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# ORBITAL MANEUVERS

## IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL LEARN TO:

Calculate the orbit change
Define orbit maneuvers
Calculate plane change
TIME SINCE PERIAPSIS

## Determination of position as a function of time is using magnitude

angular momentum equation

hr 2

2
t t d
h3
p
01 e cos 2

## Time is measured from periapsis passage where = 0, so tp is set to

zero

2 d The integral depends on the value of the
t
0 1 e cos
2 eccentricity e.
h3

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CIRCULAR ORBITS

## For a circular orbit, e = 0, so the general equation of time since periapsis

becomes
h3
t 3 3
Comes from orbit
2
h r
3 2 2
equation for circular
3 orbit
r 2
t 3
Comes from orbital
r 2

T
period equation for
2 circular orbit
Finally, solve for the equation for

## For circular orbit, 2/T

2
t is constant, thus the
T time since periapsis is
directly proportional
to true anomaly
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CIRCULAR ORBITS
EXAMPLE 2.1

calculate:

## a) the speed in km/s

b) The period

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ELLIPTICAL ORBITS

For an elliptical orbit, 0 < e < 1, so the general equation of time since
periapsis becomes

2 1 1 e e 1 e 2 sin
2 tan tan
1
t

1 e
3 3
h 2 2 1 e 2 1 e cos

## This term is written as

Me Mean anomaly
2
Comes from
3

Me 1 e t
2 2 2 3
2
h3 3
1 e 2 2
orbital period
h T equation for
2 elliptical orbit
Me t Average angular
T velocity and written
as n mean motion

## M e nt The mean anomaly is the azimuth position of

a fictitious body moving around the ellipse at
the constant angular speed n. 5
ELLIPTICAL ORBITS

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ELLIPTICAL ORBITS
EXAMPLE 2.2

## A satellite is in orbit with perigee altitude zp = 400 km and apogee altitude

za = 4000 km. Find each of the following quantities

a) eccentricity, e
b) Angular momentum, h
c) Perigee velocity, vp
d) Apogee velocity, va
e) Semimajor axis, a
f) Period of the orbit, T
g) True anomaly when r = 8387 km
h) Satellite speed when r = 8387 km
i) Flight path angle,

## = 398600 km^3/s^2, R(earth) = 6378 km

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ELLIPTICAL ORBITS
EXAMPLE 2.3

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PARABOLIC TRAJECTORIES

## For an parabolic orbit, e = 1, so the general equation of time since

periapsis becomes
This term is written as
2 1 1 3
3
t tan tan Mp mean anomaly for
h 2 2 6 2 parabolic , known as
Barkers equation
2t
Mp
h3
If the time t is given, the true anomaly can be solved by

1 1

tan 3M p 3M 2
1 3M p
3
3M 2
1
3

2
p p

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HYPERBOLIC TRAJECTORIES

a = semimajor axis
b = semiminor axis
e = eccentricity
= angle of asymptote
= true anomaly of
asymptote

## The angle of asymptote:

cos = 1/e

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HYPERBOLIC TRAJECTORIES

The time since periapsis can be determined in a manner analogous to that for
elliptical orbits with the aid of the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly F :

= ( sinh )/
cosh F = (e + cos )/(1 + e cos )
Where:
t = time since periapsis passage, s
F = hyperbolic eccentric anomaly (rad)
e = eccentricity
a = semimajor axis
= true anomaly
M = mean motion

## For solving time in hyperbolic, the following relations is applied

= ln(cosh + 2 1)

1
sinh = exp exp()
2
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HYPERBOLIC TRAJECTORIES

Exercise 2.1

Voyager 2 flew past the north pole of Neptune. Given a = 19 985 km, e = 2.45859.
During departure, Voyager passed Triton, one of the moons of Neptune, at a radius of
354 600 km. What was the time since periapsis for the encounter with Triton?

Algorithm:
1. Calculate mean motion
2. Calculate cosine of true anomaly
3. Find F
4. Find t from F

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ORBIT DETERMINATION

## IN THIS SUB-TOPIC YOU WILL LEARN TO:

define all coordinate system available for spacecraft trajectories.
define the orbital elements from the state vector.
define state vector from orbital elements.
perform coordinate transformation.
COORDINATE SYSTEMS

## The International Astronomical Union (IAU)

cartographic system

## Vernal Equinox is the primary reference system

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COORDINATE SYSTEMS

## The earths axis of

rotation, which passes
through the north and
south poles, is not
perpendicular to the
ecliptic. It is tilted away by
an angle known as the
obliquity of the ecliptic e,
which is approximately
23.4 degrees.

