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Four-Part

Harmony
Volume I

David Powell
FOUR-PART HARMONY
Volume 1

by David Powell

Copyright 2013, David Powell


www.vancouvermusictheory.com
Table of Contents

Preface
Harmony and Voice Leading

1. Introduction ~ Welcome to the Study of Harmony!


2. Rules for Writing Vocal Music in Four Parts
3. Introduction to Primary Triads
4. Introduction to Secondary Triads
5. The Basics of Chord Progression
6. Consonance and Dissonance
7. Introduction to First Inversion Chords
8. Harmony and Rhythm, Part 1
9. Passing and Neighbour Notes
10. V7, Part 1
11. ii7, Part 1
12. Appoggiaturas, Accented Passing Notes and Accented Neighbours
13. Triads in Second Inversion
14. The viio6 triad
15. The iii triad
16. Harmony and Rhythm, Part 2
17. V/V and viio6 /V
18. Introduction to Minor Keys
19. Modulation
20. More Progressions with First Inversion Chords
21. Deceptive and Plagal Cadences
22. Suspensions and Incomplete Neighbours
23. V7 and ii7, part 2
24. The Passing Six-Four
25. Pedals, Echappes and Anticipations
26. Melodic Considerations in Four Parts
27. Exposed 5ths and Octaves
28. Sequences
29. More about Chord Progressions
30. Summary of Guidelines for Doubling
Forms

31. Binary and Ternary Forms


32. Phrases and Modulation
33. How to Find Cadences
34. The Unexpected

Melody Writing

35. Melody, Part 1: Phrases in Melody Writing


36. Melody, Part 2: Steps and Leaps; Writing in 3/4 time
37. Melody, Part 3: Shape; Writing in 4/4 time
38. Melody, Part 4: Melodies with Pickups; Implied Harmony
39. Melody, Part 5: Writing Melodies in Compound Time; Syncopation
40. Melody, Part 6: Minor Keys; Tempo
41. Melody, Part 7: Eight-Bar Melodies
42. Melody, Part 8: Development

Appendix

1. Baroque Dances
2. Common Progressions in Piano Style
3. Structure and Analysis of 7th Chords
4. Non-Chord Note Summary
5. The Leading Note
6. Root/Quality Chord Symbol Summary

Review Sheets
Preface
This volume is intended to help students prepare for exams as the Royal Conservatory of Musics
Introductory and Basic Harmony exams. It is divided into four sections:

1. Harmony and Voice Leading

2. Binary and Ternary Forms

3. Melody Writing

4. Appendix

I recommend that teachers begin teaching the melody writing material fairly early in the course,
more or less at the same time the harmony units.

There are homework sheets for all of the units in the Harmony and Voice Leading section and in
the Melody Writing section. I have not included exercises for analysis of binary and ternary forms,
nor for chord symbol analysis, because I always found that commercially available practice exams
afforded sufficient material for practice in these areas.

There are seventeen review sheets. These are simply extra exercises. They are meant to start being
used about half-way through the course.

At this time Volume II is not yet available. Volume II will cover Intermediate and Advanced
Harmony. I hope to have it ready by mid-2014. Subscribe via RSS to my news at
www.vancouvermusictheory.com to receive progress updates. You are also welcome to leave
comments, questions and feedback at my website.

I hope you enjoy using this book!

David Powell
Vancouver, Canada

April, 2013

Instructions regarding copying

You may print out the book for your own use. However, please respect my copyright and do not
copy or share this file. Copies of this book may be purchased in PDF format at

www.vancouvermusictheory.com

for $4.50

A print edition will be available soon, probably by June 2013.


HARMONY AND
VOICE LEADING
Unit 1 ~ Welcome to the Study of Harmony!

In this course we will learn how to compose simple four-part vocal music. That means music
for four different voice parts.

Imagine a choir in a church. The choir is made up of men and women. Some of the
women can sing high notes quite easily. They are called sopranos. Others sing low notes
well. They are called altos. Likewise, among the men, some are good at singing higher notes.
They are called tenors. The basses are the guys who can sing really low.

When we write music for these four voice types, we arrange it on a system of two staves. The
music that is sung by the sopranos and altos is written on the top staff, and the men's music
is on the bottom staff. To avoid confusion, the stems on the soprano and tenor notes always
go up, and the stems on the alto and bass notes always go down. That way, everyone knows
which note they should sing and can follow their line.

Here's an example of music written for four voices. This is the beginning of a hymn called
All through the Night.

#
& . j . j .
j w
Soprano
. J w
j
Alto

? # .
w
w
Tenor
Bass

You may be wondering why we begin studying harmony using music for singing. This is
because vocal music tends, in general, to be a bit simpler than instrumental music. This
makes it a good place to start for first time harmony students.

One big difference between vocal music and instrumental music is that vocal music
tends to move by step (a step is a 2nd), as in a scale. In instrumental music, it is easier
to leap around. A leap is any melodic interval of a 3rd or more.

________________________________________________________________________
1-1
Types of voice movement
There are some other terms and concepts with which you should be familiar before we
begin:

1. Contrary motion:
When two voices are moving in opposite directions, we say that they are moving in
contrary motion.

& # n

2. Similar motion:
When 2 parts are moving in the same direction, we say that they are moving in similar motion.


&

3. Parallel motion:
When 2 parts move in similar motion and stay exactly the same distance apart, we say that
they are moving in parallel motion.

&

4. Oblique motion:
When one voice moves and another stays on the same note, this
is called 'oblique motion'.

&

________________________________________________________________________
1-2
Triads
You will remember triads from your rudiments studies. They are formed by adding a 3rd
and a 5th to each note of a major or minor scale.

There are four different kinds of triads: Major, Minor, Diminished and Augmented.

Major triads contain a major 3rd and a perfect 5th


Minor triads contain a minor 3rd and a perfect 5th
Diminished triads contain a minor 3rd and a diminished 5th
Augmented triads contain a major 3rd and an augmented 5th

Here are the 7 triads found in C major:

www www www www www


& www www

In major keys, the tonic, subdominant and dominant triads are major
The supertonic, mediant and submediant triads are minor
The leading note triad is diminished
There is no augmented triad in major keys

Labelling chords

When we analyse music we use systems of notation to label the chords. There are two
systems we will learn about: Functional Chord Symbols and Root/Quality Chord Symbols.

Functional Chord Symbols use Roman numerals to label the chords:

www www www www www


& www www
C: I ii iii IV V vi viio

________________________________________________________________________
1-3
This system is called Functional Chord Symbols because it tells us the function of each chord
in a particular key.

You will notice that some of these triad symbols are written in capital numerals, and others
in small numerals. The rule is that triads containing a major 3rd are written in capital
numerals, and those triads with minor thirds are written in small numerals. The vii triad is
diminished and the convention is to put a small circle next to diminished triads.

The Root/Quality system

The Root/Quality system labels each chord with its root and quality (i.e. major, minor,
diminished or augmented).

Major triads are simply designated by the root. So a C major triad is just labelled "C"
Minor triads are labelled by the root, followed by 'm' for 'minor', e.g. a D minor triad is "Dm"
Diminished triads are labelled by the root and a small circle: Bo

Here are the triads of C major labelled using the Root/Quality system:

Bo
www
C Dm Em F G Am

www www www www www


& www

Minor Keys

Here are the triads derived from C minor harmonic scale. (you can create more triads if
you use the melodic minor - we will look at these later on)

E baug Ab
n www
Do Bo
b n www www
Cm Fm G

& b b www www n www www

C- i iio IIIx iv V VI viio

________________________________________________________________________
1-4
Homework for Unit 1 ~ Introduction

1. Name the 4 voice parts, starting with the highest and going down.

2. Which 2 parts are written in the bass clef.?

3. Which 2 parts are written in the treble clef ?

4. Which 2 parts have their stems always going up?

5. Which 2 always have their stems going down?

6. How many triads can you make using the notes of a major scale?

7. What is contrary motion?

8. What is similar motion?

9. What is parallel motion?

10. What is oblique motion?

11. Name one difference between music written for voices and music written for instruments.

Homework for Unit 1 - page 1 of 1


Unit 2 ~ Rules for Writing Vocal Music in Four Parts

When you are writing, you must remember that there are limits to how high and low
people can sing. Here are the highest and lowest notes of the four voices:

Soprano
Alto
w w
Tenor
Bass
&
w w w
? w
w w

Distance between parts:


The soprano and the alto parts should never get more than an octave apart from each other.
Nor should the alto and tenor. However, the tenor and bass may be separated by as much
as a perfect 12th.

OK Incorrect OK Incorrect

&
OK Incorrect

________________________________________________________________________
2-1
Overlapping

&
?

Look at the bass and tenor parts in the above example. Notice how the tenor part in the second
chord is lower than the bass part in the first. This is called overlapping.

Overlaps should be avoided in all parts. For example, the alto should never sing a note that
is higher than the previous soprano note. The soprano should never sing a note that is lower
than the previous alto note, and so on.

Crossing

&
?

Here, the soprano and alto are actually trading places, and the alto is singing higher
than the soprano. This is called crossing and should also be avoided.

________________________________________________________________________
2-2
Consecutives

We learned in Unit 1 about parallel motion. This is when two voices move in the same
direction and stay the same distance apart. Sometimes this is OK. For example, it's fine for
two voices to move in parallel motion a third apart. However, it is not permitted for two
voices to move in parallel motion a 5th apart, or an octave apart, or to move together on the
same notes (parallel unisons). See the examples below:

& Consecutive perfect 5ths between the soprano and alto


voices (some people use the word 'parallel' instead

?
of consecutive, as in 'parallel 5ths').

&

?
Consecutive unisons between tenor and alto.

&
?
Consecutive octaves between tenor and bass.


OK OK

& Note: it is not a mistake to have two


consecutive fifths or octaves or unisons

?
if the parts are not moving to different
notes.

________________________________________________________________________
2-3
Finally, try to make the voices move as smoothly as you can. This means using mostly
stepwise motion, and keeping leaps to a minimum (the bass part tends to have more leaps
than the other voices - this is fine). Usually, you should always try to move each part to the
next nearest note.

This example is poor. Look how many leaps there are:


&

?

Here is an improved version of the same progression. Most of the leaps have been removed
simply by re-arranging the parts.


&
?

Summary:
1. Each voice has a limited range within which it must sing.
2. The soprano and alto may be as much as an octave apart.
3. The alto and tenor may be as much as an octave apart.
4. The bass and tenor may be as much as a 12th apart.
5. No two voices may cross or overlap.
6. No two voices may move in consecutive unisons, 5ths, or octaves.
7. Parts should move, as much as possible, by step or small leap.

________________________________________________________________________
2-4
Homework for Unit 2 ~ Rules for Writing Vocal Music in Four Parts

In this line, find and circle any notes that are too high or too low. Refer to page 1 of unit 2.


&




?

In this line, find and circle the parts that are too far apart - see page 1 of unit 2


&




?


In this line, find and circle the note that is overlapping. Sometimes there are 2 notes that overlap -
see page 2 of unit 2

&



?

Homework for Unit 2 - page 1 of 4


In this line, find and circle the 2 parts which have crossed - see page 2 of unit 2

&


?


In the next 2 lines, find the consecutive 5ths, octaves and unisons - see page 3 of unit 2

&

&


?

Homework for Unit 2 - page 2 of 4


Practise writing triads in 4 parts in root position using the given notes as bass notes.
Arrange the 3 upper voices differently in each one. Double the root of each one. Make sure each
voice is in its proper range and that there is not too much space between the voices.

I've done the first 4 as an example:

&


?

&

&

Homework for Unit 2 - page 3 of 4


&

&

?

&

Homework for Unit 2 - page 4 of 4


Unit 3 ~ Introduction to Primary Triads

The first triads we will learn about are the tonic, subdominant and dominant triads. These
triads are called the primary triads. To begin with, we will look at the primary triads only in
root position.

& www www www

C+: I IV V

As you know, there are three notes in a triad. Since we are writing music for 4 voices, one of
the notes must be sung by 2 of the voices. We call this 'doubling'. The best note to double in
a primary triad is the root. The 5th is an acceptable second choice.

The 3rd of V is the leading note of the key. It is a very strong note and we only need one of
them at a time, so never double the leading note. Note that in minor keys you must raise
the leading note with an accidental.

Phrases and Cadences


Pieces of tonal music are made up of phrases, which are a bit like sentences in speech. In the
kind of music we will be studying and writing, phrases are very often four bars long. You will
also see short phrases that are two bars long.

As you probably already know, phrases are separated from each other by cadences. A cadence
is a pair of chords that creates a sense of partial or full closure or rest, rather like commas
and periods in spoken and written language.

There are four kinds of cadence: perfect, imperfect, plagal, and deceptive. Perfect and imperfect
cadences are the most common. We'll learn about them today, and save plagal and deceptive
cadences for later.

________________________________________________________________________
3-1
The Perfect Cadence

A perfect cadence consists of the dominant chord, V, going to the tonic chord, I.
This is like a full stop in speech. There is a feeling that the idea is complete.

Figure 3.2 shows a four-bar phrase, with a perfect cadence at the end.

fig. 3.2
# 3
William Croft

& 4


? # 34



Perfect cadence: V - I

When writing this progression, there are a couple of things to remember. One is that the
part that has the leading note of the scale in the V triad should sing the tonic note in the I
triad (there are exceptions that we'll learn about later). In figure 3.2, the soprano has the
leading note, F #, which then rises to G. In figure 3.3, the soprano has the leading note B,
which then rises to C.

fig. 3.3

& c
There's another thing to notice about these examples.


Notice in figure 3 that both triads contain the note G.
This is referred to as a 'common tone'. Whenever

?c
possible, try to keep the common tone in the same voice.
In figure 3.3, the G is in the tenor in both chords. In
figure 3.2, the common tone is the D, and is in the alto
in both chords.
C+: V I

________________________________________________________________________
3-2
The Imperfect Cadence

Sometimes a phrase comes to rest on the dominant chord. This is known as an imperfect
cadence. Why is it called imperfect? Because although V is a good place to rest for a moment,
it doesn't quite feel like home. The piece only really feels finished when we return to our
starting place, the tonic triad.

The imperfect cadence consists of a V chord, and a chord before it. Here's a phrase that
ends with an impefect cadence.

j
& b 34
Rowland Prichard

.
j
? b 34 .

Imperfect cadence: vi V

There is a family of chords that go well before the V chord. We can call them dominant
approach chords. The first one of these we will look at is IV ("iv" in minor keys), the
subdominant triad. IV goes very well to V.

fig. 3.5

& c

Figure 3.5 shows you IV going to V. In this
progression there are no common tones,

?c
but the voices are moving quite smoothly - by


step or small leap.

IV V
You must always be on the lookout to avoid consecutive octaves and 5ths. It's surprisingly
easy to let them slip into your work. One trick you can use with the progression IV - V is
to have the upper three parts descend while the bass rises. Two of the voices descend by
step, and one leaps down a third. This is what happens in figure 3.5.

________________________________________________________________________
3-3
Leaps:

Avoid leaps bigger than a 4th in the soprano, alto and tenor. The bass may leap as much
as a 5th or 6th (you can even leap an octave in the bass, but not a 7th - more about leaps later).
If you find yourself making leaps larger than these, there's usually a way to rearrange
the voices to reduce the leaps.

Now that we've seen I and V together, and IV and V together, let's put the 3 of them
together to make a phrase, starting and ending with I:

fig. 3.6

& b


?b

F+: I IV V I

________________________________________________________________________
3-4
Homework for Unit 3 ~ Primary Triads

1. Complete these exercises by adding the alto and tenor. voices All the triads in these
exercises are in root position. Write the functional chord symbols beneath the exercises and
root/quality symbols above.

Name the keys of the exercises. Double the root of each triad and hold common notes in the same
part.

##
G C

& c bbbb

?c ## bbbb
C: V I

# bb b
&
?#
bb b

### 3 bb
& 2

? # # # 23 bb

Homework for Unit 3 - page 1 of 3
bbb #
&

? bbb #

#### ## bbb
&
? #### ##
bbb

c ##
&

?c ##

###
&b

?b ###
Homework for Unit 3 - page 2 of 3
2. In the following blank bars, write these progressions:

a. I - IV in C, G, D, and B

b. IV - V in E, C, A b and C # Let the top 3 voices come down as the bass


rises.

c. V - I in A b, E b, B b and C

Do them exactly in exactly the same way as they're done in this unit: write each one in root
position and double the root of each.

Keep common notes in the same voice where possible, and make sure that when V goes to I,
whoever has the leading note in V gets the tonic in I.

a.

&c
?c

b.

&
?

c.

&
?

Homework for Unit 3 - page 3 of 3


Unit 4 ~ Introduction to Secondary Triads
In the last unit, we met the primary triads, I, IV, and V.

The remaining triads - ii, vi, and vii - are known as secondary triads. In this unit we'll look at
vi and ii. You'll learn about iii and vii in a later unit.

Both ii and vi like to go to V. Let's have a look at each in turn.

Approaching V with vi

fig. 4.1


C Am G C

& c

? c

I vi V I

The submediant triad is a minor triad in major keys.

Figure 4.1 shows the vi triad approaching the dominant. When it comes right before or
right after V, the best note to double is the 3rd. The root can also be doubled.

Notice the common notes. The tonic and submediant triads share two common notes.

In figure 4.1 I have kept them in the same voice, which makes the movement of the
voices between the chords (known as 'voice leading') very smooth.

________________________________________________________________________
4-1
Approaching V using ii

fig. 4.3

c
&
? c

I ii V I

Figure 4.3 shows V being approached using ii, the supertonic triad. Like vi, ii is a minor
triad. Also like vi, the best notes to double are the root and the 3rd.

ii goes realy well to V, but this progression usually doesn't work well in reverse, so don't go
from V to ii.

________________________________________________________________________
4-2
Homework for Unit 4 ~ Introduction to Secondary Triads

Use the blank bars for questions 1 - 3. Use one bar per progression. Write functional chord
symbols below the staff and root/quality symbols above.

1. Write the progression vi - V in G, A, B b, D and F. Double the 3rd of vi and the root of V.

Em D
# c
&
? # c

G: vi V

2. Write the progression ii - V in C, G, D, E,and C #. Let the soprano have the supertonic
going to the leading note (2-7). Double the root of ii and of V.

&
?

3. Write the progression I - vi - ii - V - I in F and G. Use quarter notes for the first four chords and
a whole note for the last one

&
?

Homework for Unit 4 - page 1 of 3


4. Add the inner voices to the following. Use I, IV, ii, vi, and V. Write the chord symbols and
name the keys. Let the leading note rise to the tonic when V goes to I. Double the 3rd of vi.
These are all in major keys.

Example:


&



?
C+: I IV V I

## #
&
? ## #

# bb
&
?# bb

## ###
&
? ## ###

Homework for Unit 4 - page 2 of 3


&

?

####
&
? ####


&b

?b

b b w
&
? bb w

Homework for Unit 4 - page 3 of 3


Unit 5 ~ The Basics of Chord Progression
In this course you will learn how to handle each chord in detail. First however, let's
take a look at general principles of chord progression. Where does each chord like to go?

Pieces of tonal music generally begin on the tonic chord, leave it for a while, and come
back to it by way of the dominant. We put the tonic chord, I, at the top of the chart. It's
a "Level 1" chord. The I chord can go to any other chord.

All the other chords tend to move up one level. So:

Level 2 chords are dominant chords: V and vii. These chords like to go to level 1, to I.

Level 3 chords are pre-dominant chords. This means they like to go to the Level 2 chords
V or vii.

The lonely iii chord on level 4 likes to go up to level 3, either to vi or IV.

level 1: I

level 2: V vii

level 3: vi IV ii

level 4: iii

I have used major key triads in the chart, but this principle applies equally to minor key
triads, which you will learn all about later on.

Now you have a basic grasp of the principle of chord progression in tonal music. There is
more for you to learn about this but this is the basic principle. If you can remember the
information on this page you already know most of what you need to know to write good
progressions!
________________________________________________________________________
5-1
Common Progressions

There are many progressions that are frequently found in tonal music, and these progressions
often use a particular soprano line.

For example, IV - V - I is a common progression in many styles of music. In classical


music we might use the melody 4 - 2 - 1, which means that the soprano sings the
subdominant in IV, the supertonic in V, and the tonic in I, like this:

4

2

1
&
?

