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GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE 276

Managing for a better environment


Minimising the running costs and impact of office equipment

Office equipment is the fastest


growing user of electricity in
the business world
Selective purchasing of office
equipment can reduce
operating costs and improve
the working environment
Energy-efficient operation of
office equipment reduces
energy costs
Improve your organisations
image by using environmentally
preferable office equipment
GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE 276

PRAC
T T
BES

IC
E
P

E
R

O
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G R A M

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

ARCHIVED DOCUMENT BEST PRACTICE


PROGRAMME
MANAGING FOR A BETTER ENVIRONMENT

CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION 3

2 REVIEWING ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE EQUIPMENT 4

3 ASSESSING THE COSTS 6

4 BUYING OFFICE EQUIPMENT 8

5 OPERATING OFFICE EQUIPMENT 9

6 DISPOSAL OF EQUIPMENT 10

7 NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN OFFICE EQUIPMENT 11

APPENDIX 1 ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF OFFICE EQUIPMENT 12

APPENDIX 2 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 14

APPENDIX 3 PREFERRED ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS 15

USEFUL CONTACTS 17

FURTHER READING 18

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1 INTRODUCTION

Office equipment is the fastest growing user of This Guide shows you how to identify
energy in the business world. While energy use for environmentally preferable equipment by This environmental Guide to
heating and lighting offices is becoming more considering factors such as: office equipment is a
efficient and decreasing, the energy used by office the running and energy costs companion to Good Practice
equipment continues to rise. Electricity consumed the raw materials used in manufacture Guide (GPG) 118, on managing
due to office equipment in the UK already costs the durability of the product the energy consumed by office
300 million each year and is rapidly increasing. the environmental impact of the product in equipment. By following the
Your costs may be behaving similarly. operation in terms of energy and emissions guidance given in both Guides
the potential to reuse the product at the end of you will gain control of the
Electricity consumption by office equipment now its life. environmental and energy
represents 25% of total electrical energy use in offices management aspects of your
and its impact on the environment is, therefore, This Guide also makes recommendations for organisations office equipment.
considerable. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions arising operating office equipment in the most efficient
from such consumption are a major contributor to way and describes cost-effective ways of disposing
climate change. Furthermore, because of the limited of unwanted office equipment.
life of most office equipment, substantial waste is
produced when equipment is finally disposed of. GETTING COMMITTED
Organisations can maximise their benefits by
Fortunately, there is now an extensive range of implementing an effective energy and
environmentally preferable products, which can environmental strategy and policy. An outline of a
reduce your costs and environmental impact. simple five-step systematic approach to energy and
These products are often no more expensive to environmental management, which can be a
purchase, and are usually cheaper to operate. worthwhile part of everyday management, is
shown in appendix 2 to this Guide.
By paying proper attention to reducing the
environmental effects of their activities, As well as direct cost savings, an environmental
organisations can: policy has other, wider benefits, including:
cut their operating costs fostering of good practices in other areas of
ensure they comply with legislation management
improve their image with staff, customers and conveying a positive company image to staff
other stakeholders, gaining extra business by and stakeholders
so doing improving the efficiency of the process or
make a contribution to protecting the provision of services.
environment.

ABOUT THIS GUIDE


This Guide is written for managing directors,
general managers and office managers. In fact, it is
for anyone with responsibility for reducing costs of
an organisation.

The Guide makes recommendations to enable you


to reduce costs when purchasing environmentally
preferable office equipment. It also shows how
office equipment can be managed to minimise
running costs and reduce adverse effects on the
environment. Costs can easily be reduced by 50%
in many organisations.

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2 REVIEWING ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE EQUIPMENT

WEIGHING UP THE FACTORS Most importantly, when purchasing new office


There are several important factors to bear in mind equipment you should select products that not
when considering environmentally preferable only meet the organisations needs and provide
equipment. value for money but also have the least impact on
The lifetime running cost of office equipment is the environment. You gain from both.
as important, and can be greater than, the
purchase price (see table 1). Environmentally ECO-LABELLING
preferable equipment can usually reduce such One of the simplest ways of identifying
costs. environmentally preferable equipment is by
Organisations that demonstrate attention to choosing equipment with one of the recognised
environmental issues have an improved image labels given for energy and environmental
with stakeholders. They are seen to be up-to-date performance. If you dont have time to assess
and aware of the problems of the modern world. individual models in detail, this is a good way of
Future legislation is likely to force selecting environmentally preferable equipment.
organisations to consider the environmental
implications of disposal of office equipment. Eco-labels consider the environmental impact
Some already do. during all stages of a products life-cycle. There are
already several such labelling schemes that cover
Buying environmentally preferable products does the environmental impact and energy
not mean compromising on performance. Most consumption of office equipment.
manufacturers tend to consider environmental and
technological improvements together. Hence Energy Star
equipment that has reduced environmental impact The main Eco-label for office equipment is Energy
often has enhanced performance. Star, a voluntary labelling scheme originating in
the USA and now found worldwide. This is
Equipment that meets high environmental currently the UKs most common method of
standards often does not cost any more. identifying energy-efficient equipment.

