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# PROBLEM 19.

1
Determine the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration o f a particle
which moves in simple harmonic motion with an amplitude o f 400 mm
and a period o f 1.4 s.

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion

x = xmsin(cont +

2n 2n
r (1.4 s)

= 1.795 m/s

vm = 1.795 m/s A

x = - x m(o2
n sm{cont + f )

## am = -(0 .4 m )(4.488 rad/s)2

8.06 m/s'

am = 8.06 m/s2 A
PROBLEM 19.2
Determine the amplitude and maximum velocity o f a particle which
moves in simple harmonic motion with a maximum acceleration o f
21.6 ft/s2 and a frequency o f 8 Hz.

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion

x - xms in (c y + <t>)

Vm = Xmn

x = a = - x mco2
n sin(a>t + </>)

## 21.6 ft/s2 = xm(16/r rad/s)

or xm = 0.00855 ft

or 0.10259 in.

xm = 0.1026 in. A

## vm = xmcon = (0.00855 ft) (16^-rad/s)

= 0.42977 ft/s

or 5.1572 in./s

vm = 5.16 in./s M
PROBLEM 19.3
A particle moves in simple harmonic motion. Knowing that the amplitude
is 15 in. and the maximum acceleration is 15 fit/s2, determine the
maximum velocity o f the particle and the frequency o f its motion.

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion

x - xmsin(a>J + j )

xm = 15 in. = 1.25 ft

## fzrl= ^ /-- = 0.55133 Hz

271

/ = 0.551 H z <

Hence, / = 0.551 Hz

## Finally, vm = xmca = (1.25 ft)(3.4641 rad/s)

= 4.3301 ft/s

vm = 4.33 ft/s ^
PROBLEM 19.4
A simple pendulum consisting o f a bob attached to a cord oscillates in a
vertical plane with a period o f 1.3 s. Assuming simple harmonic motion
and knowing that the maximum velocity o f the bob is 0.4 m/s, determine
(a ) the amplitude o f the motion in degrees, ( b) the maximum tangential
acceleration o f the bob.

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion

(a ) 9 = 9msm(cont + <p)

2k 2k

" Tn (1.35 s)

0 = 0m6)nCOs((Ont + 0 )

v,n = Wm =

Thus, 9, = (1)
lco

Thus,

## l = _g_ _ 9.81 m/s2

= 0.420 m

From (1)

0.4 m/s
9m -
la n (0.42 m )(4.833 rad/s)

or 11.287

9m = 11.29 M
PROBLEM 19.4 CONTINUED

(ft) N ow

a, = 19

maximum.

0 = + <f)

{ t ) m = Wnfi>l

= 1.9326 m/s2

## { a ,)m = 1.933 m/s2^

PROBLEM 19.5
A simple pendulum consisting o f a bob attached to a cord o f length
/ = 40 in. oscillates in a vertical plane. Assuming simple harmonic
motion and knowing that the bob is released from rest when 9 = 6,
determine (a ) the frequency o f oscillation, ( b) the maximum velocity o f
the bob.

/
Jm
ig

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion

/ = 40 in. = 3.3333 ft

## (a ) ct) = M = J 322 ft/s2 = 3.1081 rad/s

" V / V 3.3333 ft

f = ^ = 0.495 Hz
2n

/ = 0.495 H z <

(b ) 9 = 9msrn{ant + <f>)

9 = 9mo)cos(o)nt + <t>)

Vm = 16m =

## = (3.3333 ft)(6)| ~ r a d / d e g |(3.1801 rad/s)

= 1.8049 ft/s

= 13.019 in./s

vm = 13.02 in./s M
PROBLEM 19.6
A 10-kg block is initially held so that the vertical spring attached as
V shown is undeformed. Knowing that the block is suddenly released from
rest, determine (a ) the amplitude and frequency o f the resulting motion,
16 kN/m () the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration o f the block.

Okg

S O L U T IO N

## IV (I0 k g )(9 .8 1 m/s')

S = = v ; = 0.0061313 m
5 k 16000 N/m

IT 116000 .. . .
' V - ' Y 10 40rad/s = 2' ' /

## (a ) amplitude = Ss = xm =6.13 mm xm = 6.13 mm A

/ = ---------- = 6.37 Hz
2*

f = 6.37 H z A

vm
m = 245 mm/s A

## am = <y2rm = (40 rad/s) (6.13 mm) = 9808 mm

= 9.81 m/s2

am
m = 9.81 m/s2 A
PROBLEM 19.7
A 70-lb block is attached to a spring and can move without friction in a
slot as shown. The block is in its equilibrium position when it is struck by
a hammer which imparts to the block an initial velocity o f 10 ft/s.
Determine (a ) the period and frequency o f the resulting motion, ( b) the
k - 9 kips/ft
amplitude o f the motion and the maximum acceleration o f the block.

SOLUTION
or- 0 Simple Harmonic Motion

1--------1 ~ T (a ) x = xmsin
in(<y/ +
l. j T 9000 lb/ft
(70 lb )(32.2 lb/s2)

r = = 0.90765 s
V . --- / 0 f t /s co

f n = = 10.240 Hz
r

/ = 10.24 H z

(b ) At t = 0: x0 = 0, jc0 = v0 = 10 ft/s 1

= xma>2

= 643.4 ft/s2

## am = 643 ft/s2 <

PROBLEM 19.8
An instrument package A is bolted to a shaker table as shown. The table
moves vertically in simple harmonic motion at the same frequency as the
variable-speed motor which drives it. The package is to be tested at a
peak acceleration o f 50 m/s2. Knowing that the amplitude o f the shaker
table is 58 mm, determine (a ) the required speed o f the motor in rpm, ( b)
the maximum velocity o f the table.

SOLUTION
In Simple Harmonic Motion

A.
n
(a )

3*
3

" 2n In

## Then / in Hz = \C/ Cle = 1 Hz

(1 m in)(60 s/min) 60

/H z 4.6729 Hz . .
So ----- r = ------ ------- = 280.37 r/min
U H4 i
and 280 rpm A

## (b ) m = xmcon = (0.058 m)(29.361 rad/s) = 1.7029 m/s

vm = 1.703 m/s A
PROBLEM 19.9
A
b k p A 5-kg block A rests on top o f a 20-kg plate B which is attached to an
unstretched spring o f constant k = 900 N/m. Plate B is slowly moved
1 60 mm to the left and released from rest. Assuming that block A does not
slip on the plate, determine (a) the amplitude and frequency o f the
resulting motion, (b) the corresponding smallest required value o f the
coefficient o f static friction.

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion:

900 N/m
25 kg

Hz
2n In

() xm = 0.06 m, / = 0.955 Hz

2
= ;x:m<2 = (0.06 m )(6 rad/s)
'Wi^

a !1 A = 2.16 m/s2

o-
Ff =
Ff wi (K,
m6
or Fs=
g
~
216 m/s2
9.81 m/s
= 0.220 <
PROBLEM 19.10
The motion o f a particle is described by the equation
x = 10 sin2r + 8 cos 21, where x is expressed in feet and t in seconds.
Determine (a ) the period o f the motion, (b) its amplitude, (c ) its phase
angle.

