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AIRCRAFT BRAKES

Thursday, May 25, 2017 6:32 AM

A mechanism to convert kinetic energy to heat energy by friction.


Brake systems are designed to retard or stop the aircraft motion on the ground.
They also aid in controlling the direction of an aircraft while taxiing and application of b
before going into wheel well(auto brakes).
Brakes can be applied by using the toe pedal attached to the rudder pedals or by a hand
parking.
The greater the toe pedal applied, the greater will be the pressure transmitted to the br
Aircraft braking system is composed of two sub systems
Brake actuating unit:- It is the portion of the system that comes in direct contact w
converting kinetic energy to heat energy by friction
Brake actuating system:It includes the hydraulic system and components that allo
control the amount of friction the wheel produces.
1. Energizing Brakes:
A brake that contains within itself some means (as the wrapping action in a band brake)
by the pressure on the brake pedal.
A brake that uses the momentum of the aircraft to increase its effectiveness by wedging
Are also called SERVO brakes.
There are 2 types of servo brakes and which is one way or single servo and two way or d
In single servo brake/one way servo brakes, the action is effective or energize only whe
wheel only.
In dual servo brake/two way servo brakes, the action is effective or energize may be adj
direction which is either forward or backward direction of the wheel.
This both types are supplied with either single brake shoe or two brake shoe constructio
DRUM TYPE BRAKES:-
Similar to those used on automobiles.
Used on small aircraft in a form of single/one way servo brakes.
It consists of a brake drum which rotates with the cylinder, brake shoes with brake
cylinder attached to the brake shoes and retracting springs.
When the brakes are applied, two pistons in the brake cylinder will move out and p
iron drum that rotates together with the wheel.
Friction attempts to rotate the lining but they are held in place by the cylinder asse
When hydraulic pressure is released, the retracting spring pulls the linings back fro
rakes prevent the wheels from rotating

dbrake lever basically for the purpose of

rakes.

with tyres and slows them down by

ows a pilot to apply the pressure and

) for augmenting the power imparted to it

g the shoe against the brake drum.

dual servo.
n moving in the forward direction of the

justed to give servo action in either

on.

linings attached to them, a brake

push the lining against the cylindrical cast

embly.
m the drum and releases the brake.
2. Non Energizing Brakes:
Most common type of brake used on modern aircraft.
This type of brake is actuated by hydraulic pressure.
Amount of braking action depends upon the amount of pressure applied.
Single disk brakes:-
The most popular type of brake for modern light aircraft.
This type of brake is actuated by the hydraulic pressure from the master brake cylin
Friction is produced when the rotating disk is squeezed between two brake linings
on slave cylinder. These are usually spring loaded pistons where the return stroke i
Retracting springs return the piston when hydraulic pressure is relieved.
There are 2 types of single disk brakes,
i. Floating disk/Fixed caliper: The disc is keyed onto the wheel and is free to mo
applied.
ii. Fixed disk/Floating caliper: the disc is rigidly attached to the wheel and the ca
move in and out on two anchor bolts. It has a pressure and back plate with lin
nder which is located near the toe brakes.
in the caliper. The linings are mounted
is provided by the spring.

ove in and out as the brake is being

aliper with the brake linings is free to


ings on them.
Dual Disk Brakes:
Aircraft that need more braking force, instead of using a single disc brake, it uses a dual
Similar to a single disc, except that two discs are rotating with the wheel rather than on
There is a center carrier with brake lining pucks on both sides between these disc.
disc brake.
ly one disc.
Expander Tube Brake:
The main parts of the brake are the spider, frames, expander tube, brake blocks and re
The spider which sometimes referred to as flange/torque flange is the basic unit around
the wheel support.
The detachable metal frames form a groove around the outer circumference into which
spring is fitted.
The expander tube is made out of neoprene reinforced with fabric and has a metal nozz
and enters the tube.
Brake blocks are made of material similar to that used for brake linings.
The torque bar bolts prevent rotation of brake linings.
Hydraulic fluid expands the tube when the brake is applied thus the expansion of the tu
against the rotating brake drum. The linings provide friction and slow the aircraft movem
When the pressure is released, the flat spring (leaf spring) in the ends of the block tends
tube to pull the block away from contact with the brake drum.
The clearance between the expander tube and the brake drum is adjustable by rotating
brakes.
turn springs.
d which the brake is built. It is secured to

h the expander tube, brake blocks and

zle through which hydraulic fluid leaves

ube forces the block radially outward


ment.
s to force the fluid out of the expander

g an adjuster on some expander tube


Multiple disk brakes:-
1.Thin Disc Multiple disc brake:
Was popular type of brake for heavy aircraft in WWII.
Provides maximum friction for minimum size and weight and does not fade when the br
Disadvantages of this type of brake is the tendency of the disc to warp up and causing t
adjustment as the disc wore.
The brake has a series of steel discs called stators that are keyed to the axle or torque tu
rake gets hot.
he brake to drag and needs manual

ube.
A rotor or rotating disc made out of copper or bronze rotates between each other.
The disc brakes are approximately 1/8 of an inch thick and get very hot when the brake
The discs form such solid mass of material that the heat has difficulty in escaping. If pilo
using these brakes, entrapped heat will warp the disc.
2. Segmented rotor brakes:
Similar to multiple disk brakes except that the rotor is segmented to enable heat dissipa
It is designed to be used with power brake control valves or power boost mater cylinde
The brake assembly consists of a carrier, a piston and piston cup seal, a pressure plate, a
stator plates, automatic adjusters, and a backing plate. Braking action results from seve
brake linings making contact with rotating (rotor) segments.
A pressure plate is a flat, circular, highstrength steel, nonrotating plate notched on the
stator drive sleeves or torque tube spines. An insulator is used between the piston head
conduction from the brake discs. An auxiliary stator plate with brake lining material on t
also be used.
Stators are flat plates notched on the internal circumference to be held stationary by th
The liner is typically constructed of numerous isolated blocks. The space between the lin
of heat. The composition of the lining materials vary. Steel is often used.
Rotors are slit or segmented discs that have notches or tangs in the external circumfere
Slots or spaces between sections of the rotor create segments that allow heat to dissipa
which a frictional surface is bonded to both sides. Typically, sintered metal is used in cre
The backing/thrust plate is a heavy steel plate bolted to the housing or torque tube at a
housing. In most cases, it has brake lining material attached to it and contacts the last ro
An automatic adjuster/auto clearance adjuster is attached to the pressure plate. It help
between stator and rotors and prevent brake drag. It moves with the pressure plate. A r
back when the brake is released. As the lining wears, the pin is pulled through its frictio
wear.
The amount the automatic adjuster pin sticks out of the retainer housing is an indicatio