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Orbital Mechanics

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Calculate the orbit change

Define orbit maneuvers

Calculate plane change

TIME SINCE PERIAPSIS

angular momentum equation

hr 2

2

t t d

h3

p

01 e cos 2

zero

2 d The integral depends on the value of the

t

0 1 e cos

2 eccentricity e.

h3

2

CIRCULAR ORBITS

becomes

h3

t 3 3

Comes from orbit

2

h r

3 2 2

equation for circular

3 orbit

r 2

t 3

Comes from orbital

r 2

T

period equation for

2 circular orbit

Finally, solve for the equation for

2

t is constant, thus the

T time since periapsis is

directly proportional

to true anomaly

3

CIRCULAR ORBITS

EXAMPLE 2.1

calculate:

b) The period

4

ELLIPTICAL ORBITS

For an elliptical orbit, 0 < e < 1, so the general equation of time since

periapsis becomes

2 1 1 e e 1 e 2 sin

2 tan tan

1

t

1 e

3 3

h 2 2 1 e 2 1 e cos

Me Mean anomaly

2

Comes from

3

Me 1 e t

2 2 2 3

2

h3 3

1 e 2 2

orbital period

h T equation for

2 elliptical orbit

Me t Average angular

T velocity and written

as n mean motion

a fictitious body moving around the ellipse at

the constant angular speed n. 5

ELLIPTICAL ORBITS

6

ELLIPTICAL ORBITS

EXAMPLE 2.2

za = 4000 km. Find each of the following quantities

a) eccentricity, e

b) Angular momentum, h

c) Perigee velocity, vp

d) Apogee velocity, va

e) Semimajor axis, a

f) Period of the orbit, T

g) True anomaly when r = 8387 km

h) Satellite speed when r = 8387 km

i) Flight path angle,

7

ELLIPTICAL ORBITS

EXAMPLE 2.3

8

PARABOLIC TRAJECTORIES

periapsis becomes

This term is written as

2 1 1 3

3

t tan tan Mp mean anomaly for

h 2 2 6 2 parabolic , known as

Barkers equation

2t

Mp

h3

If the time t is given, the true anomaly can be solved by

1 1

tan 3M p 3M 2

1 3M p

3

3M 2

1

3

2

p p

9

HYPERBOLIC TRAJECTORIES

rp = periapsis radius

a = semimajor axis

b = semiminor axis

e = eccentricity

= angle of asymptote

= true anomaly of

asymptote

cos = 1/e

10

HYPERBOLIC TRAJECTORIES

The time since periapsis can be determined in a manner analogous to that for

elliptical orbits with the aid of the hyperbolic eccentric anomaly F :

= ( sinh )/

cosh F = (e + cos )/(1 + e cos )

Where:

t = time since periapsis passage, s

F = hyperbolic eccentric anomaly (rad)

e = eccentricity

a = semimajor axis

= true anomaly

M = mean motion

= ln(cosh + 2 1)

1

sinh = exp exp()

2

11

HYPERBOLIC TRAJECTORIES

Exercise 2.1

Voyager 2 flew past the north pole of Neptune. Given a = 19 985 km, e = 2.45859.

During departure, Voyager passed Triton, one of the moons of Neptune, at a radius of

354 600 km. What was the time since periapsis for the encounter with Triton?

Algorithm:

1. Calculate mean motion

2. Calculate cosine of true anomaly

3. Find F

4. Find t from F

12

ORBIT DETERMINATION

define all coordinate system available for spacecraft trajectories.

define the orbital elements from the state vector.

define state vector from orbital elements.

perform coordinate transformation.

COORDINATE SYSTEMS

cartographic system

14

COORDINATE SYSTEMS

rotation, which passes

through the north and

south poles, is not

perpendicular to the

ecliptic. It is tilted away by

an angle known as the

obliquity of the ecliptic e,

which is approximately

23.4 degrees.

The earths equatorial plane and the ecliptic intersect along a line, which is

known as the vernal equinox line.

Precession of the vernal equinox line - Due to the earths tilted spin axis the vernal equinox

recesses westward around the normal to the ecliptic at the rate of about 1.4 degrees per

century.

15

VERNAL EQUINOX LINE

plane and the ecliptic

intersect along a line

known as Vernal

Equinox.

Vernal Equinox occurs

two times in a year:

1st day of spring in

Northern Hemisphere

1st day of Autumn in

Northern Hemisphere

On the day of the

Vernal Equinox, the

number of hours of

daylight and darkness

is equal.

16

GEOID APPROXIMATIONS

Approximation 1: Approximation 2:

Earth is sphere + oblate rotational

Earth is sphere ellipsoid

Gravity anomalies

17

GEOID APPROXIMATIONS

Approximation 3:

ellipsoid + pear-shaped

deviations

pear.

