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Statistical Method

Jakarta, 29-30 March,2016


Speaker: Heru Purnomo

1
Module Outline

PART 1: Introduction
PART 2: Capability Studies
PART 3: Cp, Cpk and Six Sigma
PART 4: Use of Capability Studies
PART 5: Technical Considerations
PART 6: Control Charts
PART 7: Use of control chart
PART 8: Overview of Statistic Application
PART 1:

Introduction
What is Statistical Process Control?

A tool that allows us to manufacture products per our customers


requirements on a consistent basis. This is achieved by preventing
defects at each stage of the manufacturing process.

By itself will not insure our products, processes and services meet our
customers expectation. Therefore, we assume that all initial work has
been done to meet those requirements such as:
Establishment of specification
Process Characterization
Standards and SOPs
Validation
Training
Where should we use SPC?

Use as a Method for Preventing Defects

Use With the Assumptions that Requirements Have


Already Been Established:
Customer
Process
Product
So, how do we prevent defects, and build products,
processes and provide services with consistently good
quality?

To answer this question, we will use a hypothetical filling


operation to illustrate various methods of preventing defects.
How Does One Prevent Defects?

?
Two Possible Causes

Cap Fell Off Due


to Low Cap Never Put
Removal Force Onto Vial
CAP NEVER PLACED ONTO VIAL

This is an Error in the form of an Omission.

Errors are Prevented by Mistake Proofing.

Mistake Proofing means ensuring that the defects either


cannot occur or cannot go undetected.

Reference
Shingo, Shigeo (1986). Zero Quality Control: Source Inspection and the Poka-yoke System. Productivity
Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Low Removal Forces

Removal Force is Affected by Many Factors.

Having low removal forces is an Optimization (Targeting) and Variation


Reduction problem.

Low removal forces are prevented by identifying and controlling the key
inputs and establishing proper targets and tolerances.

Reference
Taylor, Wayne A. (1991). Optimization and Variation Reduction I Quality. McGraw-Hill, New York and
ASQC Quality Press, Milwaukee.
Optimization & Variation Reduction
(O.V.R)
Target

Lower Upper
Spec Spec
Limit Limit
Typical O.V.R Problems
Larger the Better
Lower
Spec
Limit

Target
Smaller the Better Upper
Spec
Limit
microbial level
particulate level
contamination level

Closer to the target the Better

Target
Lower Upper
Vial fill volume Spec Spec
Potency, Assay Limit Limit
Two Approaches to Preventing
Defects

Mistake Proofing

Optimization and Variation Reduction


Reducing Variation

If I had to reduce my message for management to


just a few words, Id say it all had to do with
reducing variation.

W. Edward Deming
Tools for SPC

SPC provides two tools for reducing variation:


1) Control Charts
2) Capability Study

The primary tool for managing variation is the capability


study.

An effective program for reducing variation must also


incorporate many other tools including:
Design Experiments
Variation Decomposition Methods
Taguchis Methods
Statistical Variation
The differences, no matter how small, between ideally identical units
of product.

2.3 ml

DIFFERENCES

0.9 ml 1.4 ml
Displaying Variation

Histogram of Removal Force of the cap cover of Sterile Injection

5
Number Measured

0
21.6 22.4 23.2 24.0
Cap Removal Force in PSI
The Bell-Shaped Curve
Normal
Curve

21.6 22.4 23.2 24.0

We use the Normal Curve to Model systems having expected outcomes or goals.
The Standard Normal Curve
Contains an Area equal to One
Corresponds to 100% of ALL possible Outcomes in a Stable System.
Has a Mean = 0, and SD = 1

Total Area = 1

-3 -2 -1 1 2 3
Standard Deviations from the Mean
A STABLE PROCESS
Total
Variation

Slide 20
AN UNSTABLE PROCESS
Total
Variation

Slide 21
A CAPABLE PROCESS
CAPABLE

Spec
Limits

NOT
CAPABLE

Slide 22
Objective of SPC
To consistently produce high quality
products by achieving stable and
capable processes.

Slide 23
WHY
REDUCE
VARIATION?