IV V I

There are actually a couple of different melody lines that could be used with this progression,
but there are some progressions that tend to use only one specific melody line.

Throughout this book you will periodically see summaries of the common progressions
you should know so far, and they will look like this:

Progression Soprano

IV - V - I 4-2-1

It's very important to memorize these progressions, as knowing them will really help you on
your exams.

________________________________________________________________________
5-2
Unit 6 ~ Consonance and Dissonance

Some notes sound stable together. They are restful to hear. They sound as if they 'agree'
with each other. We say these intervals are 'consonant'.

The consonant intervals are:

& ww bw nw w
ww b ww n ww w w w
P1 -3 +3 P5 -6 +6 P8
Other pairs of notes sound like they disagree. Instead of sounding restful and relaxed, they
sound tense and restless, and want to resolve or release their tension. These are dissonances.

Although they create tension, dissonances can be very beautiful. In fact, it is the resolution
of dissonance into consonance that gives music much of its power.

The dissonant intervals are:

-2& ww # ww b ww bw nw
b ww n ww w w
-2 +2 P4* X4 o5 -7 +7

There are special guidelines that you must follow when you use dissonances. We will begin
to learn about this in later units.

*The Perfect 4th is a special case. It is considered dissonant only when the lowest note of
the 4th is in the bass part.

_______________________________________________________________________
6-1
Homework for Unit 6 ~ Consonance and Dissonance
Name these intervals, and state whether each is consonant or dissonant.

& ww # ww b ww #w
# w
+3 Consonant

bw b ww ww bw
& w
w

#w
& ww ww
# ww w

bw #w
& # ww bw
w bw #w

w w
& w ww b b ww bw

Homework for Unit 6 page 1 of 1


Unit 7 ~ Introduction to First Inversion Triads
So far we have only looked at triads in root position. These triads sound strong and solid.
Usually cadences use root position chords.

Away from cadences we can add more variety and interest to our music by using chords in first
inversion as well as root position. In 1st inversion, the bass note is the third of the triad.

Root position triads contain a 3rd and a 5th from the bass. 1st inversion triads contain
a 3rd and a 6th:

& www ww
w
5 6
3 3
In the Functional Chord Symbol system we omit the '3' and just write a '6' after the symbol.
So, a 'ii' chord in 1st inversion is written "ii6"

In the Root/Quality system, we write the root, then the quality, then a forward slash, then
the bass note. So, a 1st inversion D minor triad is written "Dm/F"

Dm/F

& w
w
? ww
6
C+: ii

The doubling rules are the same for 1st inversion and root position triads.

Being inverted doesn't usually change a chord's level. So just as 'ii' is a level 3 chord,
so is ii6, and ii6 likes to go to level 2 just as much as ii.

________________________________________________________________________
7-1
C Dm/F G C

& c

? c

C+: I ii6 V I

Another common technique involving 1st inversions is to go from a root position chord to its
1st inversion, or vice versa. In this example, a ii chord goes to ii6 before going to V:

c
&

?c
C+: ii ii6 V I

Notice in the first bar how the soprano and bass trade notes: the soprano goes from F to D
while the bass goes from D to F. This is called voice exchange and is very effective.

________________________________________________________________________
7-2
Finally, here is a progression with IV6, V6, and I6.

Just like IV in root position, IV6 goes very well to V:


& ww
w
? w
C+ : I V6 I IV6 V I6 ii6 V I

Common Progressions you should know so far:

Progression Soprano

IV - V - I 4-2-1

ii6 - V - I 2-7-1

________________________________________________________________________
7-3
Homework for Unit 7 ~ First Inversion Triads
1. Write these progressions:

a. I - I6 in A and F d. I - IV in F and D
b. V6 - I in C and E e. IV - I6 in G and B
c. IV6 - V in A and F

Write the chords in half-notes, in 4/4 time

a. b. c.

&c
?c

d. e.

&
?

f. I - I6 - ii6 - V - I in C and F. Let the soprano have the melody 3 - 1 - 2 - 7 - 1. Make the first 4
chords a quarter note long each, and the last one a whole note..

f.

&
?

Homework for Unit 7 page 1 of 4


2. Complete these in 4 parts. Name the keys and write the functional and root/quality chord
symbols.

Name the keys of each one. Remember, a double bar line does not cancel a key signature.
A key signature made up of naturals only is C major.

bb bbb
&
? b
b bbb

b ## nn
&bb
? bb ## nn

b

### w
&
? ### w

&
? w

Homework for Unit 7 page 2 of 4


3. Complete these progression. Show all chord symbols. Double the roots or fifths of the
primary triads (preferably roots if they're in root position). Double the 3rd of vi when it
comes before or after V.

Write I - IV - V - I in C and G

#
&



? #

Write I - vi - V - I in D and A

&
?

Write I - ii -V - I in F and B b

&
?

I - ii6 - V - I in C and B b (use the soprano 1-2-7-1)

&
?
Homework for Unit 7 page 3 of 4
Write I - V6 - I - I6 - ii6 - V - I in A b and B b (soprano 1-2-3-1-2-7-1)

&
?

&
?

Write I - IV6 - V - I in C and F (soprano 3-4-5-5)

&
?

Homework for Unit 7 page 4 of 4


Unit 8 ~ Harmony & Rhythm, part 1
As you know, there are strong beats and weak beats in every bar of music. In duple time
(2/4, 6/8, etc.) the first beat is strong and the second is weak.

strong weak

& 24

In triple time (3/4, 9/8, etc.) the first beat is strongest:

strong weak weak

3
&4

In quadruple time (4/4, 12/8, etc) the strongest beat is the first. The third
beat is weaker than the 1st, but stronger than 2 or 4, which are weak.

strong weak medium weak

&c

Also, if you subdivide a beat , the first note will feel more accented than the second:

strong weak

&
________________________________________________________________________
8-1
In our exercises, we are usually given a time signature at the beginning. We must make sure that the
chords we choose will 'fit' the time signature. Basically all this means is that we must make sure that
there is a change of chord on the strong beats of the piece. It is OK to repeat a chord from a
strong beat to a weak one, but not from a weak one to a strong one.

The example in figure 1 is fine because the repeated chords are on weak beats. Figure 2, however,
is poor because the V triad is being repeated from a weak beat to a strong beat. It may make the
music suddenly sound like it's in 3/4, not 2/4

fig. 1 fig. 2

s w s w s w s w

& 24











? 24

C+: I ________ V ______ I V___________ I

________________________________________________________________________
8-2
Homework for Unit 8 ~ Harmony and Rhythm, part 1

1. Write these progressions twice each. Put each one in a different key. Use quarter notes.

a. I - IV - V - I e. I - I6 - IV - V
b. I - vi - V - I f. I - IV6 - V - I
c. I - ii6 - V - I g. I - V6 - I - IV
d. I - vi - IV - V h. I - vi - ii - V

Above each beat, write S or W, according to whether the beat is strong or weak

a. b.

&
?

c. d.

&
?

e. f.

&
?

Homework for Unit 8 page 1 of 2


g. h.

&
?

2. Add the inner voices to the following 8 exercises. Write root/quality symbols above each chord.

b n bb
&
? b n bb

# ## ###
&
? # ## ###

3. The following passage is full of consecutive 5ths and 8ves. Search for them part by part and
mark them..

w
& w
w
?
w

Homework for Unit 8 page 2 of 2


Unit 9 ~ Passing and Neighbour Notes

So far in the course, all the notes we have written have belonged to triads. However, music
is often decorated with notes that don't belong to the chord they're in. These notes are
known as 'non-chord notes' and are divided into different categories. In addition, some
of them always occur on the strong part of the beat, while others always occur on the
weak part.

Passing Notes

The first type we will look at are known as passing notes. Passing notes are very simple. They
always occur on the weak part of the beat, and always fill in a gap between two chord notes.
Usually one passing note will fill in a gap of a third, although it is possible to have two
passing notes in a row filling in a gap of a 4th.


& The E in the soprano does not belong to the ii6
chord. It fills a gap between the F and the D.

?
Passing notes are labelled "pn".

6
C+: ii ii

& Here, the A and B in the soprano don't belong to

?
the I triad. They fill in a gap of a 4th between


G and C. Sometimes these are called 'double
passing notes'.

6
C+: I I

______________________________________________________________________
9-1
Passing notes may also occur simultaneously in different voices, creating
passages in parallel thirds or sixths.

b bb
&

In this example, the bass and alto have passing
? bb notes on the 'and 'of the first beat (D and F).
b
C-: i i6

Sometimes a passing note fills in the gap between two notes only a major second apart.
This passing note has an accidental next to it, and is known as a 'chromatic passing note'.

& #

?

C+: I ii6

Neighbour Notes

The next type of non-chord note we will study is the neighbour note. They are
simple decorations of a single chord note. They work like this: we hear the chord note,
then the note either a step above or a step below it, and then hear the chord note again.
The note above or below is the auxiliary note. They are also known as auxiliary notes.

&
Here, the soprano C is decorated by an upper
auxiliary, D. The D doesn't belong to the I triad.
? Neighbour notes are labelled "nn".

6
C+: I I
________________________________________________________________________
9-2
&

In this one, the C is decorated by a lower auxiliary, B.
?
C+: I I6

Just as we have chromatic passing notes, we may also have chromatic neighbours.
The example below shows chromatic neighbour notes in both soprano and alto voices.

#
& #
?

C+: I ___________

_______________________________________________________________________
9-3
Homework for Unit 9 ~ Passing and Neighbour Notes

Find the passing notes and the neighbour notes in the following and circle them. Add functional
chord symbols.


&

?

#
& w # #
#
w . j
?#

w #
& b

?b

##

&

? # #

Homework for unit 9 page 1 of 1


Unit 10 ~ V7, part 1
If we add a seventh to the V triad, we get what is called the dominant seventh chord (figure 1).
In root position it is labelled "V7".

www
fig. 1

& w = V7
As V7 is a level 2 chord, the usual place for it to go is I. The dominant 7th
in root position contains the following intervals: +3, P5, -7. The root/quality symbol is the
root plus "7", so a dominant 7th whose root is G would be labelled "G7"
V7 contains two notes that we call 'active notes' or 'active tones'. This means that they
have a particular job to do. One of these notes is the leading note, and the other is the
7th (remember to raise the leading note in minor keys)

As we have seen, the leading note tends to rise a step to the tonic. The new rule to learn
here is that the 7th must fall a step. When V7 goes to I, that means the seventh will fall
a step to the 3rd of I.

fig. 2 G7 C fig. 3 fig. 4

&


?

C+: V7 I
Notice that in figure 2 the I chord is missing the 5th (there is no G). If you follow all the
rules, i.e. if your leading note rises to the tonic and your 7th falls a step, it's impossible to
get the 5th into the I chord without having consecutive 5ths. However, fig. 3 shows a dodge
you can use to get the 5th into that I chord: if the leading note is in either the alto or tenor
voice, it may fall a 3rd to sing the 5th of I. It's allowed in the alto or tenor because it's not so
noticeable. When the soprano has the leading note, it must rise, which is why the I triad
in figure 2 has no 5th. You could also leave the 5th out of the V7 chord instead, as in
figure 4. This will be less noticeable than a 5th missing from I.
________________________________________________________________________
10 - 1
Now, let's talk about the inversions of V7. Here they are in C major:

www
1st 2nd 3rd

& wwww www w


w
6 6 6
5 4 4
3 3 2
As you might have guessed, we abbreviate the symbols for these chords:

The 1st inversion is labelled V6 , the 2nd is V4 and the 3rd is V4


5 3 2
The root/quality symbol for the inversions consist of the root plus "7", then a slash, then the
bass note.

The rules are the same as for V7: the leading note rises and the seventh falls. Note: If we are
using inversions of V7, there is never any need to leave the 5th out of I and there is never
any need to use the 'dodge': the leading note can always rise to the tonic.

fig. 5
G7/B

&
Figure 5 shows the 1st inversion. The
first inversion of V7 always goes to I in

?
root position, because the leading note


is sung by the bass, who must then sing
the tonic note.

fig. 6 G7/D

&
Figure 6 shows the


second inversion, V4
? 3

_______________________________________________________________________
10 - 2
Figure 6 shows the 3rd inversion of V7. The symbol for this chord isV42

It follows the same rules. The seventh of the chord is in the bass. Because the seventh
always falls, V4 always goes to I6
2

fig. 6
G7/F C/E

&

?

Summary
1. V likes to go to I. We can make this tendency even stronger by adding a 7th to V.

2. When resolving V7 to I, the part which has the leading note in V7must rise a step to
sing the tonic note of I, unless it is an inner voice, where it may fall to the 5th of I.

3. The part which sings the 7th in V7 must fall a step to sing the 3rd of I.

4. V7 may also go to vi or IV6. We'll talk about this more in a later unit.

________________________________________________________________________
10 - 3
Homework for Unit 10 ~ V7, part 1
Write these progressions using the empty bars on this and the next pages. Write functional
chord symbols under your answers and root/quality above.

Write each one twice each, arranging the voice differently the second time. See my
example below:

1. V7 - I in F , B b, E b, A b

Remember that if you have the leading note in the soprano, it must rise. If it's in the alto or tenor
it may fall to take the 5th of I. If it's in the soprano, the I chord will have no 5th.

2. V6 - I in E b, B b, and A b, D
5

3. V4 - I in E, D b, B, and F
3

4. V4 - I6 in F, G, B b, and C,
2

Don't forget to write the proper key signature for each exercise.

1.

& b c
? b c

F+: V7 I

Homework for Unit 10 page 1 of 3


&

2.

&

&

3.

&

Homework for Unit 10 page 2 of 3


&

4.

&

&

Homework for Unit 10 page 3 of 3


Unit 11 ~ ii7, part 1
The other 7th chord we will learn about in this course is ii7, also known as the supertonic
seventh chord.

www
Dm7
& w
In major keys the intervals from the bass are
-3, P5 and -7.
C+: ii7

This type of chord is called a 'Minor 7th' and the root quality symbol is the root plus "m7"

In Unit 10 we learned about the V7 chord, which is a dominant 7th, and now we know
about minor 7ths. There are three other types of 7th chord that you may need to identify on
your exams. Please see the Appendix for a summary of all five types.

Just as with V7, the 7th of ii7 must fall a step when ii7 goes to the next chord. In this course,
ii7 will usually go to V or V7 (or one of the inversions of V or V7).

It's helpful to remember that the seventh of ii is the tonic note of the key. For example,
if you are in C major, then the 7th of ii is C.

Whoever has the C will then fall to B in the next chord. See figure 1:

fig. 1

&

?

ii7 V

________________________________________________________________________
11 - 1
We also have to pay attention to what comes before the ii7 chord. I pointed out earlier that
the 7th of ii7 is the tonic note. The usual thing to do is to put a chord before ii7 that
contains the tonic note. Then when we go to ii7 we have a common note. Figure 2 shows an
example. This is called 'approaching the 7th as a common note', or 'preparing the 7th'.

&
fig. 2 fig. 3

You'll also notice that in figure 2, the ii7 has no 5th. When you have the tonic chord in
root-position right before ii7, leaving out the 5th is OK because it results in very smooth
voice leading. If you don't leave the fifth out, one of the inner voices will have to leap, as in
figure 3. Also, be very careful to avoid consecutive 5ths.

You can put any chord before ii7 that has the tonic in it. Figure 2 shows the tonic triad going
to ii7 . We could also use I6 or vi, as in figures 4 and 5.

fig. 4 fig. 5

&

?
I6 ii7 vi ii7

________________________________________________________________________
11 - 2
The inversions of ii7

The inversions of ii7 are labelled in the same way that we label the inversions of V7.
See figure 6:

www
wwww
fig. 6

& ww www w
ww w
ii7 ii6 ii4 ii4
5 3 2


& The first inversion is used very often at

?
cadences. It's a great chord to have before V.
A very good soprano line is the one in
figure 9: 2 - 2 (supertonic to supertonic).

I6 ii6 V
5

&

?
The second inversion isn't used quite
as often as the others.

vi ii4 V
3

&
The third inversion has to resolve
to V6, because the 7th is in the bass.

?

For an example of this progression,
see bars 1, 2 and 3 of the first Prelude in
Book I of Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier.

I ii4 V6 I
2
________________________________________________________________________
11 - 3
Common Progression you should know so far:

Progression Soprano

IV - V - I .................. 4-2-1

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-7-1

IV - V4 - I6 .................. 6-7-8
2
I - ii4 - V6 - I .................. 3-4-4-3
2 5

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-2-1


5
Homework for Unit 11 ~ ii7 and its Inversions
Write these progressions. Show all keys and functional chord symbols.

1. ii7 - V Each chord is complete. Double the root of V.

Write the progression in F, G, B b, D, E b, A, A b, and E

#
& b
?b #

F+: ii7 V

&
?

In the rest of these, make sure the tonic note in the 1st chord stays in the same voice to become
the 7th of ii7.

2. I - ii7 in A and F. Leave the 5th out of ii7

3. I - ii6 - V - I in F, G and B. Use the soprano 3 - 2 - 2 - 1


5

4. I - ii4 - V - I in G and B b
3

5. I - ii4 - V6 - I in E b and D. Use the soprano 3 - 4 - 4 - 3


2 5

Homework for unit 11 page 1 of 2


2. 3.

&
?

&
?

4.

&
?

5.

&
?

Homework for unit 11 page 2 of 2


Unit 12 ~ Accented Passing Notes, Accented Neighbours,
and Appoggiaturas

In unit 7 we looked at passing notes and neghbour notes. Passing and auxiliary notes are always on
weak beats. In this unit we will look at some non-chord notes that take place on strong beats.
First, we will look at accentend passing notes and accented auxiliary notes.

Accented Passing Notes


Like regular passing notes, these fill in gaps between chord notes. As the name suggests, however,
they occur on strong beats, not weak ones.

Figure 1 shows an accented passing note in the soprano: the C on the 2nd beat of the first bar.
This C is on the rhythmically stronger than the B that follows it, and fills in the gap between the
D and the B.

fig. 1

&

These are labelled 'apn'.

C+: I6 ii6 V I

________________________________________________________________________
12 - 1
Accented Neighbour Notes

Like regular neighbour notes, these decorate a single note. Figure 2 shows an example: here,
the C # in the melody is an accented neighbour. It decorates the D, but is rhythmically stronger
than the D which comes after it.

fig. 2 Mozart
##
&
These are labelled 'ann'.
##
&
D+: V ____ I ________ vi _________

Appoggiaturas

Accented passing notes and neighbours are all approached and quitted by step. A third kind
of accented non-chord note, the appoggiatura, is approached by leap. It then resolves by step,
either up or down.

##
fig. 3

&

? ##

D+: V V4 I6 V4 I V7 I
2 3

In figure 3, the soprano has two appoggiaturas. The first is the E in the first bar, and the second
is the B in the second bar. Both are accented and approached by leap. The E resolves down to D,
and the B resolves up to C #.

________________________________________________________________________
12 - 2
Homework for Unit 12 ~
Accented Passing and Neighbour Notes and Appoggiaturas

Circle and identify the accented passing notes, accented neighbour notes and appoggiaturas
in the following. The abbreviations are apn, ann, and app.

Add functional chord symbols.

w
& w
? w

#
&

w
? #

# b .
&

? # b


Homework for unit 12 page 1 of 1


Unit 13 ~ Triads in Second Inversion
So far we have seen triads only in root position and 1st inversion. Sometimes we also use
triads in 2nd inversion.

This unit will look at the cadential six-four and the auxiliary six-four. We'll look at other
possibilities in a later unit.

The Cadential Six-Four


As the name implies, the cadential six-four is found at cadences. In this pattern, notes of the
V triad are decorated. Figure 1 shows a simple progression from V to I. Figure 2 shows the
same progression, but this time the notes of the V triad have been decorated: the 3rd of V
(B) is decorated by the note above it (C), and the 5th (D) is also decorated by the note above
it (E).

These decoration notes form a tonic triad in 2nd inversion, which is labelled I6
4
The cadential six-four chord will almost always go to V or V7. When it goes to V, the note
that is a 6th from the bass goes down a step, and the note that is a 4th from the bass
goes down a step (the 4th from the bass is actually forming a dissonance with the bass -
see unit 6 - and must go down a step if the chord in question occurs on a strong beat. 4ths
that occur between any of the upper three voices are not treated as dissonant).


