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MARITIME

EDUCATION AND
TRAINING
A Practical Guide
MARITIME
EDUCATION AND TRAINING

Published by The Nautical Institute


202 Lambeth Road, London SE 1 7LQ, England
telephone: 0171-928 1351
fax: 0171-401 2817

First edition published 1997

Copyright The Nautical Institute, 1997

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publishers, except for the quotation of brief passages in
reviews.

Although great care has been taken with the writing and production of this volume, neither The
Nautical Institute nor the authors can accept any responsibility for errors, omissions or their
consequences.

The opinions expressed are those of the authors only.

All photographs and diagrams acknowledged

Typeset by Javafame Computer Services


Saffron Pane, Hall Road, Lavenham, Suffolk CO 10 9QU, England

Printed in England by
The Repro Company, Hayes Road, Southall, Middlesex UB2 5NB

Frontispiece: JiI70rk at Sea by Captain D.A. Hawker, taken from a study undertaken when working as an artist tutor for
The Marine Society. The artist lives near Northampton.
CONTENTS

Foreword 1 - Mr W.A O'Neil .............................................................................................................................. 4


Secretary General, The IMO

Foreword 2 - Captain L.A. Holder ExC MPhil FRIN FNI,


President, The Nautical Institute 1993-1996 .............................................................................................. 5

Maritime Education and Training - The Overview .......................................................................................... 6

SECfION I - Applying the concepts of learning


Chapter
1 Concepts of learning and their application ................................................................................................. 8
by Mr. Don Baillie ExC FNI

2 Concepts, skills and competence in a maritime setting ........................................................................... 16


by Mr. Don Baillie ExC FNI

3 Group learning and training techniques ................................................................................................... 23


by Mr. Robert L. Tallack BSc FNI, Northstar Maritime / Hill Tallack

4 The preparation of a lecture ....................................................................................................................... 33


by Elaine Ives BSc FRMetS andJohn McEnaney BA MNI

5 Factors to be considered when developing a curriculum for maritime education and training ......... 38
by Professor Captain Gunther Zade FNI, World Maritime University

6 Training in the Royal Navy - its management and methodology .......... ,............................................. .45
by Rear AdmiralJ.H.S. McAnally LVO MNI

SECfION II - Learning resources and educational technology


Chapter
7 Making the most of learning resources for both college and student .................................................... 56
by Dr. Alston Kennerley PhD FNI, University of Plymouth, UK

8 Electronic and multi-media systems and their value in education and training programmes ........... 62
by Captain Michael Vanstone MNI, Technovo Training Systems Ltd.

9 The development of computer based instructional programs ................................................................ 68


by Captain Michael Vanstone MNI, Technovo Training Systems Ltd.

10 The use of simulators as tools for training and examining seafarers ..................................................... 76
by Dr. Michael L. Barnett PhD BSc MNI, Warsash Maritime Centre

11 The role of the simulator instructor and the need for instructor qualifications .................................... 85
by Captain Roger Syms BSc (Nautical Studies) MRIN FNI, Australian Maritime College

12 Managing navigational simulation ............................................................................................................. 89


by Captain Samar J. Singh ExC MPhil PhD FNI, Hong Kong Polytechnic University

13 The role and use of simulators for bridge resource management training ........................................... 99
by Captain Piet Pols, MarineSafety International, Rotterdam

14 Training in shiphandling skills - optimising experience, simulation and time on manned models ....... 107
by Captain Nigel W Hunt BSc FNI, Warsash Maritime Centre

15 The use of tactical warfare simulation for naval training ...................................................................... 113
by Lt. Cdr. Andrew C.Y. Prince RN, Royal Navy School of Maritime Operations, HMS DRYAD

MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING 1


SECfION III - The organisation of education and training
Chapter
16 Afloat and ashore: where are tomorrow's skills being developed? ...................................................... 120
by Mr.]. David Precious AMNI, Precious Associates Ltd.

17 The responsibility of a college principal - integrating a maritime college


with the maritime environment ............................................................................................................... 126
by Captain Wan Shukry Wan Karma MSc, Maritime Academy of Malaysia Melaka

18 Developing company based training and the training of trainers ........................................................ 132
by Mr. Glyn Cunnah BSc MNI, BP Shipping Ltd.

