Solutions to problems in
Gauge Theories in Particle Physics Third Edition volume
QCD and the Electroweak Theory
Chapter

The elemen ts of the set 
which we want 
to show 
form a group 
are 
all matrices V which are unitary i e 
V y V 
VV y I and 
have determinant equal to We need to show that conditions i
iv listed in section M of Appendix M are satis ed where the law of
combination is ordinary matrix multiplication
i Let V and V be any two members of the set 
Their product is 

V 
V 
Clearly by the rules of matrix multiplication this is a 

matrix 
To 
see if it is unitary we form V V V V y 
Using the 
general matrix result AB y B y A y this becomes
V V V V y 

V V V y V y 

V I V y I 
using rst the unitarity of V and then that of V
So the product of
any two such matrices is a unitary matrix Similarly det V V
detV detV using the det V condition for each matrix So
the product of any two such matrices is a unitary matrix with
determinant and therefore the product also belongs to the same
set verifying property i
ii Matrix multiplication is associative
iii The identity element is I
iv The inverse of any element V is V y by the unitarity property
V in is given by equation which we may write as
Hence
V in
i
i
i
i
detV in
i i
i
to rst order in so that the condition detV in reduces to
which is just Tr
The commutation relations can be checked by straightforward matrix
multiplication with the matrices
We have 

T i T j 












A j 

i 
i 
A i 
j 
j 

i j i
j
i ijk k
k
A k 
A i A j 

i ijk T k 

where in the second line we used the fact that the s associated with
di erent nucleons commute and in the third line we used equation
for each of the independent s
The j k element j row label k column label of T
is i jk The
only non zero entries are for j k giving T
j k giving T 
i Hence 

B




T



i 

Similarly 

B 



T





i 


and 

T


B

i 
i




i
C
A
i
C
A
C
A ^{}
i and for
It is then a matter of straightforward matrix multiplication to check
for the case i j k
W e expand equation
v q y i i i q
i
q y i q iq y i q iq y i q
v i i
q y i j j q
v i
i
j q y i j j i q
as required where in the second line we have dropped the term quadratic
in the s and used i
i i
j is understood
i and a summation on
A matrix H is Hermitian if the condition
H ji H
ij
is satis ed
Putting i j we see that the diagonal elements must be
real while the o diagonal element H ji i j is equal to the complex
conjugate of the element H ij So the general Hermitian matrix
takes the form
B
a
d
e
d
b
f
e
f
c
C
A
where a b c are real three parameters in all and d e f
are complex
six parameters in all The traceless condition is a b c so only
two of a b c are independent leaving real parameters
The in nitesimal form of is
w a 
w a i b G 

ac 

b 
w c 

where a sum from to on the repeated indices b and c is understood 

and a runs from to From equation we have 

G 

ac if bac 

b 
and so
w a w a b f bac w c w a f abc b w c
as in where in the last step w e used the antisymmetry of the
f s see section M
The next part
is
a special case
of the general result concerning the
regular or adjoint representation given in section M We begin with
the Jacobi identity for the generators of SU in any representation
G a G b G c G b G c G a G c G a G b
Using equation M for the SU algebra we obtain
G a if bcd G d G b if cad G d G c if abd G d
Using M again this becomes
if bcd if ade if cad if bde if abd if cde G e
Since the G s are independent no linear combination of them can equal
zero we can infer that the bracketed quantity multiplying G e vanishes
if bcd if ade if cad if bde if abd if cde
Using equation the rst term can be written as
G
b
cd G
a
de
which is just the ce matrix element of the product of matrices G
b
G
a
note that the repeated index d is summed over as usual Using the
antisymmetry of the f s the second term becomes
G
a
cd G
b
de
which is 
the 