Slide 24
Reducing Variation Reduces Defects

Lower Upper Lower Upper


Spec Spec Spec Spec
Limit Limit Limit Limit

GOOD GOOD
PRODUCT PRODUCT

Defective Product No Defective Product

Slide 25
Reducing Variation Widens
Operating Windows

Lower Upper Lower Upper


Spec Spec Spec Spec
Limit Limit Limit Limit

Initial Operating Window Wider Operating Window

Slide 26
Reducing Variation Improves
Customer Value
Target Upper
Lower
$20 Spec
Spec
Limit Limit

L
O GOOD Bad
Bad
S $10 PRODUCT Product
Product
S

$0 Taguc
his
Target
Lower Loss
$20 Upper
Spec
Spec
Limit
Limit

L
O
S $10

S Loss equals value

$0

Slide 27
Better Management
Provides facts on process performance to allow:
Prioritized improvement projects
Tracking progress
Demonstrating results
Provides data on process capability required in
product design.
Better management of suppliers.

Slide 28
Maximize Process Capability
Replace existing equipment only if necessary.
Improve capability make new product feasible.

Slide 29
Benefits of SPC
Fewer Defects
Wider Operating Windows
Higher Customer Value
Better Management
Maximize Process Capability

Slide 30
PART 2:
Capability Studies

Slide 31
Variation Reduction Tools

There are many tools that help to achieve


stable and capable processes:
Scatter Diagrams
Screening Experiments
Multi-Vari Charts
Analysis of Means (ANOM)
Response Surface Studies
Variation Transmission Analysis
Component Swapping Studies
Taguchi Methods
Control Charts & Capability Studies

Slide 32
Capability Study
Determines if a Process or System is Stable and
Capable i.e., can it consistently make good product.
Can Measures the Progress and Success achieved
after changes or improvement
Pre-Capability
Study

Variation
Reduction Tool

Post Capability
Study

Slide 33
Capability Study
Process capability measures statistically summarize
how much variation there is in a process relative to
costumer specifications.

Too much variation Hard to produce output within Low index value
costumer requirement (e.g. Cpk < 0.5)
(specification) (Process sigma between 0 and 2)

Moderate Variation Most output meets costumer Middle index value


requirement (Cpk between 0.5 and 1.2)
(Process sigma between 3 and 5)

Very little variation Virtually all of output meets High index value
costumer requirements (Cpk > 1.5)
(Process sigma 6 or better)

Slide 34
Short-Term vs Long Term Sigma
Long-Term Sigma
This is the variation is due to both common and special
causes. This variation is calculated based on all of
individual readings (population). Used for Pp and Ppk
calculations

Short-Term Sigma
This variation is due to common causes only. This
variation is estimated from the control chart data. Used for
Cp and Cpk calculations

35
Cp and Cpk vs. Pp and Ppk
These metrics are calculated the same way, but they
use a different way to estimate standard deviation
Cp and Cpk are considered short-term measures
R
The estimated StDev (Within) is average of d 2 for
each subgroup
Pp and Ppk are considered long-term measures
The estimated StDev (Overall) is calculated using
the standard deviation (n-1) for all the data set
points
The conservative approach is to report whichever set of statistics is
smaller. Typical data sets are usually too small to be able say with
certainty that one metric is better than the other.

36
Process Capability Ratio Cp (Cont.)
Allowed variation (spec .) USL - LSL
Cp = or Cp =
Normal variation of the process 6
Where is within
rather than pooled
99.73% of values

-3 +3

Process Width

LSL T USL

37
Subgroup Measured Values Average Std. Dev.
1 52.0 52.1 53.0 52.3 51.7 52.22 1.3
2 51.7 51.5 52.0 51.7 51.3 51.64 0.7
3 51.7 52.2 51.9 52.6 52.5 52.18 0.9
4 51.3 52.2 51.8 52.5 51.4 51.84 1.2
5 50.8 50.9 51.7 51.8 51.4 51.32 1.0
6 52.6 51.4 52.9 52.6 52.4 52.38 1.5
7 53.0 52.9 52.5 52.5 51.8 52.54 1.2
8 52.5 52.7 51.2 53.7 51.3 52.28 2.5
9 51.9 51.6 51.6 52.7 51.7 51.90 1.1
10 52.2 52.7 52.3 51.8 53.2 52.44 1.4
11 52.4 52.6 52.1 51.8 51.9 52.16 0.8
12 51.3 51.2 51.9 53.1 52.9 52.08 1.9
13 51.7 51.6 51.4 51.4 51.1 51.44 0.6
14 51.8 51.0 52.4 51.2 51.6 51.60 1.4
15 52.0 51.7 52.6 51.8 52.7 52.16 1.0
16 52.0 52.3 51.8 52.0 51.5 51.92 0.8
17 51.8 51.8 51.8 51.9 52.0 51.86 0.2
18 52.0 51.9 51.4 51.8 53.3 52.08 1.9
19 51.5 52.6 52.8 52.4 52.0 52.26 1.3
20 51.5 51.8 50.8 51.3 52.5 51.58 1.7
51.99 1.22