19 The training, updating and upgrading of maritime lecturers ............................................................... 140


by Professor Captain Gunther Zade FNI, World Maritime University

20 Higher education in maritime disciplines - the development of graduate and


post graduate programmes ....................................................................................................................... 144
by Mr. Steve Bonsall BSc MNI, LiverpoolJohn Moores University

21 The development and implementation of the 1995 STCW Convention ............................................ 154
by Mr. Stephen E. Chapman BSc FNI

22 Translating international maritime training standards into national regulations ................................ 160
by Professor Captain P.S. Vanchiswar ExC PhD FNI, World Maritime University

23 Training ship training ................................................................................................................................ 167


by Captain James C. De Simone BS MBA MNI,
State' University of New York Maritime College, U.S.A.

SECfION IV - Fundamentals of assessment and evaluation


Chapter
24 An introduction to norm referenced and criterion referenced assessment, marking and grading ... 173
by Professor Captain Peter Muirhead ExC MSc (Wales) FNI, World Maritime University

25 Preparing a company training strategy and assessing its effectiveness ................................................ 180
by Mr. Keith Parsons MNI, V Ships

26 The management of seafarers' training by shipping companies through a group training organisation 186
by Mr Colin Chandler BSc MNI, Ship Safe Training Group Ltd.

27 An introduction to competence based training with a framework for vocational qualifications ..... 189
by Mr. R.C. Matthew, UK Merchant Navy Training Board

28 The assessment of competence within a maritime vocational training scheme ................................. 196
by Captain Philip ].C. Smith ExC FNI

29 The role of continuous assessment and the use of projects in student development. ........................ 200
by Mr. Christopher]. Haughton BA Cert Ed MNI, Fleetwood Nautical Campus

30 The development and evaluation of examination systems based upon multiple choice criteria ..... 207
by Mr. Perry A. Stutman, United States Coast Guard

31 Learning from students - feedback and evaluation ............................................................................... 222


by Professor Captain Peter Muirhead ExC MSc FNI, World Maritime University

32 Management training and development in the shipping industry ....................................................... 229


by Mr. Peter Springett MBA DMS (Shipping), Odyssey Training Ltd.

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SECfION V - Towards specialisation
Chapter
33 The role of the educational consultant .................................................................................................... 236
by Captain L.A. Holder ExC MPhil FRIN FNI

34 Marine pilot training ................................................................................................................................. 241


by the late Captain James Drahos BS FNI, former Marine Pilot, South Central Alaska

35 Training for command ............................................................................................................................... 250


by Captain Peter Roberts BSc FNI

36 The need for commercial management .................................................................................................. 256


by Mr. Robert L. Tallack BSc FNI, Northstar Consultants

37 Training for new high speed craft services .............................................................................................. 265


by Captain Trevor Bailey MNI, Stena Line

38 Language training for non-native English speaking mariners .............................................................. 273


by Professor Captain F. Weeks ExC MA PhD FNI

39 Training sea and shore staff to meet the requirements of the ISM Code ............................................ 286
by Captain Graham]. Botterill FICS MIQA FNI, Ferriby Marine

40 Guidance on the implementation of IMO Model Courses .................................................................. 292


extracts from IMO pub. 096/88

41 The role of research in developing intellectual skills and their application ....................................... 302
by Mr. John S. Habberley BSc MPhil FNI, Warsash Maritime Centre

42 Self development programmes for seafarers .......................................................................................... 307


Mr. Brian Thomas BA (Hons) PGCE, The Marine Society, London

43 Aspects of distance education on board .................................................................................................. 311


by Mr. Pooran P. Chugani CEng FIMarE MIE DMS DPHE, India

44 Continuous professional development for maritime educators ........................................................... 320


by Mr. C.Julian Parker BSc FNI, Secretary, The Nautical Institute

APPENDICES
Appendix
I Sources of information of particular value to maritime lecturers ......................................................... 327

II Some training books available from Kogan Page Ltd ........................................................................... 328

III Some training books available from the Institute of Personnel and Development ............................ 331

MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING 3


FOREWORD I
by

Mr. W.A. O'Neil

Secretary General, The International Maritime Organization

Shipping is an international industry. It is therefore imperative that all seagoing officers share a common sense
of purpose and apply rules and regulations in like manner.

Also we have to recognize that every individual is different and there will be various paths through education
and training programmes towards certification.

Today, maritime education and training is based on standards established by IMO. The 1995 amendments to
the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW),
1978 entered into force in 1997 and, during the next few years, will result in training standards having to be
upgraded. The text of the original Convention has been almost completely replaced; equally important, IMO
itself has been given responsibility for ensuring that the new standards are complied with. Governments which do
not meet STCW requirements could find that their seafarers are denied employment on foreign flag ships because
their certificates are not internationally recognized.
FOREWORD II
by L.A. Holder ExC MPhil FRIN FNI

President, The Nautical Institute (1993-1996)

Welcome to the world of maritime education and training. For seafarers "welcome back", because you will have
been here before, as a student. With a predicted world-wide shortage of officers, maritime education and training
will become increasingly important in the next decade. We need to ensure that the best teaching practices are
used. The more effective they are, the quicker people learn. Better training methods mean better pass rates, higher
standards and shorter times to qualify. Effective training is good for the shipping industry.

