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Bismillahirrahamanirraheem

DYNAMICS

Mechanical Engineering Department
UET, Lahore
anaeems@uet.edu.pk
RECOMMENDED BOOKS
1. Engineering Fluid Mechanics by Clayton T. Crowe,
Donald F. Elger, Barbara C. Williams, and John A.
Roberson, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 9th Edition.
2. Fluid Mechanics by Frank M. White, McGraw Hill,
4th Edition.
3. Fluid Mechanics by Victor L. Streeter, E. Benjamin,
McGraw Hill.
4. Mechanics of Fluids by Massey Van Nostrand
Reinhold Company Ltd.
Some Other Useful Books
1. Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications by
R.L. Daugherty, J.B. Franzini & E.J. Finnemore

2. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics by Fox &

McDonald, 5th Edition

3. Essentials of Engineering Fluid Mechanics by

Reuben M. Olson, 3rd Edition
FLUIDS
A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously
when subjected to a shear stress, no matter
how small that shear stress may be.
A fluid can be either a gas or a liquid.
CONTINUUM
In dealing with fluid-flow relations on a
mathematical or analytical basis, it is necessary
to consider that the actual molecular structure
is replaced by a hypothetical continuous
substance, called the continuum.
SYSTEM
A system, in fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, is
defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space
chosen for study.
Closed System: A closed system (also known as a
control mass) consists of a fixed amount of mass, and
no mass can cross its boundary. The volume of a
closed system does not have to be fixed.
SYSTEM
Open System: An open system is a properly selected
region in space. Both mass and energy can cross the
boundary of a control volume, which is called a control
surface.
The real or imaginary surface that separates the
system from its surroundings is called the boundary.
Surroundings are the portions of matter external to
the system which are affected by the changes in
system.
FLUID PROPERTIES
The characteristics of a fluid by which its physical
conditions may be described are called properties of
the fluid.
Intensive properties are those that are independent of
the size or amount of the system (fluid).
Extensive properties are values related to the total
mass or size or extent of the system.
Extensive properties per unit mass are called specific
properties and these become intensive properties.
PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE MASS OR
WEIGHT OF THE FLUID
Mass Density, (or Density) [kg/m3]
The mass per unit volume is mass density.
The density of water at 4C is 1000 kg/m3 and
decreases slightly with increasing temperature.
The density of air at 20C and standard
atmospheric pressure is 1.2 kg/m3.
PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE MASS OR
WEIGHT OF THE FLUID
Variation in Density: For most applications, water can
be considered incompressible and, in turn, can be
assumed to have constant density.
Air, on the other hand, is a relatively compressible fluid
with variable density.
However, at velocities much less than the speed of
sound, the air density changes only slightly and the air
can also be treated as incompressible.
For an ideal gas from equation of state
p
RT
PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE MASS OR
WEIGHT OF THE FLUID
Speicific Weight, [N/m3] = g
The gravitational force per unit volume of fluid, or
simply the weight per unit volume, is defined as
specific weight.
Water at standard reference temperature of 4C has a
specific weight of 9810 N/m3.
Water at 20C has a specific weight of 9790 N/m3.
The specific weight of air at the same temperature and
at standard atmospheric pressure is 11.8 N/m3.
PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE MASS OR
WEIGHT OF THE FLUID
Specific Gravity, S
The ratio of the specific weight of a given liquid to the
specific weight of water at a standard reference
temperature is defined as specific gravity.
fluid fluid
S
w ater w ater

The specific gravity of mercury at 20C is

133 kN / m3
SHg 3
13.6
9.81 kN / m
PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE FLOW OF
HEAT
Specific Heat, c [J/kg K]
The property that describes the capacity of a
substance to store thermal energy is called
specific heat. By definition, it is the amount of
thermal energy that must be transferred to a
unit mass of a substance to raise its temperature
by one degree.
PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE FLOW OF
HEAT
Specific Heat (at constant volume & pressure)
If the specific volume v of the gas remains
constant while the temperature changes, then the
specific heat is identified as cv.
However, if the pressure is held constant during
the change in state, then the specific heat is
identified as cp. The ratio is given the symbol k.
PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE FLOW OF
HEAT
Specific Internal Energy, u [J/kg]
The energy that a substance possesses because of
the state of the molecular activity in the
substance is termed internal energy. The internal
energy is generally a function of temperature and
pressure. However, for an ideal gas, it is a function
of temperature alone.
PROPERTIES INVOLVING THE FLOW OF
HEAT
Specific Enthalpy, h [J/kg]
The combination u p

has been given the name specific enthalpy.
For an ideal gas, u and p are function of

temperature alone.
Consequently their sum, specific enthalpy, is also
a function solely of temperature.
VISCOSITY
Viscosity is that property of a fluid by virtue of
which it offers resistance to shear.
Whenever shear stress is applied to a fluid,
motion occurs. Solids can resist shear in a static
condition, but fluids deform continuously under
the action of a shear stress.
Viscous resistance is independent of the normal
force (pressure) acting within the fluid.
VISCOSITY Cont.
Viscosity, , is the ratio of the shear stress to the

dV / dy
Newtons law of viscosity states that for a given rate of
angular deformation the shear stress is directly
proportional to the viscosity.
dV

dy
VISCOSITY Cont.
Effect of Temperature: The viscosity of a gas increases
with temperature, but the viscosity of liquid decreases
with temperature, because the rate of activity (back-
and-forth motion) of the gas molecules increases with
an increase in temperature.
For liquids, the shear stress is involved with the
cohesive forces between molecules. These forces
decrease with temperature, which results in a
decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature.
VISCOSITY Cont.
A reasonable estimate for the variation of gas viscosity
with absolute temperature is Sutherlands equation,

