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Stress Combination Load Cases (Load Cases Tab) Page 1 of 2

Stress Combination Load Cases (Load Cases Tab)


Enter the loads to combine for each load case. The software performs calculations for various combinations of
internal pressure, external pressure, hydrotest pressure, wind load, and seismic load. You can define up to
twenty combinations of these loadings for evaluation. Load cases are defined by a string of abbreviations
showing the loads to be added. For example, "IP+OW+WI" is the sum of internal pressure plus operating weight
plus wind. The software provides the following set of default load cases:

Load Load
Case Combinations

1 NP+EW+WI+FW+BW
2 NP+EW+EQ+FS+BS
3 NP+OW+WI+FW+BW
4 NP+OW+EQ+FS+BS
5 NP+HW+HI
6 NP+HW+HE
7 IP+OW+WI+FW+BW
8 IP+OW+EQ+FS+BS
9 EP+OW+WI+FW+BW
10 EP+OW+EQ+FS+BS
11 HP+HW+HI
12 HP+HW+HE
13 IP+WE+EW
14 IP+WF+CW
15 IP+VO+OW
16 IP+VE+EW
17 NP+VO+OW
18 FS+BS+IP+OW
19 FS+BS+EP+OW
20
The following abbreviations are used for loads:

NP No Pressure
IP Internal Pressure
EP External Pressure
HP Hydrotest Pressure
EW Empty Weight
OW Operating Weight
HW Hydrotest Weight
WI Wind Load
EQ Earthquake Load

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Stress Combination Load Cases (Load Cases Tab) Page 2 of 2

HE Hydrotest Earthquake
HI Hydrotest Wind
BW Bending Stress due to Lat. Forces for the Wind Case, Corroded
BS Bending Stress due to Lat. Forces for the Seismic Case, Corroded
BN Bending Stress due to Lat. Forces for the Wind Case, Uncorroded
BU Bending Stress due to Lat. Forces for the Seismic Case, Uncorroded
CW Axial Weight Stress, New and Cold (no corrosion allowance, CA)
WE Wind Bending Moment, New and Cold (Empty) (no CA)
WF Wind Bending Moment, New and Cold (Filled) (no CA)
FS Axial Stress due to Applied Axial Forces in Seismic Cases
FW Axial Stress due to applied forces in Wind Cases
Live loads (wind and earthquake) are calculated for the operating and hydrotest conditions. In both cases, the
basic loads calculated are identical but the hydrotest live loads are usually a fraction of the operating live load.
These hydrostatic fractions (percents) are entered in the live load definitions.
If Consider Vortex Shedding is selected on the Design Constraints Tab, the following loads may also be
used:

VO Bending Stress due to Vortex Shedding Loads (Ope)


VE Bending Stress due to Vortex Shedding Loads (Emp)
VF Bending Stress due to Vortex Shedding Loads (Test, no
CA.)
PV Elite allows individual load case descriptors to have their own scale factors. These factors scale the stresses
produced by the corresponding load case component. For example 1.25EQ would produce an earthquake stress
1.25 times higher than the design earthquake stress. An example of a complete load case would be:
IP+OW+0.7143EQ+FS+BS
This facility allows designers to comply with a variety of loading scenarios. Another application of this may be
that fractions of wind and seismic loads can be added together in the same load case. ASME states that doing
this is not required; however, some design institutions mandate this practice. Here is another example:
0.7EQ+0.25WI+OW
Notice that there is no need to put a star (*) in front of each descriptor. If this box is not checked then values of
1.0 will be used for scalar multipliers. However, if there is a global scalar specified for wind or seismic, that value
will be used. Please note that this is for vertical vessels only. During the stress calculations, the maximum stress
is saved at the location of the support (skirt base, lug,or leg). Knowing the section properties, the moment
needed to create that stress can be computed and used in the skirt, lug or leg calculation as required.
Any load case component can have a specified scalar. It is not meaningful to have a value in front of the NP
component. It is important to specify NP for any case that does not have pressure.
For vertical vessels, the maximum stress is saved at the location of the support (skirt base, lug, and leg). Using
the section properties, the moment needed to create that stress can be calculated and used in the skirt, lug or
leg calculation as required.
It is often stated that the required thickness of the skirt is needed. It is not valid to directly calculate this
value based on bending stress and axial stress because the section modulus is needed and the element OD or
ID is still unknown. While it is possible to make an assumption, this will not generate an accurate mathematical
result. A small change in the thickness can change the allowable compressive stress (factor A and factor B) in a
very non-linear fashion. For more information, see British Code PD 5500, Annex B, paragraph B.1.5.

mk:@MSITStore:C:\Program%20Files%20(x86)\Intergraph%20CAS\PVElite%202017\... 25-May-17