Energy Star products are widely available, usually at

Copier no additional cost. As well as having lower running

Purchase price 6000 costs, the equipment may also last longer as it

Running costs over typical five-year life: closes down automatically from idling mode to

consumables and maintenance 4500 spend a large proportion of time in low-power

energy 1000 mode. However, it must still be turned off


preceeding long periods of inactivity and at the end

Laser printer of the day to maximise reductions.

Purchase price 1000


Running costs over typical five-year life: When short-listing Energy Star models it is

consumables and maintenance 2250 important to remember that the power

energy 200 consumption in low-power mode is by far the most


important factor, as most appliances will spend

PC and monitor most time in this state. Although all Energy Star

Purchase price 1000 appliances have similar energy-saving features, some

Running costs over typical three-year life: use less energy than others.

maintenance 500
energy 50 It is important to remember that environmental
features of Energy Star equipment often need to be
Table 1 Typical lifetime running costs of equipment activated by the user or supplier. This is best done at

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REVIEWING ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE EQUIPMENT

the time of installation. The requirements for a range


Product type Power supply Average Watts Power management
of Energy Star equipment are shown in table 2.
in low-power state preset/default times

Other Eco-labels Desktop PC or 200 W 30 15-30 minutes


There are a variety of other Eco-labels in use, workstation >200 W 15% of max continuous 15-60 minutes

PC and monitor
including: output power
German Blue Angel awarded to personal
Monitor alone First low-power <15 15-30 minutes
computers (PCs) and printers that meet criteria
sleep mode
regarding efficient use of energy, reduction of
Deep-sleep mode 8 <70 minutes
greenhouse gases and conservation of resources
Swiss Energy 2000 awarded to the top 25% of Integrated unit 60 15-30 minutes
products each year
7 pages per 15 15 minutes
Nordic White Swan covering fax machines,
minute (ppm)
Printer

printers, PCs and audio-visual equipment


TCO99 a Swedish label, first developed in 7< ppm 14 30 30 minutes
the early 1990s, covering displays and PCs that
>14 ppm 45 60 minutes
meet requirements for the reduction of
electrical and magnetic fields, noise and heat. <20 copies per Off mode n/a n/a
minute (cpm) 5 W
The European Union (EU) Eco-label for PCs is
20< cpm 44 15 W 5 + (cpm 3.85) W 15 minutes
currently being developed and is based on a cradle-
Automatic duplex 30-second recovery
to-grave approach. Computers that will be awarded
Copier

optional
the EU Eco-label will have to comply with standards
set for energy consumption, recyclability and
>44 cpm 20 W 5 + (cpm 3.85) W 15 minutes
potential for upgrading. Their manufacturers will
30-second recovery
also have to provide adequate instructions relating
to efficient operation and disposal. Automatic duplex
optional
Products without an Energy Star label may still 7 ppm 15 5 minutes
have energy-saving features. Information on these
7< ppm 14
Fax

should be obtained from the manufacturer when 30 5 minutes

you are investigating the purchase. >14 ppm 45 15 minutes


Scanner

Vending machines and water coolers are not


<12 15 minutes
covered by Energy Star, so the best advice is to
select machines with low idling consumption
these will have high levels of insulation and lower Note: The latest criteria for the Energy Star label can be found on the Environmental Protection Agencys USA web site.
See page 17 for the address.
levels of lighting. If possible, choose machines that
allow users to use their own mugs or cups and so Table 2 Showing the Energy Star requirements for a range of office equipment in 1999
do not waste plastic or paper cups.