Deviations from the ellipsoid are

only:

+20m (Borneo) to

-25m (Indian Ocean near Sri

Lanka).

18

PRECESSION OF EARTH ORBIT

19

GEOCENTRIC-INERTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

the celestial equator in degrees east

Basic plane: Celestial Equator from the Vernal Equinox longitude.

Principle direction: Vernal Equinox Declination is measured along a

Application: Catalog star position Meridian in degrees, positive the

accurately north of the equator and negative to

the south latitude.

20

HELIOCENTRIC-INERTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

mission design

The origin of this system is

the Sun, the system is fixed

with respect to the stars.

The equatorial plane is

inclined at an angle of

approximately 23.5 deg.

Origin : Sun

Basic plane: Ecliptic

Principle direction : Vernal

Equinox

21

HELIOCENTRIC-INERTIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

mission design

The origin of this system is

the Sun, the system is fixed

with respect to the stars.

The equatorial plane is

inclined at an angle of

approximately 23.5 deg.

Origin : Sun

Basic plane: Ecliptic

Principle direction : Vernal

Equinox

22

GEOCENTRIC-EQUATORIAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

Basic Plane: Equator

Principle direction: Vernal Equinox

rotating with respect to the stars

23

PERIFOCAL COORDINATE SYSTEM

Origin : Earth

Basic plane : Satellite orbit

Principle direction: Periapsis

24

SUMMARY

Interplanetary Systems

Interplanetary

Heliocentric XYZ Sun Ecliptic Vernal Equinox

Mission

Geocentric IJK Earth Earth Equator Vernal Equinox General

Earth Centered Earth

ECEF Earth Earth Equator Local Meridian Observation

Fixed

Topocentric horizon SEZ Site Local Horizon South Radar Observations

Topocentric Optical

Site Parallel to Earth Equator Vernal Equinox

Equatorial Observations

Satellite based Systems

Perifocal PQW Earth Satellite Orbit Periapsis Processing

Satellite Orbit Relative Motion,

Satellite Radial RSW Satellite Radial Vector

Perturbation

Satellite Orbit

Satellite

Satellite Normal NTW Normal to velocity vector Perturbations

Equinoctial EQW Satellite Calculated vector

25

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

Semi-major axis

a

Defines the size of

Specific angular orbit

h

momentum

Defines the shape of

e Eccentricity

the orbit

Defines where to low

point, perigee of the

Argument of perigee

orbit is wrt the

Earths surface

Defines the location of

the ascending and

Right ascension of

descending orbit

ascending node locations wrt the Earths

equatorial plane

Defines the orientation

i Inclination of the orbit wrt the

Earths equator

Defines where the

/ True anomaly satellite is within the

orbit wrt perigee

26

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

Semimajor axis, a

One-half of the major axis and represents a satellite's mean distance from its

primary 27

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

The distance between the foci divided by the length of the major axis and

is a number between zero and one. An eccentricity of zero indicates a

circle.

28

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

The angular distance between the ascending node and the point of perigee

29

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

longitude. Celestial

longitude is

analogous to

longitude on Earth

and is measured in

degrees counter-

clockwise from zero

with zero longitude

being in the

direction of the

vernal equinox. 30

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

Inclination, i

The angular distance between a satellite's orbital plane and the equator of its

primary (or the ecliptic plane in the case of heliocentric, or sun centered, orbits).

31

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

of a point in an orbit

past the point of

perigee, measured in

degrees.

32

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

33

DETERMINING THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS FROM r AND v

and e:

a) Angular momentum, h c) The eccentricity vector, e

h rv 1 2

e

v r rvr

v

I J K r

h rv X Y Z

vX vY vZ

h

NK

I J K

h 0

NK 0 1

hX hY hZ

34

DETERMINING THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS FROM r AND v

a) Semi-major axis, a c) Argument of perigee,

1 N e

Using orbit equation, find rp cos Ne eZ 0

and ra

360 cos 1 N e eZ 0

a ra rp

1

Ne

2

b) Eccentricity, e node,

e e

1 N x

cos N NY 0

360 cos 1 N x NY 0

N

35

DETERMINING THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS FROM r AND v

h

i cos 1 z 1 e r

h cos er vr 0

0 < i < 90 prograde orbit 360 cos 1 e r vr 0

er

90 < i < 180 retrograde orbit

i = 90 polar orbit

36

DETERMINING r AND v FROM THE ORBITAL ELEMENTS

coordinate system

Calculate p

p a 1 e2

r

p

sin P e cos Q

p

r

1 e cos

2) Vector r in perifocal

coordinate system

r r cos P r sin Q

37

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

systems are unit vectors

Unprimed system

i i j j k k 1 .....(1)