38
Is the process Stable?
Control Chart for Average and Range
53.0 UCL=53.043

52.5
Individual Value

_
52.0 X=51.994

51.5

51.0 LCL=50.945
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Observation

UCL=1.289
1.2

0.9
Moving Range

0.6
__
MR=0.394
0.3

0.0 LCL=0
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21
Observation

Slide 39
Is the process Capable?
Histogram of H1

20
LS US
L L
15
Frequency

10

0
50 51 52 53 54 55
H1

Potential
Capability Cp = 1.55

Actual
Capability Cpk = 1.23

Slide 40
Calculating the Grand Average
If 1,2, ,20 are the subgroup averages, the
grand average is:
X = 1+2+ +20 Grand
Average

20

e
m
Ti

Slide 41
Calculating the Average Range
If R1,R2, ,R20 are the subgroup ranges, the
average range is:
R = R1+R2+ +R20
20
Estimates the average within the subgroup
variation.

Slide 42
Between and Within Subgroup Variation

Total
Variation

Between Subgroup
Variation
Within Subgroup
Variation

Other names for within subgroup variation:


Noise
Unexplained
Inherent
Error

Slide 43
Process Capability Ratio Cp
Ratio of total variation allowed by the specification to the total
variation actually measured from the process
Use Cp when the mean can easily be adjusted (i.e., plating,
grinding, polishing, machining operations, and many
transactional processes where resources can easily be added
with no/minor impact on quality) AND the mean is monitored
(so operator will know when adjustment is necessary doing
control charting is one way of monitoring)
Typical goals for Cp are greater than 1.33 (or 1.67 if of
considerable importance)

If Cp < 1 then the variability of the process


is greater than the specification limits.

44
Different Levels of Cp
LSL USL
The Cp index reflects the
Cp = 1
potential of the process if
the mean were perfectly
centered between the
specification limits.

Cp > 1 The larger the Cp index, the better!

USL LSL
Cp =
6

For a Six Sigma Process,


Cp < 1
Cp = 2

45
Process Capability Ratio Cpk
This index accounts for the dynamic mean shift in the
process the amount that the process is off target.

USL x x LSL
C pk = Min or Where is within
3 3 rather than pooled

Calculate both values and report the smaller number.

Notice how this equation is similar to the Z-statistic.

46
Process Capability Ratio Cpk (Cont.)
Ratio of the distance to the closest spec to of the estimated process variation
Use when the mean cannot be easily adjusted (i.e., stamping, casting,
plastics molding)
Typical goals for Cpk are greater than 1.33 (or 1.67 if of considerable
importance)
For sigma estimates use:
R/d2 [short term] (calculated from X-bar and R chart) use with Cpk

s = (xi -x) 2 [ longer term] (calculated from (n-1) data points) use
with Ppk
n-1
Longer term: When the data has been collected over a sufficient time period
that over 80% of the process variation is likely to be included

47
Actual Process Performance (Cpk)
Unlike the Cp index, the Cpk index takes into account off-centering of the
process. The larger the Cpk index, the better.

LSL USL LSL USL

6 6

Cp = 1 Cp = 1
Cpk = 1 Cpk < 1

48
Calculating Cp, Cpk and Pp, Ppk
How did Minitab calculate these values?
Process Capability Analysis for Supp1
LSL USL
Process Data
USL 602.000
Within
Target *
LSL 598.000 Overall
Mean 599.548
Sample N 100
StDev (Within) 0.576429
StDev (Overall) 0.620865

Potential (Within) Capability Cp and Cpk values are calculated based on estimated
Cp
CPU
1.16
1.42
StDev(Within).
CPL
Cpk
0.90
0.90
The minimum of CPU (capability with respect to USL) and
Cpm *
CPL
598 (capability 599 with respect
600 to LSL) 601 is the Cpk 602.

