You are on page 1of 57

AM Grammar e-book 1

1
Page

El aprendizaje se comparte. Comunica e-educacin


Prof. Tirso A. Rodrguez
tirso@proft.com.mx

1
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Contents:

Page
2
Page

1 Personal Pronouns 4

2 Numerical Order 7

3 Existence (There + Be) 8

4 This, that, these, those 9

5 Articles 11

6 Adjectives 16

7 And, Or, Yet, But, So & Nor 19

8 Possessives 21

9 Adverbs 22

10 Nouns 25

11 Some, Any, No, None, Every & Each 29

12 Indefinite Pronouns 33

13 Imperatives 35

14 Exclamations 36

15 Question Words 37

16 Who Object Vs. Who Subject 39

17 Conditional Type 1 41

18 Both , Either , Neither 44


2
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

19 Similar Verbs in Meaning 46


3

20 Say & Tell 47


Page

21 Do Vs. Make 49

22 Remember Vs. Remind 51

23 Know Vs. Know How 52

24 Transitive & Intransitive Verbs 53

25 Joining Two Verbs 54

Referencia Bibliogrfica: Los contenidos este e-book fueron obtenidos en algunos


casos de materiales (apuntes, cuadros sinpticos, tablas, etc.) proporcionados por mis
profesores en su momento, y otros de mis propios apuntes y textos.

Indudablemente la informacin tiene su origen en algn libro, sitio, publicacin, etc.


Hay muchos libros valiossimos para practicar tu gramtica bajo una enorme variedad
de escenarios: Pronunciation Grammar, Grammar para Sistemas educativos, Grammar
for TOEFL TOEIC, CAE, etc.

Si deseas sugerencia, apoyo o asesora sobre que textos son los ms apropiados para
cumplir tus objetivos personales, contctame y con gusto encontraremos la mejor
opcin: tirso@proft.com.mx .
3
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Personal Pronouns
4
Page

Subject pronouns vs. Object pronouns

The Subject Pronouns are used to replace the subject of a sentence:

Alice cooks very well.


She cooks very well.

The Object Pronouns are used to replace the object of a sentence:

Louis will fix the bicycle.


Louis will fix it.

SUBJECT PRONOUNS OBJECT PRONOUNS

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they VERB me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them

Matthew phoned Jane.


He phoned her.
Catherine has driven my car since her father arrived.
She has driven it since he arrived.
Tom listened to Louis and Gina.
He listened to them.
Abraham will get a new camera.
He will get it.
4
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Subject pronouns vs. Reflexive pronouns


5

The reflexive pronouns are used as the object of a verb or preposition and always
Page

refer to the subject of the sentence.

Jim hurt himself when he was playing

SUBJECT VERB OBJECT


Jim hurt Jim

SUBJECT PRONOUNS REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS


I, you, he, she, it, we, you, VERB (by) myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself,
they ourselves, yourselves, themselves.

She looked at herself.


I will repair the radio by myself.

We do not use reflexive pronouns after the verbs concentrate, feel, meet and relax:

You should concentrate yourself.

Possessive adjectives vs. Possessive pronouns

The possessive adjectives (not pronouns) are used to show possession of something
and they agree with the possessor and not with the nouns they modify:

Susan is doing Susans homework.


Susan is doing her homework.
Jonathan lives in Marks house.
5
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Jonathan lives in his house.


Miriams pen is black.
Her pen is black.
6
Page

SUBJECT POSSESSIVE
+ NOUN
PRONOUN ADJECTIVES
I my
You your
He his
She her + NOUN
It its
We our
You your
They their

The possessive pronouns are used to show possession and they agree with the
possessor:
This is Jonathans book and that is Alices book.
This is his book and that is her book.
This is his and that is hers.