This book, which contains some of the best advice available, is designed to improve our understanding and
organisation. It is well timed, for the moment of most need. It will help existing maritime teachers, trainers and
assessors and will be particularly useful for those seeking to enter this branch of their profession. It is a useful
guide and reference for all senior officers and managers whose job includes mentoring and guiding juniors and
trainees. It is also recommended reading for simulator manufacturers and others who serve this sector of industry.

Associated with the book there is a self-study distance learning diploma scheme for those who wish to enter the
maritime education and training profession. The scheme comprises six assignments, which demand a proven
capability to plan for and deliver competence, manage curriculum development and assess results. There is also
a project designed to provide the candidate with an in-depth specialised knowledge of a particular discipline.

Your professional work at sea or working ashore requires specific detailed knowledge and a wide range of
skills. Teaching requires different knowledge and skills. Maritime education and training needs a blend of the two.
It is not always the cleverest people who make the best teachers, but the ones who are best at passing on their
knowledge and skills. As a teacher your knowledge will need to go beyond the confines of certificates of competency
syllabuses. You must know your subject thoroughly and keep yourself up to date with new theories and current
practice. Teachers should provide a link to the wider understanding of technology, commerce and people. No one
can afford to throw their books away when they qualify. In a changing world, teachers can light the torch of life-
long learning, which their students will need.

This book, based upon the experience of respected teachers from many countries, will help you prepare to
work as a teacher or trainer, whether as a career change or for shorter assignments. It is said, "the best way to learn
a subject is to teach it". When I was allowed on my own in the classroom for the first time, and students asked
awkward questions, I realised the limits of my knowledge and experience. You cannot rely on recalling what you
were taught ten or more years ago: things have changed. There are ways of coping. I was fortunate to have a very
good teacher as my mentor when I started, but I wish I had also had this book!

Teaching comes more naturally to some people than to others, but all teachers need to plan and perform in a
professional and competent way. We all remember the teachers from school days who captured our imagination
and made subjects interesting. They tended to be the enthusiastic and happy ones. They were well organised,
maintained discipline, were sympathetic and supportive. Discipline and integrity are also important, particularly
when dealing with younger trainees and in examinations. I remember the first two students I had to fail for
attempting to cheat. They passed a piece of paper across and back, via the floor, while I was invigilating. It did not
help them. The first had written, "What is an Interscan Cursor?" and the other had replied "I don't know!"

We are very fortunate in the maritime world, and particularly in the professional bodies, that we have so many
people who are willing to make time and take trouble to pass on their skills to the next generation. I would like to
thank all those who have contributed to this book, which will take its place alongside those for Command at Sea,
Harbour Masters, Pilots and Surveyors. The Maritime Education and Training Diploma Scheme will take its place
too, by providing advice and guidance to those wishing to become specialists in this branch of their profession.

The rewards of teaching are many. Probably the greatest satisfaction is gained through seeing the success of
former students. The friendships and mutual respect developed between trainer and trainee tend to last well
beyond the gaining of certificates of competency or graduation. I can recommend it. If you wish to become a
teacher or trainer, think ahead and be prepared. The best place to prepare for teaching ashore, is while you are at
sea. This book will help you to "learn to swim" as a teacher, before being thrown in at the deep end. I wish you
success.

MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING 5


MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

THE OVERVIEW
Maritime Education and Training, is designed to provide an authorative guide to effective practices. It includes
learned contributions from no less than 39 authors with a vast wealth of combined experience, from countries as
far apart as Australia, England, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, The Netherlands, Sweden and The United States of
America.

The editorial board for Maritime Education and Training included Captain Len Holder (former President, The
Nautical Institute), Mr. D. Baillie, Mr. S. Bonsall, Mr. G. Cunnah, Mr.J.S. Habberley, Mr. CJ. Houghton, Dr. A.
Kennerley, Captain C.F. Luddeke, Mr. K.A. Parsons, Mr. J.D. Precious, Mr. E. Raeng, Captain M.G. Vanstone,
Professor Captain G. Zade and Mr. Julian Parker (Secretary The Nautical Institute).

There are two forewords, one by Mr O'Neil, Secretary General of the IMO and one by Captain Len Holder,
who was President of The Nautical Institute from 1993 to 1996.