& ww
fig. 1 fig. 2 fig. 3
w w w
w w w
? w w w ww
w w w w w
6 6
C+: V I I4 V I I4 V I

In figure 2, the soprano has the line 3-2-1. This is perhaps the most common soprano line
However, it is perfectly possible to have 8-7-8, as in figure 3.

Important: the I6 is always on a stronger beat than the V chord that comes after it.
4
________________________________________________________________________
13 - 1
The cadential six-four chord is really just a decoration of V. So, any chord that goes well before
V will go well before the cadential six-four.

fig. 4
w w
& w w
? w
w ww
w w
I IV I6 V I I ii6 I6 V I
4 5 4

The Auxiliary Six-Four


This pattern is called 'auxiliary' because the step up followed by a step back down in two of
the upper voices resembles the motion of auxiliary (neighbour) notes. It is basically a
decoration of the tonic triad. In the soprano you could use 5 - 6 - 5 or 3 - 4 - 3. See figure 5.

This chord could also appear on a strong beat, preceeded by either I or another chord,
for example V. In this case it is sometimes called an "Appoggiatura Six-Four". See figure 6.

fig. 5 fig. 6

& ww w

?

w
w
w

I IV6 I I V IV6 I
4 4

Notice that the bass note of IV6 is doubled.


4

________________________________________________________________________
13 - 2
Homework for Unit 13 ~ Triads in Second Inversion

1. In the blank bars, write I6 - V - I in eight different keys. I've done the first for you.
4
Do it exactly as in the example below: double the bass note of the six-four chord. The mediant falls
to the supertonic, and the tonic falls to the leading note.

Use the soprano 3-2-1 in all of them.

Show functional chord symbols and keys.

w
& w
? ww

C+: I6 V I
4

&
?

&
?

Homework for unit 13 page 1 of 2


2. In these blank bars, write I - IV6 - I in C, F, B b, D, A and E b. Use the melody 5-6-5
4

5 6 5

& ww
?

w
w
I IV6 I
4

&
?

3. Now write the same progression in B, C # and F #. and use the melody 3-4-3

&
?

Homework for unit 13 page 2 of 2


Unit 14 ~ The viio6 Triad
fig.1

& ww viio is the triad of the leading note. It is one of the


secondary triads, and the only diminished triad in

w major keys. The circle after the chord symbols means

? w
'diminished'.

In this course we will only use viio in 1st inversion.


See figure 1.
viio6
viio6 behaves a lot like V. In fact, we say that it has a 'dominant function'. So, like V, viio6 likes
to go to I. It could also go to vi.

When moving from viio6 to the next chord, keep these things in mind:

1. The root (leading note of the scale) must rise to the tonic note.
2. The 5th should rise or fall a step. In all the examples of figure 2, it rises a step.
3. The only note to double in viio6 is the 3rd (the bass note). Do not double the root, because
it's the leading note of the key.

fig.2

&

?

fig. 3


A very common progression is the one in
& figure 3: I - viio6 - I6. This is a useful progression


to memorize. In this progression it is good to
use contrary motion between the bass and one
?
other part. Here, we see it between the bass and
the soprano. This progression is often found at
the beginning of a phrase. The progression can
also be used 'backwards', that is, I6 - viio6 - I.
I viio6 I6
_____________________________________________________________________________
14 - 1
There are a number of different soprano lines you can use with I - viio6 - I6

Figure 4 shows what are perhaps the best two: 8 - 7 - 8 and 3 - 2 - 1

fig. 4


&
8 7 8 3 2 1

fig.5

& Figure 5 shows another very common progression:


I - ii - viio6 - I (or I6). Study the 2 chords on the 2nd beat.
Look at how easy it is to go from ii to viio6. Only one
? note has to change. This is another very common
progression that you should memorize.

I ii viio6 I6

fig. 6

&
Finally, viio6 can goto vi. See figure 6.

?

____________________________________________________________________________
14 - 2
In progressions between viio6 and I it is quite easy to get consecutive 5ths. Some textbooks
permit this because one of the 5ths is diminished, not perfect. However, it is usually
possible to arrange the voices so that the 5ths become 4ths, and this is better.

fig. 7


& In figure 7, there is a diminished 5th going

?
to a perfect 5th in the inner voices.

fig. 8


& In figure 8, we have exactly the same progression.


However, the inner voices have been switched so
that we now have consecutive 4ths, which are
? always allowed.

&
In the progression I - viio6 - I6, one of the
inner voices often has 5 - 4 - 5. Avoid having

? 5 - 4 - 5 in the soprano. It sounds awkward,

because once the soprano goes from 5 to 4,


you then expect to hear 3.

____________________________________________________________________________
14 - 3
Common Progression you should know so far:

Progression Soprano

IV - V - I .................. 4-2-1

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-7-1

IV - V4 - I6 .................. 6-7-8
2

I - ii4 - V6 - I .................. 3-4-4-3


2 5

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-2-1


5

I6 - V - I .................. 3-2-1
4

I - IV6 - I .................. 5-6-5


4

I - viio6 - I6 .................. 3-2-1

I - ii - viio6 - I6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-1
Homework for Unit 14 ~ viio6 and its Inversions

In these, double the root of I and I6, the root of ii, the 3rd of vi, and the 3rd of viio6
Write functional chord symbols and the soprano scale degrees, as in the first example.
1. Write the progression I - viio6 - I6 in A, D, F, and B b. Use the melody 8 - 7 - 8.

### 8 7 8

&

? ###




A+: I viio6 I6

2. Write I - viio6 - I6 in E b, A, B and G. Use the melody 3 - 2 - 1.

bbb
3 2 1
&
? b b
b
E b+: I viio6 I6

3. Write I - ii - viio6 I6 in G, F, B b, and D. Do it exactly as in the example, so that the ii and viio6
chord get an eighth note each. Use the melody 3 - 2 - 1.

# 3 2 1
&

?#

G+: I ii viio6 I6
Homework for unit 14 page 1 of 2
4. Write I - viio6 - vi in any 3 keys you like except C.

&
?

Complete these in 4 parts. Most of these use only I, I6, and viio6. Use ii where I've indicated.

Double the root of I and I6, the root of ii, and the 3rd of viio6.

### bbb #
&

? ### b #
bb
I ii viio6 I6

b bbb ### #### bb


& #

? bb b ### #### bb
b #
I ii viio6 I6

# n bbbbb ##
&
?# n bbbbb ##

Homework for unit 14 page 2 of 2


Unit 15 ~ The Mediant Triad
The mediant triad is the triad built on the third degree of the scale. iii is a secondary triad, like
ii, vi, and viio. In major keys it is a minor triad. In minor keys it is major. Double the root or
the third.

One of the main uses of iii is to harmonize the leading note when it appears as part of a
descending melody. Look at the melody in figure 1. You will notice that it contains the leading note,
B, and that B falls to A, instead of rising to C. This is a great place to use iii. The iii triad works well
here because when the leading note is harmonized as the 5th of iii it doesn't have a dominant
function and doesn't sound like it needs to go back to the tonic.

& c
fig. 1
ww
ww
?c
I iii IV

Figures 2 and 3 show vi going to iii and iii going to vi. These are good progressions because the
roots of iii and vi are a perfect 4th apart. Chords with roots a P4 or P5 apart usually go well one
after the other.

fig. 2 fig. 3

&

?
vi iii iii vi

____________________________________________________________________________
15 - 1
The first inversion of iii
The iii triad has a special trick it can do. In its first inversion, it can take the place of V,
and go to I. Look at the iii6 triad, and notice how similar it is to a root position V triad:
the notes of V are G-B-D, and the notes of iii6 are G-B-E. So the bass note of iii6 is
the same as the root of V, and both chords contain the leading note.

ww w
fig. 4

& w
? ww ww

V iii6

If you use iii6 as a substitute for V, remember that the leading note should behave as if it
were part of V, and rise a step. Also, when you go from iii6 to I, the best note of iii6 to double
is the third (the bass note).

In this progression, it is usual to have the soprano fall from the mediant to the tonic (3 - 1).
See figure 5. This means that the leading note will appear in an inner voice, and may fall a 3rd to
sing the 5th of I (see discussion in unit 10). In figure 5, the leading note is in the alto and is falling
to G.

fig. 5


&
?

iii6 I

____________________________________________________________________________
15 - 2
Common Progression you should know so far:

Progression Soprano

IV - V - I .................. 4-2-1

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-7-1

IV - V4 - I6 .................. 6-7-8
2
I - ii4 - V6 - I .................. 3-4-4-3
2 5

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-2-1


5

I6 - V - I .................. 3-2-1
4
I - IV6 - I .................. 3-2-1
4

I - viio6 - I6 .................. 3-2-1

I - ii - viio6 - I6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-1

I - iii - IV .................. 8-7-6

iii6 - I .................. 3-1

_____________________________________________________________________________
15 - 3
Homework for Unit 15 ~ The Mediant Triad

Use one bar for each progression. Write the functional chord symbols and the soprano scale
degrees as in the first one below.

1. Write the progression I - iii - IV in G, F, D, A, E, B, F # and C #. Use the melody 8 - 7 - 6. Double


the root of each chord.

# c
8 7 6

&

?# c

G+: I iii IV

&
?

2. Write the progression iii - vi in G and D in half notes.


Then write the progression vi - iii in F and B b in half notes.

&
?

Homework for unit 15 page 1 of 3


3. Write the progression iii6 - I in F, B b, E b, and D b. Use the melody 3 - 1. Double the 3rd of
iii6 and let the leading note fall to the 3rd of I. Use half notes.

&
?

4. Complete these exercises using iii and iii6. Model your answers on the examples in unit 14.
Show all chord symbols.

b bb
&
?b bb

# bbb
&
?# bbb

Homework for unit 15 page 2 of 3


b ##
&bb
? bb ##
b w w

&
?

b b
&
? bb

# bbbb
& w w
?# bbbb

Homework for unit 15 page 3 of 3


Unit 16 ~ Harmony & Rhythm, part 2
In every piece, the chords change at a certain speed. We call this the 'harmonic rhythm'.
In simple hymns, each chord usually lasts for a quarter note or a half note. Here's an example.
The harmonic rhythm is written underneath the music.

# C ww
Henry Lyte

&
w
?# C w
w
C
As you can see, this example moves mostly in half notes, with some quarter note, and a whole note
at the end of the phrase.

Here's a hymn with a faster harmonic rhythm:

b c
William Croft

& b n .
. .
J j
? b b c . .
.

.
c
So, the harmony of a typical chorale or hymn will move in a regular pulse, with the harmony
changing every quarter note or every half note.

c
____________________________________________________________________________
16 - 1
In triple time you may have the following harmonic rhythms: a harmony change once per bar,
a harmony change on each beat of the bar, or a harmony change on the first and 3rd beats (2 + 1)

34 .

In compound times, each main beat of a bar is a group of 3, so we can apply the same patterns as
we have in 3/4 to 6/8:

68 . . .
J J

The harmonic rhythm often depends on the tempo of the piece. In fast pieced there will be fewer
chord changes per bar, so the last example above, where there is a change on each 1/8 note, is
more likely to be a slower piece.

Syncopation
As you learned in unit ___, you must avoid repeating a chord from a weak beat to a strong beat.
because this changes the feel of the time signature. Composers do actually do this deliberately in
real music - it's called 'syncopation' but at our stage it's best to avoid it. These examples all contain
syncopation:
j j
& c 34 68

Jj
J
j
? c 34 68


J

J
c 34 68
J J
_____________________________________________________________________________
16 - 2
It is unusual to have harmonies changing on the 1/8th note in simple time (note that this is OK
in 6/8). However it does sometimes happen. Usually when it happens you will have 2 harmonies
of an eighth note each, rather than just one. Study the following

. j j
OK AVOID AVOID

& c 34 . .
. . .
Jj Jj
. . .
?c . J 34 . J .

c . 34 . .
J J

Harmonic Rhythm versus Note Rhythm

Notice that the number of notes in the bar has nothing at all to do with the number of harmony
changes. The first example below has 16 notes in the first bar but only one harmony. The 2nd
example has one note in the melody but 3 harmony changes under that note.

?# c

Bach

G+: I ________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________
16 - 3
Bach

# # w
&
#
? ## j
#

D+: I vi IV

____________________________________________________________________________
16 - 4
Unit 17 ~ V/V and viio6/V

So far in this course all the chords we have looked at have been diatonic. That means that all
the notes of the chords belong to the scale of the key we are in.

Sometimes composers like to make the music more interesting by borrowing chords from other
keys. Because they come from other keys, these chords will always contain accidentals.

The first 'borrowed' chord we will look at is the dominant chord borrowed from the key of the
dominant. It is called V/V (we say "five of five")

Lets look at the V/V chord in C major. In C major, the dominant is G. So, we go to the key
of G major, and borrow the dominant chord:

# www w w
& w w w w
V
Now, when we use this chord in C major, we must remember to write the F #:

& # www
V/V
V/V is best used in root position or first inversion. The third of the chord always has an
accidental next to it. Never double this note; it is the leading note of the key of V, and should
either rise a step as V/V moves to V, or leap down a 3rd to take the 3rd of V.

A trick for working out V/V is to simply take the ii triad and raise the third a semitone.

V/V always goes to V.

_____________________________________________________________________________
17 - 1
Figure 1 shows the V/V chord going to V.

fig. 1

c
& #
? c
I - V/V - V - I

V/V may also be used in 1st inversion. It is labelled 'V6/ V'. Figure 2 shows an example:


fig. 2

&
I6 - V6/V - V - I

? #

We can also add a 7th to V/V. This is labeled 'V7/V'

& # wwww
?
V7/V

______________________________________________________________________________
17 - 2
When you use V7/V, use it exactly as you'd use an ordinary V7. That means that the seventh must
fall a step when V7/V goes to V. Figure 3 shows an example. You can leave out the 5th and double
the root if necessary, as in figure 3. This avoids consecutive 5ths or rough voice leading.

fig. 3

&





?
I - V7/V - V - I
#

We've learned that V/V and V7/V always go to V. But what about the chord before V/V?

Possibly the best chord to have before V/V is vi6.

Other chords that go well before V/V are I, iii and vi. V can also go to V/V

viio6/V
_______

We can also borrow the viio6 chord from the dominant and use it to go to V in the same way:

& # ww
w
?
w

Notice that the third of the viio6/V chord is doubled.

_____________________________________________________________________________
17 - 3
Homework for Unit 17 ~ V/V and viio6/V
1. In the following blank bars, write the progression V/V - V in every major key.

# bb
& c # b

? c b # bb
C+: V/V V

&
?

&
?

2. In the following blank bars, write the progression viio6/V - V in every major key.

& #

?

Homework for unit 17 page 1 of 5
&
?

&
?

3. Write V7/V - V in A, B, C #, D, E, F, A b, and F #

###
& #

? ###

&
?

Homework for unit 17 page 2 of 5


4. Write I - V/V - V - I in C, D, E, F #, G, A. Use quarter notes.

& #

?

&
?

5. Write vi - viio6/V - V - I in D b, E b, F, G b, A b, and B. Use quarter notes

& #

?

&
?

Homework for unit 17 page 3 of 5


6. Write I - V/V - V - I in A, G b, F #, and E

###
& #
? ###


7. I - I6 - ii6 - V6/V - I6 - V - I in E b, G, D b and B


4

b
&bb
n
? bb
b

&
?

8. I6 - V7/V - V - I in D, G, F #, and B

##
& #

? ##

Homework for unit 17 page 4 of 5


9. I - vi6 - V/V - V - I in A, E b, B b, C #, D b, E, F b and G.

### # ww
&
? # # # w
w

&
?

&
?

&
?

Homework for unit 17 page 5 of 5


Unit 18 ~ Introduction to Minor Keys
So far in this course we have only considered triads in major keys. In unit 18 we will look at the
triads that occur in minor keys, and the special considerations we have to accord them.

In minor keys we have a wider choice of chords than we do in major keys. This is because of the
melodic minor scale (figure 1), which gives us a raised 6th and 7th degree going up, as well as the
diatonic ones going down.

b
& b b w w w w w nw nw w w w w w w
fig. 1

w w
The fact that there are two different submediant notes and two different leading notes (sometimes
the non-raised leading note is called the 'subtonic') means that, apart from the tonic triad,
there are now TWO versions of each triad:

b w w www n www
& b b www www n www www n www www n www www n www ww n ww
fig. 2

c-: i iio iin5 III IIIx iv IVn v Vn VI nvio VII viio

Functional Chord Symbols in Minor Keys

If a note is altered chromatically by adding an accidental, the alteration is usually shown in the
chord symbols. So if the 3rd of the chord is raised, the appropriate accidental is written after the
chord. For example, "V #" means that the third of the chord of V is raised using a sharp.
If it is raised using a natural, then you would write "Vn".

Yes, there are some inconsistencies in the way we label chords that have accidentals. For example,
the ii chord with the raised 5th is labeled 'iin5', but the III chord with the raised 5th is labeled "IIIx",
because it's an augmented triad. Similarly the vi triad with the raised root is labeled "nvio" but
the vii triad with the raised root is just 'viio' . These are just naming conventions that you will learn.

Here are the first inversions:

b ww n ww ww n ww ww ww ww ww
& b b www w w w w w nw w nw ww n ww
w w
ww n ww
w w
i6 iio6 iin6 III6 IIIx6 iv6 IV6 v6 V6 VI6 nvio6 VII6 viio6
c-:
3 n3

_____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 1
The Tonic Triad in Minor Keys

The tonic triad is used in the same way in minor keys as it is in major. It will be the starting point
and destination of your pieces. The tonic triad is a minor triad, meaning that it contains a minor
3rd and a perfect 5th above the root. It is written with a small 'i'.

Sometimes the last tonic triad of a piece has a raised 3rd, which turns it into a major triad.
This a pleasing sound, and is called the Picardy third (or 'tirce de Picardie'). Bach often did this.

b bb
& ww n ww
? b ww n ww
bb
c-: i i6 iio6 Vn In
4 5

The example shows a cadence in c minor with a Picardy third in the final tonic. Notice how
the chord symbol is a capital "In" now, since the third has been raised and the triad is now a
major triad.

_____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 2
The Supertonic Triads in Minor Keys

The 5th of the supertonic triad is the submediant. Since the melodic minor scale offers both a
diatonic and a raised submediant, we have 2 different versions of the supertonic triad to choose
from:

b bb w n www
& ww
iio iin5

Most often, you will use the one that uses the diatonic 6th degree, iio.

The triad with the diatonic 6th is diminished. That means that it contains a minor 3rd and a
diminished 5th. As with vii in major keys, we usually use this chord in first inversion.

As in major keys, iio6 usually goes to V, or viio6

b bb n
&
n
? bb
b

The best note of iio6 to double is the 3rd, because it is a diminished triad (same with viio6).

_____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 3
We can also use the version of ii which contains the raised submediant.

Like the diminished triad version of ii, iin5 will go to V, or possibly viio6.

The part which contains the raised sixth will most likely then go on to the raised leading note in
the next chord, using the rising melodic minor scale.

Do not double the raised sixth. Double the root or third instead.

b
& b b n n


? b b


b
i6 iin5 Vn i

_____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 4
The Mediant triads in minor keys

We saw in the last unit that the melodic minor scale offers us two versions of the supertonic triad.
It also provides us with two versions of the mediant triad:

b bb w n www
& ww
III IIIx

The triad which uses the diatonic leading note is a major triad. It is very important in minor keys,
because it is the tonic triad of the relative major. When we modulate to different keys within a
minor piece, often the first place we go is to III.

IIIx is an augmented triad, the only one in the whole collection of major and minor triads. It is
used much less often.

The triad of the relative major

The III triad with diatonic 5th is very common in minor keys. In c minor, this triad is E b major,
which is the tonic triad of the relative major (notice that the key signature of c minor is the same
as the key signature of E b major).

We can get to the III triad very easily. Its dominant is VII (discussed later), and the progressions
VII - III and III - VII are common.

b bb
&

? bb
b
VII III III VI VI III III VI

III and VI also go very well together, because their roots are a perfect 4th apart (remember that, as
a general rule, triads whose roots are a P4 or P5 apart go well before or after each other).

