsector Mr. the same is not the Mbwanji visited Strathmore Wind Farm whose installed capacity is case in Tanzania. Mbwanji. “this is a very attract investors into the power very important in developing a important lesson that I will take back sector while keeping energy prices as renewable energy subsector. Tanzania helping cut energy costs. At 600kw. observed. Joseph Ng’ang’a. licensing and balancing the schedule to ensure optimal output with a specific interest in generating various stakeholder interests. Tanzania has vast reserves of fossil largest in Kenya. On the last day of his visit.” explained Eng. Mr. An important lesson learnt at Hills are new. Olkaria was buzzing with senior management of ERC and toured overview of Kenya's own plans of activity as KenGen contractors renewable energy sites at Strathmore raising electricity generating capacity installed the piping systems and University. Nicholas Mbwanji (left) with ERC Mr. electricity using renewable energy. A lot of the new generating increase geothermal generating was very impressed at Kenya's capacity will come from renewable capacity by 280MW come December investment in renewable energy. engineers and ERC staff. Mbwanji also went for a tour During his three day visit to ERC Director-General Eng. low as possible. A board member of 10.

Power purchase in Kenya are among the best in the world as the Ministry of Energy and there is virtually no risk of default. and Communication during a retreat very competitive when compared to Jamleck Kamau spoke of the held at Mombasa on 12th September. learnt in September.000MW by 2018. Chirchir assured the MPs of “ERC is meant to be a market. Energy and Petroleum Other countries are already learning consumers for affordable energy. ERC Chairman of the Departmental Parliamentary Departmental demonstrated that petroleum prices Committee on Energy. of energy investors and the desire of Petroleum. Jamleck Kamau. those of other countries that do not excellent relationship between the The retreat was organized to subsidize energy. Information and electricity tariffs in Kenya are Communication & Information. there was agreement that including the government’s plan to there would be no incentive for similar retreats be held in future to increase national electricity investment in the energy sector. Joseph relationship between the Ministry In addition. Committee and the Ministry of enable members of the Committee “Petroleum prices and electricity Energy & Petroleum. present at the retreat. energy concerned with the prices of Cabinet Secretary Davis Chirchir sector state corporations and petroleum and electricity. explained ERC’s DG.” MPs told T he Energy Commission Regulatory provides balance between the viability needs a ERC attended the alongside state corporations under retreat possible. Another said the energy sector should be Parliament. production and supply otherwise retreat. Cabinet Secretary Davis Chirchir. Hon. point of interest was the price tag left to self regulate as much as for new electricity connections. from Kenya’s model because it is Members of the National Assembly Principal Secretary Joseph Njoroge attractive to investors. Energy News 9 November 2014 . Hon. News ERC regulatory role HIGHLIGHTED at sector-wide meeting with MPs “Kenya’s Power Purchase Agreements among the best worldwide. Committee on Energy. the national grid. the MPs were very Ng’ang’a. Joseph Ng’ang’a told members of the In its presentation. and other Ministry officials were Mr. intervening whenever there Parliamentary Departmental element of electricity prices as is a failure in free market Co m m i tt e e was led by its more geothermal power gets into mechanisms.” Director General Chairperson. of Energy and Petroleum.” enhance the already good production to 5. The a 70% reduction on the fuel cost enabler. better understand ongoing tariffs should reflect the cost of At the end of the day-long developments in the energy sector.

A related law is the intends to import solar panels. The group was sitting for written interviews administered by ERC as part of the application process for Solar Photovoltaic (Solar PV) licenses. Prof.” recalls Despite his accomplishments.” says the Professor. 2012 were on the ERC website. solar water heating contractors.” says Caroline Kimathi of will enable me supervise my ERC’s Renewable Energy Department. engaging in solar PV business to Five interviews for licenses were obtain a license from ERC. Prof. News SOLAR ENERGY LICENSES GROWING IN POPULARITY L ast September. Applicants sub-standard products and untrained licensed. Maringa. He register through the Commission’s technicians. sell or install solar PV solar energy equipment without a valid institutions across Kenya offer systems. Both laws make it a for sale in the country. The lists of licensed solar PV and employees. 2013 had five applicants.erc. distribute. 2012. “This September Maringa is applying for a license as a [2014]. we interviewed over 150 solar PV technician. Today. Professor Maina Maringa sat in a room with close to 200 other people mostly younger than him. solar website (www. a acquire the necessary licenses. courses offered in institutions by solar energy systems because of “Apart from fulfilling the accredited by the National Industrial wrong advice given by unqualified necessary requirements. is required to be. at least a class T2 heating. Anyone interviews.” said Prof.go. distribute. technicians and contractors. people. produce. Caroline Kimathi. criminal offense for anyone to planning to design. Professor Maina Maringa held in 2013 and six scheduled for “I am applying for a Technician T3 2014 to cater for the increased gazetted to protect the public from license to get my solar business number of applicants. customers and employers The Energy (Solar Photovoltaic vendors and technicians are available prefer working with licensed Systems) Regulations. the license Training Authority (NITA). supply or install Approximately 16 tertiary promote. that were already practising need to He is a Chartered Engineer. or have in license. training in solar PV and solar water his after which Energy (Solar Water Heating) lighting equipment and solar heaters they are invited for written and oral Regulations. mechanical engineer and also a “The first interview in March university lecturer. Maringa has over 30 years means that even those professionals experience in the electrical industry. The Energy (Solar people applying for licenses as Photovoltaic Systems) Regulations technicians in solar PV and solar 2012 make it mandatory for anyone water heating.” she says. This Energy News 10 November 2014 . ERC only recognizes training “Customers would get disappointed technician.