In Section I - Applying the Concepts of Learning - the principles of learning in a maritime setting are
explored and advice is given on various techniques and factors to be considered. The authors combine sea,
government, academic and consultancy experience and set the scene for maritime instructors on helping learners
to learn. The final chapter in this section is an interesting insight into training in the Royal Navy today, how it is
managed and the methods used.

Section II is about Learning Resources and Educational Technology. Chalk and talk, whilst not to be
under-rated, have long been replaced by more modern technology. Electronic, multi-media and computer-based
programs are described and how best to use them. The authors, with world-wide experience in practical training
and education delivery, offer detailed and up-to-date advice. Simulators play an ever increasing part in training,
and the subject is extensively covered here, including the training of simulator instructors. Again, the Royal Navy
adds its view on training simulators at the end of the section.

The Organisation of Education and Training is covered in Section III. University, academy, college and
company views come from highly qualified authors. Training ashore and afloat, how to integrate maritime training
with the industry, lecturer updating and implementation of the STCW Convention are amongst the items covered
in detail. An American view of training cadets afloat concludes this section.

In Section IV - Fundamentals of Assessment and Evaluation - covers the vitally important task of
checking that learning is effective. Highly detailed chapters on assessment, evaluation, multiple choice questions,
feedback from students and management development are presented by authors with extensive and ongoing
experience ashore and afloat.

Section V - Towards Specialisation - concludes this book with chapters on a fascinating of specialist
training matters, including consultancy work, pilotage, command, high speed ships, the commercial approach
and maritime English language. Meeting the requirements of the ISM Code and guidance on IMO Model Courses
are complemented by advice on self-development programmes, distance education and continuing professional
development.

The appendices give valuable details on sources of information and some training books available.

All in all, Maritime Education and Training provides highly professional, skilled and practical advice on maritime
education and training drawn from very experienced authors from countries all over the globe. This book should
be the text book of choice for all seriously interested in the subject.

J.A Hepworth
Lt Cdr RN (Retd) MNI

6 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE


MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING

- SECTION I -

Applying the concepts of learning

MARITIME EDUCATION AND TRAINING 7


Chapter ONE

CONCEPfS OF LEARNING AND THEIR APPLICATION


by Mr. Don Baillie Ex C FNI

Introduction
reflected for long on their own experiences. They may
The aim of this publication is to help those who seek have a strong need to believe that life is simple and
guidance in the task of raising the professional uncomplicated. Tell them "Variety is the spice of life".
standards of seafarers through education and training.
These standards may be set by IMO, by examiners, You may recall some sayings about learning and
by lecturers, assessors, The Nautical Institute, or by teaching.
the example and demands of serving seafarers. The
standards are achieved through learning, alone or in "It's never too late to learn"
a group, at sea or ashore, by accident or by design. "You can't teach an old dog new tricks"
That is why the guide begins with these reflections on "A little learning is a dangerous thing"
the key aspects oflearning. Many later chapters discuss "We must learn to walk before we can run"
in detail ways in which trainers, tutors and students "Experience is the best teacher"
set about organising effective learning. Here we review "Wise men learn from others, fools by their own
the main ideas which help them to develop and select mistakes"
an appropriate method for a particular situation.
Take your pick. Each is sometimes true. None is
"We live and learn". Think for a moment of all the always a guide. For you who have an interest in
things you learned before you went to school: walking, teaching, reflecting on your own experience is an
talking, eating (in the approved manner), being important starting point. You will probably recollect
respectful, laughing, and so on. Think what you that expertise gives a teacher authority. And
learned during your school years but not at school: enthusiasm will often convey the importance, interest
riding a bike, shopping, dealing with illness, much or excitement of the subject. Both expertise and
more. In or out of school you will have had a few enthusiasm are necessary or desirable, but they do
inspiring teachers, many who shaped your learning not guarantee to bring about learning. That is the
successfully, some who told you much that you have teacher's art.
now forgotten; but always the learning will have been
done by you. There is no doubt that you have the We find it easier to begin studying navigation by
ability to learn. Do not doubt that those whose assuming the earth to be a sphere, the local surface of
standards you wish to raise also have the ability to the sea to be flat, and the tides to rise and fall in a
learn. completely predictable way. These assumptions are
very helpful to begin with, and often can be taken 'for
You, and they, have learned (and forgotten) in a all practical purposes' to be true. But the competent
huge variety of ways and circumstances from a large navigator, who is a practical person, must know the
number of different people. If anyone says to you circumstances in which it can become uneconomic or
"There is only one way to learn" they cannot have dangerous to cling to those simplified assumptions.

8 THE NAUTICAL INSTITUTE