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3 ASSESSING THE COSTS

Having understood the overall benefits, consider Low-power modes use significantly less energy
the financial and environmental cost of office than idling but can involve staff waiting while
equipment. a machine becomes ready for use. The staff
costs can outweigh the energy saved.
RUNNING COSTS
The running costs of an item of office equipment Paper
can be greater than the purchase cost. They Using paper efficiently can save resources.
comprise some or all of the following: Choose products that use recycled paper and have
direct running costs such as the energy and a duplex facility. Individual products vary
consumables used by the product considerably so be careful to choose products
indirect costs such as any additional cooling where the speed for duplex printing is not much
from air-conditioning plant slower than single-sided printing, thus avoiding
administration costs overheads from buying excessive waiting time by staff.
products that require additional controls,
special handling and disposal. Consumables
Look at the cost of the toner, ink and other
Energy consumables. This can be significant over the life
Wasteful use of energy by office equipment is not of the product, so choose products that can use
only an unnecessary cost to you that affects your recycled toner or ink cartridges thereby reducing
bottom line, but also a cause of excessive CO2 costs and waste. Some designs have reduced the
emissions the principal contributor to climate number of cartridges others use refurbishable
change. Additional electrical energy is used by air- cartridges. Aim for these when effective to do so.
conditioning plant to remove the extra heat
generated by more inefficient office equipment. SUSTAINABLE USE OF RESOURCES
Choosing office equipment that meets current Products that minimise their use of natural
Energy Star specifications will reduce all such costs. resources can be obtained at little or no extra cost
Refer to GPG 118 for ways to reduce energy costs and will enhance your environmental image.
and bear in mind the following energy
consumption examples.
PCs and monitors account for over
half of office
equipment energy use.
Monitors use twice as
much energy as PCs.
Larger cathode ray
tube (CRT) monitors
use more energy than
smaller ones.
Larger copiers have
higher energy
consumption. Choose
one that is the right size
for your needs.
Laser printers use more
energy than inkjet
printers and dot matrix
printers but may have
lower ink costs.

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ASSESSING THE COSTS

Components Other emissions


Office equipment is usually manufactured from Check the level of other emissions, including the
plastics, metals, glass and fibres. The following.
manufacturing process of components involves Ozone laser printers and copiers give off
using finite resources such as fossils fuels and ozone; high concentrations of ozone in the
metals. By choosing products that use recycled work environment act as an irritant and can
materials or refurbished components you avoid cause breathing disorders.
wasting these resources. Noise excessive noise from appliances can
create an unpleasant working environment,
Packaging leading to lower productivity.
Investigate whether the packaging can be recycled Heat can make the office too warm, again
or reused. The packaging that is used to transport lowering productivity, or increasing the
the products is usually only required one way, so demand on air-conditioning, and increasing
ensure that the supplier takes away all transport energy costs.
packaging after delivery for reuse or recycling. It is Dust can act as an irritant and cause
best to specify that packaging should not include breathing disorders.
materials that are difficult to recycle or where
outlets are not readily available
to recycle these materials.

Durability
Long-lasting equipment reduces the need for costly
replacements. For example, a computer is typically
used for three years and a copier for five years. By
choosing equipment that can be upgraded, where it
is cost-effective to do so, the life of the equipment
is extended, making it environmentally preferable.

TOXICITY OF COMPONENTS AND EMISSIONS


Office equipment should comply with EU and UK
regulations on the use of environmentally
hazardous substances regardless of country of
manufacture.

Check that the manufacturing process does not use


substances which are highly polluting, eg deplete
the ozone layer, have a high global warming
potential, or are damaging to health.

Electromagnetic radiation
All office equipment has associated
electromagnetic radiation (emr) emissions which,
if unchecked, can be harmful. Therefore, select
equipment that meets Swedish MPR II guidelines
for low emissions (most quality equipment does
so), or equipment awarded the TCO label.