S O L U T IO N

## For Simple Harmonic Motion

x = xm sin(<wr + <f>)

## - xm sin cont cos (/> + xmsin^cos cont

- (x mcos^)sin t + (x msin^)cos<ai

to

Comparing:
II
720 N/m

## Then 5x + 720* = 0, where x is measured positively up from the

position o f static deflection. The solution is:

## x = xmsin(<yf + </)), with velocity

x = xm(oncos{cont + <j>)

## Now, to determine xm and <f>, impose the conditions at impact and

IMPACT count the time from there. Thus:

A t impact:

## 'St T t = 0, x = SST = 0.068125 m and v = -3.132 m/s (downward)

X 72o(0.o4S-7f)
or 0.068125 m = xmsin^
DtSPU
PROBLEM 19.17 CONTINUED

## Solving for xm and <f>

xm - -0.26975 m

So, from time o f impact, the time o f flight is the time necessary for the
collar to come to rest on its downward motion. Thus, t2is the time such
that

x (t 2) = 0 => 12t2 + = ~

or 12/,-0.25531 =
2 2
x (t 2) = 0 => 12/2 + <j>

or 12/,-0.25531 =
2 2

Hence, t2 - 0.15217 s

## (b ) After 0.4 seconds, the velocity is

* (0 .4 ) = xmcon c o s [o (0.4 - % ) + +

## = -2.4483 m/s v(0 .4 ) = 2.45 m/s | <

PROBLEM 19.18
A 50-kg block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. The block
is moved vertically downward from its equilibrium position and released.
Knowing that the amplitude o f the resulting motion is 60 mm, determine
(a ) the period and frequency o f the motion, (b ) the maximum velocity and
maximum acceleration o f the block.

12

SOLUTION

k = 48 kN/m

Then

## fit 40 x 103 N/m

50 kg

r = = 0.20279 s
<y

1
fn = 4.9312 Hz

r = 0.203 s <

/ = 4.93 H z 4

(b); N ow

* = x m s i n ( f t > t + <f>)

## amv = 57.6 m/s2 4

PROBLEM 19.19
13 A 50-kg block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. The block

^ 24kN*/m is moved vertically downward from its equilibrium position and released.
Knowing that the amplitude o f the resulting motion is 60 mm, determine
t (a ) the period and frequency o f the motion, (b ) the maximum velocity and

SOLUTION

## (a ) First, calculate the spring constant

~ _ _ P P P
8 = 5 ,+ + =
' 2 24 24 it

Hence, I = 12 kN/m
it 24 + 24

2n 2n
Then = 0.40558 s
r" IT 1(12000kN/m)
V \ 50 kg

r = 0.405 s <

r

(b )

## amax = 14.400 m/s <

PROBLEM 19.20
A 13.6-kg block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. I f the
block is moved from its equilibrium 44 mm vertically downward and
UlkN/n
released, determine (a ) the period and frequency o f the resulting motion,
...
(b ) the maximum velocity and acceleration o f the block.
.I IN in :

LEL

SOLUTION

j _L

## 9(M) nun { 750 m m ->

SOLUTION

! U " e -t
1 j r J ^ q o 7S ^ _ (, w A

L 0 4 5 %.*75ktvI- ^ C"~ ;
r ^ ^ ^ c U _ 0 .8 2 5 - J
(a)

C+ ZMa = 2 (A /,)cfT:
1.2mg + 0.825mRg - 2(0.75)FS = l a + 0.825ms (a,)c + 1.2m(a,)c (1)
Where Fs = k(0.150 + S ^)
At equilibrium, 0 - 0
And

## I M A= 0: 1.2mg + 0.825mRg - 2(0.75 )kSST = 0 (2)

Substitute (2) into (1)

12 12

## [1.08925 + 1.44m] 67 + 506.25(9 = 0

6i + 50625 . = 0
1.08925 + 1.44m
PROBLEM 19.41 CONTINUED

2 5 0 6 .2 5 , \2 (2 n ) In
NOW (On = -------------------------------- = ( 2 7 tfn ) hr = 1 0 9 .6 6
" 1 .0 8 9 2 5 + 1 .4 4 m v ( rJ 2 0 6

5 0 6 .2 5 = 1 0 9 .6 6 (1 .0 8 9 2 5 + 1 .4 4 m )

m = 2 .4 4 9 5 k g

m - 2 .4 5 k g 4

(tb ) (v c ) = 1 .2 ( 0 ) 6m = = = 0 .0 3 6 3 6 ra d
v ' max ' ''max. m 1 .6 5 1 .6 5

= (0 .0 3 6 3 6 r a d )(l0 9 .6 6 s 2 f = 0 .3 8 0 7 5 rad / s

( v c ) max - 1 .2 (0 .3 8 0 7 5 ra d / s ) = 0 .4 5 6 9 1 m /s

(\ vc )/ n = 4 5 7 m m /s 4
PROBLEM 19.42
k A 12-lb uniform cylinder can roll without sliding on a horizontal surface
C. c and is attached by a pin at point C to the 8-lb horizontal bar AB. The bar
A B is attached to two springs, each o f constant A: = 30 lb/in. as shown.
Knowing that the bar is moved 0.5 in. to the right o f the equilibrium
position and released, determine (a ) the period o f vibration o f the system,
(b ) the magnitude o f the maximum velocity o f the bar.
PROBLEM 19.43
A 12-lb uniform cylinder is assumed to roll without sliding on a
c MMA horizontal surface and is attached by a pin at point C to the 8-lb
horizontal bar AB. The bar is attached to two springs, each o f constant k =
20 lb/in. as shown. Knowing that the coefficient o f static friction between
the cylinder and the surface is 0.5, determine the maximum amplitude o f
the motion o f point C which is compatible with the assumption o f rolling.

SOLUTION
From 19.42

## 2k 2(20 lb/in.)(l2in./ft)(32.2 ft/s2)

m+ 8 l b + 18 lb

N = W = M g + mg = 12 lb + 8 lb = 20 lb

F r = - M r 2d = - M r 2
2 2 (f)
l(. 121b \
max = 2 1 32.2 ft/s ~ _ ^ 2^ ^ _ A jn p ijt u d e
N 201b

## H5 = 0.5 = 12 lb (24.382 rad/s)2A

40 lb(32.2 ft/s2)

or A = 0.090278 ft

A = 1.083 in. A
PROBLEM 19.44
A 270-kg flywheel has a diameter o f 1.2 m and a radius o f gyration o f
0.5 m. A belt is placed over the rim and attached to two springs, each o f
constant k = 13 kN/m. The initial tension in the belt is sufficient to
prevent slipping. I f the end C o f the belt is pulled 25 mm to the right and
released, determine (a ) the period o f vibration, ( b) the maximum angular
velocity o f the flywheel.

SOLUTION

(a)

S " . = r -

F c = *[(<Ssr)c - - 4 f b = * [ + ( M ]

## 0 .6 [ ( J s r ) c - 0.6 Id] - O .4 *[o .6 0 + (<Js r ) s ] = Id ( 1)

A t equilibrium (d = 0), Fb = k (d ST) g , Fc = k (S ST) c

Z M A = 0 = 0 M ( S s t )c - 0 M ( S s t )b ( 2)

## Substitute (2) into (1)

I d + 0.72kd = 0

x2
/ = m h2 = (270 kg)(0.5 m ) = 67.5 kg-m 2

## 0.72k = (0.72 m2)(l30 00 N /m ) = = 9360 N m

2 0.72A: 9360 N m _2
Thus cot = = ^ - = ------- r = 138.67 s 2
I 67.5 kg-m

2n 2n
r = = 0.5335 s
>n J l 38.67 s

r = 0.534 s 4
PROBLEM 19.44 CONTINUED

#m ax = m n

xr 0.025 m .
m r 0.6 m

## 6mm = (0.04167 ra d )(l 1.776 s-1) = 0.49067 rad/s

PROBLEM 19.45
For the uniform semicircular plate o f radius r, determine the period o f
small oscillations i f the plate (a ) is suspended from point A as shown, ( b)
a'B
is suspended from a pin located at point B.
PROBLEM 19.46
A thin homogeneous wire is bent into the shape o f an isosceles triangle o f
sides b, b, and 1.6b. Determine the period o f small oscillations i f the wire
(a ) is suspended from point A as shown, ( b) is suspended from point B.
PROBLEM 19.47
5in. 5 in.
A semicircular hole is cut in a uniform square plate which is attached to a
frictionless pin at its geometric center O. Determine (a ) the period o f
small oscillations o f the plate, ( b) the length o f a simple pendulum which
has the same period.