Diploma in Electrical and/or Verifiable 4 years solar Electronic and Advanced Solar installation experience. T3: Entitles the holder to carry out solar PV system installation work for advanced projects. V1: Entitles the holder to design. Certificate of Incorporation 2. Training. including grid connected and hybrid systems. BSc Electrical Engineering or One year of solar installation relevant degree or Higher National experience. V2: Entitles the holder to manufacture or import solar PV systems or components. T3 BSc Electrical Engineering or 2 years of solar installation relevant degree or Higher National experience. distribute. in which case the licensee shall be required to be or to have in his employment a class T2 technician. KCSE. Licensing requirements for Solar PV Contractors/Vendors In order to be licensed as a contractor/vendor. Diploma. in which case the licensee shall be required to be. Training. VAT certificate 3. Qualifications and Experience for Solar PV Technician Licenses CATEGORY OF LICENSE Academic Qualifications Experience needed KCPE. or have in his employment a class T2 technician. promote. Valid Tax compliance certificate. installation experience. Training. Energy News 11 November 2014 . KCSE. sell or install solar PV systems. T2: Entitles the holder to carry out solar PV system installation work for medium systems or multiple batteries which may include an inverter. in which case the contractor shall be requested to be or have in his employment a class T3 technician. Certificate in Electrical and/ Verifiable 4 years solar or Electronic and Intermediate Solar installation experience. one must have in his employment a licensed Solar PV systems technician. KCSE. Diploma in Electrical and/or Verifiable 2 years solar T2 Electronic and Intermediate Solar installation experience. in addition to submitting the following documents: 1.Classes of Solar PV Technicians' Licenses T1: Entitles the holder to carry out solar PV system installation work for small systems or single battery DC systems of up to 100Wp (watts peak). Diploma Classes of Solar PV Contractors/Vendors Licenses C1: Entitles the holder to carry out design and installation work for solar PV systems. Electrical Govt Trade Test 2 Verifiable 2 years solar T1 and basic solar training.

26% of The environmental benefits of preferences. Energy consumption could drop Energy consumption is increasing due to economic growth. industrial drastically if subjected to efficiency Environmental impacts development and changing consumer and conservation measures. Most of the energy electricity users in Kenya do not energy efficiency are clear: a consumed worldwide still comes from apply any efficiency conservation reduction in energy consumption that fossil fuels such as oil. Measures of instituting electricity. energy efficiency benefit the the basic energy needs for rural there will necessarily be more national economy in a several ways. with wood fuel providing associated with power generation. account for 22% and 9% respectively preventing energy from From a national stand point. attention focused on energy From the consumer perspective. reduced of national energy consumption. While petroleum and electricity efficiency and conservation. Just about 28% of electricity dioxide and contributes to climate consumers utilize energy saving Current situation in Kenya change. Optimized use of the low. Matters of Energy Energy conservation: Economic gains and environmental benefits A biomass cook stove. appliances to save on energy. E nergy conservation means yield direct savings on energy costs. communities and the urban poor. Energy conservation reduces As governments come under The energy sector is largely increasing pressure to improve the energy costs and improves dominated by petroleum and quality of life while limiting emissions profitability. need to increase generating capacity. wood being wasted through such actions as imports of energy resources have a fuel and other biomass account for turning off lights when not in use and positive effect on national balance of 68%. Kenya faces huge challenges of meeting its energy needs in the drive Outlook Economic factors towards Vision 2030. with just about 18% of energy efficiency. coal and methods as is the case with 50% of lowers the emission of pollutants and natural gas. energy efficiency and conservation Energy News 12 November 2014 . fuel results in emissions of carbon users. country’s power stations defers the households connected to electricity. Access to electricity remains by utilizing technology that improves payments. Consumption of fossil wood fuel users and 27% of charcoal greenhouse gases.

