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AgrarianReformHistory

AgrarianReformHistory
PreSpanishPeriod

RAFAEL
ThislandisOursGodgavethislandtous

BeforetheSpaniardscametothePhilippines,Filipinoslivedinvillagesorbarangaysruled
bychiefsordatus.Thedatuscomprisedthenobility.Thencamethemaharlikas(freemen),
followedbythealipingmamamahay(serfs)andalipingsaguiguilid(slaves).

However,despitetheexistenceofdifferentclassesinthesocialstructure,practically
everyonehadaccesstothefruitsofthesoil.Moneywasunknown,andriceservedasthe
mediumofexchange.
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SpanishPeriod

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Unitedwestand,dividedwefall

WhentheSpaniardscametothePhilippines,theconceptofencomienda(RoyalLand
Grants)wasintroduced.ThissystemgrantsthatEncomienderosmustdefendhis
encomiendafromexternalattack,maintainpeaceandorderwithin,andsupportthe
missionaries.Inturn,theencomienderoacquiredtherighttocollecttributefromtheindios
(native).

Thesystem,however,degeneratedintoabuseofpowerbytheencomienderosThetribute
soonbecamelandrentstoafewpowerfullandlords.Andthenativeswhooncecultivated
thelandsinfreedomweretransformedintomeresharetenants.
RAFAEL

1stPhilippineRepublic

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Theyokehasfinallybroken

WhentheFirstPhilippineRepublicwasestablishedin1899,Gen.EmilioAguinaldodeclared
intheMalolosConstitutionhisintentiontoconfiscatelargeestates,especiallythesocalled
Friarlands.

However,astheRepublicwasshortlived,Aguinaldosplanwasneverimplemented.
RAFAEL

AmericanPeriod

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LongliveAmerica

SignificantlegislationenactedduringtheAmericanPeriod:

PhilippineBillof1902Settheceilingsonthehectarageofprivateindividualsand
corporationsmayacquire:16has.forprivateindividualsand1,024has.for
corporations.

LandRegistrationActof1902(ActNo.496)Providedforacomprehensive
registrationoflandtitlesundertheTorrenssystem.

PublicLandActof1903introducedthehomesteadsysteminthePhilippines.

TenancyActof1933(ActNo.4054and4113)regulatedrelationshipsbetween
landownersandtenantsofrice(5050sharing)andsugarcanelands.

TheTorrenssystem,whichtheAmericansinstitutedfortheregistrationoflands,didnot
solvetheproblemcompletely.Eithertheywerenotawareofthelaworiftheydid,theycould
notpaythesurveycostandotherfeesrequiredinapplyingforaTorrenstitle.
RAFAEL

CommonwealthPeriod

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GovernmentfortheFilipinos

PresidentManuelL.Quezonespousedthe"SocialJustice"programtoarresttheincreasing
socialunrestinCentralLuzon.

SignificantlegislationenactedduringCommonwealthPeriod:

1935Constitution"Thepromotionofsocialjusticetoensurethewellbeingand
economicsecurityofallpeopleshouldbetheconcernoftheState"

CommonwealthActNo.178(AnAmendmenttoRiceTenancyActNo.4045),Nov.13,
1936Providedforcertaincontrolsinthelandlordtenantrelationships

NationalRiceandCornCorporation(NARIC),1936Establishedthepriceofriceand
corntherebyhelpthepoortenantsaswellasconsumers.

CommonwealthAct.No.461,1937Specifiedreasonsforthedismissaloftenants
andonlywiththeapprovaloftheTenancyDivisionoftheDepartmentofJustice.

RuralProgramAdministration,createdMarch2,1939Providedthepurchaseand
leaseofhaciendasandtheirsaleandleasetothetenants.

CommonwealthActNo.441enactedonJune3,1939CreatedtheNational
SettlementAdministrationwithacapitalstockofP20,000,000.

RAFAEL

JapaneseOccupation

RAFAEL
TheEraofHukbalahap

TheSecondWorldWarIIstartedinEuropein1939andinthePacificin1941.

HukbalahapcontrolledwholeareasofCentralLuzonlandlordswhosupportedthe
JapaneselosttheirlandstopeasantswhilethosewhosupportedtheHuksearnedfixed
rentalsinfavorofthetenants.

Unfortunately,theendofwaralsosignaledtheendofgainsacquiredbythepeasants.

UponthearrivaloftheJapaneseinthePhilippinesin1942,peasantsandworkers
organizationsgrewstrength.Manypeasantstookuparmsandidentifiedthemselveswith
theantiJapanesegroup,theHUKBALAHAP(HukbongBayanLabansaHapon).
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PhilippineRepublic

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TheNewRepublic

AftertheestablishmentofthePhilippineIndependencein1946,theproblemsoflandtenure
remained.Thesebecameworstincertainareas.ThustheCongressofthePhilippines
revisedthetenancylaw.
RAFAEL
ManuelRoxas(19461948)enactedthefollowinglaws:

RepublicActNo.34Establishedthe7030sharingarrangementsand
regulatingsharetenancycontracts.