The earths equatorial plane and the ecliptic intersect along a line, which is
known as the vernal equinox line.

Precession of the vernal equinox line - Due to the earths tilted spin axis the vernal equinox
recesses westward around the normal to the ecliptic at the rate of about 1.4 degrees per
century.

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VERNAL EQUINOX LINE

## The Earths equatorial

plane and the ecliptic
intersect along a line
known as Vernal
Equinox.
Vernal Equinox occurs
two times in a year:
1st day of spring in
Northern Hemisphere
1st day of Autumn in
Northern Hemisphere
On the day of the
Vernal Equinox, the
number of hours of
daylight and darkness
is equal.

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GEOID APPROXIMATIONS

Approximation 1: Approximation 2:
Earth is sphere + oblate rotational
Earth is sphere ellipsoid

## But Earth is not an ideal sphere

Gravity anomalies

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GEOID APPROXIMATIONS

Approximation 3:

## Earth is a sphere + oblate

ellipsoid + pear-shaped
deviations

## Depicted contour resemble a bent

pear.
Deviations from the ellipsoid are
only:
+20m (Borneo) to
-25m (Indian Ocean near Sri
Lanka).

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PRECESSION OF EARTH ORBIT

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GEOCENTRIC-INERTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

## Origin : Center of the Earth Right ascension is measured along

the celestial equator in degrees east
Basic plane: Celestial Equator from the Vernal Equinox longitude.
Principle direction: Vernal Equinox Declination is measured along a
Application: Catalog star position Meridian in degrees, positive the
accurately north of the equator and negative to
the south latitude.
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HELIOCENTRIC-INERTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

## Used for interplanetary

mission design
The origin of this system is
the Sun, the system is fixed
with respect to the stars.
The equatorial plane is
inclined at an angle of
approximately 23.5 deg.

Origin : Sun
Basic plane: Ecliptic
Principle direction : Vernal
Equinox

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HELIOCENTRIC-INERTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

## Used for interplanetary

mission design
The origin of this system is
the Sun, the system is fixed
with respect to the stars.
The equatorial plane is
inclined at an angle of
approximately 23.5 deg.

Origin : Sun
Basic plane: Ecliptic
Principle direction : Vernal
Equinox

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GEOCENTRIC-EQUATORIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

## Origin : Center of the Earth

Basic Plane: Equator
Principle direction: Vernal Equinox

## This coordinate system is non-

rotating with respect to the stars
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PERIFOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

Origin : Earth
Basic plane : Satellite orbit
Principle direction: Periapsis

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SUMMARY

## System Symbol Origin Basic Plane Principle Direction Application

Interplanetary Systems
Interplanetary
Heliocentric XYZ Sun Ecliptic Vernal Equinox
Mission

## Earth based Systems

Geocentric IJK Earth Earth Equator Vernal Equinox General
Earth Centered Earth
ECEF Earth Earth Equator Local Meridian Observation
Fixed
Topocentric horizon SEZ Site Local Horizon South Radar Observations
Topocentric Optical
Site Parallel to Earth Equator Vernal Equinox
Equatorial Observations
Satellite based Systems
Perifocal PQW Earth Satellite Orbit Periapsis Processing
Satellite Orbit Relative Motion,
Perturbation
Satellite Orbit
Satellite
Satellite Normal NTW Normal to velocity vector Perturbations

## Satellite Orbit Perturbations

Equinoctial EQW Satellite Calculated vector

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ORBITAL ELEMENTS

## Symbol Element Description

Semi-major axis
a
Defines the size of
Specific angular orbit
h
momentum
Defines the shape of
e Eccentricity
the orbit
Defines where to low
point, perigee of the
Argument of perigee
orbit is wrt the
Earths surface
Defines the location of
the ascending and
Right ascension of
descending orbit
ascending node locations wrt the Earths
equatorial plane
Defines the orientation
i Inclination of the orbit wrt the
Earths equator
Defines where the
/ True anomaly satellite is within the
orbit wrt perigee
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ORBITAL ELEMENTS

Semimajor axis, a
One-half of the major axis and represents a satellite's mean distance from its
primary 27
ORBITAL ELEMENTS

The distance between the foci divided by the length of the major axis and
is a number between zero and one. An eccentricity of zero indicates a
circle.
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ORBITAL ELEMENTS