SOLUTION

071467 ft
1/ 2 rrr-
16r -

m = ptr~ 16 - ' = ^ ( 2 . 5 0 5 0 7 ) - ^
2 S

n r* 8r* ;rr2
A, = f (4 r )4 - 2r -
9* + 2 3n

B 6 _ 9n
P tr = / * ( ! . 15333)
3 4
mgb
() /o0 + mgbd = 0, co2 =

x = = 2.81 s <
(O.,

(* ) n = -^ ,
<y2 / = 6.44 ft <
PROBLEM 19.49
Tw o 50-g weights are attached at A and B to the rim o f a 1.5-kg uniform
disk o f radius r = 80 mm. Determine the frequency o f small oscillations
when p = 45.

SOLUTION

## 4g cos p 4 9.81 m/s2jcos 45

i.20l
!(< + * )' ( 4 + (0.05g))
(0.08 m)

= 3.1939 s_l

f , = ^ = 0.508 Hz <
" 271
PROBLEM 19.50
A uniform disk o f radius r = 10 in. is attached at A to a 26-in. rod AB o f
negligible weight which can rotate freely in a vertical plane about B.
Determine the period o f small oscillations (a ) i f the disk is free to rotate
in a bearing at A, (b ) i f the rod is riveted to the disk at A.
r = 10 in.

SOLUTION

i*
r2fcin.

'1 0 n2
m = 0.334722 m
:\12,

a = 0

## (a ) The disk is free to rotate and is in curvilinear translation.

Thus la - 0

Then = ( I M b )c(T

## - m g l sin0 = lman sin# a 0

m l'O + mgld - 0

2 g 32.2 ft/s2
And co = = = 14.861 s"
26 ft
" / 12 11

## (On = 3.8551 s_1

rn = = 1.6299 s
co

r = 1.630 s A
PROBLEM 19.50 CONTINUED

## When the disk is riveted at A, it rotates at an angular acceleration a

PROBLEM 19.51 CONTINUED

So 6+
3 + 3

Then

(a ) With d - 1m

i ) ( m) = 1.794 s A
r_ = 2n = 1.7943 s t

( 2 + 3 ) (9.81 m/s2

## r = In , = 1.6509 s t = 1.651 s <

+ l ( 0 - 7))(9-81 m/s2
PROBLEM 19.52
A compound pendulum is defined as a rigid slab which oscillates about a
fixed point O, called the center o f suspension. Show that the period o f
oscillation o f a compound pendulum is equal to the period o f a simple
pendulum j ) f length OA, where the distance from A to the mass center G
is GA = k 2J r . Point A is defined as the center o f oscillation and
coincides with the center o f percussion defined in Prob. 17.57.
PROBLEM 19.53
A rigid slab oscillates about a fixed point O. Show that the smallest
period o f oscillation occurs when the distance 7 from point O to the
mass center G is equal toAr.

SOLUTION

0 + sin# = 0
7 + k

## For small oscillations sin# 9 and

72 + k 2 27i L k-
= = 2x r +
CO., 8f Vg

k2
For smallest r we must have r + a minimum

r +
/ _ k2
= 1 - =
d7 r

2
r r2
= k

7 = k (Q.E.D) <
PROBLEM 19.54
Show that i f the compound pendulum p f Prob. 19.52 is suspended from A
instead o f O , the period o f oscillation is the same as before and the new
center o f oscillation is located at O.
PROBLEM 19.55
v w w *d The 16-lb uniform bar AB is hinged at C and is attached at A to a spring
o f constant k = 50 lb/ft. I f end A is given a small displacement and
released, determine (a ) the frequency o f small oscillations, ( b) the
smallest value o f the spring constant k for which oscillations w ill occur.

SOLUTION

= 0.04493 lb-ft-s2

a = 9

/ 16 N
0.04493 + 0.02778 0 + [0.47266A: - (0 .1 6 6 6 7 )(l6 )]$= 0 32.2 ## 0.05693$ + [0.472661c - 2.6667]$= 0 ( 1) (a ) For k = 50 lb/ft, 9 + 368.28$ = 0

-s/36828
f = 3 l - = 3.007 Hz
Jn In In

f n = 3.01 H z -A
PROBLEM 19.55 CONTINUED
(b ) For r -> oo, con 0 oscillations w ill not occur

## From Equation (1)

2 0.47266)1 - 2.6667 .
= = 0
0.05873

k = 5.642 lb/ft

k = 5.64 lb/ft M
PROBLEM 19.56
o A 10-kg uniform equilateral triangular plate is suspended from a pin
located at one o f its vertices and is attached to two springs, each o f
. constant k = 200 N/m. Knowing that the plate is given a small angular
k displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the resulting
\ vibration.

## I 400 nun - I "

PROBLEM 19.57
Tw o uniform rods, each o f weight W - 24 lb and length L - 40 in., are
welded together to form the assembly shown. Knowing that the constant
o f each spring is k - 50 lb/ft and that end A is given a small
displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the resulting
motion.
PROBLEM 19.58
A uniform disk o f radius r and mass m can roll without slipping on a
cylindrical surface and is attached to bar A B C o f length L and negligible
mass. The bar is attached at point A to a spring o f constant k and can
rotate freely about point B in the vertical plane. Knowing that end A is
given a small displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the
resulting vibration in terms o f m, L, k, and g.
PROBLEM 19.59
A uniform disk o f radius r = 10 in. is attached at A to a 26-in. rod AB o f
T~
negligible weight which can rotate freely in a vertical plane about B. I f
k
the rod is displaced 2 from the position shown and released, determine
\*Y the magnitude o f the maximum velocity o f point A, assuming that the
disk (a ) is free to rotate in a bearing at A, ( b) is riveted to the rod at A.
r s 10In.

5 ^
SOLUTION

r s o is o w

I = m r2 = (0.250) m = a - 6
2 2V 32

a, - la - 0.650#

## (a ) The disk is free to rotate and is in curvilinear translatioa

Thus la - 0

Z M b = S (M f l )efr

-m g l sin 9 = Ima,

## From 19.17, the solution to this Equation is

9 = 9ms.m{o)nt + <f>)

^ _ /r 7i .
At t = 0, 9 = 2 ------- - rad, 0 = 0
180 90

0 = 0ma>ncos((ont + 0 )

n
t = 0 0 = 9ma>n cos <f> =

n
= 9msin ^0 + - ' 9 = rad
90 2 ) m 90
PROBLEM 19.59 CONTINUED

Thus a=
9 71 sin
77
<rt + 2
90

( V/< )m ax ^m ax l& m Pn

n
With I = 26 in. = 2.1667 ft, 9m = - rad, co
m 90

( ^ L a x = ( 2 -1 6 6 7 f t )
90 JV 2.1667 ft

= 0.29156 ft/s

= 3.4987 in./s

(v .)
v A /m a x = 3.50in./s,4
( b) For disk riveted at A ( I a included)

## I,M b = l ( M s ) ( + - mglsinO = I a + lmat

+ m l2 19 + m gl9 = 0

<y,

a -
71 sin
n
9 nt + - \ (See (a ))
90

( V/l ) m a x ^m ax ^ m 07n

## 7T (32.2 ft/s2 |(2.1667 ft)

90 1 / 10in. \2 26 in. \2
2 V12in./ft j + 12in./ft)

= 0.28135 ft/s

= 3.376 in./s

(v ^ )
v A /m a x =3.38in./s-^
PROBLEM 19.60
A homogeneous rod o f mass per unit length equal to 0.4 kg/m is used to
form the assembly shown, which rotates freely about pivot A in a vertical
plane. Knowing that the assembly is displaced 2 clockwise from its
equilibrium position and released, determine its angular velocity and
angular acceleration 5 s later.