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4 BUYING OFFICE EQUIPMENT

PROCUREMENT POLICY Keeping up-to-date with new products and being


Being aware of the costs and other issues aware of changes in labelling will help you to update
surrounding environmentally preferable your specifications. Also ensure that environmental
equipment is only part of the story. It also requires information is obtained from manufacturers.
the organisation to adopt a procurement policy
requiring buyers across the organisation, before When seeking quotes specify that:
ordering new products, to: suppliers should provide details of average,
consider whether it is really necessary to buy idling and low-power consumption and
new equipment nameplate ratings
assess whether existing equipment can be the equipment should meet Energy Star ratings
shared with other employees or equivalent
check whether existing equipment can be suppliers must provide details of other
upgraded or repaired effectively. environmental criteria listed in appendix 3
suppliers must ensure that energy-saving
When preparing the policy, specifications for devices are activated before, or on, delivery
energy consumption should be given the highest (consult with users to ensure that standby
priority, as this has the most significant impact on times are appropriate).
the environment. Select the specifications most
relevant to your organisation (see appendix 3). Require the supplier to state whether:
For example, in an office with poor ventilation, they have a policy to take back and refurbish
minimising the levels of ozone and heat emissions used parts
from a copier may be a high priority. they use recycled materials and what
In other offices, the equipment operating noise proportion of the product is recycled
level may be more important to avoid interfering they and their suppliers have phased out the
with telephone conversations or other work. Avoid use of ozone-depleting substances and have
unnecessarily high specification where this may taken action to minimise the release of
reduce the cost-effectiveness of the purchase. greenhouse gases.

REMEMBER There are four important elements of energy


Units requiring more energy to achieve a given consumption necessary for you to understand.
result waste energy, damage the environment Peak load, or manufacturers nameplate
and waste your money. The extra heat rating this load is only reached
produced similarly causes unnecessary waste occasionally (for example, during start up).
and worsens your office environment. Operating load the energy consumed
when the equipment is doing its job (for
example, printing or copying).
Idling load the energy consumed while a
unit is fully on and waiting its next task.
Low-power load the reduced energy used
when the equipment partly closes down
from its idling mode, usually automatically
if set to do so.

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5 OPERATING OFFICE EQUIPMENT

ENERGY-EFFICIENT OPERATION PCs and monitors


ENERGY-SAVING FEATURES
Having purchased the right equipment, it is Screen savers are not a low-power mode, only
Sleep mode the lowest possible
equally important to manage all of your office reducing consumption by 10 W at best often
low-power state the machine can
equipment with the environmental impact in not at all and sometimes actually increasing
enter without actually turning off.
mind, particularly as most office equipment is left consumption. Ensure dark screen savers are not
on all day but only used for part of this time. Full mistaken for real low-power modes.
Duplex mode allows printing
details of how to do this are given in GPG 118. Computers for use on a network may be
on both sides of the page.
inadvertently disconnected during sleep mode
Appendix 1 shows you how to calculate the energy check with the network administrator.
consumption of your office equipment. If the PC needs to be on while not in use,
Properly managed equipment can save up to 85% switch off the monitor. ACTIVATION OF ENERGY-
of the running costs of 24-hour operation and A laptop uses about 15-25 W compared to SAVING FEATURES
reduce your environmental impacts. Remember to 125 W for a PC and monitor, but energy use Except on new Energy Star
turn all office equipment off at night, weekends during charging must be added. compliant models (where the
and during extended periods of inactivity as a features are usually activated by
start, even if the equipment has energy-saving Copiers the manufacturer), you will
low-power modes in operation. Run copies in batches to decrease the amount need to make sure the features
of time the copier spends in high-power idling are activated. Ask the supplier to
Equipment left on all night unnecessarily can mode. enable them. The manual of
quadruple your running costs. Energy Star If possible, avoid placing copiers in air- instructions should assist with
equipment left on all night will double your costs. conditioned areas; choose areas with natural activating such features on
ventilation. existing equipment.
For automatic low-power modes, ensure that
recovery times (the time taken for the equipment to Printers Check that energy-saving
return from low-power mode to operational mode) Consider using recycled toner or ink cartridges, features are set up on all
do not waste staff time unreasonably. However, it is as this will cut costs and help reduce the appliances. On Energy Star
important to remember that if the recovery time is amount of waste going to landfill. appliances you can reset the
fast, the potential for energy savings may be lower delay times to your preferred
than for a slow recovery time, especially with Fax machines level the range for your
copiers. You should also consider the location of Avoid using a cover sheet by using a stick-on organisation should be stated in
equipment to make sure that natural ventilation is label or writing the fax details on the first page of your corporate energy policy.
used, where possible, to avoid overheating and the the fax message. This reduces waste of paper and
build up of harmful ozone emissions. energy and also saves on your telephone bill.

Set copiers and printers to print on both sides of Vending machines and water coolers
the paper, so long as this does not use staff time Switch off at night and weekends if possible.
ineffectively. On new Energy Star copiers the Use mugs or cups rather than disposable plastic
duplex mode is set as default, and scanners and fax or paper cups.
machines may also have duplex modes. When
copying or printing for internal use always use
recycled paper, if possible, as this saves the natural
resources needed to make new paper and creates a
market for waste paper.