SUBJECT POSSESSIVE
PRONOUN PRONOUNS
I mine
You yours
He his
She hers
It its
We yours
You ours
They theirs
6
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Numerical Order
7
Page

Ordinal numbers

first(1st), second(2nd),third(3rd),fourth (4th),, eleventh (11th), twenty-first (21st), etc.

Cardinal numbers

one (1), two (2), three (3), four(4), , eleven(11), twenty-one(21st), etc.

+ The + Ordinal number + Noun +

the first day


the second block
the third floor
the fourth book
the fifth month
the sixth call

+ Noun + Cardinal number +

day one
block two
floor three
book four
month five
call six

The book four was the first book I studied.


7
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Existence
8
Page

THERE BE is used to talk about the existence of something.

There is a bookstore on the corner.


There isnt a bookstore on the corner.
Is there a bookstore on the corner?
There is a piece of paper on the table.
There is a man in the house.
There are a lot of books in the library.
There isnt a lot of milk.
There arent many people.
Are there some shirts?
There was a car in front of the door.
There werent many students in the museum.
There will be a new school here.
There will be a lot of traffic.
There will be many cars.
There wont be a new course.
Will there be some juice?
There might be a new teacher.
There have been a few of clients.
There hasnt been water.
FORM
AFF NEG INT
is isnt Is
There are noun/ There arent noun/ Are there noun/ ?
was noun wasnt noun Was noun
were phrase werent phrase Were phrase
will be wont Will be
and and ... and
8

so on so on so on
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

This, that, these, those


9
Page

THIS, THAT, THESE and THOSE are used to talk about particular examples of a
noun.

This/That/These/Those BE (is/are, was/were, will be) + NOUN

SINGULAR PLURAL
NEAR This These
FAR That Those

This is a box

That is a box

These are boxes

Those are boxes


9
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

This is a new house.


That is an elephant.
Those are my friends.
10

This is not a pen.


That was my house.
Page

Was this your dog?


These are my keys.
That will be a new park.
These are four coins.
Is this a clock?

This These
+ (ADJECTIVE) NOUN
That Those

Look at this car.


I will buy this CD.
Can you see those motorcycles?
Could you lend me that pen?
Do you hear that sound?
She studies some of these books.
Listen to this song!
Keep all these boxes!

10
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Articles
11

A/An
Page

The indefinite article has two forms:

Before a consonant sound, a is used.


Before a vowel sound, an is used.

It is used when we refer to one person or thing from many.


(when it is not important or clear which person or thing we mean)

a an

a car an American

a plane an Englishman

a radio an hour

a good time an old book

a university an important position

a student an easy work

a friend an elephant

a summer an interesting reading

There is a dog in the street. (any dog)


11
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

The
12

The definite article is used:


Page

When we talk about a particular person or thing from many:


(it is clear which person or thing we indicate)

The dog that is in front of my house is not mine. (a specific dog)

When we refer to a unique person or thing:


(only one of its kind)

The moon.
The pope.

We use the when we talk about:

people The Andersons (The Anderson family)

groups of islands The Bahamas


The British Islands

oceans, seas The Atlantic Ocean


The Red Sea

rivers The Nile


The Thames

canals The Suez Canal


The Channel

some countries The United States


12

The Dominican Republic


Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

mountain ranges The Andes


The Rocky Mountains
some names with of
13

The Gulf of Mexico


Page

The Great Wall of China


The Tower of London

newspapers The New York Times


The Washington Post
titles
The King
The President

public buildings (hotels, The Natural History Museum


restaurants, theatres, The Hilton Hotel
museums, cinemas, The Cinemark Cinema
galleries) The National Theatre

other buildings The White House


The World Trade Center
The Empire State Building

13
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

(X) No article
14

When we talk about groups in general, we DO NOT use articles:


Page

Cheetahs are considered the swiftest mammals.