SOLUTION

mi = 0.4(2;rr), m2 = 0 .4 (r)

m
b = ------------= 0.01373 m
W| + m2

2 _ (m, + m2)gb

180

a = ~d0(o2
cos cont

## At r = 5 s, <y = 0.01345 rad/s y -4

PROBLEM 19.61
B A homogeneous wire bent to form the figure shown is attached to a pin
support at A. Knowing that r = 12 in. and that point B is pushed down
1 in. and released, determine the magnitude o f the velocity o f B, 8 s later.
PROBLEM 19.61 CONTINUED

mr
h = P n r 2-r + 2r -
(2 + *)

mr 2 2r
^ -i 0 + mg - 0 = 0
(2 + 7r) 3 ( 2 + #)

2_ 2g _ 2(32.2 ft/s2)

(*r + | )r ( * + f ) ( ] | ft)

## 2 =* 16.911s-2 con = 4.1123 r/s

0 = 0ms in ( r+ (2>) ^ = r0

At t = 0 ^ = = 0.08333 f t , * * = 0

7t
^ 8 = 0 = (jyB) me>cos(0 + </>), <j> =

## yB = 0.08333 ft = ( y B) msinf 0 + ^ j, (y ^ = 0.0833 ft

7t
y B ~ 0.08333 sin | ont + ^ co - 4.1123 r/s
/

r ^
K
yB = 0.08333 cos (DJ + - -0.08333<y sinf
\
2

## = -0.34134 ft/s = -4.0961 in./s

vB - -4.10 in./s A
PROBLEM 19.62
A homogeneous wire bent to form the figure shown is attached to a pin
support at A. Knowing that r = 320 mm and that point B is pushed
down 30 mm and released, determine the magnitude o f the acceleration
o f B, 10 s later.

SOLUTION

## Then total mass m = p (2 r + n r ) = p r (2 + n )

( 2r\
About C mgc = 0 + n r p\ g = 2r 2p g
Vn )

p r (2 + n ) c = 2 r 'p

2r
c =
(2 + n )

+> Z M 0 = Z(A/0)cff a = 6 a, = ca = c6

## (/ + me2j # + mgcG = 0 I 09 + mgcG - 0

PROBLEM 19.62 CONTINUED

But / + me2 = 70

(2 r f
(^o)semicirc + (2o)line WIs-circr line
+ m\ i
12

m
^s-circ = P n r Kne = P l r P =
(2 + 7t)

2 2r r mr 2
h = P 7ir-r + ------ /r +
(2 + ;r) 3

mr 2 2r
n 6 + mg- -0 = 0
{2
+ x)i 3 (2 +

2g . 2(9.81m/s2)
" (;r + + | )(0.32 m )

## aa2 = 16.0999 s~2 con = 4.0125 rad/s

6 = 0ma n ( a j + <p) y B = rd

## yB = r0msin(cw/ + <f>) = ( yB) ms in (a y + $) At t = 0 y B = 0.03 m yB = 0 ## (t = 0 ) yB = 0 = (y B) mcos(0 + cj>) <f> = ## yB = 0.03 = (y B ) msin ' o + i ' {yB)m = 0-03 m v 2j / 71^ yB = 0.03 sin con = 4.0125 s" \ 1J ## y b = ( 0 . 0 3 ) ( ) c o s L nt + ~ 1 - -(0 .0 3 )6 > sin < v I " 2, yB = (-0.03)(<y2)sinj^<v + y j = 0.032cosfiy ## A t t = 10 s: (a B\ = yB = 0.03(4.0125)2cos(4.0125(10)) - -0.36437 m/s2 ## ( Vfl) = yB = 0.03(4.0125)sin(4.0125(l0)) - 0.07902 m/s VB (0.07902)2 O n (-0.36437)2 0.365 m/s2 A 032 PROBLEM 19.63 A uniform disk o f radius r - 6 in. is welded at its center to two elastic rods o f equal length with fixed ends A and B. Knowing that the disk rotates through an 8 angle when a 0.375 lb ft couple is applied to the disk and that it oscillates with a period o f 1.3 s when the couple is removed, determine (a) the weight o f the disk, ( b) the period o f vibration i f one o f the rods is removed. PROBLEM 19.64 ,- A 5-kg uniform rod CD o f length / = 0.7 m is welded at C to two elastic rods, which have fixed ends at A and B and are known to have a fi combined torsional spring constant K = 24 N-m/rad.. Determine the period o f small oscillation, i f the equilibrium position o f C D is A^ (a ) vertical as shown, ( b) horizontal. i U D PROBLEM 19.64 CONTINUED 0b) TT ' To< ## W ^ t f e ' + e ^ l <J <z H t = Z ( H t ' W ## - K { 6 + 0ST) + m g ^ = J 6 + w f ~ l & = J c& But in equilibrium (9 = 0) M C = 0 = - K 6 st + m g - Thus JJ9 + KG - 0 1.159 s 4 g> K 24N-m/rad PROBLEM 19.65 A 60-kg uniform circular plate is welded to two elastic rods which have fixed ends at supports A and B as shown. The torsional spring constant o f each rod is 200 N m/rad and the system is in equilibrium when the plate 0.16hi is vertical. Knowing that the plate is rotated 2 about axis AB and released, determine (a ) the period o f oscillation, (b ) the magnitude o f the maximum velocity o f the mass center G o f the plate. PROBLEM 19.66 A horizontal platform P is held by several rigid bars which are connected to a vertical wire. The period o f oscillation o f the platform is found to be 2.2 s when the platform is empty and 3.8 s when an object A o f uniform moment o f inertia is placed on the platform with its mass center directly above the center o f the plate. Knowing that the wire has a torsional constant K = 27 N-m/rad, determine the centroidal moment o f inertia o f object/I. PROBLEM 19.67 A uniform equilateral triangular plate o f side b is suspended from three vertical wires o f the same length I. Determine the period o f small oscillations o f the plate when (a ) it is rotated through a small angle about a vertical axis through its mass center G, ( b) it is given a small horizontal displacement in a direction perpendicular to AB. SOLUTION be Geometry be m mg bO F = 3 />/3 Then + ) I M g = i Ge = - F ^ ~ e mb' m gb' or e+ 0 = 0 12 3L (a) co: 1 \g PROBLEM 19.68 A 4-lb circular disk o f radius r = 40 in. is suspended at its center C from wires AB and B C soldered together at B. The torsional spring constants o f the wires are AT, = 3 lb-ft/rad for AB and K 2 = 1.5 lb-ft/rad for BC. Determine the period o f oscillation o f the disk about the axis AC. PROBLEM 19.69 Tw o small spheres, A and C, each o f mass m, are attached to rod AB, which is supported by a pin and bracket at B and by a spring C D o f constant k. Knowing that the mass o f the rod is negligible and that the ( ( IB system is in equilibrium when the rod is horizontal, determine the J "t" J *1 frequency o f the small oscillations o f the system. PROBLEM 19.70 A 0.7-kg sphere A and a 0.5-kg sphere C are attached to the ends o f a rod too "m m A C o f negligible mass which can rotate in a vertical plane about an axis at B. Determine the period o f small oscillations o f the rod. 160 m m SOLUTION Datum at Position % = 0 V\ = Wc hc - WAhA hc = B C { l - c o s 0 m) hA = BA{\ - cos0m) ## For small angles 1 - cos(9. 6 = [0 n )(c ) - ( W > r f r f ## Vx = [(o.5 kg X 9.81 m/s2j (0.16 m ) - (o.7 kg x 9.81 m/s2)(0.1 m ) .0 : = (0.785 - 0 .6 8 7 )^ - = 0.098-^ PROBLEM 19.70 CONTINUED ## y2 = o. T2 = -mc (Vc t + m A(V A) 2 m,(V e) m = (0.16)0, T2 = i m c (O.16)20 2 + m A{ 0 . l f % , ( V A) m = ( O .l)0 m ## r, = - (0.5 kg)(0 .1 6 )2 + (0.7 k g )(O .l)2] ;0 ,;, el = conem 2 ## Tj = ^[0.0128 + O.OO7]20 ; = i(O .O 1 9 8 ) ;0 ; 7^ + V, = T2 + r 2: 0 + 0 .0 9 8 ^ = ^ ^ 20 2 2 0.098 oc _2 2n In co = ----------= 4.95 s , r = = . 2.82 s < 0.0198 con y[4$5
PROBLEM 19.71
Tw o blocks, each o f weight 3 lb, are attached to links which are pin-
connected to bar BC as shown. The weights o f the links and bar are
negligible and the blocks can slide without friction. Block D is attached
to a spring o f constant k = 4 lb/in. Knowing that block A is moved 0.5 in.
from its equilibrium position and released, determine the magnitude o f
the maximum velocity o f block D during the resulting motion.
PROBLEM 19.72
Tw o blocks, each o f weight 3 lb, are attached to links which are pin-
connected to bar BC as shown. The weights o f the links and bar are
negligible and the blocks can slide without friction. Block D is attached
to a spring o f constant k = 4 lb/in. Knowing that block A is at rest when it
is struck horizontally with a mallet and given an initial velocity o f
10 in./s, determine the magnitude o f the maximum displacement o f block
D during the resulting motion.