_____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 5
The Augmented version of the mediant triad

This chord sounds very restless. When I hear this chord, I hear the notes that form the augmented
5th wanting to move to another note. So, one way to resolve this triad is to have one note move to a
different one, while the others stay where they are.

In the first example below, the bass E b moves to a D, which creates a V chord in second inversion.

In the 2nd example, the Bn moves to C, creating a tonic chord in first inversion.

b bb n n
&
? bb
b
IIIx V4 i IIIx i6 iio6
3

b bb
&
? bb n

b
IIIx6
n3 i

As with iii6 - I in major keys, double the 3rd and let the soprano have 3 - 1.

_____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 6
The Subdominant triads in minor keys

The melodic minor scale also makes possible 2 subdominant triads:

b b b ww n www
& w
iv IVn

The iv chord uses the diatonic submediant degree, and so is a minor triad. It would usually go to V
or i or perhaps viio6.

When iv goes to Vn, make sure that you do not have an augmented 2nd leap in any of the
voices (e.g. A b to Bn). This interval is difficult to sing, so put the submediant in one voice, and the
leading note in another:

bb
fig. 1 fig. 2

& b n
fig. 1: A b to B in soprano: wrong!

? b b n fig. 2: A b in soprano and B in tenor: right!


b

The IVn triad is a major triad and contains the raised submediant. This chord will go
to Vn or viio6, and whoever has the raised 6th will have the raised 7th in the next chord:

b bb n n n n
&

? b b

b

_____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 7
The Dominant Triads in minor keys

The melodic minor scale makes possible 2 versions of the dominant triad:

b b b ww n www
& w
v Vn

When choosing between these triads, remember that it is the raised leading note that
defines the key. When we hear Bn, we have a strong sense of being in C minor. B b makes
that feeling less strong. Therefore, always use the major version of this triad at cadences, and
whenever the following chord is the tonic (i).

poor cadence good cadence poor cadence good cadence

b
& b b n

? bb n
b
v i Vn i iv v iv Vn

b bb
& The Vn defines C minor as our key very clearly.

? b b n If we had used B b instead of Bn, it would not be

b so clear. Play it and you'll hear.

i V4 i6
3

_____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 8
The only place to use v is when the next chord is not the tonic chord. Here are two
possibilities:

b bb
&

? b b
b
v VI i v VI III

Note how the second example above is a sequence and uses the melodic minor scale descending in
the soprano. v can also be used to harmonize the melodic minor descending in the bass. The
following progression was in fact very common in the Baroque Era.

b
& b b
? b b

n
b
i v6 iv6 Vn

_____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 9
The Submediant Triads in Minor Keys

Although the melodic minor scale contains both a diatonic and a raised 6th degree, the VI triad
built on the raised submediant is rarely used. Use the diatonic VI most of the time.

b b b www n www
&
VI nvio

The diatonic VI triad is used much as vi is in major keys. You can have a deceptive cadence in
minor keys by going from Vn to VI.

VI can also approach Vn at an imperfect cadence.

b bb n n
&
? bb
b
Vn VI VI Vn

As with V - vi in major keys, double the third of VI. Otherwise, you may find that you have
consecutive 5ths.

VI goes very well to III, and III goes well to VI, because their roots are a perfect 4th apart:

b
& b b

? bb
b
VI III III IV

_____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 10
You might occasionally see nvio used, perhaps right before viio6. Note that nvio is a diminished
triad, and therefore sounds best in 1st inversion.

b bb n n
&
? b b

b
i nvio6 viio6 i6

___________________________________________________________________________
18 - 11
The Leading Note Triads in Minor Keys

Finally, we have two possible leading note triads. It is extremely important that you understand the
difference between these two triads, because they do very different things. VII can take us to the
key of the relative major, while nvii6 keeps us definitely in the minor key.

b b b www n www
&
VII viio

The diatonic triad, VII, is a major triad. It is a very important triad in minor keys because it is
the dominant of the relative major. It is often found before or after III. They go well together
because their roots are a P4 apart. See fig. 1.

The viio triad built on the raised leading note functions exactly as the viio triad in major keys: it
goes to I, and the raised leading note rises to the tonic. As it is a diminished triad, use it only
in 1st inversion. viio6 goes well to vi in major keys, but viio6 to VI in minor keys doesn't work so
well, because it involves a diminished or augmented leap in the bass and in this progression it
sounds ugly. See fig. 2.

fig. 2
bb
fig. 1

& b

? bb n
b
i VII III i viio6 i6
Doubling

VII is a major triad, and the dominant of III. Avoid doubling the 3rd of this chord, because it
tends to sound like a leading tone to the tonic note of the relative major. Double the root or fifth.
nvii is the same chord as vii in major keys: double the third, and only the third. Use this chord
only in 1st inversion, as in major keys.
____________________________________________________________________________
18 - 12
Homework for Unit 18 ~ Minor Keys
Complete these. Show root/quality and functional chord symbols

1. Write Vn - i (or V # - i, depending on the key) in d, and a

Write Vn - In (or V #- I #) in b, and c #

&c

?c

2. Write iio6 - Vn in f, g, a, and b.

&

3. Write iin5 - Vn in c, d, e and f #

&

Homework for unit 18 page 1 of 4


4. Write i - VII - III in g, a, b b, and c #

&

5. Write IIIx - i6 in f, f #, a and e b

&c

?c

6. Write IIIx - V4 - i in a, g, c # and e


3

&
?

7. Write IIInx6 - i in c, c #, d, and b


3

&
?

Homework for unit 18 page 2 of 4


8. Write iv - Vn (or V #) in a, d, e, and g

&
?

9. Write IVn - Vn in c, b, f # and g #

&
?

10. Write i - v6 - iv6 - Vn in 4 different keys. Use the melody 5-5-4-5.

&
?

11. Write i - v - VI - III in 4 different keys. Use the melody 8-7-6-5

&
?

Homework for unit 18 page 3 of 4


12. Write VI - Vn (V #) in 4 different keys. Double the 3rd of VI and the root of V.

&
?

13. Write i - nvio6 - viio6 - i6 in 4 different keys

&
?

14. Write i - vii6 - i6 in 4 different minor keys

&
?

15. Write i - VII6 - III in the same 4 keys.

&
?

Homework for unit 18 page 4 of 4


Unit 19 ~ Modulation
Figure 1 shows a simple chord progression. It begins and ends in C major and uses only notes
from C major scale.

fig. 1

& c ww

? c

ww

C+: I vi ii6 V IV6 V6 I

If we were only limited to notes from a particular scale, music would be pretty dull. Composers
often make music more interesting by borrowing chords from other keys. We have already learned
about the V/V chord.

Figure 2 is the same progression, but this time with a V/V chord instead of the ii6 chord.
The F # adds a bit of colour. In fact, the word 'chromatic' comes from the Greek word for colour.

fig. 2

& ww

?

ww
#
C+: I vi V6/V V vi V6 I

In figure 2, the F # was used to add colour to a C major passage. However, since F # belongs to the
key of G major, we can use the F # as a doorway into G major, and simply continue the music in
G major. This is called 'modulation. See figure 3.

____________________________________________________________________________
19 - 1
fig. 3

& w
w
? # w
# w
C+: I vi
G+: ii V6 I ii6 V - 7 I
5

When composers write music that modulates, they sometimes use what is known as a pivot chord.
The pivot chord is a chord that simultaneously belongs in the old key and the new key. It helps the
music to move smoothly from one key to another. The pivot chord is the chord immediately before
the first chord of the new key.

In figure 3, the 1st chord of the new key is the first chord in bar 2. According to the definition,
the pivot chord is the chord right before the first chord of the new key. Therefore, the 2nd chord
of bar 1, the a minor chord, is the pivot chord. It belongs simultaneously to C major and to
G major. When we analyse such a passage with chord symbols, the pivot chord is analysed in both
keys, as shown above.

In major keys, the most common modulation is to V. When modulating to V, 2 very useful and
frequently used pivot chords are vi6 and vi6.
5
They make good pivot chords because vi6 is ii6 in the key of V, and as you know ii6 is one of the
best dominant approach chords.

& #
?





C+: I vi6
G+: ii6 V7 I

____________________________________________________________________________
19 - 2
You can also use iii as a pivot, and you can use I as a pivot:. See figure 4:

fig. 4

&

? # #

C: I iii C: V I
G: vi V I G: IV V I

Note: In C, no chord with F in it can be a pivot chord into G major, because G major contains F #.

Modulation in Minor Keys

In major keys, the most usual goal of modulation is the dominant. In minor keys, it is the relative
major:
fig. 5

&
.
? #
a-: i VI i V6 i iv
C+: IV V I ii V7 I

Figure 5 shows modulations from a minor to C major. Notice that when you modulate to the
relative major in minor keys, it's not necessary to add accidentals. In a sense you actually have to
remove the accidental that's keeping you in the minor key (in this case G #), in order to get to
C major.

___________________________________________________________________________
19 - 3
Modulation to Closely Related Keys

The key of the dominant and the key of the relative major are both what we call "closely related
keys". There are ther closely related keys, too. A closely related key is one that is no more than
one sharp or flat away from the key we are in.

So, for example, if we are in C major, the closely related keys are:

1. D minor (one flat away)


2. E minor (one sharp away)
3. F major (one flat away)
4. G major (one sharp away)
5. A minor (same key signature)

Here are some example modulations, all using pivot chords:

& # #
#
?


C: I6 ii6 C: I vi
d: i6 vii6 i e: iv V i


& b

#

?



C: I ii C: I ii6
F: vi V6 I a: iv6 V7 i
5

____________________________________________________________________________
19 - 4
Summary
1. Modulation is the process of passing from one key into another. Modulation is very common
and a very important aspect of classical music.

2. In order to move into another key, you usually need to introduce the leading note of the new
key.

3. Often, composers use a pivot chord to help with the modulation. A pivot chord belongs
simultaneously to the old key and to the new key.

4. When modulating to the dominant in major keys, vi6 is a very good pivot chord, as it
becomes ii6 of the new key.

___________________________________________________________________________
19 - 5
Homework for Unit 19 ~ Modulation
Complete these exercises. Each one will modulate to the dominant using a pivot chord.
Your exercises will consist of 4 chords:

1. the first tonic


2. the pivot chord
3. the new dominant
4. the new tonic

1. Write I - vi6 (pivot) - and then V - I in the new key. See the example:

#
& c # b bbb

? c #
b bbb
C+: i vi6
G+: ii6 V I

Continue the same way: these are ALL major keys. Show all chord symbols

b bbb ## #### bb
&
? bb b ## #### bb
b

homework for unit 19 page 1 of 2


2. Do the same as before, except now use iii as a pivot. See the example

# # ####
& bbb #

?
# ####
bbb #
C: I iii
G: vi V I

bb ##
b
& b bb b

? bb b bb ## b
b

3. Now do exactly the same, but use I6 as a pivot, as in the example

# bbb bb
& #

? # bbb bb

C: I I6
G: IV6 V I

## #### bbbb
&b
?b ## #### bbbb

homework for unit 19 page 2 of 2


Unit 20 ~ More Progressions with First Inversion Chords

Here are some more useful progressions that you will use on your exams.

Figure 1 shows the progression I - IV6 - I6. In this progression, the soprano almost always has
3 - 4 - 5 and the bass will fall from 8 down to 6 and then down to 3.


fig 1.

c
&
I - IV6 - I6
?c

The progression in figure 2 is interesting because it has V going to IV6, which we haven't seen
before. Usually what happens when V goes to IV6 is that the IV6 will continue to V6. The next
chord will most likely be I. This gives us a bassline that rises by step from the dominant to the tonic.

fig. 2

&

V - IV6 - V6 - I
?

bassline rises by step: 5-6-7-8

Note that although V can go to IV6, it won't generally go to IV in root position.

____________________________________________________________________________
20 - 1
This progression is a bit unusual because it has the leading note in the bass falling to the
submediant. This seems to contradict the rule about the leading note having to rise if it's
in the bass but here it's part of a descending scale which sounds good and so this voice leading
is not a problem. The contrary motion between the outer voices is effective (listen to the slow
movement of Beethoven's Pathtique piano sonata - Beethoven uses this progression in the 3rd
bar.

&

?

I V6 vi

You can also chain several first inversion chords together, either going up or down. This can be a
handy technique for harmonizing stepwise melodies or basslines. You can end up with some
slightly unusual progressions, which are OK in this case because of the overall pattern:


&
?

iii6 ii6 I6 viio6 vi6 V6 I V6 vi6 viio6 I6 ii6 V I

____________________________________________________________________________
20 - 2
Common Progression you should know so far:

Progression Soprano

IV - V - I .................. 4-2-1

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-7-1

IV - V4 - I6 .................. 6-7-8
2
I - ii4 - V6 - I .................. 3-4-4-3
2 5

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-2-1


5

I6 - V - I .................. 3-2-1
4
I - IV6 - I .................. 5-6-5
4

I - viio6 - I6 .................. 3-2-1

I - ii - viio6 - I6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-1

I - iii - IV .................. 8-7-6

iii6 - I .................. 3-1

I - IV6 - I6 .................. 3-4-5

I - V6 - vi .................. 3-5-8

____________________________________________________________________________
20 - 3
Homework for Unit 20 ~
More progressions with First Inversion Chords

Use one bar per question as in the examples. Show all keys and functional chord symbols.

1. Write the progression I - IV6 - I6 in F, A b, B, D. Use the melody 3- 4- 5.


Double the roots of I and I6, and either the root or fifth of IV6 .

& b c b b b b

? c b b

b bb
F: I IV6 I6 A b:

2. Write the same progression in e, g, c # and e b minor.

&
?

3. Write the progression V - IV6 - V6 - I in A, F #, B b, D b, E b, G b, F and C. Use the melody 5-4-2-3.

### #### #
& #
? # # # # # # # #
#
A: V IV6 V6 I

Homework for unit 20 page 1 of 2


&
?

4. Complete these progressions in 4 voices. Show all keys and chord symbols.

####
&
? ####

### b
&
? ### b

b bb bb
&
? bb
b bb

b b bbb
&
? bb bbb

Homework for unit 20 page 2 of 2


Unit 21 ~ Deceptive and Plagal Cadences

As you know, the V chord usually goes to I at the end of a phrase. We expect it to go to I, because
it's natural to end a phrase on I.

Sometimes composers like to trick us. They make us think that the V chord is going to I, and then
they make it go to vi instead. This is called a deceptive cadence, or an interruped cadence.

While V - vi is the most common deceptive cadence, V - IV6 is also possible.

U

& c


?c

u
Notice the doubling of vi. Generally, the third is doubled. When V7 goes to vi, the leading note rises
and the 7th falls, just as with V7 - I.

Here is a deceptive cadence in g minor. The doubling in VI is the same as in major keys.
Note the chord symbols:

b U
& b



? b b #
u
iv6 i6 iio6 V# - 7 VI
4 5

____________________________________________________________________________
21 - 1
Here's an example showing a deceptive cadence to IV6:

fig. 3 U
& b

? b

u
Notice how the seventh of the V7 (the B b) stays put to become the root of the IV6.

In a plagal cadence, the IV chord goes to the I chord. In hymns and chorales the plagal cadence
is not found nearly as often as the perfect cadence. In fact you will almost never see one. They
were very common in Renaissance sacred music, however, and lived on in some church traditions
in the "Amen" sung at the end of a hymn:

U
& b
? b
A -
u
men

_____________________________________________________________________________
21 - 2
Homework for Unit 21 ~ Deceptive Cadences
Write these progressions.

1. I - ii6 - I6 - V - vi in A, B b and C #. Use the same note values as figure 3 in unit 21.
4
2. I - ii6 - V7 - IV6 in E b, F and G. Do this one in 3/4 time.
5
Use quarter notes for the first 3 chords and a dotted half note for the last one.

###
1.

& c w

? ### c

w

### 34
2.

&

? ### 34

###
&

? ###

Homework for unit 21 page 1 of 1


Unit 22 ~ Suspensions and Incomplete Neighbours
The final non-chord note we will look at is the suspension. Basically a suspension is just a
note that stays late and then has to catch up with the other voices.

Figure 1 shows the progression V7 - I.

fig. 1

&


In figure 1, the alto voice has an F going to an E. Now look at

? figure 2. In figure 2, the alto stays 'too long' on the F, and arrives


on the E after everybody else has moved.

fig. 2

&
The F on the third beat in the alto does not belong to the I


chord. This note is the suspension.

?

Suspensions always occur on strong beats. They always resolve
by step to a chord note on a weak beat, usually downwards.

V7 I4 - 3

This suspension is labelled 4 - 3, because F is a 4th above the bass, and then resolves to E, which
is a 3rd above the bass.

fig. 3

w
& w
? w
Another common suspension is V 4-3.

w
See figure 3.

___________________________________________________________________________
22 - 1
Preparation and Resolution
The note right before the suspension is called the 'preparation'. In figure 3, it's the C in the tenor
on beats 1 and 2. This is the note that will stay late and become the suspension.

The suspension resolves down by step to become a chord note. This chord note is called the
'resolution'. Thus there are actually 3 parts to a suspension: preparation, suspension, and
resolution.

For analysis purposes, the abbreviation for suspension is 'susp'.

Doubling and suspensions

When the 3rd of a triad or chord is suspended, as in a 4 - 3 suspension, do not sound the note
of resolution at the same time as the suspension. In figure 5 we have a suspension, C, in the tenor
sounding against the resolution, B, in the alto. If you play figure 5 you will hear how harshly
it clashes (you also have a doubled leading note).

In this case it would be better to let the alto stay on the G

If the root of a chord is suspended, as in figure 6, you may sound the resolution
(the C in the bass) at the same time as the suspension (D in the soprano). The D clashes with
both the E and the C, but does not sound overly harsh.

fig. 5 fig. 6

w
& w w w
? w
w


ww

__________________________________________________________________________
22 - 2
Incomplete Neighbours

Incomplete neighbour notes are approached by leap and then resolve by step. They are
always unaccented. In the following example, the F # is the incomplete neighbour.

Abbreviation: "inn"

b b
& #
? b
b

____________________________________________________________________________
22 - 3
Homework for Unit 22 ~
Suspensions and Incomplete Neighbours

1. Write the progression V7 - I 4-3 in every major key. Do them exactly as in the example.
The soprano has 2 - 1. The leading note is in an inner voice and falls to take the 5th of I

Example:

&

?

C: V7 I 4-3

&
?

&
?

Homework for unit 22 page 1 of 2


2. Write the progression i - V4-3 - i in these minor keys: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, b b, f #.

Do these exactly as in the example. Double the root of each chord.

Remember to raise the leading note!

&

w
w
? # w
w
a: i V4- #3 i

&
?

&
?

Homework for unit 22 page 2 of 2


Unit 23 ~ V7 and ii7, part 2

Here's another common progression for your collection: I - V4 - I6


3

This progression uses the melody 3 - 4 - 5. See the example in figure 1.


fig. 1
3 4 5
&

? V4 I6

I

3

There are some interesting things to notice about this progression.

1. It's almost exactly the same as a common progression that you already know: I - viio6 - I6

2. You can have a o5 going to a P5: look at the soprano and tenor in figure 1.

3. The seventh of V7 is rising a step. This is the opposite of what you have been doing so far:
normally, your seventh falls. However, in this one situation, when V4 goes to I6, it may rise a step.
3
The reason this is allowed is that, when it rises a step, the seventh creates parallel thirds with the
bass part, and this sounds good. The 7th is also part of a scalar passage, which also helps to make
the rising 7th sound convincing.

fig. 2

#
& Figure 2 shows the same progression in

?#
G major.


____________________________________________________________________________
23 - 1
Very often if we use V7 to I, we don't use the seventh right away - instead, we add it after the rest
of the chord has apeared, like this: the V triad appears without a 7th at the beginning of a beat,
and then one of the voices falls a step from the root to the 7th. In figure 3, it's the alto.

fig. 3

&


?

C: ii6 V - 7 I
5

Notice how this is labelled. First, you just write an ordinary "V" for the root position V triad.
Then, when the 7th appears, you just write a hyphen and a "7" underneath - there's no need to
write "V" again.

