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ISSN: 2321-0869, Volume-3, Issue-4, April 2015

**A Topology for High-Order Vector Control of
**

Grid-Connected VSC with LCL-Filters

P. Anusha, Dr. B. Venkata Prasanth, Muzeeb Khan Patan

however, very limited specifically tailored vector control

Abstract— A new vector control topology for strategies exist. The conventional approach in such cases is to

LCL-filter-based grid-connected voltage source converters neglect the capacitor dynamics. Therefore, the vector

(VSCs). The proposed control strategy is inherently capable of controller is designed by considering the equivalent series

attenuating the resonance phenomenon of such systems. This is connection of the LCL filter inductors, simplifying the control

an advantage over the existing methods, which require problem to that of a first-order system. As third-order

additional damping techniques. Moreover, the proposed vector systems, however, LCL-filters could potentially result in

control strategy is able to fully decouple the direct (d) and oscillatory and/or unstable dynamic behavior if the

quadrature (q) components of the current in a rotating reference closed-loop system is not properly damped. Therefore, a

frame. The design procedure comprises a constrained damping strategy must accompany the vector controller.

optimization-based loop shaping. It utilizes the multi-input

multi-output (MIMO) nonparametric model of the system along II. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES:

with a high-order linearly parameterized MIMO controller to

A renewable source is a natural resource which can

form an open-loop transfer function matrix. Minimizing the

replenish with the passage of time, either through biological

second norm of the error between the open-loop transfer

reproduction or other naturally recurring processes.

function matrix and a desired one, the coefficients of the

Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment

controller are optimally determined. Conducting several

and the largest components of its ecosphere.

reference tracking scenarios, the performance of the proposed

vector controller is evaluated both by means of time domain Solar Energy: Solar power is the conversion of sunlight

simulation studies in MATLAB/Simulink and experimental into electricity, either directly using photovoltaic’s (PV), or

results. indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP).

Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and

tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small

Index Terms— multi-input multi-output (MIMO, voltage

source converters (VSCs)

beam. Photovoltaic’s convert light into electric current using

the photoelectric effect.

I. INTRODUCTION Wind Power: Wind power is the conversion of wind

The rapid development of renewable energy related energy into a useful form of energy. Most modern electrical

technologies, pulse width modulation (PWM) voltage-source wind power is generated by converting the rotation of turbine

converters (VSCs) are attracting significant interest and blades into electrical currents by means of an electrical

attention as the interfacing unit between such energy generator.

resources and the utility grid. Moreover, VSCs are utilized in

various other power-electronic-based applications, e.g., Hydropower: Hydropower is energy derived from the

power filters, electric drives, flexible AC transmission movement of water in rivers and oceans, originally used for

technologies, high voltage DC transmission systems. In all of irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices.

these applications, the VSC is interfaced to the utility grid Since the early 20th century, the term is used almost

through either L- or LCL-filters. The filter is mainly exclusively in conjunction with the modern development of

responsible for attenuating the switching harmonic generated hydro-electric power.

by the VSC. LCL-filters, however, are preferred due to their

lower cost and superior harmonic attenuation capability Geothermal Energy: Geothermal energy comes from the

compared to L-filters. Regardless of their application, Earth's crust and originates from the original formation of the

grid-connected VSCs generally require a regulation scheme planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%).

for controlling their current. In case of L-filter-based systems, The available energy from the Earth's crust and mantle is

the VSC current is regulated by well-known vector control approximately equal to that of incoming solar energy.

strategies. For the vector control of LCL-filter-based VSCs,

Biofuel: A bio fuel is a type of fuel whose energy is

Manuscript received April 15, 2015. derived from biological carbon fixation. Bio fuels include

P.Anusha, Pursuing M.Tech In Qis College Of Engg And Tech. fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid

Dr. B. Venkata Prasanth, Head Of The EEE Department In QIS biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases.

College Of Engg And Tech., Ongole. His Research Area Includes Power

Systems & Facts, Digital Control Systems And Microcontrollers.

Muzeeb Khan Patan, B.Tech Degree From Lakkireddy Balireddy

Fuel Cell: A fuel cell is an electrochemical device (a

College Of Engineering. M.Tech Degree From Anurag Group Of Institutions galvanic cell) which converts free energy of a chemical

In Power Electronics & Electrical Drives.

**197 www.erpublication.org
**

A Topology for High-Order Vector Control of Grid-Connected VSC with LCL-Filters

**reaction into electrical energy (electricity); by products are
**

heat and water/steam.

**III. LCL-FILTER
**

LCL filters, which are particularly popular in the renewable

energy industry today, are an efficient and economical way of

ensuring and improving the quality of power fed from the

energy source to the grid. Their purpose is to filter the

inverter’s switching frequencies. When the targeted distortion

level is reached, the filter can create measurable cost savings.

Small losses and small size and weight in relation to capacity

are typical for LCL filters.

Fig. 4 Effects of Damping Circuit

**IV. GRID CONNECTED VOLTAGE SOURCE
**

CONVERTERS

A scheme of the main circuit of the VSC is shown in Fig. 5

. The valves are of the IGBT type. The VSC is connected to a

symmetric three-phase load, which has the impedance R+jL

and the emfs e1(t), e2 (t) and e3(t). The neutral point of the

star-connected load has the potential v0 (t), due to a floating

ground. The phase potentials of the VSC are denoted as v1(t),

v2 (t) and v3(t). The phase voltages of the VSC are denoted as

u1(t), u2(t) and u3(t). The current flowing from the dc-link to

the converter is denoted as Iv(t), the dc-link current is

Fig. 1Single-line diagram of the three-phase test system. denoted as idc(t) and the dc-link voltage across the dc-link

A LCL filter is often used to interconnect an inverter to the capacitor is denoted as udc(t).

utility grid in order to filter the harmonics produced by the

inverter.