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.71

0 1.5 ft

## max |x0 |= ^ = 0.0612 ft = 0.734 in. <

PROBLEM 19.73
A uniform rod AB can rotate in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis at
C located at a distance c above the mass center G o f the rod. For small
oscillations determine the value o f c for which the frequency o f the
motion w ill be maximum.
PROBLEM 19.73 CONTINUED
Maximum c, when
PROBLEM 19.74
A thin uniform plate cut into the shape o f a quarter circle can rotate in a
vertical plane about a horizontal axis at point O. Determine the period o f
the small oscillations o f the plate.
PROBLEM 19.75
The inner rim o f a 38-kg flywheel is placed on a knife edge, and the
period o f its small oscillations is found to be 1.26 s. Determine the
centroidal moment o f inertia o f the flywheel.
1501

SOLUTION
Datum at

Position

71 = \ Vx = 0

T2 = 0 V2 = mgh

h = r ( l - cos0m) = r2sin2^ -

rOm
'

el
V2 = m g r-z -

Conservation o f energy

T\ + v \ = T2 + V2 ~>70^m + 0 = 0 + m g r^ j-

K = = ms rdl

4/ r2 _
col = Tn = 2
(o: mgr

J 0 = J + mr~ 7 .
J + mr
2= --------- =-----
47Z~

J7 ---------=--------
( r H ' g r ) m r 2
471-

## (1 .2 6 s) 2 (3 8 k g )(9 .8 1 m /s2 )(0 . 1 7 5 m )

- (3 8 k g )(0 .1 7 5 m ) 2
4/r"

J = 2 .6 2 3 4 5 Nm s - 1 .1 6 3 7 5 N m s2 = 1 .4 5 9 7 N-m s*

J = 1 .4 6 0 kg-m2 -4
PROBLEM 19.76
A connecting rod is supported by a knife edge at point A ; the period o f its
small oscillations is observed to be 0.895 s. The rod is then inverted and
supported by a knife edge at point B and the period o f its small
oscillations is observed to be 0.805 s. Knowing that ra + rb = 10.5 in.,
determine (a ) the location o f the mass center G, ( b) the centroidal radius
o f gyration k .
PROBLEM 19.76 CONTINUED

P + F 2
() t = 2n1
gr

## For a rod suspended at A :

Tn = 0.895 = 2 x r= ra (1 )
V

## For a rod suspended at B :

k 2 + r2
Tn = 0-805 = 2 n ~
b, r= rb (2)
V STb

## From ( I ) and (2)

P + r 2 = ^ (0 .8 9 5 f (l'J
An

72 . -2 _ j i f b l A oa<\2
^ + ^ = ^ ( 0-805) ( 2')

## Taking the difference ( l '} - { 2 ') :

r] ~ r2 = |-[0.80125ra - 0.648025r6]
4n

471

' 0.895
(b ) k 2 = gra
2n

## k = 0.25278 ft = 3.0334 in.

k = 3.03 in.
PROBLEM 19.77
L'|. s|
A uniform disk o f radius r and mass m can roll without slipping on a
cylindrical surface and is attached to bar A B C o f length L and negligible
mass. The bar is attached to a spring o f constant k and can rotate freely in
the vertical plane about point B. Knowing that end A is given a small
displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the resulting
oscillations in terms o f m, L, k, and g.
PROBLEM 19.78
A 7-kg uniform cylinder can roll without sliding on an incline and is
attached to a spring AB as shown. I f the center o f the cylinder is moved
10 mm down the incline and released, determine (a ) the period o f
vibration, ( b) the maximum velocity o f the center o f the cylinder.

SOLUTION

(a ) Position

?i = 0 V , = ^ k { S S T + rdm) 2

Position

## T2 = + J^v2 V2 = mgh + ^ k ( S STf

7; + V, = T2 + V2

0+ + rGm)~ = + m8h +

+ 2kSSTrdm + kv2e l = J 6 i + m v 2
m + 2mgh + (1)

## Q+- EA/C = 0 = mg sin f ir kSSTr

Also h = rs'm/30m

## Substitute (2) into (1)

Ar 2e l = J 0 i + mvl

0m = vm = rdm = rco9m

kr2ol = ( 3 + mr2)elcol
PROBLEM 19.78 CONTINUED

2 kr2
at: =
J + m r2

J = -m r2

2 kr2 2 k
= 1^ wr 2 + m r"2 = T3
m

t = = . 2n = 0.71983 s
<y /2 (80 N/m)
V 1 2 kg

r = 0.720 s <4

v =

em =

## vm = r6mot rOm = 0.01 m

2n
vm = (0.01 m ) = 0.0873 m/s ^
0.720 s
PROBLEM 19.79
Tw o uniform rods, each o f mass m = 0.6 kg and length / = 160 mm,
are welded together to form the assembly shown. Knowing that the
constant o f each spring is k = 120 N/m and that end A is given a small
displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the resulting
motion.

k
PROBLEM 19.79 CONTINUED

IV W 12 2n2
+ ---- I (Q~0~
-m ki2
-------_j_------
n tn = 01
I 6 g 4 g 2 2

=K + iL f,
2_ 2 + 1 6' z * + L
CO =
/ *
V K )

I 0.160 m
+
0.6 kg

= 166.43 s-2

## / = -^2- = 2.0532 s '1

" In

f n = 2.05 Hz <
PROBLEM 19.80
A slender 20-lb bar AB o f length / = 2 ft is connected to two collars o f
negligible mass. Collar A is attached to a spring o f constant k = 100 lb/ft
and can slide on a horizontal rod, while collar B can slide freely on a
vertical rod. Knowing that the system is in equilibrium when bar AB is
vertical and that collar A is given a small displacement and released,
determine the period o f the resulting vibrations.