Incidentally, you can use this technique with any seventh chord. So far we know ii7 and V7:
see figure 4.

fig. 4

&


?
C: ii - 7 V - 7 I

In unit 11, we talked about ii7 going to V. It can also go to V7. Usually the best way to handle ii7
to V7 is to leave the 5th out of one of the chords. Otherwise you will get either rough voice leading
or consecutive 5ths.
____________________________________________________________________________
23 - 2
If you leave the 5th out of a seventh chord, one note will have to be doubled. In V7, double the
root only. In ii7, you may double the root or 3rd. Never double the 7th of a seventh chord.

fig. 5 fig. 6 fig. 7

&

?
C: ii7 V7 ii7 V7 ii7 V7

In figure 5, the 5th is missing from V7. In figure 6, the 5th is missing from ii7, and the root
is doubled. In figure 7, the 5th is left out of ii7 and the 3rd is doubled.

Approaching the 7th

So, we now have 2 ways to approach the 7th of ii7. You may approach it by common tone
(as explained in unit 11) , or you may step down into it from a strong beat to a weak beat, as
explained in this unit.

These 2 methods are also fine for approaching the 7th of V7. In addition, you may also approach
the 7th of V7 by leap from below. Do not approach it by leap from above, because that will be
hard to sing and sound rough.

common note: by step: by leap from above:


excellent by leap from below:
good avoid

good

&

?

____________________________________________________________________________
23 - 3
Common Progression you should know so far:

Progression Soprano

IV - V - I .................. 4-2-1

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-7-1

IV - V4 - I6 .................. 6-7-8
2
I - ii4 - V6 - I .................. 3-4-4-3
2 5

I6 - V - I .................. 3-2-1
4
I - IV6 - I .................. 5-6-5
4

I - viio6 - I6 .................. 3-2-1

I - ii - viio6 - I6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-1

I - iii - IV .................. 8-7-6

iii6 - I .................. 3-1

I - IV6 - I6 .................. 3-4-5

V - IV6 - V6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N/A

I - V6 - vi .................. 3-5-8

I - V4 - I6 .................. 3-4-5
3

ii6 - V - 7 - I .................. .2 - 2 - 1
5

____________________________________________________________________________
23 - 4
Homework for Unit 23 ~ V7 and ii7, part 2

1. When V7 goes to I, where does the leading note go?

2. In the same progression, where does the 7th normally go?

3. How many notes are in the V7 chord?

4. Why does V4 have to go to I6?


2

5. In which progression may the 7th rise instead of falling?

6. Why is it OK for the seventh to rise in this progression?

7. In ii7 - V7, it's best to leave the fifth out of one of the chords. What note do you double
if you leave the fifth out of V7?

8. What note or notes do you double if you leave the 5th out of ii7?

Homework for unit 23 page 1 of 3


1. Write I - V4 - I6 in G, C b, D, G b, A, D b.
3
Do it exactly as in figure 1 on page 23-1 (same note values and doubling). Use the melody 3 - 4 - 5.
There's one bar for each key.

&

&

2. Write ii6 - V - 7 - I in A b, B, E b, F #, B b, C #.
5
Do it exactly like figure 3 (same rhythm and doublings). Use the melody 2 - 2 - 1. Add the seventh
on the 'and' of the second beat.

&

Homework for unit 23 page 2 of 3


&

3. ii7 - V7 in E b, G and F, as in figure 5: write the ii7 complete, and leave out the 5th of V7.
Double the root of V7.

&

4. ii7 - V7 in A b, B b and C b. Do it as in figure 6: the ii7 has a doubled root and no 5th. The V7 is
complete.

&

5. ii7 - V7 in E, D b and B. As in figure 7, double the 3rd of ii7 and leave the fifth out of ii7.

&

Homework for unit 23 page 3 of 3


Unit 24 ~ The Passing Six-Four

So far we have seen 2nd inversion triads in three situations: the cadential six-four, the
auxiliary six-four and the appoggiatura six-four (unit 13).

There is one more type to learn. It's called the passing six-four. There are two common
progressions that are used with the passing six-four:

1. Often this chord is found between the root position and 1st inversion of a triad. Study figure 1.
In figure 1, we have a IV triad and a IV triad in 1st inversion. Squeezed between them on the weak
beat is a I triad in 2nd inversion.

Notice also the voice exchange between the outer voices and the 3-note stepwise bassline.

fig. 1

# c
& Note: the passing six-four only

? # c occurs on weak beats. It must


never occur on a strong beat.

2. The other common progression is IV6 - I6 - ii6 - V - I See figure 2:


4 5
Notice the voice exchange between the bass and one of the inner voices (in this example, it's
the tenor). This progression uses the melody 4 - 3 - 2 - 2 - 1

bb
fig. 2

& b ..
? b b ..
b
E b: IV6 I6 ii 6 V-7 I
4 5

____________________________________________________________________________
24 - 1
Common Progression you should know so far:

Progression Soprano

IV - V - I .................. 4-2-1

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-7-1

IV - V4 - I6 .................. 6-7-8
2
I - ii4 - V6 - I .................. 3-4-4-3
2 5

I6 - V - I .................. 3-2-1
4
I - IV6 - I .................. 5-6-5
4

I - viio6 - I6 .................. 3-2-1

I - ii - viio6 - I6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-1

I - iii - IV .................. 8-7-6

iii6 - I .................. 3-1

I - IV6 - I6 .................. 3-4-5

V - IV6 - V6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N/A

I - V6 - vi .................. 3-5-8

I - V4 - I6 .................. 3-4-5
3

ii6 - V - 7 - I .................. 2-2-1


5

I - V4 - I6 .................. 3-4-5
3
IV6 - I6 - ii 6 - V - 7 - I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 3 - 2 - 2 - 1
4 5

____________________________________________________________________________
24 - 1
Homework for Unit 24 ~ The Passing Six-Four

Write this progression

1. IV - I6 - IV6 - V 6 - I in F, G, A b, D b, B, C.
4 5
Make sure you use voice exchange between the outer voices. The soprano has 6 - 5 - 4 - 4 - 3,
and the bass has 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8. Show root/quality symbols. See the example:

Bb F/C B b/D F

& b c
w
w
? b c
ww

&
?

&
?

Homework for unit 24 page 1 of 2


2. Write this progression: IV6 - I6 - ii6 - V - 7 - I
4 5
in A, D, B, E. Do it exactly as in the example. Use the melody 4 - 3 - 2 - 2 - 1
The bass has 6 - 5 - 4 - 5 - 1.

One inner voice has 1 - 1 - 1 - 7 - 5 (in the example it's the tenor, but it could be the alto).
The other inner part has 4 - 5 - 6 - 5 (eighth note) - 4 (eighth note) - 3 (in the example it's the alto,
but it could be the tenor).

###
& w
w
? # # # ww

&
?

3. Now write the same progression in c and f minor. Show root/quality chord symbols.

&
?

Homework for unit 24 page 2 of 2


Unit 25 ~ Echappes, Anticipations and Pedals
The next non-chord note we will learn about is the chappe.

This non-chord note is approached by step. It is then quitted by leaping a 3rd in the
opposite direction. Echappes are also known as escape tones ('chapper' is the French
verb 'to escape'). Like passing notes, neighbour notes and anticipations, they only appear
on weak beats.

fig. 1

fig. 2

Figure 1 shows an ordinary I - V
& progression.

? In figure 2, the soprano part is decorated


with an chappe, the F.

Note how it is approached by step and


resolves by leaping a third.

fig. 3

&

Usually, chappes step up and then resolve by

?
leaping down a 3rd, as in figure 2. Occasionally,


the reverse happens, as in figure 3.

fig. 4


&
?
Often, you will see a series of chappes,
as in figure 4.

__________________________________________________________________________
25 - 1
Anticipations

As the name implies, anticipations arrive early, before the chord to which they belong.
They are often found at cadences, and most often occur in the soprano voice. Unlike the
appoggiatura, the anticipation is always on a weak beat.

In figure 4, the C in the soprano at the end of bar 1 arrives early for the I chord and has to
wait for everyone else to catch up.

fig. 4


&

?
D+: ii6 V I

Figure 5 shows an anticipation in the alto part. The alto E doesn't belong to the V7 chord - it
belongs to the I chord but arrives early.

fig. 5

&

?

B b+: IV V7 I

___________________________________________________________________________
25 - 2
Pedals
Pedal notes are usually long, held notes in the bass. They begin as chord notes, and then the
harmony changes above them, making them dissonant. Usually the harmony then returns
to the original harmony, and the pedal becomes consonant again. In the following example,
the C in the bass starts as the root of I. It becomes dissonant when the upper 3 voices
have the vii triad on the 3rd beat, and becomes consonant again when the harmony returns
to the tonic:

Use a solid line to indicate a pedal, as in the example:

& w.
w.
w.
? w .
w.
I IV viio I
1 pedal _______________________

Pedal notes are called pedals because they are common in organ music, and organs have a
row of keys on the floor which are called pedals and are played with the feet. The organist
holds the pedal note with their foot and has their hands free to play the higher parts.

Usually pedal notes are found on the tonic and dominant notes. When analysing the
functional chord symbols over a bass pedal, don't bother specifying inversions, since the
lowest note of the chord is not the bass note (the pedal is the bass note). For example the
vii triad in the example about is in "1st inversion" as its lowest note is D but this doesn't
mean anything as the real bass note is the pedal.

Listen to Bach's Fantasie in G major BWV 572. The central section is amazing: it has a
suspension in every bar, a long pedal on the dominant before the end, and a surprise ending!

____________________________________________________________________________
25 - 3
Homework for Unit 25 ~ Echappes, Anticipations and Pedals

Rewrite these progressions in the blank bars provided. Decorate the soprano
notes that are marked '*' with an chappe:


&
*

*

&
* *

* * * *


?

Rewrite these cadences with anticipations in the soprano.

b b ##
&

? b b ##

Homework for Unit 25 page 1 of 2


Write these progressions:

##
&

? ##
B b: I iii IV V7 I F: I vi ii V I
1 Pedal ___________________ 1 Pedal __________________

Homework for Unit 25 page 1 of 2


Unit 26 ~ Melodic considerations in four parts

By now you will have been studying the melody writing section of this book. The focus in that
section is on writing simple melodies. The good news is that all of the things you have learned in
that section apply to writing a good soprano line in your SATB hymns and chorales.

But what about the lower three voices? Do the same guidelines apply to them? Well, many
of them do. For instance, the rules governing leaps and steps apply equally to the inner voices
and the bass part. But let's discuss one or two other details that pertain specifically to the lower
three voices.

The alto and tenor voices

In a sense, the inner parts are less important than the bass and soprano parts. This is because they
are tucked away between them and are not heard as clearly.

For this reason, it is not quite so important to give the alto or tenor part an interesting melody. In
fact, it may at times be difficult. Below are the soprano and alto parts to a hymn . While the
soprano part has a nice shape, the alto part doesn't really have any shape at all. In fact, the alto part
would be unacceptable as a melody. However, as an alto or tenor part, it's perfectly OK.

## c
& ..

____________________________________________________________________________
26 - 1
The bass part , like the soprano, is very important. It too should have a nice shape. You
may also find that the bass part leaps a little more than the other voices, and this is OK.

One very important technique is contrary motion between the outer voices. Try to use it
about 75% of the time. Study the following example, and note the relationship between
the outer parts. There is a nice mix of contrary, oblique, and parallel motion. The last line
is completely in contrary motion.

,
William Croft

# 3
& 4

? # 34

# ,
& .
# # #
J
?#

# ,
& #

#
? #

#
&
? #

___________________________________________________________________________
26 - 2
Unit 27 ~ Exposed Fifths and Octaves

There is one more voice-leading trap that we have to learn to avoid: exposed fifths and octaves.
Unlike the rules about overlaps or consecutives, this rule only concerns the bass and the soprano.
The tenor and the alto do not have to obey this rule.

To make this mistake, 3 things have to happen all at the same time:

1. The bass and the soprano must be going in the same direction (similar motion).

2. The bass and soprano must be going into (approaching) a perfect fifth or octave.

3. The soprano must be leaping.

The reason for this rule is that when the outer voices approach a 5th or octave in this way, it makes
the interval stand out in a way that is considered unpleasant.

Here are a couple of examples:

&c In this one all 3 things are happening, so it's a mistake:

1. The bass and soprano are both going up.


?c
2. They are approaching an octave.
3. The soprano is leaping.


&
This one is also a mistake, because all three things are
happening:

?
1. The bass and soprano are both going down.
2. They are approaching a perfect 5th.
3. The soprano is leaping.

____________________________________________________________________________
27 - 1
Note: in order for there to be a mistake, all three of the things mentioned above have to happen.
If only 2 happen, then there's no problem.

Look at the 3rd example. Here, the bass and soprano are approaching a fifth in similar motion,
but the soprano isn't leaping, so this is OK.

&
?

____________________________________________________________________________
27 - 2
Unit 28 ~ Sequences
Music is full of repeated patterns called sequences. There are melodic sequences and
harmonic ones.

Melodic Sequences
A melodic sequence is a melody or motive repeated on a different scale step. Figure 1
shows an example of a melodic sequence. The first 5 notes form a pattern that is then
repeated a step higher.

fig. 1
#
& j Bach, WTC 1, Fugue no. 15

Harmonic Sequences
There are also harmonic sequences. They work like this: 1. We hear a progression of two
different triads or chords. To create a sequence, we transpose this progression up or down
a certain interval, generally using the same rhythmic values.

Here's an example: figure 2 shows a typical progression, I - IV. Let's take this progression, and
transpose it down a 2nd. We now have a sequence (figure 3). If we want, we can continue the
pattern. However, keep in mind that sequences get boring pretty quickly, so 3 or 4 transpositions
are enough.

fig. 2 fig. 3

& b

? b




I IV I IV vii iii

____________________________________________________________________________
28 - 1
If the sequence in figure 3 is continued, we come back to the place we started, the I triad.
See figure 4. This is probably the most frequently used sequence in classical music. It is often
called the descending (diatonic) fifths sequence or "do-fa-ti-mi" (these are solfege symbols).

fig. 4

& b

? b


I IV viio iii vi ii V I
Long sequences like this are more often found in instrumental music than in vocal, and you'd
probably never use the entire sequence in a hymn or chorale. However, there's nothing stopping
you from using part of it. For example, you might easily use the progression vi - ii - V - I at the
end of a hymn. This would be a sequence.

Figure 5 shows the sequence from figure 4 transposed into f minor.

b bbb
& n

? fig.
bbbb
5

When you make a sequence, make sure that all the parts move as melodic sequences too, as in
figure 6. In figure 7 the soprano and tenor parts are not moving down a step with the other parts,
and this is incorrect.

fig. 6 fig. 7

& b


? b




____________________________________________________________________________
28 - 2
Common Progression you should know so far:

Progression Soprano

IV - V - I .................. 4-2-1

ii6 - V - I .................. 2-7-1

IV - V4 - I6 .................. 6-7-8
2
I - ii4 - V6 - I .................. 3-4-4-3
2 5

I6 - V - I .................. 3-2-1
4
I - IV6 - I .................. 5-6-5
4

I - viio6 - I6 .................. 3-2-1

I - ii - viio6 - I6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-1

I - iii - IV .................. 8-7-6

iii6 - I .................. 3-1

I - IV6 - I6 .................. 3-4-5

V - IV6 - V6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N/A

I - V4 - I6 .................. 3-4-5
3

ii6 - V - 7 - I .................. .2 - 2 - 1
5

I - V4 - I6 .................. 3-4-5
3
I - V6 - vi .................. 3-5-8

IV6 - I6 - ii 6 - V - 7 - I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 3 - 2 - 2 - 1
4 5

I - IV - viio - iii - vi - ii - V - I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N/A


____________________________________________________________________________
28 - 3
Homework for Unit 28 ~ Sequences
Write the Do - Fa - Ti - Mi (descending 5ths) sequence in F major, E b major, e minor and a minor.
Remember to use sequential voice leading in all voices. Show functional and root quality symbols

F Bb

& b c


? b c
F: I IV

&

&

&

Homework for unit 28 page 1 of 1


Unit 29 ~ More about Chord Progressions

Choosing a harmonization for a given melody or bassline can sometimes be quite challenging.
In this unit, I'll try to give you some guidelines.

The chart below is a slightly more complete version of the one you saw in unit . To recap, in
general, progressions tend to begin with I, the tonic triad.

This is represented in the chart by level 1. On level 2, we find the chords with dominant
function. That means that these chords like to go to I. On level 3 we have the chords that go
well before V, or the dominant approach chords. Finally, level 4 has the iii triad.

level 1: I

level 2: V V7 viio6 iii6

level 3: vi IV ii ii7 V/V

level 4: iii
So, the basic idea is that you start at level 1 and then go anywhere you like. Once you've landed
somewhere, you then work back up the chart to I, one level at a time. For example, suppose you
go from I to level 4, the iii triad. You might then move to IV (level 3), then to V (level 2), and
back to I (level 1).

____________________________________________________________________________
29 - 1
The chart is not perfect. It suggests some progressions that aren't good (e.g. iii - ii) and excludes
some that are OK (e.g. IV - I). So, make a note of the following:

1. Root Movement by P4th or P5th


Chords whose roots are P4 or P5 apart are almost always good one after the other. For example,
ii - vi and vi - ii are both good. I - IV and IV - I are also both good.

There are two exceptions: V - ii and viio6 - iii are bad (except in a sequence).

2. Root movement by 3rd.


For roots descending a 3rd, the following progressions are excellent: I - vi, vi - IV, and IV - ii.
Avoid these: , V - iii (except in a sequence), iii - I.

Progressions with roots ascending a 3rd tend to be weaker than descending a 3rd: I - iii is fine
because I can go anywhere, but the others are weak and should only be used from a strong beat
to a weak beat: ii - IV, iii - V, and so on.

3. Root movement by second


The rule here is fairly straightforward. When dealing with root position triads, generally try to
avoid descending 2nds such as these : V - IV, IV - iii, iii - ii, and ii - I. The exception is vi - V,
which is fine.

These progressions all become more acceptable when the second chord in inverted, so
V - IV6, IV - iii6, iii - ii6, etc., are all OK. Perhap this is because the bass is rising.

Rising seconds are usually good. I - ii, ii - iii (rare), iii - IV, IV - V, and so on. Use contrary motion
between outer voices whenever possible. When writing an exam, avoid the progression I - ii - iii.
If you have the bassline 1 - 2 - 3, use I - viio6 - I6 instead.

____________________________________________________________________________
29 - 2
Other things
It's unusual to go from one of the level two chords to another. So, avoid progressions such as
V7 - viio6 and iii6 - viio6 . Note, at the final cadence of a piece, it's best to use V7 - I.
Never use viio6 - I as a last cadence.

On your list of common progressions you have the the progression I - V6 - vi.

Note that V6 may go to vi, but V6 does not. It will always go to I, because the tritone will want
5
to pull the bass note back up to the tonic.

Choosing chord progressions


When you are given a melody to harmonize, try to use a lot of dominant - tonic harmony. Use
lots of V, viio6, and I. During the phrase use these chord in inversions as much as you can. Save
the root position V - I for cadences.

Finally, one handy technique is to have a chain of 1st inversion chords: you can start on any chord
and go stepwise up or down. Don't use more than 4 in a row or it'll get repetitive. This is useful
for harmonising stepwise melodies.

eg I6 - viio6 - vi6 - V6 or ii6 - iii6 - IV6 - V6

___________________________________________________________________________
29 - 3
Unit 30 ~ Summary of Guidelines for Doubling

Triads in Root Position


1. The Primary Triads

The primary triads are I, IV, and V. In general, try to double the root of these triads.

The first and last tonic triad in a piece should definitely have 2 roots. If there's a V triad right
before the final I triad, its root should also be doubled. This gives these triads a strong, solid
sound. The 5th is an acceptable 2nd choice elsewhere in the piece.

In certain situations it is considered acceptable to double the 3rds of I and IV. Generally this
happens when the 3rd is doubled as a result of contrary (and preferably stepwise) motion
between parts.

Here are some examples:

w
& w In the example, the 3rd of I6
is doubled as a result of the

?
contrary motion between the outer

ww
voices. This is good, because
contrary motion is interesting and
pleasing to hear.

ii V4 I6 ii6 V8 - 7 I
3 5

#
& Here, the third of IV is

? #
doubled as a result of the

oblique motion between


outer voices. Again, this is fine

IV IV6 I

___________________________________________________________________________
30 - 1
You can even occasionally find a doubled leading note, as in this example. Notice again that the
doubling derives from stepwise, contrary motion, this time between bass and tenor.