The angular distance between the ascending node and the point of perigee

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ORBITAL ELEMENTS

## The node's celestial

longitude. Celestial
longitude is
analogous to
longitude on Earth
and is measured in
degrees counter-
clockwise from zero
with zero longitude
being in the
direction of the
vernal equinox. 30
ORBITAL ELEMENTS

Inclination, i
The angular distance between a satellite's orbital plane and the equator of its
primary (or the ecliptic plane in the case of heliocentric, or sun centered, orbits).
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ORBITAL ELEMENTS

## The angular distance

of a point in an orbit
past the point of
perigee, measured in
degrees.

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ORBITAL ELEMENTS

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DETERMINING THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS FROM r AND v

## Three fundamentals vectors h, n

and e:
a) Angular momentum, h c) The eccentricity vector, e

h rv 1 2
e

v r rvr
v
I J K r
h rv X Y Z
vX vY vZ

## b) The node vector, n

h
NK
I J K
h 0
NK 0 1
hX hY hZ
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DETERMINING THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS FROM r AND v

## Solving for the orbital elements:

a) Semi-major axis, a c) Argument of perigee,
1 N e
Using orbit equation, find rp cos Ne eZ 0

and ra
360 cos 1 N e eZ 0
a ra rp
1
Ne
2

## d) Right Ascension of Ascending

b) Eccentricity, e node,
e e
1 N x
cos N NY 0

360 cos 1 N x NY 0
N
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DETERMINING THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS FROM r AND v

## e) Inclination, i f) True anomaly,

h
i cos 1 z 1 e r
h cos er vr 0

0 < i < 90 prograde orbit 360 cos 1 e r vr 0
er
90 < i < 180 retrograde orbit

i = 90 polar orbit

## * Refer example 4.3 , Orbital Mechanics for Engineering Students

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DETERMINING r AND v FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS

## 1) Find r 3) Vector v in perifocal

coordinate system
Calculate p

p a 1 e2
r

p

sin P e cos Q
p
r
1 e cos

2) Vector r in perifocal
coordinate system

r r cos P r sin Q

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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Both the unprimed and primed

systems are unit vectors
Unprimed system
i i j j k k 1 .....(1)
Primed system
i i j j k k 1

## These vectors are orthogonal

Unprimed system
i j i k j k 0 .....(2)
Primed system
i j i k j k 0

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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## The unit vectors of the primed

system can be expressed in terms
of theirs components in unprimed
system and vice versa
Primed system
i Q i Q j Q k
11 12 13

j Q i Q j Q k
21 22 23
.....(3)
k Q31i Q32j Q33k
Unprimed system
i Q i Q j Q k
11 12 13

j Q i Q j Q k
21 22 23

i Q32
k Q31 j Q33
k .....(4)

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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## The Qs are called direction Let [Q] represent the matrix of

cosine. direct cosine of vectors primed
system relative to vectors of
Substituting Eq.(4) into Eq.(1)
unprimed system
and Eq.(2),
Q11 Q12 Q13 i i i j i k
i i 1 Q 2 Q 2 Q 2 1
11 21 31 Q Q21 Q22 Q23 j i j j j k
j j 1 Q 2 Q 2 Q 2 1 Q31 Q32 Q33 k i k j k k
12 22 32

k k 1 Q132 Q23
2
Q33
2
1 .....(5)
The transpose of the matrix [Q]
i j 0 Q Q Q Q Q Q 0
11 12 21 22 31 32 Q11 Q21 Q31 i i i j i k

i k 0 Q Q Q Q Q Q 0
11 13 21 23 31 33 QT Q12 Q22 Q32 j i j j j k
j k 0 Q Q Q Q Q Q 0 Q13 Q23 Q33 k i k j k k
12 13 22 23 32 33
.....(6)

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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Q11 Q21 Q31 Q11 Q12 Q13

QT Q Q12 Q22 Q32 Q21 Q22 Q23
Q13 Q23 Q33 Q31 Q32 Q33
Q112 Q21
2
Q31
2
Q11Q12 Q21Q22 Q31Q32 Q11Q13 Q21Q23 Q31Q33

Q12Q11 Q22Q21 Q32Q31 Q122 Q22
2
Q32
2
Q12Q13 Q22Q23 Q32Q33
Q13Q11 Q23Q21 Q33Q31 Q13Q12 Q23Q22 Q33Q32 Q 2
Q 2
Q 2
13 23 33