REDUCING CONSUMPTION AND WASTE


The following information and tips may be useful
in cost-effectively reducing energy consumption
and waste within your organisation.

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6 DISPOSAL OF EQUIPMENT

Often new office equipment is bought when an


existing appliance, although still functional, has The DTI estimates that 126 000 tons of PC
been superseded by a newer model. hardware are disposed of in the UK each year.
This is the equivalent of 315 Boeing 747s.
Before making the decision to dispose of the old
equipment, consider whether it could be used
elsewhere in the organisation, perhaps for less For redundant office equipment follow the UK
demanding work. If this is not feasible then recycle waste hierarchy.
or dispose of the equipment in an environmentally Reduce the amount of unnecessary
sensitive way. equipment you buy.
Reuse equipment for other, less demanding
THE ALTERNATIVES purposes.
There are many no-cost alternatives to throwing Recycle the equipment or the components.
away equipment. Certainly, if you have an
environmental policy you should ensure that
unwanted equipment is put to good use. Even where and reclaim precious metals. A few commercial
you have no financial gain, a good environmental organisations buy used computer systems for
policy will always enhance your organisations refurbishment and resale.
image. Ensure your annual report highlights it.
Alternatively, find out about community reuse
Ask your equipment supplier if they will take back schemes where computers are upgraded by the
the item for disposal. Some suppliers operate take- unemployed or disabled and sold or donated to
back schemes and will refurbish useful components schools. These schemes operate in many areas and
allow companies to make a valuable contribution
to their local community.

The Department of Trade and Industrys (DTIs)


guide Unwanted Computer Equipment: A Guide
To Reuse contains a list of organisations that
refurbish equipment and addresses potential
concerns about donating equipment for
refurbishment, such as data security and liability
for equipment failure during second use. For more
information on recycling and reuse of redundant
equipment contact the organisations listed on
page 17 of this Guide.

Consumables such as print and toner cartridges


can be recycled. There are many suppliers of
recycled products who will also collect used
cartridges.

Disposal of waste equipment and consumables


must be in accordance with the Duty of Care
placed on producers of waste by the
Environmental Protection Act 1990.

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7 NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN OFFICE EQUIPMENT

The office equipment market is changing rapidly. This means that they can be set to remain in
Its wider uses means that the energy it uses also standby mode without wasting staff time.
continues to grow rapidly. This section summarises
the product developments introduced since the These are currently only available at speeds of up
publication of companion GPG 118 in 1997. to 20 cpm but faster machines are expected to
become available.
LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY SCREENS
Liquid crystal display (LCD) screens are now widely
MANAGING THE ENERGY USED BY OFFICE
available and their cost continues to fall. These
EQUIPMENT
screens use 80% less energy than conventional CRT
GPG 118 continues to give useful advice for
monitors. Their initial higher cost can often be
managing the energy used by office equipment,
offset by lower office rental costs they occupy less
and the management approach in appendix 2
space than CRT monitors and by lower energy
of this Guide will simplify this process.
costs. Other environmental benefits include:
no electromagnetic emissions, eliminating any
negative effects on health
SUSTAINABLE DESIGN
less screen flicker, again benefiting the users
Sustainable product design uses life-cycle
health.
analysis and takes account of the need to
minimise the use of materials in its
PLASMA DISPLAY
manufacture, plus the impact of the product on
Plasma screens are an efficient option for large
the environment at the end of its life. These
displays, offering large screens that are only a few
products have lower running and disposal
centimetres thick. Their energy consumption is
costs, and will often also have reduced levels of
much less than the equivalent CRT display. New
noise and thermal emissions, thus improving
technologies under development include light-
the working environment.
emitting polymer displays which may offer even
greater energy efficiency.
Sustainable products may incorporate
remanufactured parts and use a high
COMBINATION COPIER/PRINTER/FAX
proportion of materials that can be recycled.
The primary function of combination devices is
They also, typically, use returnable cartridges
normally copying but they can also perform
and include features such as the ability to use
printing or faxing as a secondary function.
recycled paper. Furthermore, they can be
Combination devices are energy efficient because
dismantled easily for recycling purposes.
they avoid the cumulative idling and standby
energy consumption from separate machines.
They also save on resources, because only one set
of components is required.

DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
Digital technology is increasingly available for
copiers at slightly higher cost. The result is savings
in energy consumption, improvements in paper
efficiency and lower maintenance requirements.