RepublicActNo.55Providedforamoreeffectivesafeguardagainst
arbitraryejectmentoftenants.

ElpidioQuirino(19481953)enactedthefollowinglaw:

ExecutiveOrderNo.355issuedonOctober23,1950Replacedthe
NationalLandSettlementAdministrationwithLandSettlementDevelopment
Corporation(LASEDECO)whichtakesovertheresponsibilitiesofthe
AgriculturalMachineryEquipmentCorporationandtheRiceandCorn
ProductionAdministration.

PresidentRamonMagsaysay(19531957)enactedthefollowinglaws:

RepublicActNo.1160of1954AbolishedtheLASEDECOandestablished
theNationalResettlementandRehabilitationAdministration(NARRA)to
resettledissidentsandlandlessfarmers.Itwasparticularlyaimedatrebel
returneesprovidinghomelotsandfarmlandsinPalawanandMindanao.

RepublicActNo.1199(AgriculturalTenancyActof1954)governedtherelationship
betweenlandownersandtenantfarmersbyorganizingsharetenancyandleasehold
system.Thelawprovidedthesecurityoftenureoftenants.ItalsocreatedtheCourtof
AgrarianRelations.

RepublicActNo.1400(LandReformActof1955)CreatedtheLandTenure
Administration(LTA)whichwasresponsiblefortheacquisitionanddistributionoflarge
tenantedriceandcornlandsover200hectaresforindividualsand600hectaresfor
corporations.

RepublicActNo.821(CreationofAgriculturalCreditCooperativeFinancing
Administration)Providedsmallfarmersandsharetenantsloanswithlowinterest
ratesofsixtoeightpercent.

PresidentCarlosP.Garcia(19571961)

ContinuedtheprogramofPresidentRamonMagsaysay.Nonewlegislation
passed.

PresidentDiosdadoMacapagal(19611965)enactedthefollowinglaw:

RepublicActNo.3844ofAugust8,1963(AgriculturalLandReformCode)
Abolishedsharetenancy,institutionalizedleasehold,setretentionlimitat75
hectares,investedrightsofpreemptionandredemptionfortenantfarmers,
providedforanadministrativemachineryforimplementation,institutionalized
ajudicialsystemofagrariancases,incorporatedextension,marketingandsupervisedcredit
systemofservicesoffarmerbeneficiaries.

TheRAwashailedasonethatwouldemancipateFilipinofarmersfromthebondageof
tenancy.

PresidentFerdinandMarcos(19651986).ProclamationNo.1081on
September21,1972usheredthePeriodoftheNewSociety.Fivedaysafter
theproclamationofMartialLaw,theentirecountrywasproclaimedaland
reformareaandsimultaneouslytheAgrarianReformProgramwasdecreed.

PresidentMarcosenactedthefollowinglaws:

RepublicActNo.6389,(CodeofAgrarianReform)andRANo.6390of1971
CreatedtheDepartmentofAgrarianReformandtheAgrarianReformSpecialAccount
Fund.Itstrengthenthepositionoffarmersandexpandedthescopeofagrarianreform.

PresidentialDecreeNo.2,September26,1972Declaredthecountryunderland
reformprogram.Itenjoinedallagenciesandofficesofthegovernmenttoextendfull
cooperationandassistancetotheDAR.ItalsoactivatedtheAgrarianReform
CoordinatingCouncil.

PresidentialDecreeNo.27,October21,1972Restrictedlandreformscopeto
tenantedriceandcornlandsandsettheretentionlimitat7hectares.

PresidentCorazonC.Aquino(19861992)

TheConstitutionratifiedbytheFilipinopeopleduringtheadministrationof
PresidentCorazonC.AquinoprovidesunderSection21underArticleIIthat
TheStateshallpromotecomprehensiveruraldevelopmentandagrarian
reform.

OnJune10,1988,formerPresidentCorazonC.AquinosignedintolawRepublicActNo.
6657orotherwiseknownastheComprehensiveAgrarianReformLaw(CARL).Thelaw
becameeffectiveonJune15,1988.

Subsequently,fourPresidentialissuanceswerereleasedinJuly1987after48nationwide
consultationsbeforetheactuallawwasenacted.

PresidentCorazonC.Aquinoenactedthefollowinglaws:

ExecutiveOrderNo.228,July16,1987Declaredfullownershiptoqualifiedfarmer
beneficiariescoveredbyPD27.Italsodeterminedthevalueremainingunvaluedrice
andcornlandssubjectofPD27andprovidedforthemannerofpaymentbytheFBs
andmodeofcompensationtolandowners.

ExecutiveOrderNo.229,July22,1987Providedmechanismfortheimplementation
oftheComprehensiveAgrarianReformProgram(CARP).