## with the aid of Eq.(5) and Eq.(6),

QT Q 1 , where, 1 0 0

Identity matrix or
1 0 1 0
unit matrix 0 0 1
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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Let v be a vector. It can be expressed in terms of its components

along both unprimed and primed system.
v vx i v y j vz k
v vx i vy j vz k

## These two expressions are equivalent.

vx i vy j vz k vx i v y j vz k

## Substituting Eq.(4) into the right-hand side of the equation,

vx i vy j vz k vx Q11i Q21j Q31k v y Q12i Q22j Q32k
v Q i Q j Q k
z 13 23 33

v i v j v k Q v i Q v j Q v k i Q
x y z 11 x 12 y 13 z 21 x
v i Q22v y j Q23vz k j
Q v i Q v j Q v k k
31 x 32 y 33 z
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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Equating the components of To go from primed to unprimed

like unit vectors on each side system, multiply Eq.(7) through by
of the equal sign yields [Q]T
vx Q11vx Q12v y Q13v z QT v QT Qv
vy Q21vx Q22v y Q23v z QT v 1v
vz Q31vx Q32v y Q33v z
v QT v
In matrix notation,
v Qv .....(7)
where
vx vx
v vy v v y
vz v z
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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Direct Cosine Matrix : Rotation about x axis

i i
Involves a rotation about only one
of the coordinate axes
j j j j j k k
cos j cos 90 k
cos j sin k

k k j j k k k
cos 90 j cos k
sin j cos k
i 1 0 0 i
j

j 0 cos sin
k 0 sin cos k

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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Direct Cosine Matrix : Rotation about y axis

i i i i i k k
cos i cos 90 k
cos i sin k
j j

k k i i k k k
cos90 i cos k
sin i cos k

i cos 0 sin i
j

j 0 1 0
k sin 0 cos k

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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Direct Cosine Matrix : Rotation about z axis

i i i i i j j
cos i cos 90 k
cos i sin k

j j i i j j j
cos 90 i cos j
sin i cos j
k k

i cos sin 0 i
j

j sin cos 0
k 0 k

0 1

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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Euler angle sequence

A sequence of three elementary rotations relating two different Cartesian frames of
reference is called an Euler angle sequence.

6 symmetric Euler
sequences:

## Classical Euler sequence

Yaw-pitch-roll sequence
6 asymmetric Euler
sequences:

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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Classical Euler angle sequence. The eye

viewing down an axis sees the illustrated
COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Yaw, pitch and roll sequence.

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COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

## Perifocal ( ) and geocentric equatorial (XYZ) frames. 50

ORBIT PERTURBATION

## IN THIS SUB-TOPIC YOU WILL LEARN TO:

define perturbations on orbit and how its affect the orbit calculation
DEFINITION

## What are orbit perturbations?

Small deviations from the two-body orbit motion from
some normal or expected motion.
Ideal Keplerian orbit:

d 2r
2
3r
dt r
With presence of perturbations:

d 2r
2
3
r ap
dt r

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TYPES

Non-
Gravitational
gravitational Atmospheric drag Non-spherical earth
perturbations
perturbations
LEO- decreases semi- Precession of nodes ()
major axis Motion of lines of apsides
()
Mean anomaly at epoch

## Solar Pressure Third body influence

GEO- decreases GEO change a, e and i
eccentricity

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ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

## Friction caused by impact of satellite with particles in the Earths

atmosphere
Reduces satellites energy
Changes the size (semi-major axis) and shape (eccentricity)

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ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

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ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

## Major: O2, N2 and He

Atmosphere density Composition Minor: O3, CO2, H2, NO,
electrons, ions

Photochemical
reaction

1 CD : drag
2 CD A
2 W depending on
the shape and
aD = atmosphere drag acceleration vector surface.
= atmosphere density
V = velocity of satellite
g0 = Earth gravitation at sea level
W = Satellite weight
iv = unit vector of satellite velocity

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SOLAR PRESSURE

pressure force

(sunlight, a area/mass
microwave etc)

## A torque due to solar pressure act on the satellite.

The pressure of the sun and the difference of the center of
pressure and the center of mass causes a torque on the satellite.
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Effects to the spacecraft orbit
ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

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NON-SPHERICAL EARTH

Earth rotation

## Non-spherical Earth The dominant effects - secular

shape causes variations in longitude of the and
anomalies in gravity because of the Earth's oblateness,
field as satellite represented by the J2 term in the
moves around the geopotential expansion.
Earth

## J2 term causes measurable perturbation which must be accounted for.

Main effects:
Regression of nodes
Rotation of apsides

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ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

REGRESSION OF NODES
Equatorial bulge causes component of gravity vector acting on SC to be
slightly out of orbit plane
This out of orbit plane component causes a slight precession of the orbit
plane.
Sun-synchronous orbit - Relies on nodal regression to shift the ascending
node ~1 per day.
Scans the same path under the same lighting conditions each day.