& Warning: don't do this on


your exam. The examiners
? probably won't approve.

IV6 V6 I

Doubling the thirds of I and IV is OK if it happens through stepwise contrary or stepwise


oblique motion. However, if it results from similar motion it's not good. Consider this:


& In this example the 3rd of I is doubled and the thirds


are being approached in similar motion.

? This sounds bad because the third is made too


prominent - it sticks out in a displeasing way.

2. ii, iii, and vi

ii, iii, and vi are secondary triads. Generally the best notes to double are the root or the third.
Choose whichever note makes the smoothest movement from one chord to another.

When vi comes before or after V, the standard way is to double the 3rd of vi.

Triads in 1st inversion


1. Double the 3rd of vii6, and nothing else. It's easy: just remember that the 3rd is
also the bass note.

2. iii6 behaves like V, and likes to go to I or vi. Double the bass note (the 3rd) only.

3. For the rest, it's the same as on the first page: double the root or 5th of the primary triads, and
the root or third of the other secondary triads
___________________________________________________________________________
30 - 2
Six-four triads.
Double the bass note only (the fifth of the triad).

Seventh Chords
If a seventh chord is written complete, no note is doubled. However, often it is necessary to spell
a chord incomplete to avoid consecutives or rough voice leading. If you are using V7, double the
root only, and leave omit the 5th. If you're using ii7, you may omit the 5th and double the root or
the 3rd.

Never double the seventh.

A note about thirds:


You must never leave the third out of any chord.

Sometimes a problem occurs because one part has the third, and then moves off it to another
chord note, leaving the chord without a third. The first example shows this.

In the 2nd example, the problem is corrected because the tenor takes the third as the soprano
leaves it.

&

?

___________________________________________________________________________
30 - 3
FORMS
Unit 31 ~ Binary and Ternary Forms
When composers write music, they usually use a plan. This plan tells the composer how to build
the piece, a bit like builders use a blueprint to build a house.

Some common forms for pieces are binary, ternary, rondo, and sonata, although there are others.
In this book well look at binary and ternary form, the simplest ones.

Binary Form
Pieces in binary form have 2 parts: AB. These sections are usually separated from each other by
repeat signs. There are 3 types of binary form: symmetrical, asymmetrical, and rounded.

Symmetrical Binary Form

In symmetrical binary form, the A section has exactly the same number of bars as the B section.

The following piece is an example of symmetrical binary form.

J.C.F Bach.
A
## 3 . .
& 8 . .

? # # 38 ..
..

B
## . .
& . .
#
? # # .. J ..

___________________________________________________________________________
31 - 1
Asymmetrical Binary Form

It is also very common for the B section to be a little longer than the A section. When this is the
case, we call this asymmetrical binary form.

Here is an example of a piece in asymmetrical binary form. This is by Leopold Mozart, Wolfgang's
father. In this piece, the A section has 8 bars and the B section has 12.

# # 3 . #
A
3

& 4 . #

? # # 34 .. #
3

B
##
.. .. # # # #
3

&

? ## .. ..

## # ..
&


? # # # ..
3

___________________________________________________________________________
31 - 2
Rounded Binary Form

There is one final type of binary form we must look at, and this is rounded binary form.
In rounded binary, the music that we hear at the beginning of the A section returns at the
end of the piece (at the asterisk - see below). Rounded binary pieces can be symmetrical, but they
are usually asymmetrical.

If the piece is symmetrical AND rounded, just label it as rounded. Here's an example by
Telemann:

## 3 . . .
A
& 8 .J J J # J .

? # # 38 .. J J J ..
J J

## . n # J . J .
B
& . J J J
n #
? # # .. J J # J

##
*

thematic recapitulation

& # J J J # J # ..

? ## J J J J j . ..

On exams you'll probably be asked to label the different sections usin capital letters. Do it as I
have shown on this page, with capital A and capital B. At the asterisk, you may write "A" again,
or write "thematic recapitulation".

___________________________________________________________________________
31 - 3
Ternary Form
Finally, let's look at ternary form. Ternary form is simply a 3-part form: ABA. The second A
section is usually an exact repeat of the first, although sometimes there may be a small change.
Here is an example of ternary form.

A

Clarke

b bb 3 n
& 4
? b b 34 .
b

b B
&bb .
Fine

? bb .
b

b .
&bb

? bb .

b
D.C. al Fine A
At first sight this might look like a binary piece. However, if you look at the end, you will see the
words "da capo al fine". This means "go back to the beginning and play until the word Fine", which
you will see at the end of the A section. So you actually play the A section a second time after
you've played A and B the first time around. Sometimes the repeat of the A section is actually
written out. Notice that the capital-letter "A" is written a second time, at the end. Don't forget to
do this, as it will show that you recognize that this piece is in ternary form.
___________________________________________________________________________
31 - 4
Unit 32 ~ Phrases and Modulation

Binary and Ternary pieces are made up of phrases. 95% of the time these phrases are exactly
4 bars long, and at the end of each phrase there will be a cadence.

On your exam, you will have to mark the phrasing. Here is how it's done:

## 3 . .
& 8 . .

? # # 38 ..
..

I said just now that phrases are usually exactly 4 bars long. However, they don't always start on the
first beat of the bar. Here's the A section of the binary piece by Handel. In this example the first
phrase begins with an upbeat. Because the phrases are exactly 4 bars long, the 2nd phrase also
begins on an upbeat. I haven't shown the B section, but the phrases in the B section also start on
an upbeat.

### 3 . j
& 8 . J J

? # # # 38 .. J J
J

### # ..
&
? ### j j j ..

___________________________________________________________________________
32 - 1
Modulation

In classical music, all pieces have an overall key. The overall key of a piece is the one that it begins
and ends in. However, in the midle of the piece it's usual for the music to go off and explore other
keys. When music goes from one key to another, we say that it modulates.

In our binary pieces, we almost always have modulation. Sometimes a piece will go to a new key
and then go straight back to the original key. Or, it could visit 2 or 3 different keys before returning
to the original key.

Let's take a look at the Handel piece again. The piece begins in A major. However, notice that at the
end of the 2nd phrase there is a D # in the melody, which then goes to E. This cadence is a perfect
cadence in E major. There are 3 things that tell you this. First, if you add D # to the 3 sharps you
already have in the key signature, you get the key signature of E major. Second, the final note in the
melody is E. Third, the last two bass notes are the dominant and tonic notes of E major.

### . j
& . J J

? # # # ..
J J
J

### # ..
&
? ### j j j ..

E+: V I Perfect

modulation to E major

___________________________________________________________________________
32 - 2
Modulation in Minor Keys

In pieces that are in major keys, like the Handel one, the usual place to modulate first is the key
of the dominant. So in the Handel piece we went from A major to E major, which is the dominant
of A. If our piece was in C major, we would modulate to G major, and so on.

In minor key pieces, we usually either modulate first to the relative major, or to the minor
dominant. So, for example, if our piece is in C minor, our first modulation will be to E b major, or
to G minor (not G major).

Here's an example of a minor key modulation. This is the A section of our rounded binary
example from page 3. The overall key of this piece is B minor. By the end of the A section,
however, we have modulated to D major, the relative major.

Unlike the modulation to E major in the Handel piece, this modulation did not require any
accidentals to be added. This is because D major is the relative major of B minor and has the same
key signature (actually, we have to take away an accidental, A #, because it's A # that gives us B minor).
In this case you know the piece has modulated to D because you have a V - I cadence in D at the
end of the A section

## .
& . J # . ..
J J J
? # # ..
J J ..
J J J
D+: V I Perfect
Modulation and Ternary Form

There is one more important thing to remember about these forms and how they modulate. In
binary form, there will usually, though not always, be a modulation in the A section. The piece will
eventually return to the original key at some point in the B section. In ternary form, the A section
always cadences in the original key. In other words, the A section of a ternary form does not
modulate, or, if it does, it returns to the original key at the end of the A section. For example, if
we have a piece in ternary form in C major, the A section will end with a perfect cadence in C
major. The B section of a ternary form piece will most likely modulate.

___________________________________________________________________________
32 - 3
Figuring out Modulations

Sometimes figuring out where a piece has modulated can be a little tricky. One thing that can really
help is to memorize where pieces usually modulate (see previous page), and then check to see if the
piece you are looking at is behaving in the usual way. 90% of the time it will be.

There is one other thing that can help. Just remember that notes that are raised with accidentals are
often leading notes, especially in major keys. For example, if you are in C major and you see a G #,
you say to yourself "G # is the leading note of A minor, so perhaps the music is going there".
You will probably find that it is, and that the note after G # is A.

Let's take a look at an example. This phrase begins in G major. However, at the end we have a D #.
If we assume D # is a leading note, that would mean that we are heading for E minor. We can
confirm that this is where we are going by looking at the final cadence. In the melody our last note
is E (the 'alto' has D # to E) and we have B to E in the bass, which is the dominant note to tonic
note in E minor.

# 3 j j j
& 4 .. .. . # .

? # 34 .

e- : V i

In minor keys it can be a little more complicated, because notes are raised as part of the minor
scales. Let's look at the beginning of a minor key piece:


&c #
?c # # # #

___________________________________________________________________________
32 - 4
Here we have two raised notes, F # and G #. Looking at the key signature tells you we could be in
a minor or C major, and when you see that both hands start on A, and that we have G #'s, you know
that it's A minor.

However, what about the F #? In this case in makes no sense to think of it as a leading note, because
there is obviously no cadence in G major. In this case, it is simply there as a member of the a minor
melodic scale, preventing the augmented 2nd that we would have with G # if the F was natural.

V/V or modulation to the dominant at cadences?

Sometimes you will have to decide whether a chord with an altered note is indicating a modulation,
or if it's simply a secondary dominant.

U
Look at this 4-bar phrase, which consists of two 2-bar phrases:
U

& #
?



#





u u
C: I viio6 I6 vi ii6 V/V V I V4 I6 V6 vi6
3 G: ii6 V I
Now, both cadences have D - F # - A going to G - B - D.

However, we will analyse the first one as V/V - V and the 2nd one as G: V - I

The first cadence has a motion towards G major with the F #, but that motion is not strong
enough to qualify as an actual modulation. This is because the D-F #-A chord is in first inversion
(weaker than root position) and it's also on a weak beat. The same bar has Fn on the strong beat,
so here the Fn is more important than the F #. Also, there is no dominant approach chord in G.

At the second cadence the D-F #-A chord is in root position, and there is a good dominant
approach chord, ii6, right before it. This will sound like a strong cadence in G major and is
therefore labelled as modulation.

___________________________________________________________________________
32 - 5
Unit 33 ~ How to Find Cadences

At the end of each 4-bar phrase you will find a cadence. In this style of music the vast majority of
cadences are either perfect (V - I) or imperfect (? - V). Very occasionally you may find a deceptive
cadence (V - vi). Plagal cadences (IV - I) are usually not found, although nothing is impossible.

The first chord of a cadence is found on a weak beat, and the second chord is on a strong beat.
Often the cadence happens across a barline, as in these examples:

Cadence Cadence

w
&c w

?c w #
w

C+: V I Perfect C+: V/V V Imperfect

3 . .
&4

? 34 .
.
C+: V I Perfect I V Imperfect

____________________________________________________________________________
33 - 1
You can also have cadences from the 2nd beat of a bar to the 3rd beat. It's true that in triple time
the 3rd beat is a weak beat, but you will sometimes find the second chord of a cadence there
anyway.
However, a cadence will never occur from the first beat to the second beat of a bar, nor from the
third beat to the fourth (this is not true in compound time: see next page)

&c 34

?c 34

C+: I Perfect C+: V vi Deceptive

Decorating cadences with the cadential six-four

Very, very often the dominant chord at cadences is decorated with a cadential six-four.

Cadence

Cadence
3 . c
&4
? 34 . c
C+: IV I6 V I C+: IV ii I6 V
4 4

Often the cadential 6-4 is accompanied by an octave leap:

3 . c
&4
? 34 . c

Octave leap Octave leap
____________________________________________________________________________
33 - 2
Sometimes the melody goes on a little beyond the actual cadence chords. Consider this phrase by
Bach: the important cadence chords are on the 3rd beat of the 3rd bar to the 1st beat of the 4th,
but the melody continues until the end of the 4th bar.

# 3
& 4

? # 34

V I
Perfect

In compound time you are unlikely to see any time signature other than 6/8. In this meter you will
see cadences across barlines...

# 6
& 8 .
? # 68 j .
j

or from the 1st main beat to the 2nd. This may seem to contradict what I said on the previous
page, but in 6/8 the 2nd MAIN beat is stronger than the little beat (little beat 3) that comes right
before it, so it sounds OK.

# .
&
?# j
J j .

____________________________________________________________________________
33 - 3
Unit 34 ~ The Unexpected
Phrases that are not 4 bars long

Once in a while you will come across a phrase that is not 4 bars long. Here are 3 phrases that
could be the A section of a ternary form piece. The first phrase is 4 bars long as usual, but the
2nd phrase is only 2 bars. It ends with a fairly clear perfect cadence in G major.

1st phrase

# 3
& 4


? # 34

2nd phrase 3rd phrase

# . j . j
& .

# n
?#

Bars 1 and 2 form a phrase The next phrases is 4 bars long,

___________________________________________________________________________
34 - 1
Modulation without Accidentals

Sometimes a piece in two voices will modulate without the help of accidentals. Here's an example,
a piece by Purcell:

phrase 1
## 3
& 4 . J

? # # 34 j
.

D: V I
phrase 2

## melody:

2 1
&
bassline: 4 5 1
? ##

A+: V I

If this piece had been in 3 or 4 voices, Purcell would have put a G # in that V chord, and there
wouldn't be any confusion. However, we don't have the benefit of the G #, so, how do we know that
this has modulated to A? Why isn't it just ii - V in D?

There are 3 things that strongly suggest that this is a modulation:

First, the bassline. The strongest bassline for a perfect cadence is the dominant note going to the
tonic note. Most often, before the dominant note, we will have the subdominant note. That is
what is happening here, in A major. (4 - 5 - 1 is the strongest cadential bassline possible, and
extremely often used - you will find it somewhere in almost every piece in this style).

____________________________________________________________________________
34 - 2
Second, the melody. In melodies, one of the strongest and most conclusive approaches to a tonic
note at a perfect cadence is from the note above, the supertonic: 2 - 1 (the other approach is
from the leading note).

Third, the cadence at the end of the second phrase is identical to the one at the end of the first,
but in a different key. Since the first cadence was perfect, we are likely to hear this one as perfect,
too.

Non-matching phrase lengths

Occasionally phrases within the same piece have different lengths:

j
by Chambonnires

# . j j
& . j . .
.

J j
?# .
. . .
J

# . j j
. # ..
& . J .

.
?# J .

Here the first phrase began right on the 1st beat. However, instead of beginning the second phrase
right on the first beat of bar 5, it makes more sense musically to begin our 2nd phrase with the
two 16th notes at the very end of the 1st line. These notes would sound strange tacked onto the
end of the 1st phrase, but sound natural as a pickup to the second phrase.

____________________________________________________________________________
34 - 3
This Minuet by Haydn has some very unusual phrase lengths. The first half has the usual
four-bar phrases, but in the second half he varies things considerably:

.
4 bar phrase

.. .
4 bar phrase

b bbb 3 .
& 4
.
? b b b 34
b


5 bar phrase

b b n . . .
& b b . .. ..

? b b b . .
b &. . n n b

3 bar phrase
. . .
2 bar phrase
b
& b bb . n .
.
b b
&b b .. n n n

..
.. ..
4 bar phrase

b bbb n .. n ..
&
b .. b ..
? bb b
b ..
____________________________________________________________________________
34 - 4
What to do when there are no double bars
If the piece you are analyzing has double bars, then it is pretty easy to say whether it is in binary or
ternary form.

If the piece you are analyzing has no double bar lines, it may be tricky to tell which form it is in,
especially if it is in rounded binary or ternary, because they are very similar.

Just remember: to be ternary, the A section of the piece must end with a perfect cadence
in the home key.

Below is a piece with double bars. It is in rounded binary form.

A Bach
#
& b c ..
. . #
? b c ..

B
& b # . .. ..

. #
?
b .. ..

& b


? b
.

*thematic recapitulation
& b #
# .
. . #
? b

# ..
& b . j .
. #
? b ..
.

____________________________________________________________________________
34 - 5
Version 2

Here is the same piece as before, only without the double bars. This piece is still in rounded binary
form, because the A section ends with an imperfect cadence.

A
#
& b
. . #
?
b

B
& b # .

. #
? b

imperfect cadence

& b
? b
.

*thematic recapitulation
#
& b # .

. . #
? b

#
& b .
j
.
. #
? b
.

____________________________________________________________________________
34 - 6
Version 3

This is the same piece as before, except that the A section has been modified so that it ends with
a perfect cadence in the home key. This change makes the piece ternary. The first statement
of A is identical to the 2nd statement of A. In fact, we needn't have written A out a second time.
We could just have written 'da capo al fine' at the end of the B section, as many composers did.
Note the change in labelling. This piece is ABA. The other 2 were AB.

A
#
& b
. . #
?
b

B
& b # j
. .
. #
? b
.

perfect cadence in home key

& b
? b
.

A
#
& b # .

. . #
? b

& b # j
. .
. #
? b
.

____________________________________________________________________________
34 - 7
MELODY WRITING
Unit 35 ~ Melody, Part 1
This is the part of this course where you get to be creative. Music is a language and all of us are
capable of speaking it. This means we can all imagine and write down our own simple melodies.
At first you may not know what to write. But you have musical instincts and with time you will
develop these and begin to come up with ideas. Hopefully this will be fun!

Also, note that everything you learn here about writing melodies can and SHOULD be applied
to the soprano parts of your SATB work. I have discussed the alto, tenor and bass parts elsewhere.

Phrases
Music is made up of phrases, and phrases often go in pairs. The first phrase starts on the tonic
and leaves it and often ends on the dominant. The second phrase answers the first one by returning
to the tonic.

For this section of the course we'll work with this 2-phrase question and answer pattern.
In your exercises you will supply answers to questions that I've supplied. If you feel like making up
your own questions too, feel free!

A phrase can be any length (within reason!) but the most common phrase length in music (not
just classical) is four bars:

Phrase 1 goes from the tonic to the dominant ...


### 6 . j
Mozart, Piano Sonata 11

.
& 8 J J J J
... and phrase 2 returns to the tonic.

### . .
& J J J J J

Phrases can also be two bars long, like the traditional clock chime. As in the Mozart example, the
first phrase ends on V and the second phrase returns to the tonic. Notice how in both examples the
melody ends on the tonic note. This is usually the best note to end on:

### 3
& 4 . .

___________________________________________________________________________
35 - 1
Our first melodies will be two bars long and always end on the tonic note (we will work with 4-bar
phrases later).

They will also always be in 2/4 time or 3/4 time. Always put the last note on the first beat of the
last bar. The best notes to have right before the last note are the leading note or the supertonic.
The mediant is also possible.

When doing your exercises, try not to just write random notes! Create an answer, no matter
how simple, that sounds good to you, either by singing it or playing it on your instrument,
and then write it down.
Here are some examples. Sing or play these (preferably sing!) before doing your own.
### 3
& 4 .

## 3
& 4 .
.

3 j
&b 4 . .

# 2
& 4

2
&b 4


& 42

___________________________________________________________________________
35 - 2
Homework for Unit 35 ~ Melody, Part 1
Sing or play the opening phrases, then sing or play an answer. Once you have an answer, write it
down. Don't write random notes! Always end on the tonic, on the first beat of the last bar. These
are all in C major.

& 24

&

&

&

&

&

&

Homework for Unit 35 page 1 of 1


Unit 36 ~ Melody, Part 2

In a melody you can either move by step or by leap. A step is a major or minor 2nd. Moving by step
is always good.

Moving by leap is good too: a voice leaps when it moves up or down by any interval larger than
a second. Leaps add energy and interest to a tune. However sometimes certain leaps or
combinations of leaps are hard to sing or sound bad, so there are some guidelines we need to
follow when moving by leap.