PICTORIAL Fenwicks Musonye (left) of ERC’s Renewable Energy Department. ERC staff at the control room of Gulf Power’s Athi River power station during a tour. assists a candidate during interviews for solar energy licenses in September 2014. Energy News 13 November 2014 . Members of the press (left) at a media briefing with ERC management (right).

With him is PIEA General Manager Wanjiku Manyara (centre) and Total Kenya Managing Director Ada Eze (left). ERC hosted secretarial students from Githunguri who came to get a feel for a modern office. Chairperson of the Petroleum Institute of East Africa (PIEA) Mr. The students had many questions for staff who shared their knowledge with them. Energy News 14 November 2014 . ERC staff listen keenly during Risk Management training held in November 2014. PICTORIAL In October. Polycarp Igathe (right) when the Institute made a courtesy call on ERC in November 2014.

suspend a specific application has been or the Kenya Electricity or revoke licences and permits. enforce and review undertakings. • propose to th e Cabinet • approve electric power both of whom are licensed by the Secretary regulations which purchase and network service Commission to provide transmission may be necessary or expedient contracts for all persons services. liberalised with several licensed tariffs charged for the supply. Electricity generation in Kenya is Commission also approves the retail • enforce and review regulations. whether or not transmission systems owned by KPLC • issue. in coordination with Structure issued to it by the Commission. and investigate The energy is then conveyed over powers to: tariff charges. codes and standards for the electric power producers (see table). made for a tariff adjustment. Matters of Energy ERC’s role in national electricity supply By Engineer Buge Wasioya The Electric Power Market accordance with licences and permits sub-sector. renew. modify. safety • examine and approve meters electrical energy to customers in and quality standards for the used or intended to be used for INSTALLED CAPACITY IN MW AS AT NOVEMBER 2014 Energy News 15 November 2014 . health. KPLC carries out • formulate. sub-sector. it has structures. for the sub-sector. The other statutory authorities. review and adjust electric power purchase agreements (PPAs) regulation of the electric power sub- power tariffs and tariff approved by the Commission. The net electrical energy from Regulation of the Electricity • ensure compliance with the power generating plants is Supply Industry conditions of licenses or bought by the Kenya Power and The Commission is responsible permits. engaging in electric power Finally. distribution and retail supply of the environmental. sector and for this purpose. Lighting Company (KPLC) through for economic and t e c h n ic a l • set. Transmission Company (KETRACO).

Undertaking or Required Applicable • license electricians and register activity Authorisation Regulation electrical contractors. providing documentary proof of contact with the licensee. Energy News 16 November 2014 .000 kW on persons who are in breach of Electrician’s licence Electric Power any of the provisions of the Act Electrical installation and Certificate of (Electrical work at the premises or its regulations. Generation of • investigate complaints or electricity not disputes between parties with None exceeding 1. 2012 appropriate skills to check accuracy of energy meters Generation. commercial or industrial distribution and Licence supply of electrical premises. 2012.000 kW grievances over any matter for own use required to be regulated under the Act.000 Licensing) accreditation of persons with kW Regulations. Full details of how one can file a complaint against a licensee are set out in the Energy (Complaints and Dis- putes Resolution) Regulations. he or she may refer their complaint to the Commission. installed in residential. ascertaining the quantity of Requirement for licence or permit electrical energy. 2006 Resolution of complaints and disputes Any person dissatisfied with any aspect of a service provided by any licensee is advised to lodge a complaint directly with the licensee. energy exceeding • impose sanctions and penalties 3. in accordance with the licensee’s complaints handling procedures. Generation and supply of electrical energy • prescribe the requirements for Permit Energy (Electricity not exceeding 3. registration as an Installation Work) of a customer Electrical Contractor Rules. transmission. If the complainant has exhausted the licensee’s complaints handling procedures and remains unsatisfied.