Sun-synchronous orbit 60
ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

Rotation of apsides
The phenomenon is caused by a higher acceleration near the equator
and a resulting overshoot at periapsis.
This only occurs in elliptical orbits.

Spacecraft

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ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

Where:
n is the mean motion in degrees/day
J2 = 0.00108263
a is semi major axis (km)
i is the inclination
e is the eccentricity

## For satellite in GEO and below, J2

perturbations is dominate
For satellite above GEO, the sun and
moon perturbations is dominate. 62
THIRD BODY INFLUENCE

Sun
Gravitational influence of a
third body (eg:Sun, moon) in Luni-solar
addition to spacecraft and an perturbation
Earth.
Moon

## The ratio of the perturbing Gmp r / rp3 mp r 3

force to the central gravity 2

term: GmE / r mE rp3

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THIRD BODY INFLUENCE

Acceleration
initial frame

mass
Acceleration
earth-centered
frame

## Tidal forces due to the gravitational attraction of a distant point-like mass

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THIRD BODY INFLUENCE

## Low Precession of solar : change in the orientation of the orbit (,)

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THIRD BODY INFLUENCE

## Extraterrestial attractions to the satellite body.

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COMPARISON OF PERTURBATIONS

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COMPARISON OF PERTURBATIONS

## Drag force per unit area

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COMPARISON OF PERTURBATIONS

## Change of orbital elements for high eccentric ellipses 69

GROUND TRACK

SUB-TOPIC:
Spacecraft Horizon
Field of View
Constellations
GROUND TRACK

The locus of nadir positions traced on the surface of the central body by a
spacecraft as a function of time

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GROUND TRACK

## Spacecraft ground track is the result of 3 motions

1. The motion of the spacecraft in orbit
2. The rotation of the central body
3. The perturbation of the orbit caused by equatorial bulge of the central body

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SPACECRAFT HORIZON

2-way
m/wave
can be
S/c can be established
seen from Forms a circle on
central
body the spherical
surface of the
central body
The s/c can
observe
the central
body

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SPACECRAFT HORIZON

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SPACECRAFT SWATH WIDTH

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FIELD OF VIEW

## Spacecraft ground track is the result of 3 motions

1. The motion of the spacecraft in orbit
2. The rotation of the central body
3. The perturbation of the orbit caused by equatorial bulge of the central body

## FOV = 2H tan (scan angle + /2)

H = satellite altitude

FOV

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SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

## Optimal elliptical constellation

Four satellites provide visibility to the
entire Earth (Draim, 1987).
Earth always inside a tetrahedron.
Assumes Earth is flat satellites often
very low above horizon, easily
obscured.

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SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

No. of satellites you can see above
horizon is diversity
But buildings/trees block your view of
the horizon, limiting the number of
satellites you can see.
Skyscrapers and urban canyons mean
no view of the sky .

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SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

Galileo and GPS (and Glonass) need to have high satellite diversity.
You really need to see at least four satellites for a quick and accurate
positioning fix (including height).

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SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

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SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

## Walker Star Constellation

Walker star geometry, based on Adams/Rider
streets of coverage. Best diversity at poles,
worst at Equator.
Has orbital seam where ascending and
descending planes pass each other and must
overlap.

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SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

## Ballard Rosette Constellation

Walker star geometry, based on Adams/Rider
streets of coverage. Best diversity at poles,
worst at Equator.
Has orbital seam where ascending and
descending planes pass each other and must
overlap.

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SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

Teledesic
1994: 840 satellites announced the
largest network system ever

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SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

## Disaster Monitoring Constellation

Single plane of four sun
synchronous imaging satellites,
ascending at 10:15am over
Equator. Fifth satellite at
10:30am.
Gives overlapping daily coverage
of any point on the Earths
surface.
Coverage map shows 600km
pushbroom imaging swath
large area by LEO imaging
standards.
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