ProclamationNo.131,July22,1987InstitutedtheCARPasamajorprogramofthe
government.ItprovidedforaspecialfundknownastheAgrarianReformFund(ARF),
withaninitialamountofPhp50billiontocovertheestimatedcostoftheprogramfrom
19871992.
ExecutiveOrderNo.129A,July26,1987streamlinedandexpandedthepowerand
operationsoftheDAR.

RepublicActNo.6657,June10,1988(ComprehensiveAgrarianReformLaw)Anact
whichbecameeffectiveJune15,1988andinstitutedacomprehensiveagrarianreform
programtopromotesocialjusticeandindustrializationprovidingthemechanismforits
implementationandforotherpurposes.Thislawisstilltheonebeingimplementedat
present.

ExecutiveOrderNo.405,June14,1990VestedintheLandBankofthePhilippines
theresponsibilitytodeterminelandvaluationandcompensationforalllandscovered
byCARP.

ExecutiveOrderNo.407,June14,1990Acceleratedtheacquisitionanddistribution
ofagriculturallands,pasturelands,fishponds,agroforestrylandsandotherlandsof
thepublicdomainsuitableforagriculture.
PresidentFidelV.Ramos(19921998)WhenPresidentFidelV.Ramos
formallytookoverin1992,hisadministrationcamefacetofacewithpublics
whohavelostconfidenceintheagrarianreformprogram.Hisadministration
committedtothevisionFairer,fasterandmoremeaningfulimplementation
oftheAgrarianReformProgram.

PresidentFidelV.Ramosenactedthefollowinglaws:

RepublicActNo.7881,1995AmendedcertainprovisionsofRA6657andexempted
fishpondsandprawnsfromthecoverageofCARP.

RepublicActNo.7905,1995StrengthenedtheimplementationoftheCARP.

ExecutiveOrderNo.363,1997Limitsthetypeoflandsthatmaybeconvertedby
settingconditionsunderwhichlimitsthetypeoflandsthatmaybeconvertedbysetting
conditionsunderwhichspecificcategoriesofagriculturallandareeitherabsolutely
nonnegotiableforconversionorhighlyrestrictedforconversion.

RepublicActNo.8435,1997(AgricultureandFisheriesModernizationActAFMA)
Pluggedthelegalloopholesinlanduseconversion.

RepublicAct8532,1998(AgrarianReformFundBill)ProvidedanadditionalPhp50
billionforCARPandextendeditsimplementationforanother10years.

PresidentJosephE.Estrada(19982000)ERAPPARASAMAHIRAP.This
wasthebattlecrythatendearedPresidentJosephEstradaandmadehim
verypopularduringthe1998presidentialelection.

PresidentJosephE.Estradainitiatedtheenactmentofthefollowinglaw:

ExecutiveOrderN0.151,September1999(FarmersTrustFund)Allowedthevoluntary
consolidationofsmallfarmoperationintomediumandlargescaleintegratedenterprisethat
canaccesslongtermcapital.

Duringhisadministration,PresidentEstradalaunchedtheMagkabalikatParasaKaunlarang
AgraryoorMAGKASAKA.TheDARforgedintojointventureswithprivateinvestorsinto
agrariansectortomakeFBscompetitive.

However,theEstradaAdministrationwasshortlived.Themasseswhoputhimintooffice
demandedforhisouster.
PresidentGloriaMacapacalArroyo(2000present)Theagrarianreform
programundertheArroyoadministrationisanchoredonthevisionTomake
thecountrysideeconomicallyviablefortheFilipinofamilybybuilding
partnershipandpromotingsocialequityandneweconomicopportunities
towardslastingpeaceandsustainableruraldevelopment.

LandTenureImprovementDARwillremainvigorousinimplementinglandacquisitionand
distributioncomponentofCARP.TheDARwillimprovelandtenuresystemthroughland
distributionandleasehold.

ProvisionofSupportServicesCARPnotonlyinvolvesthedistributionoflandsbutalso
includedpackageofsupportserviceswhichincludes:creditassistance,extensionservices,
irrigationfacilities,roadsandbridges,marketingfacilitiesandtrainingandtechnicalsupport
programs.

InfrastrucreProjectsDARwilltransformtheagrarianreformcommunities(ARCs),anarea
focusedandintegrateddeliveryofsupportservices,intoruraleconomiczonesthatwillhelp
inthecreationofjobopportunitiesinthecountryside.

KALAHIARZoneTheKALAHIAgrarianReform(KAR)Zoneswerealsolaunched.These
zonesconsistsofoneormoremunicipalitieswithconcentrationofARCpopulationto
achievegreateragroproductivity.

AgrarianJusticeTohelpclearthebacklogofagrariancases,DARwillhiremoreparalegal
officerstosupportundermannedadjudicatoryboardsandintroducequotasystemtocompel
adjudicatorstoworkfasteronagrarianreformcases.DARwillrespecttherightsofboth
farmersandlandowners.

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