We use no article when we talk about:

people: title + name Miss Lopez


Doctor Peterson
Princess Diana
President Bush
Aunt Mary

places: north, south.. + name North America


West Africa

countries Venezuela
Germany

years 1810
1970
1998
2003

names of companies Sony


Pepsi

names of important buildings Mexico City Zoo


and institutions when the Kennedy Airport
first word is a name Edinburgh Castle
14
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

names of restaurants, banks, McDonalds


hotels, etc. ending in s or s Robinsons
15
Page

most of names of avenues, streets, Fifth Avenue


parks, squares, etc. Times Square

continents Asia
Europe

days and parts of day/night Friday


Midday

sport names Baseball


Tennis

15
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Adjectives
16

An adjective is a word that gives additional information of the noun.


Page

black, nice, big, Mexican,

These words describe the noun and usually come before it.

black cat
nice boy
big house
brown boot

An adjective tells us information about the noun: color, origin, material, size, age
and so on.
A big old brown Mexican boot.

An adjective is always singular:

black cats
nice boys
big houses
brown boots

16
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Adjective Order
17
Page

opinion size age shape color origin material purpose NOUN

nice big old round brown Mexican leather riding boot

An adjective comes after the verbs be, feel, taste, smell, seem and look:

Their house is big.


Tony seemed drunk.
Ann looks tired.
The soup tastes good.
It smells awful.

If the adjective is an object complement, we place it after the noun phrase:

She will buy her house big and new.

If we use compound pronouns ending with -body, -one, -thing and -where, the
adjective goes after:

I want something new and cheap.


Anything cold will be ok!

Noun like an adjective

We can have two nouns together. The first noun will be like an adjective.

car accident , grocery list, address book, ten-dollar bill, etc.


17
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Participles as adjectives
18

We can often use the -ing and -ed forms of a verb as adjectives.
Page

verb -ed -ing

bore bored boring

The ed form tells us how the person feels.


The -ing form tells us why the person feels like that.

Tom is bored because it is a boring film.

18
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

And, Or, Yet, But, So & Nor


19

These words (coordinate conjunctions) are used to connect one or more ideas,
Page

subjects and predicates.

And

This conjunction is used to show addition:

Jim and Mary are working.


Karen is studying and Henry is watching TV.
She is washing the dishes and listening to music.

But/Yet

This conjunction is used to show contrast:

She wants to go, but I want to stay.


John will be sad, but his wife will be happy.
Its incredible yet true.

Or

This conjunction is used to show option:

She can stay or go.


Mary or Suzy will keep the radio.
I can study French or go to France.
19
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

So
20

This conjunction is used to show reason:


Page

Theres not a lot of work, so I will leave early.


Viviana travels monthly, so she knows many places.

Nor

This conjunction means and not:

She isnt here, nor is Alex.


Mary wont come to the party, nor will Andy come.

After NOR the sentence takes a question form word-order.

PUNCTUATION
but/so
BUT and So are preceded by a comma (,)

20
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Possessives
21

A possessive is used to show who or what possesses something. It is formed by adding


Page

an apostrophe and s to the noun:

The pen of Jane = Janes pen

The pen of Jane is blue = Her pen is blue = Hers is blue = Janes pen is blue.

This possessive form can be used alone as a pronoun:

Janes is blue = Hers is blue.

If the noun already ends in s, an apostrophe is only added:

The boys teacher.


James office.
Cats food.

In some places apostrophe s is added to the end of a singular noun, even if it ends in
s:

Jamess office. (For some authors this is considered correct)

21
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Adverbs
22

Adverbs of manner
Page

These adverbs tell us how something happens.

These adverbs are placed at the end of the sentence, but sometimes they come before
the main verb.

Claudia can play well.


She wasnt late.
Did they do it carefully?
They answer the questionnaire correctly.

Adverbs of place

These adverbs tell us where things happen.

These adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:


Ill see you there.
Was he in the hospital?
Mark wont be here.
They got me in the movies.

To emphasize we place them at the beginning of the sentence:


In the movies they got me. 22
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Adverbs of time
23

These adverbs tell us when things happen.