SOLUTION

V = k { l O ) 2 + mg
\ ' /

2'
T = - m l2 + m 6
2 12 (i)
kl- , mg!
co2
= -? <
" ml

2 3k 3g
cot = ---- +
" m 21

20 lb
With k = 100 lb/ft, / = 2 ft, m =
32.2 ft/s2

## col = 507.15 s"2

r = = 0.279 s <
PROBLEM 19.81
A slender 10-lb bar AB o f length / = 2 ft is connected to two collars, each
o f weight 5 lb. Collar A is attached to a spring o f constant k - 100 lb/ft
and can slide on a horizontal rod, while collar B can slide freely on a
vertical rod. Knowing that the system is in equilibrium when bar AB is
vertical and that collar A is given a small displacement and released,
determine the period o f the resulting vibrations.
PROBLEM 19.82
A 6-lb slender rod AB is bolted to a 10-lb uniform disk. A spring o f
constant 25 lb/ft is attached to the disk and is unstretched in the position
shown. I f end B o f the rod is given a small displacement and released,
determine the period o f vibration o f the system.

15 iii.
PROBLEM 19.82 CONTINUED

1 2 1 ,2
- m Dr + - m ABl ^ + 0 = 0+ + } - mABg l e i

0m = A

f 1 2 1 ,2^
+ - V 0 = I + mAB&~X el

2 + - m ABl

fr 2 + f g w _ g [^ 2+ i ^ v ]

" j [ i ^ 2 + } * W 2] " i ^ 2+ j W 2

## (10 lb)(0.33333 ft) + 1 (6 lb )(l.2 5 ft)

-2
57.109 s

r = = 0.8314 s
C0

= 0.831s <
PROBLEM 19.83
A 0.7-kg sphere A and a 0.5-kg sphere C are attached to the ends o f a
too 1-kg rod A C which can rotate in a vertical plane about an axis at B.
Determine the period o f small oscillations o f the rod.

160 m m
PROBLEM 19.83 CONTINUED
a fp
With 1 - cos0m = 2sin2^ - *
2 2

## V2 = [-(6 .8 7 )(0 .1 ) + (4.91)(0.16) + ( 9 . 8 l ) ( 0 . 0 3 ) ] ^ - 0.3929^-

i i fp
Tx + Vx = T 2 + V2: -i(0.02633)<?2 + 0 = 0 + -(0 .3 9 2 9 )-^ -

om = A

## 2 = 0.3929 = M 922 s_2

So
" 0.02633

2n _ - -1.62 66 s
con VI 4.922

r = 1.627 s A,
PROBLEM 19.84
Spheres A and C, each o f weight W, are attached to the ends o f a
homogeneous rod o f the same weight W and o f length 21 which is bent
as shown. The system is allowed to oscillate about a frictionless pin at B.
Knowing that P = 40 and / = 25 in., determine the frequency o f small
oscillations.
PROBLEM 19.84 CONTINUED

## V2 = - mgl cos /?cos 6m

02
cosdm * l - y (smallangles)

V2 = ~ mgl cos /? 1 - 3 *
2

T\ + Vx = T2 + V2

f ft1 \
m l20 2 - m g lcos0 = 0 - m g lcos 1 _ Zm.
v 2 J

6m = ( r P m

= ^'gC O S/?^

= COS P
14 /

2 15 32.2 ft/s2
cos 40
"= l4 \ 25 in.
12 in./ft /

12.686 s~2

-l
a>n = 3.5617 s

/, = = 0.56686 s-1
2k

f n = 0.567 H z <4
PROBLEM 19.85
Three identical 8-lb uniform slender bars are connected by pins as shown

if
and can move in a vertical plane. Knowing that bar B C is given a small
displacement and released, determine the period o f vibration o f the
system.

30 in.

30 in.
PROBLEM 19.86
Tw o uniform rods AB and CD, each o f length / and mass m, are attached
to gears as shown. Knowing that the mass o f gear C is m and that the
mass o f gear A is 4m, determine the period o f small oscillations o f the
system.

SOLUTION

## Kinematics 2rOA = rdc 26A = 6C

2eA= ec
Let 6A =6m 26m=(0c )m

a. = ( < y

Position

m,C D ^26
2

IA = ^ (4 m )(2 r )2 = 8m r2

1 2 1 2
7c = ^ ( m)(r ) = 2 mr

1 m/2
//<fl = 12 m/2 IcD = 12

TT, = 1 m
' r 2' a ' 2 /2 /2 + I12 I
8 r 2 + 4+ + +
1 2 12 3 4
, 2 >

T, = m 10r 2 + - / 2

K,=0
PROBLEM 19.86 CONTINUED
Position

Tx = 0

vi = w g j i 1 ~ C0SO + * ~ ( 1 - cos4(9m)

a .2
For small angles 1 - cos0 = 2sin2
2 2

l - c o s 4 0 m = 2 sin2 20m = 2d l

el
V\ = -mgl -r ie l

.2.2
Tl + VX = T 2 + V2 9 l = < o lnd,

## -m 10r 2 + - 12 < 2e.2m+ o = o +,, -mgi

1 ._ ,5 0 2
2
3

col =
Ul 3g l
10r 2 + 1 12 12 r 2 + 212

2n [l2 r 2 + 212
= 2 n.
1 3g l
PROBLEM 19.87
Tw o uniform rods AB and CD, each o f length / and mass m, are attached
to gears as shown. Knowing that the mass o f gear C is m and that the
mass o f gear A is Am, determine the period o f small oscillations o f the
system.

SOLUTION

26a = ec

## Let 6 a = 6m 29m = (0c ) m

Position

7; = + \lc ( + { I abOI + \ l c o f a f + +^ c d J j^

^ = 8" "- 2

## 'c = ^ H ' 2) = I " " - 2

/ ab = w / 2 /'CD
r n = - r r m l2
12 12
f . ..
a.1
-1

1 8r2 + V 2>
M

rc = m 0;
+

+
1

1 2 ,2> 12 3 4
PROBLEM 19.87 CONTINUED

T, = m 10r2 + - / 2 el V, = 0
1 2 3

Position

T2 = 0 V2 = - m g t ( 1 - cos0m) + - ^ ( 1 - cos20m)

f) ft2
For small angles 1 - c o s 9m - 2sin2
2 2
1 - cos29m = Is m 19m 2<92

V2 = - m g + 20 2 = m gl0 2
2 2 2 2 2

t \ + Vx = T 2 + V2 9m - a>n9l

1 5
m 10r2 + - I 2 0 > 2 + O = O + i m g / | ^ 2
2 3

9g l
" 10r2 + f I2 60r 2 + 1012

2n l60r2 + 10/2
= 271.
' 9g/
PROBLEM 19.88
A 5-kg uniform rod CD is welded at C to a shaft o f negligible mass
which is welded to the centers o f two 10-kg uniform disks A and B.
Knowing that the disks roll without sliding, determine the period o f small
oscillations o f the system.

SOLUTION

Position

,,
2 WM
disk
tx = - 2 [ i a) el + - r el
1 9 V 'disk m 9
2V s 2

## So 7j = |^2(0.5 kg m2) + 2(10 kg)(0.3 m )2 + 0.3375 kg m2 + (5 kg)(0.45 m - 0.3 m )2]<?2

= {(3-15 ) e l

vx=o
PROBLEM 19.88 CONTINUED

## - j(5 k g )(9 .8 1 m / s 2)(0.45 m )0 2

= ^(22.073)0;
PROBLEM 19.89
Three collars, each o f mass m, are connected by pins to bars A C and BC,
each o f length I and negligible mass. Collars A and B can slide without
friction on a horizontal rod and are connected by a spring o f constant k.
Collar C can slide without friction on a vertical rod and the system is in
equilibrium in the position shown. Knowing that collar C is given a small
displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the resulting
motion o f the system.
PROBLEM 19.90
Tw o 6-lb uniform semicircular plates are attached to the 4-lb rod AB as
shown. Knowing that the plates roll without sliding, determine the period
6in. / /6in. o f small oscillations o f the system.