These leaps are good: These leaps are usually not used as
they are too hard to sing:
1. Major and minor 3rds up and down.
2. Perfect 4ths and 5ths up and down. 1. All Augmented intervals.
3. Minor 6ths up and down. 2. Major sevenths
4. Major 6ths up only. 3. Minor sevenths going down.
5. Diminished 5ths, provided that the part 3. Leaps larger than one octave.
return by step inside the 5th (see next page). 4. Major 6ths going down.
6. Octaves. 5. Two steps or leaps in a row in the same
7. Minor sevenths going up direction that create a 7th or go
more than an octave.

These leaps are all good:

Major 3rd Minor 3rd Perfect 4th Perfect 5th


(up or down) (up or down) (up or down) (up or down)

&c

Minor 6th Major 6th up only Octaves up or down


Minor seventh
(up or down) (going down is too going up only


hard to sing)

&

___________________________________________________________________________
36 - 1
The following leaps are too hard to sing:

Augmented Major 7ths Minor 7ths Leaping more than


an octave

leaps (up or down) (up or down) going down

&

Major 6ths going down Two moves (steps or leaps Two leaps that add up to
up or down that add up more than an octave.


to a 7th)

&

After a leap, it's often a good idea to immediately step or leap in the opposite direction. This makes
the tune easier to sing and helps to create an elegant line. The bigger the leap, the more likely you
ar to do this. Here are some examples:

&

The notes right before and after an octave leap should be between the two notes of the octave.
The note right after a minor 7th leap up must be a step in the opposite direction (because 7ths
fall by step, remember?)


Good: Not so good: 7th falls:

&

___________________________________________________________________________
36 - 2
We must avoid augmented leaps, but diminished 5th leaps are permitted, provided that the part
returns by step inside the interval. For example, if a part has B up to F, the next note should be E.
If a part goes from F down to B, the next note must be C. Look at the examples:


&
Avoid OK OK

Try to avoid having the subdominant and the leading note too close together in a melody,
especially if the subdominant is on a strong beat:

&

F and B on strong F and B OK here
beats: too prominent because F is on a weak
beat

If the melody rises to the the leading note, then we will expect to hear the tonic afterwards

Poor old B doesn't rise!

& w

Here are two situations where it's OK for the leading note to not rise to the tonic:

1. When it appears in a 2. When it goes to a different


descending scale passage: note of the V chord:


&
V ________ I

___________________________________________________________________________
36 - 3
Writing melodies in 3/4

The only special thing I have to say about writing melodies in 3/4 time is that you want to avoid
syncopating the beat, at least for now. Syncopation is an excellent special effect but leave it until
you are more expert.

Basically, syncopation simply means accenting the weak beats in the bar. In 3/4 that would usually
mean accenting the 2nd beat like this:

& 34

You can think of this as a 1 + 2 grouping.

Instead of a 1 + 2 grouping, use a 2 + 1 grouping, like this. It flows more easily:

& 34

Now do exercise set 2, which is in 3/4 time

___________________________________________________________________________
36 - 4
Homework for Unit 36 ~ Melody, Part 2
Sing or play the opening phrases, then sing or play an answer. Once you have an answer, write it
down. Always end on the tonic on the first beat of the last bar.

& 34 . j

&b .

b bbb j
& .

#
&

&

## j
&

&b

Homework for Unit 36 page 1 of 1


Unit 37 ~ Melody, Part 3
When writing a melody you want to try to give it some shape or direction. Melodies like to move!
Avoid what I've done in this next example, which is to stay in a very narrow range all the time and
have far too many Cs:

&c

By contrast, the following melodies all have lovely shapes. Many melodies are shaped like an arch -
they slowly rise, and then fall. Figure 2, a hymn tune, has this kind of shape.

## c
fig. 2 John Bacchus Dykes

& .
J

## j . j
& . w

Here's another example of an arch-shaped melody - Christmas carol Once in Royal David's City.

j
Henry John Gauntlett

&b c j .
.

___________________________________________________________________________
37 - 1
Here's a melody with a different shape. Each phrase starts high, falls, and then rises again.:

# c j
& .
# j
& .

Fine melodies often contain a climax, perhaps a high note towards the end. This famous tune is
called 'Londonderry Air' (AKA 'Danny Boy'). It's an Irish folk song. Sing it to yourself or play it
on the piano. Where is the climax?

j
& b c j . . j . J

j
& b . . j

. . .
&b J J J

.
&b J . j . J

Notice also that almost all of these melodies descend the scale to the final tonic. There is no rule
that says you have to descend the the last note, but it's very common and feels natural, as if one is
sitting down to rest. So a falling melody at the end of a piece is usually satisfying and sounds
complete.

___________________________________________________________________________
37 - 2
Writing in 4/4 time
So far in our melody exercises we have only written tunes in 2/4 and 3/4.

Writing in 4/4 is much the same, except that now you have the option of ending the melody on
either the 1st beat of the last bar, or on the 3rd beat. Actually, ending on the 1st beat can seem
premature sometimes. Compare the first two examples:

#
& w
This one seems to end a bit 'early', right?

#
&
Ah yes, that one sounded better! In most cases ending on the 3rd beat will be more satisfying, unless
the melody begins with an upbeat, which we will dicuss later. Here are some more examples:

b . j
&

## j
& .

b bb
&

___________________________________________________________________________
37 - 3
Homework for Unit 37 ~ Melody, Part 3
Sing or play the opening phrases, then sing or play an answer. Once you have an answer, write it
down. Don't write random notes! Always end on the tonic, on the first OR THIRD beat of the
last bar (most likely the third).

&c

b
&b

#
&

###
&

& .
J

##
&

####
& #

Homework for Unit 37 page 1 of 1
Unit 38 ~ Melody, Part 4
So far we have just done melodies that begin on the first beat of the bar. Often, however, melodies
begin with a pickup note or notes (the fancy word for this is 'anacrusis') Here are some examples:

.
Auld Lang Syne

&b c . j . j .
j
Implied
harmony: V I V I IV

# 3
& 4
Welsh folk song

# 3
& 4

La Marseillaise

### c r . . . . . j
& J .
The things to notice here are:

1. If the first phrase has a pickup, the 2nd phrase will nearly always have a pickup of the same
length.
2. When you are counting bars, don't count the pickup bar - only count bars that have first beats.
3. The last bar of the piece will not be a complete bar. It will be a complete bar minus the value of
the pickup. Look at the examples above.
4. Pickup notes are generally the tonic or dominant notes, although other notes are possible.
5. If a melody in 4/4 begins with a pickup the last phrase can sound very good ending on the first
beat of the last bar, as in La Marseillaise above (remember that before I had you ending on the
third beat of the bar)

___________________________________________________________________________
38 - 1
Implied harmony
All unaccompanied melodies have an implied harmony. This means that even though you only
hear one note at a time, that series of notes suggests a particular chord progression and our minds
hear that progression internally.

To demonstrate this, play the 2nd melody on the previous page. Then play these two different
harmonizations. You'll hear that the first one sounds right and the other sounds like nonsense:

# 3
& 4

? # 34

#
&
?# b n
b

It's fairly safe to say that if a tune sounds 'right' and natural, it will be easy to harmonize. By
contrast, if a tune sounds odd or awkward it will be difficult to harmonize.

From now on, always put chord symbols under your melodies so you develop an awareness of the
harmony of your melodies.

As preliminary exercise, put chord symbols under the other tunes on page 1. I have done the first
one for you. After that you can do exercise set 4, which features melodies with pickups.

___________________________________________________________________________
38 - 2
Homework for Unit 38 ~ Melody, Part 4
Sing or play the opening phrases, then sing or play an answer. Once you have an answer, write it
down. Don't write random notes! Always end on the tonic. These melodies all begin with pickups,
so your answers will begin with a pickup too. You can end on the first beat of the last bar or the
third. Also, provide chord symbols under your melodies to indicate the implied harmony.

j
&c .
C: I V I V7 I V

b b c
&

# c
&

### c .
&

&c

## c
&

####
& # c .

Homework for Unit 38 page 1 of 1
Unit 39 ~ Melody, Part 5
Let's discuss melody writing in compound time. In compound time, as you will remember, the basic
beat in a bar subdivides into three smaller beats. In simple time, it subdivides into two beats.

The most common compound time, and the easiest to start using, is 6/8 time. When 6 is the top
number of a time signature, it means there are two main beats in the bar. Each of these subdivides
into three smaller beats, making six altogether.

Here are some 6/8 melodies:

## 6 j j j j j
Beethoven

& 8

## j
. . j j
The Lorelei

& .

j j
Lilliburlero

& . . J
b .

As in other time signatures our melodies can begin with pickups, or they can begin on the
downbeat. If a phrase starts with a pickup, the next phrase will start with a pickup of the same
length.

When we cadence in 6/8 we can place the last note of the phrase on the downbeat of the last bar,
as in The Lorelei, or we can place it on the 2 main beat (i.e. the 4th small beat), as in the other
examples.

___________________________________________________________________________
39 - 1
Grouping notes in 6/8
There are certain common rhythmic groupings that will often see in 6/8 time. These groupings
are all good:

j j .
& b . . .

Notice how the eighth notes are beamed into groups of 3.

Compare this to a bar of 3/4 time (which also contains 6 eighth notes):

3
&b 4 Here the notes are beamed 2 by 2.

Syncopation

Again, for now, we want to avoid syncopation, so avoid these next two. The first is 3 beats in
the time of 2 (essentially a big triplet, also known as a hemiola*), and the 2nd bar has a 1+2 rhythm,
rather than 2 + 1, which sounds more natural:

& b 68
J
J

Now have a go at exercise set 5, which is in 6/8

____________________________________________________________________________

*When you are as skillful as Leonard Bernstein, then you can write this:


America from

b 6
West Side Story

& 8
___________________________________________________________________________
39 - 2
Homework for Unit 39 ~ Melody, Part 5
Sing or play the opening phrases, then sing or play an answer. Once you have an answer, write it
down. Don't write random notes! Always end on the tonic. These melodies all begin with pickups,
so your answers will begin with pickup too. You can end on the first beat of the last bar or the
third. Also, provide chord symbols under your melodies to indicate the implied harmony.

& 68 .

I V I IV V

b j j
&b
J

#
&

###
& .
from Bach

j j
from Mozart

& . .

##
& .

####
& # J
J

Homework for Unit 39 page 1 of 1


Unit 40 ~ Melody, Part 6
Speed and tempo

Quicker notes are more likely to move by step than slower notes. This is because it's easier to sing
or play fast notes that are moving by step.

Here is a melody in longish notes: Leaps are fairly easy (although notice that the eighth notes
are moving by step):

## c
&
Here's one with some much faster notes. See how they move by step:

## c
&

Bear in mind that the tempo of a piece effects how fast notes will move and therefore how free
they are to leap. The above examples are assuming a moderate to fast tempo like moderato or allegro.

On the other hand you could write a line in leaping 16th notes that looks fast but if the tempo of
the piece is very slow then this will not be a problem:

Adagio
##
& r

___________________________________________________________________________
40 - 1
Minor Keys

Thus far all our examples and exercises have been in major keys. In minor keys we have extra notes
to play and experiment with, as the melodic minor scales gives us two different versions of the
submediant and leading note:

& b n # n b

The main trap in minor keys is to use the notes of the harmonic minor when you should be
using the melodic. If you raise the leading note but don't raise the submediant as well, you end up
with an augmented 2nd. Now this interval can be used as a special effect and many composers did,
but for now it's best we avoid it. It's too hard to sing and play and sounds a bit exotic. This is great,
but not really in the style of music we are writing.

& b #
aug 2nd

To fix this we need to use the notes of the melodic minor, and raise the B b as well:

& b n # #
The same thing can happen with descending melodies. In the next example we have an augmented
2nd going down. To fix it we do the same thing: raise the submediant. Notice that this creates the
odd situation of having the ascending version of the melodic minor going down! But it's OK. The Bn
would be treated as a passing note between C # and A. Of course we could always lower the C # to C:

Fixed with Bn Fixed with Cn:


# # n
Aug 2: wrong

&b
___________________________________________________________________________
40 - 2
Another common mistake is simply to forget to raise the leading note at cadences, or whenever this
note rises to the tonic. So try to remember!

Here are some example phrases:

b bb
& n n

#
& #

b
& b bb

n

Note the use of F # and Fn in this one. The F # is used when the next note is G, and the Fn
is used as part of the descending melodic minor:

b b . j #
& #

Now have a bash at exercise set 6. These feature, you guessed it, minor keys.

___________________________________________________________________________
40 - 3
Homework for Unit 40 ~ Melody, Part 6
These are all in minor keys. Sing or play the opening phrases, then sing or play an answer.
Once you have an answer, write it down. Don't write random notes! Always end on the tonic.

Also, provide chord symbols under your melodies to indicate the implied harmony.

b bb c
&
i V

b
& #
b

#
& # #

### j
from Bizet

& . . .

b . j
&bb

&b #
from Bach

## j
& #.

Homework for Unit 40 page 1 of 1
Unit 41 ~ Melody, Part 7
8-bar melodies

It's time now to have a go at longer melodies. Let's look at 4-bar questions and 4-bar answers that
combine to create 8-bar melodies.

Often the second phrase will simply repeat some or all of the first phrase, changing the cadence
in order to end on the tonic.

## 3
& 4
last 2 notes changed
##
&
.

The song Early One Morning also repeats the entire first phrase with only a tiny change at the end
(notice one unusual thing: the second phrase has a pickup, while the first phrase does not).

bb 2
Early One Morning

b
& 4

b bb
&

___________________________________________________________________________
41 - 1
In some cases the first phrase is actually divided into two 2-bar phrases. This happens often in
4/4 and 6/8, where there are more notes than in 3/4 and 2/4, and the first part of the first phrase
is repeated in the first half of the second phrase, while the second half of the first phrase is altered
in the second phrase.

In March of the Men of Harlech, the first half of the first phrase is repeated exactly, except for the
last note. The second half of the second phrase is a new musical idea. You can think of this pattern
as A1 - B - A2 - C:

March of the Men of Harlech

# A1 B

& c . . r . . r

#
A2: C

& . . r . . r . ..
R w

The next example uses a similar pattern, although the 2nd half of the second phrase is not quite as
different as it was in the previous example. This one can be labelled A - B1 - A - B2:

A B1
### . .
Mozart Clarinet Quintet

& .

A B2

### . .
& .

Now try exercise set 7


___________________________________________________________________________
41 - 2
Homework for Unit 41 ~ Melody, Part 7
Write answer phrases for each of these question phrases. Sing or play the phrase first, and then
sing or play your answer. For the first two, repeat as much of the entire first phrase as you can.

# c
&
key______
#
&

b b 3 .
& 4
key______

b b
&

For the next two, use an ABAC pattern, so that the last half of the second phrase will be new
material:

b
B

&b b
A
.
key______

b bb
&

Homework for Unit 41 page 1 of 2


## 6 j j j j
& 8 j

key______

##
&

Do the last two as you like:

&b c

key______

&b

3
&4
key______

&

Homework for Unit 41 page 2 of 2


Unit 42 ~ Melody, Part 8
Development

When you're writing a tune, you want to balance unity and variety. Unity makes us feel that the
various parts of the melody are related to each other, but too much unity will be boring. We need
variety to avoid this.

Here's a tune with too much unity. The same musical idea (also called a motive) is used four times,
with only a small change at the end.

## 3
& 4 .

##
& .

While the previous phrase doesn't have enough variety, the next phrase has too much. Each
two-bar subphrase introduces a brand new melodic and rhythmic idea, so there is no feeling of
wholeness:

##
3 3

&

##
& .

___________________________________________________________________________
42 - 1
One way to balance variety and unity is to use what is called 'Development'. This is where you
take a musical idea (motive) and change it in some way. It will obviously be different, which will
provide variety, but will also be recognizably related to the original idea, which gives you unity.

There are a number of different ways we can develop a musical idea. Some commons techniques
are inversion, fragmentation, modification of intervals, and sequences.

Fragmentation

In fragmentation the idea is that we break up our melody into bits (fragments) and then repeat
those bits. The song "There's a hole in my bucket" is a great example:

# 3
& 4
final fragment of fragment repeated twice
the first phrase

Inversion

When you invert a phrase or motive, you reverse the intervals, so that where the original went up
the inversion will go down, and vice versa:


& b 24 . .

The first part of the first phrase....

&b . .
...is inverted here.
___________________________________________________________________________
42 - 2
Modification of intervals

Another way to develop a melody is to repeat it but using different intervals. In this next example,
the second phrase has the same shape and rhythm as the first, but uses different intervals (and
implies a different harmony):

Opening phrase:

& b 34 .
Opening phrase's intervals varied here:

&b .

Sequences

Sequences are musical ideas or harmonic progressions (usually both at the same time) that are
repeated on a different scale step, often more than once (i.e. more than one repetition).

Here's an example. How many times is the opening idea repeated?

Sequence

## 3
& 4

##
& .

___________________________________________________________________________
42 - 3
Here's a reworking of the first example on the previous page. Here, the whole second phrase
is a repetition of the first phrase, up a scale step, making the entire eight bar piece a sequence:

&b .

&b .

Sometimes these techniques can be used together. In the next example we have a sequence,
fragmentation/repetition and change of intervals

change of
Opening phrase intervals

& b n b
sequential repetition

Now attempt exercise set 8. Try to use some of these techniques.

___________________________________________________________________________
42 -4
Homework for Unit 42 ~ Melody, Part 8
Write answer phrases for each of these question phrases. Sing or play the phrase first, and then
sing or play your answer. Remember, do not write random notes! Also, write the implied harmony
under each melody. In the first one, finish the first phrase using fragmentation and repetion:

### 2
fragment

& 4

###
key______

&

For this one complete the first phrase using a sequential repetition of the material in the second
bar. Then complete the second phrase.

b bb 3
& 4
key______

b bb
&

Here, continue by repeating the first idea with modification of intervals:

b
& b b b 34
key______

b bbb
&

Homework for Unit 42 page 1 of 2


In this one, try using inversion:

## 2
& 4
key______

##
&

For this one. start the second phrase as a sequential repetition of the first:


&b c
key______

&b

Do this one as you like:

3
&4 .
key______

&

Homework for Unit 42 page 2 of 2


APPENDIX
Baroque Dances

On exams you may have to identify different dances that were commonly composed (and
danced) during the Baroque Era (ca. 1600 - 1750). You can identify them from their time signatures,
tempo and the length of the pickup.

Here are some of the more common types, with examples taken from Bach's Suites for Solo Cello. On
exams you are more likely to see keyboard dances but the same characteristics apply.

Menuet

The menuet was extremely popular. It is always in 3/4 time, at a moderate tempo.


?# 3
4

Bourre

Fast dance in 4/4 or 4/2 time, with a quarter note pickup


?C
5

Gavotte

In 4/4 with a half note (or two quarter note) pickup


? b c
n
10

bb n n

_____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Baroque Dances - 1
Gigue

Lively dance, usually in compound time e.g. 3/8, 6/8, etc. Usually with pickup.


?# 6
..

15

8J .

Sarabande

Slow triple meter. There is an accent on the 2nd beat of each bar, which is unusual in a triple time piece.


? b 43 . . .. #.
20

. J

Allemande

4/4 or 2/2 time, usually with a pickup

? # c R

24

Courante

Fast, triple meter, often with a pickup


? # 3
27

4J j

_____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Baroque Dances - 2
Common Progressions in Piano Style
Here are some common progressions written out in piano style to make them easier to play.
They are divided into 4 categories: Phrase openings, phrase endings, mid-phrase fragments,
and some whole phrases.

1. Phrase openings


c
&


?c


&

? w

2. Mid phrase fragments

&


?

____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Common progressions in piano style - 1
3. Phrase endings

U
ww U
ww
& w w
? w w
u u

U U
& ww
w ww
w
?
w
u w
u

4. Whole phrases


&
ww
w


? w

____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Common progressions in piano style - 2

&
?


&

? w

&


?

____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Common progressions in piano style - 3

&
?

&

U
www

?
w
u

_____________________________________________________________________________
Common progressions in piano style - 4
Structure and Analysis of Seventh Chords
There are five types of 7th chord that we define or classify (there are many other possible combination but
we don't classify them): These are Major, Minor, Dominant 7th, Half-Diminished 7th and Diminished 7th

Major 7th
The intervals from the root are +3, P5,+7

& www The root/quality symbol is formed by adding

w
"Maj7" to the root.