INSTANT-WARM-UP COPIERS
Some manufacturers are introducing copiers that
warm up almost instantly, by the time the first
copy reaches the heated ink-sealing roller.

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APPENDIX 1 ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF OFFICE EQUIPMENT

ASSESSING THE ENERGY CONSUMED BY Look up the operating and idling low-power
YOUR OFFICE EQUIPMENT consumption in the equipment specification,
You are advised to assess the energy used by your or ask the supplier. If these are not known, use
office equipment when: the typical figures for mid-range equipment in
equipping a new office or buying new the worksheet.
equipment for an existing office Calculate the energy consumption for working
designing air-conditioning for an office days by multiplying the operating power by
designing a new office building the operating hours, and the idling low-power
considering the real benefits of potential by these hours for each type of machine. This
purchases this will prevent excessive over- can be multiplied by the number of working
expenditure and running costs. days a year (average 250).
Calculate the consumption for non-working
The energy used by office equipment is made up of days as the idling low-power multiplied by
the operating load for the time that the equipment 24 hours (for any equipment on constantly).
is operating, the idling load and the low-power Multiply the total by 115 (representing the
load, or loads, for the time the equipment is number of non-working days a year).
switched on. Typical operating and low-power Add together the hourly energy consumption
times are shown in worksheet 1 opposite. in Watts for working and non-working days
and divide by 1000 to get the consumption
CALCULATING THE ANNUAL ENERGY in kWh.
CONSUMPTION OF YOUR OFFICE EQUIPMENT
Copy the worksheet so that it can be used again
for other areas or in order to measure and compare
improvements in your organisations energy and EXAMPLE
environmental performance. Follow each of the A copier is switched on for 10 hours a day and
steps below and complete the appropriate blank operating for 4 hours. If the average operating
space in worksheet 1 ((a)-(i)) for your own load is 500 W and the low-power load is 150 W,
situation. then the total energy consumed in a day will be
Count the numbers of each type of equipment; 2900 Wh made up of:
if this is unknown adopt the typical numbers operating energy 500 x 4 = 2000 Wh
in the worksheet for your building. low-power energy 150 x 6 = 900 Wh.
Establish the typical daily operating hours and
the typical time idling. If these cannot be Electricity is normally measured in kWh
established, use the times in the worksheet (1 kWh = 1000 Wh), so the energy used by the
provided that PCs, printers, and copiers are copier is 2.9 kWh.
turned off at night and weekends. If they are
not, adjust the standby time accordingly.

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ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF OFFICE EQUIPMENT

PCs Printers Copiers Fax machines Scanners Vending machines Total

Number in office (a)

Example for 100-person office 100 30 5 3 3 3

Daily operating hours (b)

Typical 4 2 2 1 1 1

Daily idling hours (c)

Typical 6 8 8 23 23 23

Operating energy consumption (W) (d)

Typical 125 300 1400 300 25 1700

Idling energy consumption (W) (e)

Energy-saving features not enabled 120 90 200 30 20 300

Energy-saving features enabled (low-power mode) 45 15 100 10 12 100

Annual working-day energy consumption (Wh) (f)


250 (a b d) + 250 (a c e)

Without energy-saving features 30 500 000 9 900 000 5 500 000 742 500 363 750 6 450 000 53 456 250

With energy-saving features 19 250 000 5 400 000 4 500 000 397 500 225 750 3 000 000 32 773 250

Annual non-working-day energy consumption (Wh) (g)


115 (a e 24)

Without energy-saving features Nil Nil Nil 248 400 165 600 2 484 000 2 898 000

With energy-saving features Nil Nil Nil 82 800 99 360 828 000 1 010 160

Annual energy consumption (kWh) (h)


(f + g)/1000

Without energy-saving features 30 500 9900 5500 991 529 8934 56 353

With energy-saving features 19 250 5400 4500 480 325 3828 33 783

Cost per kWh from your electricity bill


or use 7p if not known (i)

Total cost of office equipment energy (h i)/100/

Without energy-saving features 2135 693 385 69 37 625 3944

With energy-saving features 1347 378 315 33 22 267 2362

Worksheet 1 Establishing office equipment energy consumption

If all equipment was left on 24 hours per day, its energy costs would be 10 800 without energy-saving features.
If all had energy-saving features and the features were activated, the energy cost would be 4750.
Manual turning off at night of PCs, printers and copiers reduces the total cost of 4750 by around 60% to 2060.