- 20 in.
PROBLEM 19.90 CONTINUED

## Position F, =0 , V2 = 2mDgc 1 - c o s ^ -j, c = 1 - cos0m = ^ - ( 0 m l)

r 4 r\ 9}
V2 = 2mDg j-a . = fVDr 0 i = (6)| % = 1 .273240*
3n 12

## Tt + V} = T2 + V2: 0.0458660 2 + 0 = 0 + 1.273240*

a si 2 1.27324
6m = <y0m: a>~ = ------------- = 27.747
0.045866

= 5.2677, r = = 1.192 s
co

r = 1.192 s A
PROBLEM 19.91
An inverted pendulum consisting o f a sphere o f weight W and a bar ABC
o f length / and negligible weight is supported by a pin and bracket at C.
A spring o f constant k is attached to the bar at B and is undeformed when
the bar is in the vertical position shown. Determine (a) the frequency o f
small oscillations, ( b) the smallest value o f a for which the oscillations
will occur.
PROBLEM 19.91 CONTINUED
PROBLEM 19.92
For the inverted pendulum o f Prob. 19.91 and for given values o f k, a,
k A and /, it is observed that / = 1.5 Hz when m = 0.9 kg and that
W W yB5 / = 0.8 Hz when m = 1.8 kg. Determine the largest value o f m for
which small oscillations w ill occur.

SOLUTION
See solution o f Problem 19.91 for the frequency in terms o f W, k, a and /

ka~
-1
Jn 2tt V I

ka~
/ = 1.5 Hz, m = 0.9 kg: 1.5 = ^ - 1 ( 1)
Jn h 2* V / 0.9 x 9.81 x/

ka
/ = 0.8 Hz, m = 1.8 kg: 0.8 = - 1 (2 )
2n V / 1.8x9.81 x/

## ' 1.5 V _ (S29/ *)

(17.658/ )

ka- ka2
or 3.5156 -1 - 1
17.658/ 8.829/

ka2
Then = 29.3088
I

( 29.3088 29.3088
/ = - " I lfn = 0 -1 = 0
Jn 2n V / W ) '" W

## W < 29.3088 N or m <, 2.9876 kg

m < 2.99 kg A
PROBLEM 19.93
o A section o f uniform pipe is suspended from two vertical cables attached
at A and B. Determine the frequency o f oscillation when the pipe is given
a small rotation about the centroidal axis O O ' and released.

w
T
i

L
O'
it . 4 lb /ft PROBLEM 19.94
A 4-lb uniform rod A B C is supported by a pin at B and is attached to a
spring at C. It is connected at A to a 4-lb block D E which is attached to a
spring and can roll without friction. Knowing that each spring can act in
tension or compression, determine the frequency o f small oscillations o f
the system when the rod is rotated through a small angle and released.

k 4 lb /ft
PROBLEM 19.94 CONTINUED

## <y2 = s~2, (o = 5.4428 s_l

" 0.48525

/ = -2 - = 0.86625 Hz
2;r

/ = 0.866 Hz 4
PROBLEM 19.96
As a submerged body moves through a fluid, the particles o f the fluid
flow around the body and thus acquire kinetic energy. In the case o f a
sphere m oving in an ideal fluid, the total kinetic energy acquired by the
fluid is ( y l g ' j V v 2, where y is the specific weight o f the fluid, V is the

volume o f the sphere, and v is the velocity o f the sphere. Consider a 1-lb
hollow spherical shell o f radius 4 in. which is held submerged in a tank o f
water by a spring o f constant 40 lb/ft. (a ) Neglecting fluid friction,
determine the period o f vibration o f the shell when it is displaced
vertically and then released, (b ) Solve part a, assuming that the tank is
accelerated upward at the constant rate o f 24 ft/s2.

SOLUTION
This is not a damped vibration. However, the kinetic energy o f the fluid
must be included

(a ) Position <D r, = o

V kx2
2~ 2 m

Position

T\ = V + r flu id = i m sv l + ~ | j
Vv

V\=0

/ \
1 2 1 r
wx + vx = t2 + v2 msvm + V vi + 0 = 0 + -ibc2
2 4

f 1 2 2 ;
m. + M V
1 2 2
= - t e m,C>n -
v 2 y

/ . . \
62.4 lb/ft3 4 4 in.
V - i n = 0.15032 lb-s2/ft
2 g 2 32.2 ft/s2 3 12 in./ft

40 lb/ft -2
col - = 220.54 s
( llb , +0.15032 lb-s2/ft)
\ 32.2 ft/s2 /

-i
a> = 14.850 s

2k
Tn - = 0.4231 s
OK

- 0.423 s <

## (b ) The acceleration does not change mass

PROBLEM 19.97
A thin plate o f length / rests on a half cylinder o f radius r. Derive an
expression for the period o f small oscillations o f the plate.
PROBLEM 19.98
A 64-lb block is attached to a spring o f constant k = 1 kip/ft and can
P Pmsin (Oft
move without friction in a vertical slot as shown. It is acted upon by a
periodic force o f magnitude P = Pm sin cojt, where cof = 10 rad/s.
Knowing that the amplitude o f the motion is 0.75 in., determine Pm.

k- 1 kip/ ft

SOLUTION
" ( \2"
fjn_
*
* 1Pm - Y
m
1- \ f\
-( )

1000 lb/ft
= 22.43 s- '
64 lb
32.2 ft/s2

-l
0.75 in. 10 s
P. = 1- (1000 lb/ft) = 50.077 lb
12 in./ft 22.43 s"

Pm = 50.1 \ b <
PROBLEM 19.99
A 4-kg collar can slide on a frictionless horizontal rod and is attached to a
spring o f constant 450 N/m. It is acted upon by a periodic force o f
magnitude P = Pm sin co^t, where Pm = 13 N. Determine the amplitude
o f the motion o f the collar i f (a ) cof = 5 rad/s, ( b) co, = 10 rad/s.

SOLUTION

Equation (19.33)

fk

- m

450N/m _ ,0 6 0 7 s '1
4 kg

P 13 N
^2. = = 0.28889 m
k 450 N/m

0.28889 m
=
( mf
\ 10.607

0.28889 m
() = 5: Xm = = 0.03714 m
1
*- V
(
10.607)I 2

## (In Phase) xm = 37.1 mm M

0.28889 m
( b) (Of = 10: xm = =- = 0.25984 m
J m . / ,n \2
1 v 10.607)

## (In Phase) xm = 260 mm ^

PROBLEM 19.100
A 4-kg collar can slide on a frictionless horizontal rod and is attached to a
spring o f constant k. It is acted upon by a periodic force o f magnitude
P = Pm sin onf t , where Pm = 9 N and cof = 5 rad/s. Determine the
value o f the spring constant k knowing that the motion o f the collar has
an amplitude o f 150 mm and is (a ) in phase with the applied force, ( b) out
o f phase with the applied force.

SOLUTION

Equation (19.33)

Pm
k

(a ) In Phase

9N
k = = 160.0 N/m <
0.15 m +

## (b ) Out o f Phase xm = -0.15 m

9N
k = 7 p- = 40.0 N/m <
-0.15 m + (4 kg)^5 s J
PROBLEM 19.101
A collar o f mass m which slides on a ffictionless horizontal rod is
attached to a spring o f constant k and is acted upon by a periodic force o f
magnitude P = Pm sin co, t. Determine the range o f values o f cof for
which the amplitude o f the vibration exceeds three times the static
deflection caused by a constant force o f magnitude Pm.

SOLUTION

## Y-w\ Equation (19.33) x =

r 1 -^
PROBLEM 19.102
A small 20-kg b lo ck s is attached to the rod B C o f negligible mass which
is supported at B by a pin and bracket and at C by a spring o f constant
k - 2 kN/m. The system can move in a vertical plane and is in
equilibrium when the rod is horizontal. The rod is acted upon at C by a
periodic force P o f magnitude P = Pmsma>A, where Pm = 6 N .
Knowing that b = 200 mm, determine the range o f values o f o) f for which
the amplitude o f vibration o f b lo ck s exceeds 3.5 mm.