So this chord is "Cmaj7"

Dominant 7th

www The intervals from the root are +3, P5, -7


& w All dominant 7th chords have this structure.

The root quality symbol for this chord is "G7"

Minor 7th

www
The intervals from the root are -3, P5, -7
& w
e.g. ii7 in major keys

The root/quality symbol of this chord is "Dm7"

Half-diminished ( ) 7th

www
& w
The intervals from the root are -3, o5, -7
e.g. vii7 in major keys

The root/quality symbol of this chord is "B 7"

Diminished (o)7th

www
& bbb nw The intervals from the root are -3, o5, o7
e.g. viio7 in minor keys.

The root/quality symbol is "Bo7"

_____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Structure and Analysis of Seventh Chords - 1
Here are all the 7th chords found in C major and C harmonic minor:

www www
B 7
www
Cmaj7 Dm7 Em7 Fmaj7 G7 Am7

www www www www w w


& w w w w w
I7 ii7 iii7 IV7 V7 vi7 vii7

A bmaj7
www www
D 7 * Fm7 G7 Bo7

n wwww
*

b bb nw www n wwww www w nw


& www w w
n
i7 ii7 IIIn57 iv7 V7 VI7 viio7

Inversions

As with triads, if a chord is inverted, the root quality symbol includes a slash and then the bass note

e.g. a G dominant 7th in 1st inversion would be "G7/B"

* When using the notes of the harmonic minor scale, neither the i7 nor the III7 chord is one of the
n
five defined types. They contain other combinations of intervals (although sometimes i 7 is referred
to as a minor-major 7).

_____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Structure and Analysis of Seventh Chords - 2
Non-Chord Note Summary


& 1. Passing note. Fills in the gap of a 3rd
between two chord notes. Only occurs on
weak beats.
? Abbreviation: "pn"

& 2. Neighbour note. Decorates a single


chord note, either by step above or by step below.

? Only occurs on weak beats.


Abbreviation: "nn"


& 3. Echappe This un-accented non-chord
note is approached by step. It is then quitted by

?
leaping a 3rd in the opposite direction.

Abbreviation: "ech"

&
4 Anticipation. You can think of this as a
chord note that arrives early. They only occur
on weak beats. They are usually approached
?
by step, although sometimes by leap.

Abbreviation: "ant"

_____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Non-chord note summary - 1
&

5. Appoggiatura. These occur only on
strong beats. They are approached by leap and


?
resolve by step (usually downwards) to the


following chord note.
Abbreviation: "app"


&
6. Accented passing note. Like their weaker
brothers, these notes fill in a gap between two
chord notes.

? Abbreviation: "apn"

& 7. Accented neighboursThese decorate a


single note. They are approached by step, and
quitted by step in the opposite direction.
?
Abbreviation: "ann"

& ww 8. Suspensions. These are approached


by common note (i.e. prepared) and then
w resolve by step, usually down. Suspensions
? w
may also resolve up by step (in which case they
may be referred to as 'retardations').

Abbreviation: "susp"

____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Non-chord note summary - 2
& w. 9. Pedal notes. These are usually long,
w. held notes in the bass. They begin as chord
notes, and then the harmony changes above
w. them, making them dissonant. Usually the
? w. w.
harmony then returns to the original
harmony, and the pedal becomes consonant
again.
I IV viio I
^
1 pedal ________________
Pedal notes are usually the tonic or the dominant note. Note how you label these. If
it's a tonic pedal you write "1" with a caret above it (that's the little hat above the 1). If
it's a dominant pedal you write a "5" with a caret. You then write "pedal" and a line
indicating how long the pedal lasts. When analysing the chords above the pedal, don't
indicate inversions for these chords, since the bass note is the pedal.

b b
& # 10. Incomplete neighbour note. These are
approached by leap and then resolve

? bb
by step. They are always unaccented.

Abbreviation: "inn"

& w 11. Changing tones: If an upper


auxiliary is followed by a lower auxiliary,

? ww
(or vice-versa) the combination is referred
to as 'changing tones'.

____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Non-chord note summary - 3
The Leading Note

Here is a summary of how to handle the leading note.

1. When the leading note appears as the 3rd of V or the root of viio6, it usually rises a step to
the tonic note if the next chord is the tonic chord or vi or IV6.

& c


?c
V7 I V7 I V vi V IV6

2. In the bass, the leading note may fall a step ONLY as part of a descending scale passage - placed
between tonic and submediant. When this happens the only possible chord is V6. This
contradicts rule one, because the leading note is part of V and is falling, but it's an accepted usage.
Please note that while V6 can go to vi, V6 may not because the tritone makes the leading note
want to rise back up very strongly. 5

If the leading note is falling a step in one of the upper 3 voices, the usual chord to use to
harmonize it is iii.

&
OK OK OK Not so good


?


I iii IV vi iii IV I V6 vi vi V6 vi

_____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - The Leading Note - 1
3. In a V chord (or some other dominant chord), whoever has the leading note may go to a different
note of the chord, as long as someone else takes over the leading note so that the chord is not
missing its 3rd.

& In the example, the tenor has the l.n., and

?
then jumps down to G while the alto takes
over the l.n.

Notice how the B in the tenor never gets to C. This is OK in an inner voice, where we don't hear it
as clearly, but not so good in an outer voice. If the soprano has B - G, it should still go to C in the I
chord:

& w
All of these rules apply also to your


melody-writing exercises. Be especially

?
careful with the leading note in the
melody. Mistakes are very noticeable.

When you have V - I, if the leading note is in one of the inner parts, it may 'cheat' and leap
down a third to take thte fifth of the next chord. This is handy because otherwise in some
situations you will find yourself without a fifth in I. Very occasionally you will see the leading note
leaping up to take the 3rd of I, but this is more rare.

acceptable cheat an acceptable cheat, but rare not so good...

&

?

Try to make a mental note of which note is the leading note before you start any exercise.

____________________________________________________________________________
Appendix - The Leading Note - 2
Root/Quality Chord Symbol Summary

Chord type Structure Symbol Example

TRIADS:

Major triad (e.g. I in root, +3, P5 root name only C


major keys)

Minor triad (e.g. i in root, -3, P5 root plus m Cm


minor keys)

Diminished triad (e.g. root, -3, o5 root plus o Co


vii in major keys)

Augmented triad (e.g. root, +3, x5 root plus aug Caug


III in minor keys)

7th CHORDS:

Dominant 7th (e.g. root, +3, P5, -7 root plus 7 C7


V7)

Diminished 7th (e.g. root, -3, o5, o7 root plus o7 Co7


vii7 in minor keys)

Half-diminished 7th root, -3, o5, -7 root plus 7 C 7


(e.g. ii7 in minor keys)

Minor 7th (e.g. ii7 in root, -3, P5, -7 root plus m7 Cm7
major keys)

Major 7th (e.g. I7 in root, +3, P5, +7 root plus maj7 Cmaj7
major keys)

Inversions
If chords are in inversions, place a forward slash after the chord symbol and then write the bass
note.

For example, a C major triad in 1st inversion would be written C/E.

A d minor triad in 2nd inversion would be Dm/A

_______________________________________________________________________
Appendix - Root/Quality Symbol Summary
REVIEW SHEETS
Review 1

1. Define these terms:

a. 'oblique motion'

b. 'contrary motion'

c. 'similar motion'

d. 'conjunct'

e. 'disjunct'

2. What's the largest interval you may have between:

a. the soprano and the alto?

b. the alto and the tenor?

c. the tenor and the bass?

3. Which two triads make a 'perfect cadence'?

4. Give 3 examples of an 'imperfect cadence' (e.g. I - V, etc.).

Review 1 - page 1 of 2
5. Which note may you occasionally leave out of a triad?

6. Which note (apart from the root) must you never leave out?

7. 'I6' means the first inversion of the tonic triad. What does the 6 actually refer to?

8. What are the 4 secondary triads?

9. Find the mistake or mistakes in each of these progressions and describe them in
the space below:

#
a. b. c. d. e.

b b n
&



? # n
b b

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

Review 1 - page 2 of 2
Review 2

Add the inner voices to these and show the functional chord symbols:

& bb

?
bb

# ###
&
?# ###

b
&bb b
? bb
b b

Review 2 - page 1 of 2
## ###
&
? ## ###

## #
&

? ## #

Review 2 - page 2 of 2
Review 3

1. Where does the leading note tend to want to go?

2. Name all the dominant approach chords (chords that go well before V) that you know so far.

3. Of the following intervals, circle those which are consonant:

P5, -2, -6, o5, +3, -3 P8, +7

4. Which notes of a primary triad are best to double?

5. Which notes of vi and ii are best to double?

6. When vi comes before or after V, you should double the _____________ of vi.

7. Write these progressions on the next page. Give each chord a half-note. Write the bass
part first, then the soprano, then the middle voices. Use common notes where possible. Let the
other voices move as little as possible. Check for consecutives and overlaps after you write each
chord.

a. I IV V I let the soprano have 3 - 4 - 2 - 3

b. I IV V I let the soprano have 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 (8 = 1)

c. I V6 vi I6 let the soprano have 3 - 5 - 8 - 8

d. I ii6 V I soprano: 1 - 2 - 7 - 8 (8=1)

e. I vi V I

f. I I6 ii6 V I soprano: 3 - 1 - 2 - 7 - 1

g. I6 V6 I ii6 V I
Review 3 - page 1 of 3
a. b.

&

c. d.

&

e. f.
&

g.

&

Review 3 - page 2 of 3
Here are a number of soprano lines. Decide what chords would work well with these lines,
and then fill in the 3 lower voices. Show all the chord symbols.

These are all in C major. Use any of the triads you have learned so far. Two of these exercises use
'common soprano lines' that I have shown you.


&


&

Use 2 different chords Use 2 different chords

&

Review 3 - page 3 of 3
Review 4

1. What's a passing note?

2. What's a neighbour note?

3. Circle and identify the neighbour and passing notes:

# . j
&




?#

I___________ V7 _____ I _____ I IV ii V I6 V7 I____

4. Fill in the missing voices. State the key and write the chord symbols:

##
&b

?b ##

### nnn
&

? ### nnn

Review 4 - page 1 of 2
b bb bb
& w
? bb
b w bb
(B b+)

# n
& .

?# n w

(C+)

&b

?b

vi IV6

&b bbbb

?b b b
bb

Review 4 - page 2 of 2
Review 5
Write V7 and all its inversions in every major key. I've done the first as an example, Write the chord
symbols under each. How you arrange the upper voices isn't important.

& c

?c

C: V7 V6 V4 V4
5 3 2

&
?

&
?

&
?

Review 5 - page 1 of 2
Now, do the same with ii7 and its inversions:

&
?

&
?

&
?

&
?

Review 5 - page 2 of 2
Review 6
Complete these. The first chord is V7 or one of its inversions. Don't leave out the 7th.
The second chord is I or I6. Remember: the leading note usually rises and the seventh falls.

Remember too that when root position V7 goes to root position I ... the leading note can fall a
3rd to the 5th of I if it's in an inner part (check unit 10 again).

Write the key and functional chord symbols under each one.

# b bbbbbbb
&

? # b bbbbbbb

b bb ## bbb bb
&

? bb ## bbb bb
b

bbbb # ### ##
& b

? bb b # ### ##
bb

Review 6 - page 1 of 3
b bbb #### ## #### # nnnn n
& # # n

? bb b #### ## #### # nnnn n


b # # n

#### nnnn ####


& # n b

? #### nnnn ####


# n b

# ## #### # b
& #

?# ## #### # b

#

Review 6 - page 2 of 3
Write these progressions in the blank bars. Use quarter notes, one exercise per bar.

1. I - ii6 - V - I in F, D and E b. Use 1 - 2 - 7 - 1 in the soprano.

2. I - V6 - vi in D b , A, and B Use 3 - 5 - 8 (going up) in the soprano

3. I - ii4 - V6 - I in C, A b and E. Use 3 - 4 - 4 - 3 in the soprano


2 5

&

&

&

Review 6 - page 3 of 3
Review 7

1. What are the names of the four voice parts?

2. Write the highest and lowest notes of the four voice parts in the bars below

?
&

3. What is 'contrary motion'?

4. Which triads are written with capital letters?

5. Which are written in small letters?

6. Is it best to have a lot of leaps or a lot of steps in a melody?

7. Which are the primary triads?

8. What should you do if two chords that are next to each other have a note
in common?

9. Give an example of an imperfect cadence.

10. List all the chords you know that go well before V.

Review 7 - page 1 of 2
11. Find and name the mistakes in the progression below and write a corrected version in
the empty bar.

&

?

C: IV V

12. When V or V7 goes to I, what happens to the leading note?

13. Which notes are best to double in primary triads?

14. Which notes are best to double in secondary triads?

15. Name the non-chord notes in the example below.

* *
*

&
*

16. Why does V4 have to go to I6?


2

Review 7 - page 2 of 2
Review 8

Most of these are all based on the 'common progressions' found on page 3 of unit 20.
Harmonize these short melodies for soprano by filling in the lower voices. State the key you are
in, write the functional chord symbols underneath, and write the soprano scale degress above
each soprano part. The first one is done as an example:

3 5

8
## bb
&
?
## bb
C: I V6 vi

### #### bbbbb bbb


&

? ### #### bbbbb bbb

b b #
&

? b b #

Review 8 - page 1 of 2
Analyse this phrase. Show all the chord symbols and non-chord notes.

J. S. Bach

##
&

? ##

Review 8 - page 2 of 2
Review 9

1. What is a non-chord note?

2. Name the non-chord notes that you know so far

3. What happens to the 7th of V7 when V7 goes to I?

4. What must you always remember to add to the dominant triad in minor keys?

5. What are the best notes to double in a primary triad?

6. In a bar of 4/4, which are the strong beats?

7. If you divide a beat into 2 notes, which is the stronger?

8. Complete all the missing voices:

b b
&

? bb w

ii6 I6
use the progression 5 4
you learned about in
unit 14.
Review 9 - page 1 of 4
9. Add a bassline to this melody, and write the chord symbols


&

10. Write these progressions in the given keys. Write in 4/4 and use one quarter note per chord.

a. I ii6 V7 I in A , G, and E
5

b. I ii6 V7 I in E b, D, and C #
5

c. I ii4 V6 I in C, F, and A
2 5

d. I ii4 V6 I in B b, E, and D b
2 5

These will require 2 bars each. Make sure the six-four lands on a strong beat (probably beat 3 in
these exercises):

e. I IV I6 V I in D and B
4

f. I ii6 I6 V I in F and B b
4

g. I vi IV V I in D and F #

h. I I6 ii6 V I in E and A
5

Review 9 - page 2 of 4
a.

&

b.

&

c.

&

d.

&

Review 9 - page 3 of 4
e.

&

f.

&

g.

&

h.

&

Review 9 - page 4 of 4
Review 10
Use the empty bars on the next page for this exercise:

Write each of these out once. Use a different key each time. The progressions which have 2
possible soprano lines should be written twice, once for each soprano line.

You can do all of these as 2 quarter note chords followed by a half note chord, except the fifth
one, which you can do as 4 quarter note chords, and the last one which you can do as a quarter note
chord, then 2 eighth note chords and then another quarter note chord.

Progression Soprano Line

IV - V - I ................................ 4-2-1
or 6 - 7 - 8

I - IV - I . ................................ 5-6-5

ii6 - V - I ................................ 2-7-1

ii6 - V - I ................................ 2-2-1


5
I - ii4 - V6 - I ................................ 3-4-4-3
2 5

I - V6 - vi ................................ 3-5-8

IV - V4 - I6 ................................ 6-7-8
2

I6 - V - I ................................ 3-2-1
4
or 8 - 7 - 8

I - IV6 - I ................................ 5-6-5


4

I - vii6 - I6 ................................ 3-2-1


or 8 - 7 - 8

I - ii - vii6 - I6 ................................ 3-2-1

Review 10 - page 1 of 2
&c
?c

&
?

&
?

&
?

Review 10 - page 2 of 2
Review 11

Complete these and write both functional and root/quality chord symbols.

. bb .
&

?
. bb .

# ### . .
& .
?# . ### .

## bbb
& .

? ##
. bbb

Review 11 - page 1 of 2
& .

### ####
& . #

? ### ####
. #

Review 11 - page 2 of 2
Review 12

Complete these and write the chord symbols underneath. Write the degrees of the soprano and
bass part next to the notes. See the first one for an example

b #
& b bb
1
.
3 2 2
.

? bb b #
b . .
1 4 5 1

# . n .
&

?# n .
.

b bb . nnn
&

? bb nnn
b

Review 12 - page 1 of 2
##
& .

? ## .
.

## b
&
? ## b

Review 12 - page 2 of 2
Review 13
Complete these and write the chord symbols underneath. Write the scale degrees next to the bass
and soprano notes.

# n ####
&

?# n ####

#### nnnn bb
&
? #### nnnn bb

# bb
& w

?# bb
w

Review 13 - page 1 of 2
b
&

?b

b bbb ##
& b

? bb b ##
bb

In this bar the soprano and the bass have exposed octaves. In the space below, explain the rule of
exposed octaves (see unit 27)

##
&
? # #

Review 13 - page 2 of 2
Review 14
Complete all the missing voices. Also, add the correct time signature to each line (it changes
each line). Indicate the key of each exercise, and show the functional chord symbols and the
scale degrees of the outer voices. Note: there are no non-chord notes in what I have given you.

####
1 2

& w
2

1

? . w ####
8

7 8

## .
&b .

?b . ## .

j j j
& bb . .

? bb . J J
.
J

Review 14 - page 1 of 2
b bb
&

? bb
b

&

Review 14 - page 2 of 2
Review 15

In the blank bars on the next page, write these progressions


in 4/4. Use quarter notes.

1. I - V6 - vi in A

2. I - IV6 - I6 in C

3. I - iii - IV in F

4. I - vii6 - I6 in B b

5. I - V4 - I6 in E b
3
6. I - ii - iii6 - I
6 in F

7. I - IV - V4 - I6 in D
2

8. I - ii4 - V6 - I in G
2

9. I - V - IV6 - V6 - I in C
5

10. I - IV6 - I in E
4

11. I - ii6 - V - 7 - I in B
5

12. I - IV - I6 - V - 7 - I in A
4

Play the exercises you have written on the piano. This is very important. Don't skip it!

Review 15 - page 1 of 3
1 2 3 4

&b

?b

5 6 7 8

&b

?b

9 10

&b

?b

&b
11 12

?b

Review 15 - page 2 of 3
Fill in the 3 missing voices and show your chord symbols.

Use the common progressions listed on page one as much as possible.

The fermatas show where the music cadences. Make sure that at these places you have a proper
cadence: imperfect and perfect are the most common, although plagal and deceptive are also
possible. These exercises use perfect and imperfect cadences.

In the first one, use 2 different chords under the D in Bar 2. In other words, beats one and two of
bar 2 should have different chords, and D will belong to both of them.

U
U
& b

?b

U U
##
&
? ##

Review 15 - page 3 of 3
Review 16
Name the key, time signature, and fill in the missing voices of the following.

Write the functional chord symbols and the scale degrees of the outer voices. The first is done as
an example:


3 4 5

&b

?
b
1 2 3

F+: I V4 I6
3

# . j ## . . .
& . . .

?# ##
.
J

## bbbb
&
.
? ## bbbb

Review 16 - page 1 of 2
bbbb ### .
& .

? bb ### . . .
bb

### . . .
&

? ### .
. .

Review 16 - page 2 of 2
Review 17
The examples on this page are full of mistakes. Write a corrected version of the exercise in
the blank bars. State the mistakes in the space provided.

Possible mistakes include: bad doubling, chords with missing or wrong notes, overlaps, crossings,
consecutives, and parts being out of range

#
&
? #

Mistakes (at least 6):

1. 4.

2. 5.

3. 6.

####
&

? ####

Mistakes (at least 4):

1. 3.

2. 4.

Review 17 - page 1 of 2
##
&

? ##

Mistakes (at least 3):

1.

2.

3.

Add the 3 lower voices to this soprano line. Write functional and root/quality chord symbols.

#
&

?#

Review 17 - page 2 of 2