are smoothened out. • Check that the cylinder is well marked with appropriate safety symbols. To this end. Butane is less outright theft of cylinders from LPG source that could reduce over marketing companies. • Consumers should also know that the only person authorized to fill an LPG cylinder is the person whose brand appears on that cylinder.25 kg which is prices of LPG. The illegal operators liquid starts to boil and gas is evolved get LPG cylinders get from with 1 litre of liquid providing about consumers seeking cylinder refills or 250 litres of gas. compare them with recommended The government has Kenyan consumers need to ensure prices based on a model currently their own safety by buying LPG only acknowledged the importance of LPG being developed. When distribute well-known LPG cylinder this pressure is reduced. ERC cylinders. for example brands without authority from the when the control valve is opened. • Each LPG cylinder should be sealed. storage and filling of for LPG in Kenya is expected to affordable price. consumption rate of 3 kg. wholesale. Compiled by Eliakim R. exports. volatile than propane. • For the safety of consumers. Ng’ang’a. “This will empower from licensed retailers.000 licensing framework that requires environmental sustainability. There are various licenses for below Africa’s average per capita eager to see that LPG is conveniently LPG imports. Matters of Energy LPG Safety and Awareness Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is a gas from different brand owners.” highly flammable liquid which can be says ERC Director General Joseph defined as commercial butane. as an alternative household energy consumers in their choice of cooking The following safety measures are designed to save Kenyan taxpayers from buying substandard LPG products • All LPG dealers should have a licence displayed at their place of business at all times. the Commission is (ERC). ERC has the reach 200. retailers should check the test date on each cylinder making sure it doesn’t exceed 8 years. for example. hence contribute to Kenya is estimated at about 90. key At normal temperatures and among them being the proliferation pressures LPG is a gas but as supplied of illegal LPG operators who fill and it is a liquid under pressure. has not been without challenges. Demand available to the public at an transport. • An official receipt with the cylinder’s serial number and weight should be clearly indicated upon purchase. “Highly Flammable”. • Weigh the filled LPG cylinder to get value for your money.000 metric tonnes after plans to publish the prices of LPG mandate to stop and prosecute challenges in the current supply chain sold by various companies and unlicensed operators. metric tonnes which roughly individuals interested in operating Though ERC currently does not LPG business to obtain licenses from translates to a per capital have a mandate to regulate the the Energy Regulatory Commission consumption of 2. Mwalo Energy News 17 November 2014 . commercial propane or any mixture The increased use of LPG in Kenya of both. the brand owners. dependence on wood fuel and Current annual LPG consumption in The Energy Act 2006 provides a charcoal. On its part.

Not all advice is sincere Energy News 18 November 2014 .. Easy corner Happens every week ..

The warning signs of hyponatremia If you don't get help right away. nausea. that is fine. so if you are drinking more than that. Such cases are isolated and rare as more people tend to be dehydrated rather than having a problem with over-hydration. How much is too much? Symptoms and treatment include diarrhea. But can be hot. Swelling of the cells is serious and if it happens in the brain then immediate treatment should be sought. That’s how to heatstroke and exhaustion. have a headache. the When it’s hot or when exercising. Your health Getting the right amount . and water moves from your blood to inside your cells. It can dilute your blood and cause the concentration of salts to drop to dangerously low levels. Drinking too much water causes an imbalance. The problem comes when you drink too much. it means you are taking in more than your kidneys can handle. and can be fatal. too fast. seizures. Energy News 19 November 2014 .. One of sodium’s jobs is to balance the fluids in and around your cells. look a lot like the symptoms of condition can quickly lead to swelling in drink lots of water. Mwalo thing? spasms. Causes Drinking too much affects the body’s sodium levels. and coma. You may hear it called water intoxication. That's a condition called hyponatremia. keep your body hydrated. experience there be too much of a good loss of energy. muscle weakness and Compiled by Eliakim R. You might the brain. making them swell. Other early symptoms can Drinking a large amount of water within a short time can be dangerous. It's very serious.. The kidneys can only expel about half a liter an hour. You have heard it several times. and vomiting. What is water intoxication? If you drink a bottle of water here and there when you exercise or when you feel hot.

. Technical Officer. policy makers and researchers are encouraged to participate in the production of this newsletter by sending articles. Driver Accountant Petroleum Renewable Energy Joined 3rd November Joined 10th November Joined 3rd November Joined 10th November 2014 2014 2014 2014 Congratulations and welcome to the Energy community! The Renewable Energy Portal The Renewable Energy Portal is an inter agency website aimed at providing investors with a single point of information on requirements for getting into the renewable energy The Energy News Quarterly is published by the Energy Regulatory Commission of Kenya (ERC).go. ERC New Staff HAMID MOHAMMED ROBERT CHIRCHIR ANTONY KIARIE JAMES OCHIENG Technical Officer. photos and news tips. Visit: http://www. Players in the energy industry.renewableenergy. consumers. Contact the editors at ERC Communication and Public Affairs Department (CPA).