Primed system

i i j j k k 1

Unprimed system

i j i k j k 0 .....(2)

Primed system

i j i k j k 0

38

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

system can be expressed in terms

of theirs components in unprimed

system and vice versa

Primed system

i Q i Q j Q k

11 12 13

j Q i Q j Q k

21 22 23

.....(3)

k Q31i Q32j Q33k

Unprimed system

i Q i Q j Q k

11 12 13

j Q i Q j Q k

21 22 23

i Q32

k Q31 j Q33

k .....(4)

39

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

cosine. direct cosine of vectors primed

system relative to vectors of

Substituting Eq.(4) into Eq.(1)

unprimed system

and Eq.(2),

Q11 Q12 Q13 i i i j i k

i i 1 Q 2 Q 2 Q 2 1

11 21 31 Q Q21 Q22 Q23 j i j j j k

j j 1 Q 2 Q 2 Q 2 1 Q31 Q32 Q33 k i k j k k

12 22 32

k k 1 Q132 Q23

2

Q33

2

1 .....(5)

The transpose of the matrix [Q]

i j 0 Q Q Q Q Q Q 0

11 12 21 22 31 32 Q11 Q21 Q31 i i i j i k

i k 0 Q Q Q Q Q Q 0

11 13 21 23 31 33 QT Q12 Q22 Q32 j i j j j k

j k 0 Q Q Q Q Q Q 0 Q13 Q23 Q33 k i k j k k

12 13 22 23 32 33

.....(6)

40

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

QT Q Q12 Q22 Q32 Q21 Q22 Q23

Q13 Q23 Q33 Q31 Q32 Q33

Q112 Q21

2

Q31

2

Q11Q12 Q21Q22 Q31Q32 Q11Q13 Q21Q23 Q31Q33

Q12Q11 Q22Q21 Q32Q31 Q122 Q22

2

Q32

2

Q12Q13 Q22Q23 Q32Q33

Q13Q11 Q23Q21 Q33Q31 Q13Q12 Q23Q22 Q33Q32 Q 2

Q 2

Q 2

13 23 33

QT Q 1 , where, 1 0 0

Identity matrix or

1 0 1 0

unit matrix 0 0 1

41

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

along both unprimed and primed system.

v vx i v y j vz k

v vx i vy j vz k

vx i vy j vz k vx i v y j vz k

vx i vy j vz k vx Q11i Q21j Q31k v y Q12i Q22j Q32k

v Q i Q j Q k

z 13 23 33

v i v j v k Q v i Q v j Q v k i Q

x y z 11 x 12 y 13 z 21 x

v i Q22v y j Q23vz k j

Q v i Q v j Q v k k

31 x 32 y 33 z

42

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

like unit vectors on each side system, multiply Eq.(7) through by

of the equal sign yields [Q]T

vx Q11vx Q12v y Q13v z QT v QT Qv

vy Q21vx Q22v y Q23v z QT v 1v

vz Q31vx Q32v y Q33v z

v QT v

In matrix notation,

v Qv .....(7)

where

vx vx

v vy v v y

vz v z

43

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

i i

Involves a rotation about only one

of the coordinate axes

j j j j j k k

cos j cos 90 k

cos j sin k

k k j j k k k

cos 90 j cos k

sin j cos k

i 1 0 0 i

j

j 0 cos sin

k 0 sin cos k

44

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

i i i i i k k

cos i cos 90 k

cos i sin k

j j

k k i i k k k

cos90 i cos k

sin i cos k

i cos 0 sin i

j

j 0 1 0

k sin 0 cos k

45

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

i i i i i j j

cos i cos 90 k

cos i sin k

j j i i j j j

cos 90 i cos j

sin i cos j

k k

i cos sin 0 i

j

j sin cos 0

k 0 k

0 1

46

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

A sequence of three elementary rotations relating two different Cartesian frames of

reference is called an Euler angle sequence.

6 symmetric Euler

sequences:

Yaw-pitch-roll sequence

6 asymmetric Euler

sequences:

47

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

viewing down an axis sees the illustrated

rotation about that axis. 48

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

49

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

ORBIT PERTURBATION

define perturbations on orbit and how its affect the orbit calculation

DEFINITION

Small deviations from the two-body orbit motion from

some normal or expected motion.

Ideal Keplerian orbit:

d 2r

2

3r

dt r

With presence of perturbations:

d 2r

2

3

r ap

dt r

52

TYPES

Non-

Gravitational

gravitational Atmospheric drag Non-spherical earth

perturbations

perturbations

LEO- decreases semi- Precession of nodes ()

major axis Motion of lines of apsides

()

Mean anomaly at epoch

GEO- decreases GEO change a, e and i

eccentricity

53

ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

atmosphere

Reduces satellites energy

Changes the size (semi-major axis) and shape (eccentricity)

54

ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

55

ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

Atmosphere density Composition Minor: O3, CO2, H2, NO,

electrons, ions

Photochemical

reaction

1 CD : drag

2 CD A

ad g 0V iv coefficient,

2 W depending on

the shape and

aD = atmosphere drag acceleration vector surface.