Page

These adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:


He is not going to come tomorrow.
Mark came last night.
Will John call on Monday?
They played yesterday.

To emphasize we place them at the beginning of the sentence:


Last night Mark came.

Adverbs of frequency

These adverbs tell us how often something happens.

These adverbs are usually placed before the main verb:

how often adverb


100% Always
Usually
Often
Frequently
Normally
50% Sometimes
Occasionally
Rarely
Hardly ever
Almost never
0% Never
23
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Other adverbs of frequency meaning almost not are hardly, hardly ever, scarcely
24

and scarcely ever.


Page

I rarely go to the movies.


Tony often plays squash.
Ken almost never watches TV.
Do you usually come here?

Adverbs of degree

These adverbs tell us how much something happens.

These adverbs are usually placed before the adjective or adverb they describe:
She plays easily.
It can hardly walk.
The doctor is extremely busy.

Adverb order

The usual word order of the adverbs is the following:

adverb of adverb of adverb of


subject verb object
place degree/manner time

We drove the car in the city very fast last night.


They will fix the car in the workshop next Monday.
24
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Nouns
25
Page

Countable nouns

Countable Nouns: These are nouns that can be counted: 1, 2, 3 car (s)

1 car, 2 pens, 3 cats, 4 keyboards, 5 desks, 7 beds, 8 chairs, 9 boys, 10


erasers, 11 lions, 12 states,

Singular or plural?

Some nouns in English have the same form whether they are singular or plural:

SINGULAR PLURAL
aircraft aircraft
deer deer
sheep sheep
salmon salmon
trout trout

Some nouns in English have two different words for their singular and plural forms:

SINGULAR PLURAL
tooth teeth
foot feet
ox oxen
child children
man men
woman women
25

goose geese
Page

mouse mice

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

axis axes
oasis oases
phenomenon phenomena
26

parenthesis parentheses
Page

Some nouns in English have more than one choice in their plural forms:

SINGULAR PLURAL
fish fish/fishes
person person/persons

Some nouns in English look plural but they are singular:

athletics, mathematics, news, politics, gymnastics.

Some nouns in English have a plural but no singular:

clothes, goods, riches, savings, contents, troops, earnings.

A noun related to measurement is always singular:

2,3,4, kilos
2,3,4, miles
2,3,4, dollars

Two kilos of sugar is not enough.


26
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

A collective noun is a word that describes a collection of things:


27

chorus, committee, faculty, army, public, arsenal, family, class, audience, club,
Page

orchestra, series, staff, company, crowd, variety, gang, group, team, band.

These nouns above are singular, but some nouns are always plural:

people, police, cattle.

Uncountable nouns

Uncountable Nouns: These are nouns that cannot be counted. You cannot, for
example, count oil.

money, water, news, work, paper, hair, time, beer, juice, milk, tea, butter,
cheese, rice, salt, sugar, furniture, knowledge, pasta, toothpaste,

There are some nouns that look countable in other languages, but they are
uncountable in English.

advice, behavior, damage, news, luck, work, progress, traffic, luggage,


furniture, bread, information, weather, indigestion,

Abstract Nouns are uncountable:

sadness, warfare, life, brotherhood, love, happiness,


27
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Partitives
28

In some way, we can make some uncountable nouns be countable by using


these expressions:
Page

Water: a glass of water, a bottle of water, two bottles of water, etc.

A glass of a kilo of, a ream of, a can of, a package of , a box of, a pound of
, a pocket of , a cup of , a glass of , a bottle of , a bowl of , etc.

How much & How many

How much ? Quantity: Uncountable nouns

How many ? Quantity: Countable nouns

How much sugar did you buy?


A pound.

How many chairs do you need?


About ten.

How much money do you need?


I dont know.

How many tables have they made?


77.

How many pounds of rice do I get?