Fig. 2 Filter Model

**Fig. 4 Main Circuit of VSC
**

Two control principles are investigated for a VSC

connected to a grid. They are the voltage angle control and the

vector current control.

The voltage angle control is simple to implement in an analog

controller or a microcontroller. However, the bandwidth of

the system is low, since the controller is based on a

steady-state model. The basic principle of the vector current

controlled grid-connected VSC is to control the instantaneous

active and reactive grid currents independently of each other

and with a high bandwidth.

Fig. 3 Bode Plots of Different Filters

**198 www.erpublication.org
**

International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR)

ISSN: 2321-0869, Volume-3, Issue-4, April 2015

Fig. 5 Principle diagram for vector current controller

**The dq0_to_abc Transformation performs the reverse of
**

the so-called Park transformation, which is commonly used in

three-phase electric machine models. It transforms three

quantities (direct axis, quadratic axis, and zero-sequence

components) expressed in a two-axis reference frame back to

phase quantities. The following transformation is used

**Fig. 7 Simulation circuit of VSC with grid of PV cell & Wind
**

energy systems

V. SIMULATION CIRCUITS & RESULTS

Fig. 6 Simulation circuit of inverter control with PI controller. Fig. 8 Three phase grid voltage Vabc

**199 www.erpublication.org
**

A Topology for High-Order Vector Control of Grid-Connected VSC with LCL-Filters

Fig. 9 Three phase grid current Iabc

Fig. 13 PV Cell Power

Fig. 10 Wind Power

Fig. 14 Load Voltage & Current with effect LCL Filter.

VI. CONCLUSION

A vector control strategy for the LCL-filter-based

Fig. 11 Wind Voltage grid-connected VSCs is proposed in this paper. To damp the

resonance phenomenon of the LCL whose elements are

linearly parameterized high-order controllers with integrators.

Contrary to the existing vector control schemes for VSCs with

LCL -filter, a MIMO controller matrix is adopted, filters, the

proposed approach does not require extra damping methods.

Moreover, the dynamic performance of the proposed

approach is similar to the existing ones while its

axis-decoupling capability is superior. The performance of

the controller is evaluated for different sources. Based on

simulation and experimental results, it is concluded that the

proposed vector controller shows excellent dynamic

performance in terms of reference tracking, axis-decoupling,

and resonance attenuation, upon step-changes in the

set-points of the dq-components of current. Moreover, despite

uncertainties in the LCL-filter parameters, the dynamic

performance of the controller is acceptable.

Fig. 12 Wind Current

**200 www.erpublication.org
**

International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR)

ISSN: 2321-0869, Volume-3, Issue-4, April 2015

REFERENCES

**[1] O. Senturk, L. Helle, S. Munk-Nielsen, P. Rodriguez, and R. Teodorescu,
**

“Power capability investigation based on electrothermal models of

presspack IGBT three-level NPC and ANPC VSCs for multimegawatt

wind turbines,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 7, pp.

3195–3206, Jul. 2012.

[2] B. Bahrani, A. Karimi, B. Rey, and A. Rufer, “Decoupled dq-current

control of grid-tied voltage source converters using nonparametric

models,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1356–1366,

Apr. 2013.

[3] B. Bahrani, S. Kenzelmann, and A. Rufer, “Multivariable-PI-based dq

current control of voltage source converters with superior axis

decoupling capability,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 7, pp.

3016–3026, Jul. 2011.

[4] B. Bahrani, A. Rufer, S. Kenzelmann, and L. Lopes, “Vector control of

single-phase voltage-source converters based on fictive-axis

emulation,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 831–840,

Mar./Apr. 2011.

[5] M. Liserre, R. Teodorescu, and F. Blaabjerg, “Stability of photovoltaic

and wind turbine grid-connected inverters for a large set of grid

impedance values,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 1, pp.

263–272, Jan. 2006.

[6] P. Sun, C. Liu, J.-S. Lai, and C.-L. Chen, “Grid-tie control of cascade

dualbuck inverter with wide-range power flow capability for renewable

energy applications,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 4, pp.

1839–1849, Apr. 2012.

[7] R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre, and P. Rodriguez, Grid Converters for

Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley,

2011.

[8] H. Akagi and R. Kondo, “A transformerless hybrid active filter using a

three-level Pulsewidth Modulation (PWM) converter for a

mediumvoltage motor drive,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no.

6, pp. 1365–1374, Jun. 2010.

[9] V. Coroban-Schramel, I. Boldea, G.-D. Andreescu, and F. Blaabjerg,

“Active-flux-based motion-sensorless vector control of biaxial

excitation generator/motor for automobiles,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.,

vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 812–819, Mar./Apr. 2011.

Authors:

**P.ANUSHA is currently pursuing M.Tech in QIS college of Engg and
**

Tech. Her interested research areas are FACTS, Power Quality, Harmonics

Elimination, Filters.

**DR. B. VENKATA PRASANTH is Head of the EEE Department in
**

QIS college of Engg and Tech., Ongole. His research area includes Power

systems & Facts, Digital Control Systems and Microcontrollers.

**MUZEEB KHAN PATAN received B.Tech degree from Lakkireddy
**

Balireddy College of Engineering. He has recieved M.tech Degree from

Anurag Group of Institutions in Power Electronics & Electrical Drives. His

research area includes Electrical Vehicles Control & design, Hybrid EV,

Power Drives. He is currently working as a Assistant Professor in Pace IT &

S., Ongole. He has a teaching experience of 4 years.

201 www.erpublication.org

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