Overall Capability
IfObserved
a target is entered,
Performance
then Cpm, Taguchis
Exp. "Within" Performance
capability index,
Exp. "Overall" Performance
Pp 1.07 is <also
PPM LSL calculated.
10000.00 PPM < LSL 3621.06 PPM < LSL 6328.16
PPU 1.32 PPM > USL 0.00 PPM > USL 10.51 PPM > USL 39.19
PPL 0.83 Cp and Cpk values are considered to be short term.
PPM Total 10000.00 PPM Total 3631.57 PPM Total 6367.35
Ppk 0.83

49
Cp, Cpk vs. Pp, Ppk
How did Minitab calculate these values?
If the Cp and Pp values are significantly different this is an
Process Capability Analysis for Supp1
Process Data
indication
LSL of an out of control process. USL
USL 602.000
Within
Target *
LSL 598.000 Overall
Mean 599.548
Sample N 100
StDev (Within) 0.576429
StDev (Overall) 0.620865

Potential (Within) Capability


Cp 1.16
CPU 1.42

Pp and Ppk values are calculated based on estimated


CPL 0.90
Cpk 0.90

Cpm *
StDev(Overall).
598 599 600 601 602

Overall Capability The


Observedminimum
Performance of Ppu
Exp. (capability
"Within" Performance with Exp. respect to USL) and
"Overall" Performance
Pp
PPU
1.07
1.32
P pl (capability
PPM < LSL
PPM > USL
10000.00
0.00
with respect
PPM < LSL
PPM > USL
to LSL)
3621.06
10.51
is the
PPM < LSL
PPM > USL
P pk . 6328.16
39.19
PPL
Ppk
0.83
0.83
Pp and Ppk values are considered to be longer term.
PPM Total 10000.00 PPM Total 3631.57 PPM Total 6367.35

50
PART 3:
Cp, Cpk and Six Sigma

Slide 51
Process Should be Stable before Checking Capability

UCL

LCL

NOT a Stable Process


UCL

LCL

A Stable Process
Slide 52
Stable Process are Predictable!
Distance from Average
Percentage out of Spec.
(d)

LSL -5.0 0.3/million


d
-4.5 3.4/million
Individuals
Distribution -4.0 31/million
Percent out of
Spec -3.5 233/million

-3.0 0.135%

-2.5 0.6%

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -2.0 2.3%

-1.5 6.7%

-1.0 15.8%

-0.5 30.9%

0.0 50%

Slide 53
Cp
Compares the Specification Range to
the Width of the Process, (3 each
side of the mean):
Cp = USL-LSL
6S
USL

Cp = 0.5
Cp = 1 Cp = 1.5
Cp = 2

Cp Does Not Consider Centering LSL

Slide 54
Cp = 1
1.5
LSL USL

6.75%
Defective

-3 3
3 Sigma Process

Allows a 1.5 operating window, worse case


is 6.7% defective.

Slide 55
Cp = 1.5
1.5
LSL USL

1350
Defects/Million

-4.5 4.5
4.5 Sigma Process

Allows a 1.5 operating window, worse case


is 1350 defects per million.

Slide 56
Cp = 2.0
1.5
LSL USL

3.4
Defects/Million

-6 6
6 Sigma Process

Allows a 1.5 operating window, worse case


is 3.4 defects per million.

Slide 57
What has Changed?
1.5
LSL USL

3 Sigma Process

-3 3
1.5
LSL USL

4.5 Sigma Process

-4.5 4.5
1.5
LSL USL

6 Sigma Process

-6 6

Slide 58
Operating Windows
Dont forget to include them in your
process design.
Stable process can hold a 1.5 operating
window.
Automated processes may be able to hold
a 1.0 operating window.
If a process is not stable, a 1.5 window
may not be enough room for the average.
Why?
UCL, LCL = X 3/n
When, n = 5
then,
3/n = 3/5 = 1.34

Slide 59
Cp Does Not Consider Centering

Cp = 2
LSL USL

-6 6

Slide 60
Determine Cpk
Distance from X to the nearest Spec
Cpk =
3S

X
LSL

3S

Average - LSL

Slide 61
Cpk = 1
USL

Cp = 1

LSL

Slide 62
Cpk = 2
USL

Cp = 2

LSL

Slide 63
Cpk When Cp = 2

USL
Cpk = 1/2
Cpk = 1
Cpk = 1.5
Cpk = 2.0
Cpk = 1.5
Cpk = 1
Cpk = 1/2

LSL
Fix the variability, then move the average

When the process is perfectly centered,


Cpk = Cp.