3
28
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Some, Any, No, None, Every & Each


29
Page

Some

It is used in positive sentences with plural countable and uncountable nouns:

She bought some candies.


She bought some sugar.

Any

It is used in negative sentences with plural countable and uncountable nouns:

He didnt leave any candies.


He never does any work.

It is used with countable and uncountable nouns to talk about one single non-specific
person or thing from a group:

You can take any chair.


Any of them could be sick.

It is used with singular countable and uncountable nouns when we mean that it doesnt
matter which person or thing:

Any movie. It doesnt matter which one.


Any car. I dont mind.
Any time you want.
29
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
30

No
Page

This is a negative word that is used with countable and uncountable nouns and means
not a or not any.

No students are allowed to be here.


There was no butter in the refrigerator.
There were no buses in the station.
There is no cop in the bank.

Sometimes NO means after a noun without:

No sugar, please!

None

This is a negative word that is used without a noun:

How many coins did you get?


None. (no coins)

Do you still have some tea?


There is none left.

How many cans of beer are in the fridge?


There are none.
30
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
31

None of
Page

None of the + noun phrase is a negative expression that can take a plural or
singular verb:

None of them were (was) stolen.


None of the students came.
None of the children play (plays) the piano.

Every

It is used when we talk about things as a group:

Every student must take the exam. (all the students)


I painted every room in this house. (all the rooms)
Every seat in the movies was taken. (all the seats)

You CANNOT use EVERY alone, it always needs a noun. But you can say EVERY
ONE.

Have you checked all your notes?


Yes. Every one.

31
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
32

Each
Page

It is used when we talk about things separately:

Each student must take the exam. (one by one)


I painted each room in this house. (one by one)
Each person was given a gift. (one by one)

You CAN use each alone:

Every student must take the exam.


Each in a different day. (Each student)

You CAN also use each of ...:

Each of the students speaks English.

Notice that EVERY and EACH take singular verbs.

32
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Indefinite Pronouns
33
Page

The indefinite pronouns are used when the name of the noun is not precise.

Study the following table:

things places people people meaning


some something somewhere somebody someone Whichever
(positive)
any anything anywhere anybody anyone Whichever
(negative)/
Whichever it
doesnt matter
which one
no nothing nowhere nobody no one none
every everything everywhere everybody everyone all

Study the following examples:

There was nobody.


There was no one.
There was nothing.
There wasnt anybody.
There wasnt anyone.
There wasnt anything.
Something is wrong.
Everybody is here.
Everything is all right.
No one likes it.
33
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Someone is here to see you.


34

Does anybody want to leave early?


Nobody called.
Page

Anything It doesnt matter.

NOTICE that the indefinite pronouns take singular verbs.

Indefinite Pronoun + to + VW

Something to write.
Somewhere to stay.
Is there anything to do?
Theres nothing to do.
There isnt anywhere to sit.
Would you like something to eat?

34
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Imperatives
35
Page

The indicative mood is used to make affirmative and negative statements as


well as to ask questions.

Study the following examples:

I will travel next weekend.


We play soccer professionally.
Has she arrived to Houston?
They wont buy our car.
We are tired.

The imperative mood is used to give commands (informal orders, instructions,


directions, invitations, offers, warnings, etc.):

Study the following examples:

Sit down! (order)


Move on! (order)
First close and the turn on. (instructions)
Walk down for three blocks then turn left and cross the
street.(directions)
Have some coffee? (offer)
Want to come? (invitation)
Dont talk to strangers! (warning)
35
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Exclamations
36
Page

We use exclamations to express happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, etc.

Study the following examples:

What love!
What bad luck!
What an asshole!
What a beautiful girl!
What horrible pants!
How nice!
How incredible!
How bad!

What bad luck!


What Uncountable noun phrase

What a beautiful girl!


What a/an Countable noun phrase (singular)

What horrible pants!


