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by

Warokoh Ibnu Noval, S.Pd

January 29, 2013

Bernoulli Trials

Definition

A Bernoulli trial is a random experiment in which there are only

two possible outcomes - success and failure.

failure.

Bernoulli Trials

Definition

A Bernoulli trial is a random experiment in which there are only

two possible outcomes - success and failure.

failure.

2 Checking items from a production line: success = not

defective, failure = defective.

Bernoulli Trials

Definition

A Bernoulli trial is a random experiment in which there are only

two possible outcomes - success and failure.

failure.

2 Checking items from a production line: success = not

defective, failure = defective.

3 Phoning a call centre: success = operator free; failure = no

operator free.

Bernoulli Random Variables

P(X = 1) = p

P(X = 0) = 1 p.

random variable are

E (X ) = p

V (X ) = p(1 p).

Binomial Experiments

1 The experiment consists of n repeated Bernoulli trials - each

trial has only two possible outcomes labelled as success and

failure;

Binomial Experiments

1 The experiment consists of n repeated Bernoulli trials - each

trial has only two possible outcomes labelled as success and

failure;

2 The trials are independent - the outcome of any trial has no

effect on the probability of the others;

Binomial Experiments

1 The experiment consists of n repeated Bernoulli trials - each

trial has only two possible outcomes labelled as success and

failure;

2 The trials are independent - the outcome of any trial has no

effect on the probability of the others;

3 The probability of success in each trial is constant which we

denote by p.

The Binomial Distribution

Definition

The random variable X that counts the number of successes, k, in

the n trials is said to have a binomial distribution with parameters

n and p, written bin(k; n, p).

with parameters n and p is

The Binomial Distribution

Definition

The random variable X that counts the number of successes, k, in

the n trials is said to have a binomial distribution with parameters

n and p, written bin(k; n, p).

with parameters n and p is

n k

f (k) = P(X = k) = p (1 p)nk

k

for k = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , n.

The Binomial Distribution

Definition

The random variable X that counts the number of successes, k, in

the n trials is said to have a binomial distribution with parameters

n and p, written bin(k; n, p).

with parameters n and p is

n k

f (k) = P(X = k) = p (1 p)nk

k

for k = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , n.

n

k counts the number of outcomes that include exactly k

successes and n k failures.

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

A biased coin is tossed 6 times. The probability of heads on any

toss is 0.3. Let X denote the number of heads that come up.

Calculate:

(i) P(X = 2)

(ii) P(X = 3)

(iii) P(1 < X 5).

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

(i) If we call heads a success then this X has a binomial

distribution with parameters n = 6 and p = 0.3.

6

P(X = 2) = (0.3)2 (0.7)4 = 0.324135

2

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

(i) If we call heads a success then this X has a binomial

distribution with parameters n = 6 and p = 0.3.

6

P(X = 2) = (0.3)2 (0.7)4 = 0.324135

2

(ii)

6

P(X = 3) = (0.3)3 (0.7)3 = 0.18522.

3

(iii) We need P(1 < X 5)

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

(i) If we call heads a success then this X has a binomial

distribution with parameters n = 6 and p = 0.3.

6

P(X = 2) = (0.3)2 (0.7)4 = 0.324135

2

(ii)

6

P(X = 3) = (0.3)3 (0.7)3 = 0.18522.

3

(iii) We need P(1 < X 5)

= 0.324 + 0.185 + 0.059 + 0.01

= 0.578

Binomial Distribution - Example

Example

A quality control engineer is in charge of testing whether or not

90% of the DVD players produced by his company conform to

specifications. To do this, the engineer randomly selects a batch of

12 DVD players from each days production. The days production

is acceptable provided no more than 1 DVD player fails to meet

specifications. Otherwise, the entire days production has to be

tested.

(i) What is the probability that the engineer incorrectly passes a

days production as acceptable if only 80% of the days DVD

players actually conform to specification?

(ii) What is the probability that the engineer unnecessarily

requires the entire days production to be tested if in fact 90%

of the DVD players conform to specifications?

Example

Example

(i) Let X denote the number of DVD players in the sample that

fail to meet specifications. In part (i) we want P(X 1) with

binomial parameters n = 12, p = 0.2.