Slide 64
Interpreting Cpk
Table below gives the corresponding defect level of
various Cpks with Cp = 2.0:

Cpk Defect Level

1.5 3.4 dpm

1.167 233 dpm

1 1350 dpm

0.83 0.6%

0.5 6.7%

Slide 65
PART 4:
Use of Capability Studies

Slide 66
Uses of Capability Study
Identifying processes needing improvement.
Tracking process performance.
Verifying the effectiveness of fixes.
Determining the ability of suppliers to consistently make
good product.
Qualifying new equipment.
Determining the manufacturability of new product.

Slide 67
Identifying Processes Needing Improvement
Unstable processes of processes with poor Cps and/or
Cpks are target for improvements.
If the process is unstable it is a good candidate for control
chart.
If the process is stable, but not capable, one should first
look for obvious sources of variation.
If no obvious sources exist, then you should perform
designed experiments to uncover them.

Slide 68
Verifying Effectiveness of Fixes
Use a capability study to demonstrate the
effectiveness of fixes.
New estimates of Cp and Cpk should be at least
15% greater than the pre-fix estimates.
True changes are unlikely when pre and post
capability estimates are within 15% of each
other.

Slide 69
Assessing the performance of Suppliers
Materials and components from our suppliers make up one
or more inputs in our manufacturing process.
Our final quality is only as good as our suppliers quality.
All suppliers need to provide good product on a consistent
basis.
Consistency requires a stable process of manufacturing.
If the process is not stable, the products produced will not
be stable in quality.
Stability can only be assessed by looking at time ordered
samples.
Slide 70
Qualifying New Equipment
Want to demonstrate the equipment can
consistently make good products.
Should use a capability study to demonstrate
consistency.
Consider requesting a capability study when
purchasing a new equipment.

Slide 71
Determining the Manufacturability of New
Product
Capability studies measure the match between
product specifications and process variation.
A process may be capable of manufacturing one
product, but not another.
For new products, use capability studies to
determine how well the product design adapts to
the manufacturing process.
Slide 72
PART 5:
Technical Considerations

Slide 73
The Normality Assumption
Common Misconception:
The data has to be normally distributed to be
control charted

Control charts work well even when the data are not
normally distributed.
The normality assumption was originally introduced from the
control chart constants, i.e. d2, A2, D4, etc,
Even the control chart constants do not change appreciably
when the data are non-normal*.

Slide 74
Why 3 Standard Deviation Limits?
Not established solely on the basis of probability theory.
Outcomes in most stable processes generally occur
between 3 S.D.s from the average.
Originally designed to minimize the time looking
unnecessarily for shifts in the process average.
Additionally concerned with missing an actual process shift
as it occurs.

Slide 75
Rational Sub grouping
Organizing the data into rational subgroups allows
us to answer the right questions.
The variation occurring within the subgroups is
used to set the control limits.
The control chart uses the within subgroup
variation to place limits on how much variation
should naturally exist between subgroups.

Slide 76
Rational Sub grouping
Some Guidelines:
Try not to place unlike things together into the same
subgroups.
Organize in a way that produces the lowest variation within
each subgroup.
Maximize the opportunity to observe the variation between
subgroups.

Slide 77
PART 6:
Use of Control Charts

Slide 78
Control Charts
Control charts are one of the most commonly
used tools in our Lean Six Sigma toolbox
Control charts provide a graphical picture of the
process over time
Control charts are both practical and easy-to-use
Control charts help us establish a measurement
baseline from which to measure improvements

79
What Do Control Charts Tell Us?
When the process location has shifted
When process variability has changed
When special causes are present
Process not predictable
A learning opportunity
When no special causes are present
Process is predictable
No clues to improvement available; may need to
introduce a special cause to effect a change
Control charts tell you when, not why

80
Why Use a Control Chart?
Statistical control limits are another way to separate common cause and
special cause variation
Points outside statistical limits signal a special cause
Can be used for almost any type of data collected over time
Provides a common language for discussing process performance

When To Use:
Track performance over time
Evaluate progress after process changes/improvements
Focus attention on process behaviour
Separate signals from noise

81
Control Chart Selection
Control chart selection should be based
upon:
Data type
Number of observations
Sample size
Subgrouping
The primary determinant in control chart
selection is Data Type

82
Data Types
There are many different types of data
Each type of data has its own unique control chart
The basic format and underlying concepts are the same
across the entire family of control charts
A basic understanding of the different data types is
important to increase the successful use of control charts
How many different types of data are there?