What Countable noun phrase (plural)

How nice!
How Adjective

36
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
37

Question Words
Page

To make questions asking for particular information we use the following question
words:

What things
Which choice
Where places
Who people
When time
Why reason
How explanation
Whose possession

FORM
NOUN/
QUESTION WORD AUXILIARY VERB COMPLEMENT
PRONOUN

What is he doing now ?


Where does she work in Mexico ?
Who is working in the office?
When are you going to Venezuela?
Why do they fail in the school?
How does he play in the park?
Why? =How come?

Whose pen is this?


Whose books are those?
Whose pen is that?
37
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Whose cassettes are these?


Which house is yours?
38

Which (one) of you plays the guitar?


Which one is yours?
Page

Which bus goes to the downtown?


Which ones do not have books?
Who do they vote for?
OR
For whom do they vote?

38
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Who Object Vs. Who Subject


39
Page

Study the following example:


Who loves Mary ?

Andy loves Mary

(subject) (object)

Who does Andy love ?

Helen will talk to Alex.


(Subject) (object)

The small dog played with the ball.


(Subject) (object)

The wh- subject is used to replace the subject in a question:

Who will talk to Alex? (Helen)


Which one played with the ball? (the small dog)
39
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
40

The wh- object is used to replace the object in a question:


Who will Helen talk to? (Alex)
Page

What did the small dog play with? (the ball)

Compare the following examples:

Tony wants to buy a car.


Who wants to buy a car?
What does Tony want to buy?

Veronica applied for the executive position.


Who applied for the executive position?
Which position did Veronica apply for?

The VCR was stolen.


What was stolen?

Peter will go shopping.


Who will go shopping?

40
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Conditional Type 1
41
Page

This conditional usually refers to the future. There is no hesitation involved.

This pattern is used to express a future idea that is practical and possible.

Study the following examples:

If I study, I will pass my exam.


If I dont study, I wont pass my exam.
If I study, I wont fail in my exam.
If I dont study, I will fail in my exam.
If it rains, we will not go.
If it doesnt rain, we will go.
If they win, they will be the champions.
If she comes, I will be happy.

IF clause
If I, you, we, they VW C , I, you

If He, she, it V+s C , He, she, will VW C

If I, you, we. they dont VW C , it, we, wont

If He, she, it doesnt VW C , you, they

If the if clause is at the end we omit the comma (,).

I will pass my exam if I study.


41
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
42

Other structures
Page

To express a result that is true in general:

IF + NOUN + SIMPLE PRESENT + C + , + NOUN + SIMPLE PRESENT + C

If you smoke, you risk having cancer.

With imperatives:

IF + NOUN + SIMPLE PRESENT + C + , IMPERATIVE SENTENCE

If the commander talks, Be quiet!

As/so long as/ providing that/provided that

We can use AS LONG AS/SO LONG AS/ PROVIDING THAT/PROVIDED THAT


instead of IF:

I will pass my exam as long as I study.


I will pass my exam so long as I study.
I will pass my exam providing that I study.
I will pass my exam provided that I study. 42
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
43

Unless
Page

We can use UNLESS instead of IF NOT:

I will fail in my exam unless I study.


She will be late unless she hurries.

43
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
44

Both , Either , Neither


Page

Alternatives

Study the following examples:

Both films are great. (the two alternatives are very good)
Or
Both of the films are great.

Neither film is new. (both films are not new)


Or
Neither of the films are (or is) new.

We can see either film. (we can see one or the other)
Or
We can see either of the films.

You can also use them as follows:

OPTION/ALT OPTION/ALT

BOTH Johan AND Mary + (as well as ) Charlie

EITHER here OR there

NEITHER fast NOR economic

BUT
NOT ONLY nice cheap
44

ALSO
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Both Blanca and Andy are in love.


45

Both Jim and Louis were married.


We can study either today or next weekend.
Page

Jim neither came nor called.