= atmosphere density

V = velocity of satellite

g0 = Earth gravitation at sea level

W = Satellite weight

iv = unit vector of satellite velocity

56

SOLAR PRESSURE

Solar radiation

pressure force

(sunlight, a area/mass

microwave etc)

The pressure of the sun and the difference of the center of

pressure and the center of mass causes a torque on the satellite.

57

Effects to the spacecraft orbit

ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

58

NON-SPHERICAL EARTH

Earth rotation

shape causes variations in longitude of the and

anomalies in gravity because of the Earth's oblateness,

field as satellite represented by the J2 term in the

moves around the geopotential expansion.

Earth

Main effects:

Regression of nodes

Rotation of apsides

59

ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

REGRESSION OF NODES

Equatorial bulge causes component of gravity vector acting on SC to be

slightly out of orbit plane

This out of orbit plane component causes a slight precession of the orbit

plane.

Sun-synchronous orbit - Relies on nodal regression to shift the ascending

node ~1 per day.

Scans the same path under the same lighting conditions each day.

Sun-synchronous orbit 60

ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

Rotation of apsides

The phenomenon is caused by a higher acceleration near the equator

and a resulting overshoot at periapsis.

This only occurs in elliptical orbits.

Spacecraft

61

ATMOSPHERIC DRAG

Where:

n is the mean motion in degrees/day

J2 = 0.00108263

Re is Earths equatorial radius

a is semi major axis (km)

i is the inclination

e is the eccentricity

perturbations is dominate

For satellite above GEO, the sun and

moon perturbations is dominate. 62

THIRD BODY INFLUENCE

Sun

Gravitational influence of a

third body (eg:Sun, moon) in Luni-solar

addition to spacecraft and an perturbation

Earth.

Moon

force to the central gravity 2

term: GmE / r mE rp3

63

THIRD BODY INFLUENCE

Acceleration

initial frame

mass

Acceleration

earth-centered

frame

64

THIRD BODY INFLUENCE

65

THIRD BODY INFLUENCE

66

COMPARISON OF PERTURBATIONS

67

COMPARISON OF PERTURBATIONS

68

COMPARISON OF PERTURBATIONS

GROUND TRACK

SUB-TOPIC:

Spacecraft Horizon

Field of View

Constellations

GROUND TRACK

The locus of nadir positions traced on the surface of the central body by a

spacecraft as a function of time

71

GROUND TRACK

1. The motion of the spacecraft in orbit

2. The rotation of the central body

3. The perturbation of the orbit caused by equatorial bulge of the central body

72

SPACECRAFT HORIZON

2-way

m/wave

can be

S/c can be established

seen from Forms a circle on

central

body the spherical

surface of the

central body

The s/c can

observe

the central

body

73

SPACECRAFT HORIZON

74

SPACECRAFT SWATH WIDTH

75

FIELD OF VIEW

1. The motion of the spacecraft in orbit

2. The rotation of the central body

3. The perturbation of the orbit caused by equatorial bulge of the central body

H = satellite altitude

FOV

76

SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

Four satellites provide visibility to the

entire Earth (Draim, 1987).

Earth always inside a tetrahedron.

Assumes Earth is flat satellites often

very low above horizon, easily

obscured.

77

SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

No. of satellites you can see above

horizon is diversity

But buildings/trees block your view of

the horizon, limiting the number of

satellites you can see.

Skyscrapers and urban canyons mean

no view of the sky .

78

SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

Navigation Constellation

Galileo and GPS (and Glonass) need to have high satellite diversity.

You really need to see at least four satellites for a quick and accurate

positioning fix (including height).

79

SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

80

SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

Walker star geometry, based on Adams/Rider

streets of coverage. Best diversity at poles,

worst at Equator.

Has orbital seam where ascending and

descending planes pass each other and must

overlap.

81

SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

Walker star geometry, based on Adams/Rider

streets of coverage. Best diversity at poles,

worst at Equator.

Has orbital seam where ascending and

descending planes pass each other and must

overlap.

82

SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

Teledesic

1994: 840 satellites announced the

largest network system ever

83

SATELLITE CONSTELLATION

Single plane of four sun

synchronous imaging satellites,

ascending at 10:15am over

Equator. Fifth satellite at

10:30am.

Gives overlapping daily coverage

of any point on the Earths

surface.

Coverage map shows 600km

pushbroom imaging swath

large area by LEO imaging

standards.

84

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