83
Two General Kinds of Data
Attribute The data is discrete (counted).
Results from using go/no-go gages, or from the
inspection of visual defects, visual problems,
missing parts, or from pass/fail or yes/no
decisions
Variable The data is continuous (measured).
Results from the actual measuring of a
characteristic such as diameter of a hose,
electrical resistance, weight of a vehicle, etc.

84
Continuous Data
Continuous data is a set of numbers that can potentially take on any
value
Also known as variable data
Examples: 0.1, 1/4, 20, 100.001, 1,000,000, -3.26, -10,000
Common Applications
Dimensions (lengths, widths, weight, etc)
Time (seconds, minutes, hours, etc)
Finance (mills, cents, dollars, etc)
Distribution Types
Normal
Uniform
Exponential
Because continuous data has more discrimination, go for continuous
data whenever possible

85
Control Charts for Individual Values
Time ordered plot of results (just like time plots)
Statistically determined control limits are drawn on the plot.
Centerline calculation uses the mean

53.0 UCL=53.043
LCL= X + 2.66mR

52.5
Centerline = X
52.0 Avg=51.99

UCL= X + 2.66mR
51.5

51.0
LCL=50.945

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Index

86
Attribute Data
Attribute data has two main subsets, Binary data and Discrete
Data
Binary Data is a characterized by classifying into only two
outcomes
Examples: Pass/Fail, Agree/Disagree, Win/Loss,
defective/conforming
Common uses: Proportions and ratios
Distribution: Binomial
Key assumptions
Events are independent of each other
Mutually exclusive outcomes
Number of trials and outcomes of each trial is known

87
Attribute Data (Cont.)
Discrete Data is a set of finite outcomes, usually
integers, and is measured by counting
Also known as Ordinal data
Common uses and examples:
Number of product defects per item
Number of customer requirements per order
Number of accounting errors per invoice
Distribution: Poisson
Poisson characteristics and assumptions
Unlimited number of defects per item
Constant probability of defect per item
Probability of defect per unit is low
Defects are independent of each other

88
Control Chart Selection Tree
TYPE OF DATA

Count or Classification Measurement


(Attribute Data) (Variable Data)

Count Classification

Defects or Defectives or
Nonconformance Nonconforming Units

Fixed Variable Fixed Variable Subgroup Subgroup Subgroup


Opportunity Opportunity Opportunity Opportunity Size of 1 Size < 9 Size > 9

C Chart U Chart NP Chart P Chart I -m R X-bar R X-bar S


PoissonDistribution
Poisson Distribution BinomialDistribution
Binomial Distribution Normal
Normal Distribution
Distribution

89
Individuals and Moving Range
Charts
Display variables data when the sample subgroup size is
one (And in certain situations, attribute data)
Variability shown as the difference between each data
point (i.e., moving range)
Appropriate Usage Situations:
When there are very few units produced relative to the opportunity for process
variables (sources of variation) to change
When there is little choice due to data scarcity
When a process drifts over time and needs to be monitored

I-mR is a good chart to start with when evaluating


continuous data
90
Calculations for Individuals Charts
1. Determine sampling plan
2. Take a sample at each specified interval of time
3. Calculate the moving range for the sample. To calculate each moving
range, subtract each measurement from the previous one. There will be
no moving range for the first observation on the chart
4. Plot the data (both individuals and moving range)
5. After 30' or more sets of measurements, calculate control limits for moving
range chart
6. If the Range chart is not in control, take appropriate action
7. If the Range chart is in control, calculate limits for individuals chart
8. If the Individuals chart is not in control, take appropriate action

91
Why Use Subgroups?

It allows us to examine both within


sample variation and between sample
variation

92
X-Bar & R Chart
The X-bar & R chart is the most commonly used control chart due to its use of
subgroups and the fact that it is more sensitive than the ImR to process shift
Consists of two charts displaying Central Tendency and Variability
X-bar Chart
Plots the mean (average value) of each
subgroup
Useful for identifying special cause changes
to the process mean (X)
X-bar control limits based on +/- 3 sigma
from the process mean are calculated
using the Range chart
R Chart
Displays changes in the "within" subgroup dispersion of the process
Checks for constant variation within subgroups

93
Calculations for X-Bar & R Charts
1. Determine an appropriate subgroup size and sampling plan
2. Sample: (Take a set of readings at each specified interval of time)
3. Calculate the average and range for each subgroup
4. Plot the data. (Both the averages and the ranges)
5. After 30' or more sets of measurements, calculate control limits for the
range chart
6. If the range chart is not in control, take appropriate action
7. If the range chart is in control, calculate control limits for the X-bar chart
8. If the X-bar chart is not in control, take appropriate action

