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Respiratory System: Anatomy Review

1. Fill in the missing organs of the respiratory system:

______________ (air enters) nasal cavity ______________ (both air and food move through)

trachea ______________ (large tubes leading to both lungs) lungs.

2. Each lung is surrounded by two layers of serous membrane known as pleurae. These are:

______________ pleura; covers the surface of the lung

______________ pleura; lines the thoracic wall

The space in between is called the ______________ cavity and it is filled with ______________ fluid.

This fluid assists breathing movements by acting as a/an ______________.

3. Bronchial tree:

Air flows from the trachea through the ______________, ______________, and ______________ bronchi

to smaller and smaller bronchi. The trachea and bronchi contain ______________ to keep the airways

open. Bronchi branch into ______________, which do not contain ______________ but do contain more

______________ muscle. This allows for regulation of air flow.

4. Airways from the nasal cavity through the terminal bronchioles are called the ______________ zone.

The function of this zone is to ______________ and ______________ the air.

Is there gas exchange in this zone? _______

5. The respiratory zone contains ______________ where gas is exchanged. This zone consists of the

______________ bronchioles, ______________ ducts, and ______________ sacs.

6. The pulmonary ______________ carries blood that is (high or low) in oxygen to the lungs.

Pulmonary ______________ exchange gases with the alveoli.

Blood leaves the lungs in the pulmonary ______________, which carry ______________ blood back to the

heart.
7. Name the three types of cells in the alveolus:

1. ______________; simple squamous epithelium

2. ______________; removes debris and microbes

3. ______________; secretes surfactant. Surfactant (decreases or increases) surface tension, which

prevents the alveoli from collapsing.

8. The thin respiratory membrane consists of the _________________________ epithelium and the

______________ membrane of both the alveolus and the capillary.

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Respiratory System: Pulmonary Ventilation

1. Intrapulmonary pressure ____s ( or ) during inspiration.

2. What pressure is always negative and helps to keep the lungs inflated?______________________ pressure

3. a. If transpulmonary pressure equals zero, what will happen to the lungs?

______________________

b. This is known as a/an _____________________.

4. a. When the bronchiole constricts, what will happen to resistance? ____ (use arrows)

b. To air flow? ____ (use arrows)

For questions 5 and 6, fill in constrict or dilate, then and arrows.

5. Histamine will ____________ bronchioles ____ resistance ____ air flow

67. Epinephrine will ____________ bronchioles ____ resistance ____ air flow

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Respiratory System: Gas Exchange

1. Calculate the partial pressures of the following gases at both atmospheric pressures:

760 mmHg 747 mmHg

a.O2 ___________ ___________

b.CO2 ___________ ___________

Respiratory System: Gas Transport

1. Oxygen transport in the blood:


_______% is bound to hemoglobin

_______% dissolves in plasma

2. The hemoglobin molecule is composed of ____ polypeptide chains and ____ heme groups containing iron.

What does oxygen bind to? ______________

3. After one oxygen molecule (O2) binds to hemoglobin, it is easier for the other molecules to bind to the

hemoglobin. This is known as _________________________.

4. When oxygen is loaded onto hemoglobin in the lungs, hemoglobin is called

_________________________, and when oxygen is unloaded from the hemoglobin at the tissues, it is

called _________________________.

5. From the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve, we see the following:

Lungs: Partial pressure of oxygen is ____ mmHg

Hemoglobin is ____% saturated

Tissues: Partial pressure of oxygen is ___ mmHg

Hemoglobin is ____% saturated

6. Effect of high altitude on lung PO2:

With a decrease of 20 mmHg in the lungs, will the saturation of hemoglobin decrease significantly?

______________

7. Effect of exercise on tissue PO2:

With a decrease of 20 mmHg in the tissues, will the saturation of hemoglobin decrease significantly?

______________.

How does this help the tissues? _________________________.

8. Name the other factors that alter PO2: _________________________

During exercise, would an increase () or decrease () in these factors decrease PO2 hemoglobin saturation,

making more O2 available to the tissues?

____ _BPG____

____ _pH______

____ _________
____ _________

9. List the percentages for CO2 transport in the blood:

____% dissolved in plasma

____% combined with hemoglobin

____% converted to bicarbonate ions

When CO2 binds to hemoglobin, it is called _________________________.

10. CO2 transport as bicarbonate ions:

CO2 binds with water to form ______________ acid.

The catalyst for this reaction is ______________ ______________ .

The acid mentioned above then dissociates into ______________ ions and ______________ ions.

When bicarbonate ions move out of the red blood cell, ______________ ions move in.

This is known as the ______________ shift.

The reaction occurs in the opposite direction at the lungs so that CO2 can be released.

11. A decrease in CO2 loading facilitates O2 unloading from hemoglobin. Said another way, CO2 loading

facilitates O2 unloading. (Note: The effect is on O2 loading and unloading.)

This is known as the ______________ effect.

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Respiratory System: Control of Respiration

1. Where in the medulla are the neurons that set the basic respiratory rhythm? _________________________

2. What modifies this medullary center?

a. Central and peripheral _____________________

b.

3. What is the most important stimulus controlling ventilation? _____________

4. If a person hyperventilates, what will happen to the following in the blood?


a. PCO2 _____________

b. pH _____________