I neither smoke nor drink.
I was both bored and exhausted.
She has neither money nor job.
This is not only nice but also cheap.
Both Johan and Mary as well as Charlie are here.

These words (correlative conjunctions) are used to join two sentences.

SENTENCE SENTENCE

EITHER S + (AUX) + V + C , OR S + (AUX) + V + C

NEITHER AUX + S + V + C , NOR AUX + S + V + C

NOT ONLY AUX + S + V + C , BUT ALSO S + (AUX) + V + C

Either you cook, or I call for delivery service.


Neither is he tired, nor is he thirsty.
Not only is he washing the dishes, but also he is watching the TV.

45
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Similar Verbs in Meaning


46
Page

The following verbs are similar in meaning. Study and compare the examples:

TELL, TOLD, TOLD. SAY, SAID, SAID.


To express an idea, etc. (to someone) To express an idea, etc. in words.
in words.
He said he wanted to travel.
I told you he was nuts.

LET, LET, LET. LEAVE, LEFT, LEFT.


To allow. To depart.
To permit. To go away from a place,

Please, let him go. They will leave on Monday.

BORROW, BORROWED, BORROWED. LEND, LENT, LENT.


To get something temporarily from To give something temporarily to
someone. someone.
To take and give back. To give and take back.

Could I borrow a pencil? Could you lend me a pencil?

DO, DID, DONE. MAKE, MADE, MADE.


To perform an activity (work and To create or manufacture a man-
chores). made product.

Suzy hates doing the cooking. They will make a boat.


46
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Say & Tell


47
Page

Study the following examples:

What did they say?


What did they tell you?
Mary said that you were not here.
They said goodbye to me.
Jim will tell Ann that he loves her.

Karen said that she was upset.


The doctor told me that I have to stop smoking.
Please tell me your name,
Kim said that the play was great.

SOMEONE SAY SOMETHING

Johanna said that she was tired.

SOMEONE SAY SOMETHING TO SOMEONE

Johanna said that she was tired to Jim.

SOMEONE TELL SOMEONE SOMETHING

Johanna told me that she was tired.


47
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
48

SOMEONE TELL or ASK SOMEONE TO DO SOMETHING


Page

The doctor told /asked me to stop smoking.


They told/asked me to be on time,
Ann will tell/ask them to study.

Tell the time


a lie
about something
the truth
a story

48
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Do Vs. Make
49
Page

We use DO when

we talk about an activity without saying exactly what it is:

Do something!
What is Veronica doing?
What did you do yesterday?
My secretary did everything that I asked her to do.
Could you do something for me?
Jim doesnt know what to do.
What can I do for you?
They like doing nothing.
What are you doing this evening?
Ill do what I can to help them.
Do as you wish!
I have nothing to do.
.
we talk about work and chores:

She isnt going to do any work.


Andy always does his work cautiously.
She doesnt like to do housework.
Do they do their homework for today?
Suzy hates doing the cooking.

We also use DO with these nouns:

Do a favor
Do errands
49

Do business
Page

Do the dishes

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Do a lesson
Do your best
50

We use MAKE when


Page

We talk about creation, construction, performance, production, manufacturing:

We are going to make some sandwiches.


She makes cakes.
I made a lot of doors.
They will make a boat.

We talk about nouns derived from verbs:

Make an agreement (agree)


Make a decision (decide)
Make a discovery (discover)
Make an offer (offer)
Make a promise (promise)

We also use MAKE with these nouns:

Make an impression Make a list


Make a note Make an excuse
Make a fire Make a speech
Make an improvement Make a noise
Make a plan Make a hole
Make an effort Make a meal
Make a phone call Make a cup of
Make a visit Make a film
Make a mistake Make the bed
Make a trip Make an offer
50

Make a copy
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Remember Vs. Remind


51
Page

You can REMEMBER doing something or to do something.


You can REMIND someone to do something.