3/2
T T0 S

where 0 T0 T S
0 is the viscosity at temperature T0 and
S is the Sutherlands constant.
S = 111 K for air.
VISCOSITY Cont.
An equation for the variation of liquid viscosity with
temperature is
= C e b/T
where C and b are empirical constants that require
viscosity data at two temperatures for evaluation.
In general the effect of pressure on the dynamic
viscosity of common gases is minimal for pressures
less than 10 atmospheres.
VISCOSITY
Units of Viscosity: {N.s/m2}
A common unit of viscosity is the poise, which is 1
dyne s/cm2 or 0.1 Ns/m2.
The viscosity of water at 20C is one centipoise (10-2
poise) or 10-3 Ns/m2.

The relation / has been given the special name

kinematic viscosity, the units are m2/s.
NEWTONIAN VERSUS NON-NEWTONIAN
FLUIDS
In a Newtonian fluid there is a linear relation between
the magnitude of applied shear stress and the
resulting rate of deformation ( is a constant).
Because shear stress () is directly proportional to the
shear strain (dV/dy), a plot relating these variables
results in a straight line passing through the origin.
The slope of this line is the value of the dynamic
viscosity.
NEWTONIAN VERSUS NON-NEWTONIAN
FLUIDS Cont.

Non-Newtonian Fluid

Newtonian Fluid

Ideal Fluid dV
dy
NEWTONIAN VERSUS NON-NEWTONIAN
FLUIDS Cont.
In a non-Newtonian fluid there is a non linear
relation between the magnitude of applied shear
stress and the resulting rate of angular deformation.
Gases and most common liquids tend to be
Newtonian fluids, while thick, long-chained
hydrocarbons may be non-Newtonian.
If the fluid is considered to be incompressible and
non-viscous, it is then called an ideal fluid.
VAPOR PRESSURE
The pressure at which a liquid will boil is called its
vapor pressure. This pressure is a function of
temperature and increases with it.
Water boils at 100C at sea-level atmospheric pressure
(101.3 kPa).
Boiling can also occur in water at temperatures much
below 100C if the pressure in the water is reduced to
its vapour pressure.
The vapor pressure of water at 10C is 1.23 kPa.
ELASTICITY
When the pressure acting on a mass of fluid
increases, the fluid contracts; when the pressure
decreases, it expands.
The elasticity of a fluid is related to the amount
of deformation (expansion or contraction) for a
given pressure change.
The elasticity is often called the compressibility
of the fluid.
The compressibility is defined as change in
volume due to change in pressure
ELASTICITY Cont.
The compressibility of a fluid is expressed by its bulk
modulus of elasticity Ev.
The bulk modulus of the fluids is a function of both
temperature & pressure
The bulk modulus is analogous to the modulus of
elasticity for solid
However, for fluids it is defined on a volume basis
rather than in terms of stress-strain relation for solid
bodies
ELASTICITY Cont.
ELASTICITY Cont.
Compressibility of Liquids:
For water at 20C, Ev = 2.2 GPa, which corresponds
to a 0.045% change in volume for a change of 1 MPa
in pressure.
As a liquid is compressed, its resistance to further
compression increases.
At 3000 atm the value of Ev for water has doubled.
Ev for water is maximum (2210 - 2840) from 0.1 to
100 MN/m2 at 50C.
ELASTICITY Cont.
Compressibility of Gases:
As P1V1n = P2V2n = Constantan, for a perfect gas.
So Ev = nP; where n = 1 for Isothermal Process & n= k
for Isentropic process.
Thus, the elasticity of an ideal gas is proportional to
the pressure.
At a pressure of 100 kPa, the isothermal modulus of
elasticity for a gas is 100 kPa, and for an isentropic
process it is 140 kPa.
SURFACE TENSION
At the interface between a liquid and a gas, or two
immiscible liquids, a film or special layer seems to
form on the liquid, apparently owing to attraction of
liquid molecules below the surface. This stretching
force per unit length of the film required to form this
film is called the surface tension, . This tension acts
in the plane of the surface.
Surface tension for a water-air surface at room
temperature is 0.073 N/m and at 100C is 0.059 N/m.
SURFACE TENSION Cont.
The action of surface tension is to increase the
pressure (over and above atmospheric pressure)
within a droplet of liquid and bubble or within a
small liquid jet.
Transformation of a liquid jet into droplets and the
binding together of wetted granular material, such
as fine, sandy soil are due to surface tension.
Capillary action is caused by surface tension, it
causes the liquid to rise within a small vertical tube
that is partially immersed in it by following the
SURFACE TENSION Cont.
Cohesion enables a liquid to resist tensile stress, while
If cohesion predominates, the liquid surface will be
depressed at the point of contact.
For example mercury, unlike water, is depressed below the
true level.

Fig.1: capillarity in clean circular glass tubes

SURFACE TENSION Cont.
Capillary rise in a tube is given by:

= ()
.
where = wetting angle & r = radius of tube.

Fig. 2: Capillary rise

PROBLEM
The specific weight of water at ordinary pressure and
temperature is 9.81 kN/m2. The specific gravity of
mercury (Hg) is 13.55. Compute the density of water,
and the specific weight and density of Hg.

Hints: =
&
=
THANKS