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Rational Subgrouping
An important consideration in using the X-bar & R (and X-bar & S) chart
is the selection of an appropriate subgroup size
Rational Subgrouping is the process of selecting a subgroup based
upon logical grouping criteria or statistical considerations
Subgrouping Examples
Natural Breakpoints:
3 shifts grouped into 1 day;
5 days grouped into 1 week,
10 machines grouped into 1 dept
Wherever possible, both natural breakpoints and homogenous group
considerations should be combined together in selecting a sample size

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Attribute Control Charts
Attribute control charts are similar to variables
control charts, except they plot proportion or count
data rather than variable measurements
Attribute control charts have only one chart which
tracks proportion or count stability over time
Chart Types
Binomial: P chart, NP chart
Poisson: C chart, U chart

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Attribute Control Charts
Binomial Distribution Charts
Use one of the following charts when comparing a product to a
standard and classifying it as being defective or not (pass vs. fail):
P Chart Charts the proportion of defectives in each subgroup
NP Chart Charts the number of defectives in each subgroup

Poisson Distribution Charts


Use one of the following chart when counting the number of defects
per sample or per unit
C Chart Charts the defect count per sample (must have the same
sample size each time)
U Chart Charts the number of defects per unit sampled in each
subgroup (using a proportion so sample size may vary)

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PART 7:
Use of Control Charts

Slide 98
Uses of Control Charts

Evaluation

Improvement

Maintenance

Slide 99
Uses of Control Charts

Evaluation: Determine if the process is both stable


and capable, as part of a capability study.

Improvement

Maintenance

Slide 100
Uses of Control Charts

Evaluation

Improvement: Identify changes to the process so


that the causes may be investigated and
eliminated.

Maintenance

Slide 101
Improvement
Control Charts search for differences over time.
Observing a change on the control charts means a key
input variable has changed.
The pattern observed on the control chart provides clues
about the key variable that changed:
Timing of the change
Shape or pattern
Trends
Jumps or shifts

Slide 102
Maintenance
Control charts can help us to decide when to make
adjustments to the process.
Using control charts we can make better decisions, and
minimize the chance of making two possible errors:.
20% - Failing to adjust when the process needs adjustments
80% - adjusting when the process does not need adjustment

When maintaining processes using control charts, try to


center the average around the desired target.

Slide 103
Statistical Step to Establish Control Limit
1. Collect the data 30 or more
2. Prepare Individual moving range chart (I-MR) using appropriate
statistical software
3. Review the moving range chart, if any data point beyond are beyond
the UCL, the data the data point must be evaluated and excluded if
there is an assignable cause, then replot the moving range chart.
4. Review the individual chart, if any data point beyond are beyond the
UCL and LCL, the data the data point must be evaluated and excluded
if there is an assignable cause, then replot the individual chart.

Slide 104
Real Time Evaluation
Rule 1 The data outside of control limit: One point of outside the
control limit

56

55

54

53 UCL=53.043

52 Avg=51.99

51 LCL=50.945

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
Index

105
Real Time Evaluation
Rule 2 Trend Shift: 8 consecutive point on same side of center line

UCL=53.043
53.0

52.5

52.0 Avg=51.99

51.5

51.0
LCL=50.945

3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27
Index

106
Real Time Evaluation
Rule 3 Trend drift: 6 consecutive points that trend in the same
direction (all increasing or all decreasing)

53.0 UCL=53.043

52.5

52.0 Avg=51.99

51.5

51.0
LCL=50.945

3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24
Index

107
PART 8:
Minitab Exercise

Slide 108
Opening a new project in Minitab

Menu bar

Toolbars
Session
window

Data window
Project
Manager
window
(minimized)

109
Overview of Minitab
Worksheet
Each Minitab worksheet can contain up to 4,000
columns, each column is identified by a number
The letter after the column number indicates the
data type:
D : date / time
T : text (alphanumeric)

If no letter appears, the data are numeric

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Example 1

Problem
Supervisor of medical company is preparing a sales report for a
new line of facial cream that the company intends to distribute
nationally. In a pilot launch, the company sold facial cream at
various stores in Jakarta and Bandung for three months.