Compare the following examples:

I remember closing the door. ( I did it and now I remember it)


She remembers to bring the letter. ( She doesnt forget to bring it)
Please remember to write your name! (dont forget to write it down)
Can you remind me to call her? (you will tell me again to call her)

REMEMBER Ving SOMETHING

REMEMBER TO VW SOMETHING

REMIND SOMEONE TO VW SOMETHING

51
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Know Vs. Know How


52
Page

KNOW is used to express knowledge, and KNOW HOW to express ability.

Study the following examples:

KNOW + NOUN

KNOW + HOW + TO + VW

She knows how to play the guitar.


We dont know how to cook.
I know cooking.
We dont know math.

52
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
53

Transitive & Intransitive Verbs


Page

A TRANSITIVE VERB requires a direct object to complete the meaning. On the other
hand, an INTRANSITIVE VERB does not require or cannot take a direct object.

TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE

S + V + (OBJ)+ C S+ V+ C

LAY, LAID, LAID. LIE, LAY, LAIN.


To put into a certain place or To be located or situated somewhere;
abstract location. occupy a certain position.
To cause to lie. To recline.

He laid his cards on the table. The problem lies in her attitude.

RAISE, RAISED, RAISED. RISE, ROSE, RISEN.


To move from a lower to a higher To move upward.
position. To increase in value or to a higher
To cause to rise. point.

If you agree, you will raise your The sun rises around 6.
hand.

SET, SET, SET. SIT, SAT, SAT.


To put into a certain place or To occupy a place on a seat or a flat
abstract location. surface.
To cause to sit. To take a seat.

I set the alarm clock for 7. Please, sit on this chair.


53
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1

Joining Two Verbs


54
Page

VERB + Ving

VERB (Verb Phrase) Ving

John will stop working here.


We tried to avoid answering their questions.
Alice enjoys dancing.

Some verbs that follow this pattern are:


admit discuss imagine quit
advise dislike insist on recall
appreciate do not mind involve recommend
approve of endure keep resent
avoid enjoy keep on resist
be better off escape leave off risk
can't help excuse look forward to stop
can't stand face mention suggest
complete feel like mind tolerate
consider finish miss think about
contemplate forget about object to think of
count on forgive postpone understand
delay get through practice
deny give up prefer
detest go on put off
54
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
55

VERB + TO + VW
Page

VERB TO (NOT TO) VW

We decided to take a taxi.


We decided not to take a taxi.
They seem to have a lot of money.

Some verbs that follow this pattern are:


afford dare intend propose
agree decide learn refuse
appear demand like regret
arrange deserve love remember
ask determine manage seem
attempt expect mean start
be fail need swear
bear forget neglect tend
beg happen offer threaten
begin hate plan trouble
care have prefer try
claim help prepare want
choose hesitate pretend wish
consent hope promise

55
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
56

VERB + TO VW/Ving
Page

VERB TO VW/Ving

John started to smoke.


John started smoking.
I dont like to smoke.
I dont like smoking.

Some verbs that follow this pattern are:


advise forget need start
allow go on permit try
attempt hate prefer watch
begin hear propose
bother intend regret
continue like remember
forbid love see

VERB + OBJECT + VW

VERB OBJECT VW

John felt me watch him work.


He will let him go.
His dad made her cry.

Some verbs that follow this pattern are:


feel help make see
hear let notice watch
56
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx
AM Grammar e-book 1
57

VERB + OBJECT + TO VW
Page

VERB OBJECT TO VW

Andy expected Veronica to be here.


Can you remind me to call her tonight?
Karen got somebody to help her.

Some verbs that follow this pattern are:


advise expect like recommend
allow forbid mean (intend) request
ask force need remind
bear get (persuade) oblige teach
beg hate order tell
cause help permit tempt
command instruct persuade trouble
compel intend prefer want
enable invite press warn
encourage leave promise wish

57
Page

This material is ONLY provided for Linked up by tirso@proft.com.mx


free and educational purposes. www.jli.mx