if abd G 

ce 
d 
ce matrix element of
Putting it all together
G
a
G
b
The
third term is 

ce 
ma 
we have veri ed the
trix element of replacing the dummy summed over index c
by d
Dropping the term of second order in the s equation is
q i q q i T q iq
T
This becomes
i i q i T
i
q
from which follows equating the coe cients of i on both sides
W e will give a brute force solution to this problem and use a slightly
more sophisticated method for the next one
In each of T and has three components we shall check
for one of them
u elds anticommute with other u elds and with
d elds the only
non zero anti commutator is c f
y
fu x t u y
t g x y
Notice that the elds in this an ti commutator are at
equal times t
On the other hand the elds in the commutator A are apparently
at di erent times x
and
y
However equation assures us
that the operators
T are in fact independent of time and so we are
free to choose x in A and thus in B also equal to y
With this
understanding in the second term in B the factor u y can be anti
commuted rst past u
x and then
past d x giving u y d y x u x
y
which cancels with the fourth term of B The rst term in B can be
written as
x d x
u
y
u y u
x y
y
u y y d x y
which can be combined with the third term of B to give
u y x y u y y u y y u y x y d y x y
x y d x y
which is therefore the value of the commutator B Inserting this into
the left hand side of A gives
Z
x y d x y d x
d
y y
which is the same as the right hand side as was to be shown
We introduce the notation q a for the component eld q of a
runs over the two isospin values a being the up component and
a being the down component while runs over the four Dirac
components in u and d Thus q means the rst spinor component of
u and q means the third spinor component of d for example With
this notation the only non vanishing anti commutator is
y
fq a x t q b y t g
ab x y
We have then
and
T
i
Z
y
a x i ab q b x d x
q
T
j
Z q c y j cd q d y d y
y
The comm utator on the left hand side of is
Z d x Z d y i ab j cd q a x q b x q c y q d y q c y q d y q
y
y
y
y
a x q b x C
Note that quantities such as i ab are single numbers here the a b
element of the matrix i so they can be freely moved to any convenient
position in the expression Also since the T s are time independent
we are free to choose x y and we shall assume this has been done
without indicating it explicitly Consider the two products of four eld
operators in C The rst one may be written as
q a x q b x q c y q d y
y
y
q a x q
y
c y q b x bc x y q d y
y
q c y q a x q d y q b x q a x q d y bc x y
y
y
y
where in the second line we have performed some anti commutations
in the rst term Similarly the second product of four eld operators
in C is
q c y q a x q d y q
y
b x q c y q b x ad x y
y
The rst term here cancels with the rst term of the preceding expres
sion so that C becomes
Z Z d xd y i ab j cd q a x q d y bc q
y
y
c y q b x ad x y
where x y is understood Now note that
i ab j cd bc i ab j bd i j ad
while
i ab j cd ad j i cb
Thus the expression C is
Z Z d xd y q a x i j ad q d y q c y j i cb q b x x y
y
y
In the second term the indices c and
b are both
summed over and
can be
replaced by a and
d
respectively as in the rst term
The
expression
y
a x i j ad q d x
q
is just
q y x i j q x
with the explicit isospin and Dirac spinor indices inserted and simi
larly for the j i term so nally C is
Z Z d x d yq y x i j q y x y i ijk Z d xq y x k q x
using
required
which is precisely the right hand side of
as
Chapter
For the in nitesimal case is
W
i
i
g g x
i
g x
i
g x W
i
g x
and expanding this to rst order in gives
W
i ig
g
x
W
ig i i x j W
j
j W
j
ig
i i x
x
x
W
ig
i
j
j i
i x W
j
W ig i ijk
k
i x W
j
The last term may be re written as g kij k i x W
j
which is the triple
scalar product g x W Equating the components of on
both sides then leads to
Multiplying out the left hand side of w e obtain
ieA ieA ieA ieA
ie A ieA
ieA
e A A ie A ieA ieA e A A
ie A A ieF
as required
The left hand side of is
ig W
W ig W
W
After expanding this out some terms cancel and we are left with
ig
W W g W W W W
The second term is
g i
j
j i
W
i
W
j
g i ijk
k
W
i
W
j
ig
gW W
from which the result follows
Using and we have
F
W
W g W
W gW W
x g x W x g x W
g x g x W W gW
x g x W
g x W W g x W W
g W x W
The last two terms are
g W x W g x W W W W x
and
g W x W
g x W W W W x
so that they can be com bined to give
g W x W W x W
which can also be written as
g x gW W
Hence
F 

g x W W gW W 

g x F 
as required Note that the above manipulations are still valid when the
elds are quantized since no non commuting components are involved
We have
F F
F F F F
g x F F
F
g x F
F gF x
F g x F
which vanishes as required
Using and is
ig s A ig s x ig s x ig s A
from which we have to extract A in terms of A
Let us write
A A A
Then expanding the previous equation and neglecting terms of second
order remembering that A is itself rst order we have
ig s x ig s x
A ig s A x ig s A
ig s A ig s x ig s x A
After some cancellations w e are left with
a A a a x ig s b b x c A c A b b x
a
c
c
The last term here is
ig s b
c
b x A ig s if bca
c
a
b x A g s
c
a
f abc b x A
c
and so we have
a A a a x g s a f abc b x A
a
c
which is satis ed if holds We have checked for the spe
cial case of the covariant derivative acting on an SU triplet
but is in fact the general in nitesimal gauge transformation for
the octet of gauge elds A
a
We need to evaluate
ig s A ig s A ig s A ig s A
After cancellations we are left with
D D ig s A A ig s A A A A
The second term is
c
A A ig s if abc
b
c
a
A A
b
c
Hence
D D ig s
a
c f where F
a
is as given in
The ingoing X with four momentum k in gure is equivalent to an
outgoing X with four momentum k we take the polarization vectors
to be real Then is note that X should be replaced by X
i ie Z
e ik x f e ik x
e ik x e ik x e ik x gd x
The rst term becomes after a partial in tegration
Z e ik x f
e i k k x gd x
e 


Z ik



e 

e Z



k k 
e i k k k x d x
while the second term is
ik e i k k k x d x
The integrations give a factor
k expressing four
momentum conservation and the remaining part of the amplitude is
ie k k
as in
Replacing by k in means that d p is replaced by k d p
Now note that k k p p by four momentum conservation and
that p d p md p
so that
k d p k p m d p k p m d p
Hence after this replacement becomes
as in
ie i d p d p
When is replaced by k in the expression in the rst square
bracket becomes with
k k k k k k k k k
k k k k k k k
k k k k k
using k
and k
then becomes
ie
q
k d p k k d p k k d p d p
In the rst term here note that
d p k k d p
d p p p d p
using the Dirac equation for d p and d p In the second term note
that q