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APPENDIX 2 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

This appendix illustrates a five-step approach to everyday management in an organisation.


energy and environmental management advocated By adopting this approach, and developing an
by GPG 200. This approach is a standard technique energy and environmental policy as described in
that can be applied to any management, and can GPG 186, significant energy costs and
be easily and cost-effectively absorbed into environmental savings can be made.

A systematic approach is needed for effective energy and environmental management

Get Understand Plan and Implement Control


commitment organise and monitor

Generally understand Gather quantitative Develop a policy Initiate priority actions Review performance
the issues and plan the information on your statement. and investments. regularly to reaffirm
first key steps. current environmental Set objectives and Carry out training and and redefine your
Get commitment from performance. targets. raise awareness. actions.
top management to Identify management Develop detailed action Integrate energy and Carry out management
reducing the strengths and plans. environment into audits.
environmental impact weaknesses. Organise roles and business process. Seek continuous
of your office Analyse stakeholders responsibilities. Communicate improvement.
equipment. needs. performance.
Anticipate barriers to Overcome barriers.
implementation.

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APPENDIX 3 PREFERRED ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS

These specifications may be useful as guidelines in PRINTERS AND FAX MACHINES


determining your procurement policy and arriving Printers should use zinc oxide, silicon and other
at individual equipment specifications. Your exact organic compounds; cadmium sulphide is not
requirement should depend on the environmental permitted.
priorities of your organisation, together with the
speed and power of the product. Print speed Printers Fax machines
(ppm) low-power mode (W) low-power mode (W)
PCs AND MONITORS
Standby energy consumption 7 15 (after 15 minutes) 15 (after 5 minutes)

PC only (excluding monitor) 30 W after 7< ppm 14 30 (after 30 minutes) 30 (after 5 minutes)
15-30 minutes More than 14 and high-end colour 45 (after 60 minutes) 45 (after 15 minutes)
Monitor:
First low-power mode <15 W after Noise level for printers
15-30 minutes Standby mode 45 dB max
Second low-power mode 8 W after Operation mode 56 dB max
70 minutes total
standby
COPIERS

The best products on the market have much lower Copy speed Operating mode Low-power mode Automatic sleep mode
standby consumption. (cpm) (W) (W) (W)

Less than 20 n/a <5


Normal operation After more than
Total system 120 W 30 minutes

20-44 900 5 + 3.85 cpm <15


In addition to energy consumption, the following
After 15 minutes After more than
specifications should be applied to monitors.
30-second recovery 60 minutes

Emissions at 30 cm from the screen More than 44 5 + 3.85 cpm <20


Electrostatic potential <500 V After 15 minutes After more than
Alternating electric field: 30-second recovery 90 minutes
Band I (5 Hz-2 kHz) <10 V/m
Band II (2 kHz-400 kHz) <1 V/m
Noise level for copiers

Magnetic field at 30 cm from the screen Standby mode Copying mode


(dB) (dB)
Band 1 (2 Hz-2 kHz) <200 nT
Band 2 (2 kHz-400 kHz) <25 nT Lower-performance classes
<30 cpm 40 62
Noise level
Operating 50 dBA Medium-performance classes

Idle 42 dBA 30-50 cpm 50 67

High-performance classes
Screen >50 cpm 55 72
ISO 9241-3

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PREFERRED ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS

Additional specifications for printers and copiers Harmful substances


are as follows. No use of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium.

Material of photo-semiconductor Duplex


Copiers should use organic photoconductor or Check the printing and copying speed in duplex
selenium alloy mode as machines vary considerably.
Image drums non-disposable
FOR ALL EQUIPMENT
Toner not hazardous to humans or the
Also ask the supplier
environment
Are the energy-saving features activated
Toner cassettes recyclable/remanufacturable
before or on delivery?
Is the manufacturing process completely free
Emissions
from the use of ozone-depleting substances?
Dust max 0.15 mg/m3
3 What action have they taken to minimise
Ozone max 0.2 mg/m
the release of greenhouse gases, volatile
organic compounds and other substances
Potential for recycling the machine
damaging to the environment and health?
50% by weight.
What proportion of the machine is made
from recycled parts or materials?
Paper
Does the manufacturer have a take-back policy?
Able to use 100% recycled paper (containing at
Is packaging returnable on delivery and can
least 80% post-consumer waste) and duplex copy
it be recycled?
facility.