Data Collection
The supervisor recorded the daily revenue for two locations
during the three months and stored them in minitab project

111
Example 1

Tools
Dotplot
Time Series Plot
Graphical Summary
Display Descriptive Statistics
Layout Tools

112
Open Project
1. Choose File > Open project
2. Choose ISPE_Example 1.MPJ.
3. Click open.

113
Creating Dotplots
Choose Graph > Dotplot
Complete the dialog as shown below, then click OK

In graph variable, enter Jakarta Sales and Bandung Sales


by highlighting them and double clicking each variable, then
click OK

114
Interpreting your result
The graph shows the sales data during the three month period
for both location. On average, Bandung sales appear higher
than Jakarta sales.

115
Correcting the Outlier
After checking with the person who entered the data, your
discover that the sales information for data n=20 is missing.
Instead of entering 0, you should enter an asterisk (*) to indicate
that the value is missing.
Click project manager toolbar
In the Bandung column, highlight the cell in column 3 and
row 20 as show below.

Press [DELETE]

116
Updating a graph
To choose the dotplot, click in the project manager toolbar
Click the graph to make it the active window
Choose Editor > Update > Update graph now

117
Time Series Plot
Choose Graph > Time Series Plot
Choose Multiple, then click OK
In series, enter Jakarta Sales Bandung Sales
Click Time / Scale
Complete the dialog as shown below

118
119
Graphical Summary
Choose Stat > Basic Statistic > Graphical Summary
Complete the dialog as shown below

120
121
Display Descriptive Statistic
Choose Stat > Basic Statistic > Display Descriptive
Statistics.
In variable, enter Jakarta Sales Bandung Sales
Click statistics
Complete the dialog box as shown below, then click OK

122
123
Creating a multiple graph
Click graph folder, then click the dotplot in the project
manager. Click the graph to make it the active window.
Choose Editor > Layout tool
Double click all graph have been created to place the graph
in the layout window.

124
125
Example 2
Problem
The validation supervisor want to evaluate the consistency of
the fill weight for hydrocortisone cream. The cream is packed in
tube. The target weight is 1150grams. The specification limit are
1100 and 1200 grams.
Earlier evidence indicate this process is stable with a mean of
1150 grams and a standard deviation of 8.6 grams

Tools
I-MR

126
I-MR
Open ISPE_Example 2.MPJ
Choose Stat > Control Charts > Variable Charts for
Individuals > I-MR
Complete the dialog box as shown below

127
I-MR
Click Scale, under X scale, choose stamp
Under Stamp columns, enter date/time. Click OK
Click I-MR Options.
In Mean, type 1150; in standard deviation type 8.6, then click
OK

128
Individual chart shows that the process is clearly not in
statistical control also process operated consistently above the
mean.

129
Next Step
Remove mean then replot the I-MR Chart

130
Example 3
Problem
With previous data analyse normality and capability process

Tools
Probability
Capability Six Pack

131
Probability Plot
Open ISPE_Example 2.MPJ
Choose Grap > Probability Plot > Single
Complete the dialog box as shown below
Complete dialog as shown below

132
Normality Check
Check normality data (P>0.05)

Probability Plot of Fill Weight


Normal - 95% CI
99.9
Mean 1164
Normal Data
99
StDev 8.576
N 60 P > 0.05
AD 0.293
95 P-Value 0.591
90
80
70
Percent

60
50
40
30
20
10
5

0.1
1130 1140 1150 1160 1170 1180 1190 1200
Fill Weight

133
Capability Analysis
Open ISPE_Example 2.MPJ
Choose Stat > Quality Tools > Capability Analysis
Complete the dialog box as shown below
Complete dialog as shown below

134
Capability Analysis

Cp/Cpk > 1.33


Process Capability Report for Fill Weight

LSL USL
Process Data Overall
LSL 1100 Within
Target *
USL 1200 Overall Capability
Sample Mean 1163.58 Pp 1.94
Sample N 60 PPL 2.47
StDev(Overall) 8.57554 PPU 1.42
StDev(Within) 8.34686 Ppk 1.42
Cpm *
Potential (Within) Capability
Cp 2.00
CPL 2.54
CPU 1.45
Cpk 1.45

1110 1125 1140 1155 1170 1185 1200

Performance
Observed Expected Overall Expected Within
PPM < LSL 0.00 0.00 0.00
PPM > USL 0.00 10.81 6.39
PPM Total 0.00 10.81 6.39

135
Summary

Understand basic principle statistic


Know important parameter
Know variation and trending
Know proper tools for data evaluation
Combine data statistic and product
knowledge

136
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