12 0 12 12

= (0.2) (0.8) + (0.2)1 (0.8)11

0 1

= 0.069 + 0.206 = 0.275

Example

Example

(ii) We now want P(X > 1) with parameters n = 12, p = 0.1.

12 0 12 12

= (0.1) (0.9) + (0.1)1 (0.9)11

0 1

= 0.659

Binomial Distribution - Mean and Variance

parameters n and p is a sum of n independent Bernoulli

random variables in which the probability of success is p.

X = X1 + X2 + + Xn .

Binomial Distribution - Mean and Variance

parameters n and p is a sum of n independent Bernoulli

random variables in which the probability of success is p.

X = X1 + X2 + + Xn .

Binomial Distribution - Mean and Variance

parameters n and p is a sum of n independent Bernoulli

random variables in which the probability of success is p.

X = X1 + X2 + + Xn .

the Xi are independent)

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

Bits are sent over a communications channel in packets of 12. If

the probability of a bit being corrupted over this channel is 0.1 and

such errors are independent, what is the probability that no more

than 2 bits in a packet are corrupted?

If 6 packets are sent over the channel, what is the probability that

at least one packet will contain 3 or more corrupted bits?

Let X denote the number of packets containing 3 or more

corrupted bits. What is the probability that X will exceed its mean

by more than 2 standard deviations?

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

Let C denote the number of corrupted bits in a packet. Then in

the first question, we want

P(C 2) = P(C = 0) + P(C = 1) + P(C = 2).

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

Let C denote the number of corrupted bits in a packet. Then in

the first question, we want

P(C 2) = P(C = 0) + P(C = 1) + P(C = 2).

12

P(C = 0) = (0.1)0 (0.9)12 = 0.282

0

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

Let C denote the number of corrupted bits in a packet. Then in

the first question, we want

P(C 2) = P(C = 0) + P(C = 1) + P(C = 2).

12

P(C = 0) = (0.1)0 (0.9)12 = 0.282

0

12

P(C = 1) = (0.1)1 (0.9)11 = 0.377

1

12

P(C = 2) = (0.1)2 (0.9)10 = 0.23

2

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

Let C denote the number of corrupted bits in a packet. Then in

the first question, we want

P(C 2) = P(C = 0) + P(C = 1) + P(C = 2).

12

P(C = 0) = (0.1)0 (0.9)12 = 0.282

0

12

P(C = 1) = (0.1)1 (0.9)11 = 0.377

1

12

P(C = 2) = (0.1)2 (0.9)10 = 0.23

2

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

The probability of a packet containing 3 or more corrupted bits is

1 0.889 = 0.111.

Let X be the number of packets containing 3 or more corrupted

bits. X can be modelled with a binomial distribution with

parameters n = 6, p = 0.111. The probability that at least one

packet will contain 3 or more corrupted bits is:

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

The probability of a packet containing 3 or more corrupted bits is

1 0.889 = 0.111.

Let X be the number of packets containing 3 or more corrupted

bits. X can be modelled with a binomial distribution with

parameters n = 6, p = 0.111. The probability that at least one

packet will contain 3 or more corrupted bits is:

6

1 P(X = 0) = 1 (0.111)0 (0.889)6 = 0.494.

0

Binomial Distribution - Examples

Example

The probability of a packet containing 3 or more corrupted bits is

1 0.889 = 0.111.

Let X be the number of packets containing 3 or more corrupted

bits. X can be modelled with a binomial distribution with

parameters n = 6, p = 0.111. The probability that at least one

packet will contain 3 or more corrupted bits is:

6

1 P(X = 0) = 1 (0.111)0 (0.889)6 = 0.494.

0

The mean

p of X is = 6(0.111) = 0.666 and its standard deviation

is = 6(0.111)(0.889) = 0.77.

Binomial Distribution - Examples

standard deviations is P(X > 2) = P(X > 2.2).

As X is discrete, this is equal to

Binomial Distribution - Examples

standard deviations is P(X > 2) = P(X > 2.2).

As X is discrete, this is equal to

P(X 3)

Binomial Distribution - Examples

standard deviations is P(X > 2) = P(X > 2.2).

As X is discrete, this is equal to

P(X 3)

6

P(X = 1) = (0.111)1 (0.889)5 = 0.37

1

6

P(X = 2) = (0.111)2 (0.889)4 = 0.115.

2

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