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USEFUL CONTACTS

There is a great deal of information available about Information about the EU Waste from Electrical
environmentally preferable office equipment on and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directive can be
the world wide web. Most equipment found at:
manufacturers have up-to-date web pages with http://www.cutter.com/psa/draftdir.html
information on the environmental performance of
their products and their environmental policies. RECYCLING AND REUSE
The following organisations are active in
LABELLING SCHEMES promoting the reuse of office equipment.
Information about Energy Star products can be
found at: Wastewatch (Bytes Twice)
http://www.energystar.gov Europa House
13-17 Ironmonger Row
Information about the European Union London EC1V 3QN
Eco-labelling scheme can be found at: Tel 0171 248 1818. Fax 0171 248 1404
http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg11/ecolabel Wasteline 0171 248 0242

The TCO scheme has a web site giving current ICER (Industry Council for Electronic Equipment
standards and a list of products that have been Recycling)
awarded the label: 6 Bath Place
http://www.tco-info.com Rivington Street
London SW1P 3BT
GOVERNMENT Tel 0171 729 4766. Fax 0171 457 5038
Department of the Environment Transport and Internet http://www.icer.org.uk
Regions (DETR):
http://www.detr.gov.uk National Recycling Forums Product Guide web site:
http://www.nrf.org.uk/buy-recycled/menu.htm
DETR Greening Government web site:
http://www.environment.detr.gov.uk/greening/ OTHER
gghome.htm Foresight Institute for information on
nanotechnology:
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI): http://www.foresight.org/homepage.html
http://www.dti.gov.uk
Institute of Nanotechnology with links to research
The DETRs Energy Efficiency Best Practice establishments:
programme (building-related) has a web site at: http://www.nano.org.uk
http://www.bre.co.uk/brecsu/
ECTEL (European Telecommunications &
The DETRs Energy Efficiency Best Practice Professional Electronics Industries Association)
programme for industry and the Environmental environmental specialists group for mobile phones
Technology Best Practice programme (a DETR and and electronic equipment:
DTI initiative) can be found at: http://www.ectel.org
http://www.etsu.com Tel 01753 500074. Fax 01753 553225

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FURTHER READING

DETR ENERGY EFFICIENCY BEST


PRACTICE PROGRAMME DOCUMENTS

The following Best Practice programme publications


are available from BRECSU Enquiries Bureau.
Contact details are given on the back cover.

Energy Consumption Guide


19 Energy use in offices

General Information Leaflet


11 Energy use in offices

Good Practice Case Studies


362 Energy management a strategic approach.
Do It All Limited
375 Effective energy management at ICI Paints,
Slough

Good Practice Guides


118 Managing the energy use of office equipment
186 Developing an effective energy policy
200 A strategic approach to energy and
environmental management

OTHER PUBLICATIONS

Department of Trade and Industry


A directory of refurbishers is obtainable from DTI:
Environment Directorate
181 Buckingham Palace Road
London SW1W 9SS
Tel 0171 215 1036. Fax 0171 215 5835

Unwanted Computer Equipment. A Guide to


Re-use. DTI, London, 1998

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The Governments Energy Efficiency Best Practice programme provides impartial, Energy Consumption Guides: compare energy use in
authoritative information on energy efficiency techniques and technologies in industry and specific processes, operations, plant and building types.
buildings. This information is disseminated through publications, videos and software,
Good Practice: promotes proven energy-efficient techniques
together with seminars, workshops and other events. Publications within the Best Practice
through Guides and Case Studies.
programme are shown opposite.
New Practice: monitors first commercial applications of new
For further information on: energy efficiency measures.
Buildings-related projects contact: Industrial projects contact:
Future Practice: reports on joint R&D ventures into new
Enquiries Bureau Energy Efficiency Enquiries Bureau energy efficiency measures.
BRECSU ETSU
General Information: describes concepts and approaches
BRE Harwell, Oxfordshire
yet to be fully established as good practice.
Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX OX11 0RA
Tel 01923 664258 Tel 01235 436747 Fuel Efficiency Booklets: give detailed information on
Fax 01923 664787 Fax 01235 433066 specific technologies and techniques.
E-mail brecsuenq@bre.co.uk E-mail etsuenq@aeat.co.uk

ARCHIVED DOCUMENT
Introduction to Energy Efficiency: helps new energy managers
Internet BRECSU http://www.bre.co.uk/brecsu/ understand the use and costs of heating, lighting, etc.
Internet ETSU http://www.etsu.com/eebpp/home.htm CROWN COPYRIGHT FIRST PRINTED JULY 1999