P = J> sin ,
PROBLEM 19.103
A small 20-kg block A is attached to the rod B C o f negligible mass which
is supported at B by a pin and bracket and at C by a spring o f constant
k - 2 kN/m. The system can move in a vertical plane and is in
equilibrium when the rod is horizontal. The rod is acted upon at C by a
periodic force P o f magnitude P = Pmsin&yf, where Pra = 6 N.
Knowing that a>, = 15 rad/s, determine Ihe range o f values o f 6 for
which the amplitude o f vibration o f b lo c k s exceeds 3.5 mm.

## P = f', sin tyft

SOLUTION
Referring to the figure and solution Problem 19.102

= 1 W = 1 12000(0.8)2 = 8
a* ~ b i m ~ b ' 2D b

## Ranoo 0 _ + 0-0035 , 3 _ 0-24 _ 0-24

g ^ b ~ a>2
- a>2
f " b2{a>2
n - 225) " 64 - 225b2

6 = 0.40229 m

6 = 0.70706 m

## 402 mm < 6 < 707 mm A

PROBLEM 19.104
A 2-kg block A slides in a vertical frictionless slot and is connected to a
moving support B by means o f a spring AB o f constant = 117 N/m.
Knowing that the displacement o f the support is 8 = Sm sin cof t, where
FTI 8m = 100 mm and (o , = 5 rad/s, determine (a) the amplitude o f the
motion o f the block, (b ) the amplitude o f the fluctuating force exerted by
the spring on the block.

I 8 'in (Of I
i .
1
+
SOLUTION

## From Equation (19.33')

2 k 117 N/m
(o) co = = -----------
m 2 kg

o)2
n = 58.5 s 2

0.1 m
= = 0.17463 m

x = 174.6 mm A

(b ) Since <y2< ty2, x and S arein phase and net spring deflection is

x - S and F = k (x - 8 )

## Fm = (117 N/m)(0.17463 m - 0.10 m )

CJyv" }
* I *

Fm = 8.73 N <
PROBLEM 19.105
A 16-lb block A slides in a vertical ffictionless slot and is connected to a
moving support B by means o f a spring AB o f constant k = 130 lb/ft.
Knowing that the displacement o f the support is 5 = 8m sin coA, where
Sm = 6 in., determine the range o f values o f co, for which the amplitude
o f the fluctuating force exerted by the spring on the block is less
than 30 lb.
! - S , sin I

SOLUTION

2 k 130 lb/ft .2
co = = = 261.63 s
m 16 lb
32.2 ft/s2

lj^ 6 5 lb In phase

Fm = k ( Xm ~ 5m) = k#n T - l
i - 5

Fm < 3 0 lb

30 lb
So - 1< = 0.46154

(Of
or 0.68241
G>n

toz

## (Oj < 9.09 rad/s A

PROBLEM 19.105 CONTINUED

Out o f phase

6 in.
Fm = k {x m - 8 m) = 130 lb/ft = 130xm + 65 > 30
12 in./ft

## Fm < |30 lb| whenx and 8 are out o f Phase A

PROBLEM 19.106
,y ,y sjn tatl r^ S k ^ cantilever beam AB supports a block which causes a static deflection o f
40 mm at B. Assuming that the support at A undergoes a vertical periodic
displacement 8 = Sm sin cof t, where 8m = 10 mm, determine the range
o f values o f go, for which the amplitude o f the motion o f the block will
be less than 20 mm. Neglect the mass o f the beam and assume that the
block does not leave the beam.

SOLUTION

S i n -Of t
r , or-
llVlx

mXB = ~ K { XB ~ # )

"&B + K xb = ke8mSmo)ft

## Thus, from Equation (19.31) and (19.33')

i _ M l r f = 24525 ,
CO.
" m Sgj- 0.040
O '" m

0.5

1- 245.25

10
|20|>
1- 245.42

co
In phase + 20 1 - > 10
245.25

245.25
CO'f <

## cOj < 11.07 rad/s A

PROBLEM 19.106 CONTINUED

Q W , i

r ~ IrodfS
2 o K h fttic

i f f
Z
v!
X
>x) *.
2o
'A W v ,^ -
i . 'A

2 \
(Of
Out o f phase -20 1- > 10
245.25

(Of > 0 2 4 5 .2 5 )

## (Of > 19.18 rad/s <

PROBLEM 19.107
8 iii. - 8 in .- A small 4-lb sphere B is attached to the bar AB o f negligible weight
which is supported at A by a pin and bracket and connected at C to a
F C moving support D by means o f a spring o f constant k = 20 lb/in. Knowing
that support D undergoes a vertical displacement 8 = 8msin (of t, where
I 8m = 0. 1 in. and co, = 1 5 rad/s, determine (a ) the magnitude o f the
o
1 maximum angular velocity o f bar AB, ( b) the magnitude o f the maximum

f acceleration o f sphere B.
PROBLEM 19.108
A 16-lb b lo ck s slides in a vertical frictionless slot and is connected to a
moving fixed support B by means o f a spring o f constant k = 10 lb/ft.

TT
] Knowing that the acceleration o f the support is a = am sin cOjt, where
am = 4.5 ft/s2 and co) 5 rad/s, determine (a ) the maximum
displacement o f block A, ( b) the amplitude o f the fluctuating force
% exerted by the spring on the block.

, siu {O f t

J:

SOLUTION
(a ) Support motion

a = 8 = amsm (Oft

T " f \
\
O

h a m
sin coft

1
II
2
(O f
\ J J

5 ~a - 4 5 M *2
ft. co,

5m = -0.180 ft
B
From Equation (19.31 and 19.33')

8 2 k 10 lb/ft
- - - z s e ;
1- 32.2 ft/s-

0 1&
Xm = 7 ' = 0.74308 ft <y2 = 20.125 s~2
1 _ ( 25 \ "
1 V. 20.125 /

= 8.9169 in.

xm = 8.92 in. A

## (b ) x is out o f phase with 8 for o )j = 5 rad/s

Thus
iw
o
F'm = k (x m + 8m) = 10 lb/ft(0.74308 ft + 0.18 ft)

= 9.2308 lb

Fm = 9.23 lb <
PROBLEM 19.109
A 360-g ball is connected to a paddle by means o f an elastic cord AB o f
constant k = 70 N/m. Knowing that the paddle is moved vertically
5 - <$,, sin t t if t according to the relation 8 = 8, sin cof t, with an amplitude 8, = 200 mm and a frequency f , = 0.5 Hz, determine the steady-state amplitude o f the motion o f the bali. SOLUTION MX X- I F = ma k (8 - x ) = nix f L\ X + x = 8 ## From Equation (19.31 and 19.33') 2 2-2 (Of = 2 n f f = 2 7i |= ^ s a>f - n s s2 1 = (7 0 N / m )= W 4 4 s , ; m (0.36 kg) 8, = 0.2 m ## x, = r- = 0.21070 m (In Phase) (( l 194.44 )] ## Check to see whether cord goes slack Static deflection ST k 5 lb/ft PROBLEM 19.109 CONTINUED ## Since jc and 5 are in phase the maximum ## Deflection o f the cord is xm - Sm = 0.21070 - 0.20 = 0.01070 mm ## Which is less than the static deflection o f 50.5 mm xm = 211 mm A PROBLEM 19.110 A 360-g ball is connected to a paddle by means o f an elastic cord AB o f constant k = 70 N/m. Knowing that the paddle is moved vertically <>' M i l It), I according to the relation S = 8m sin cof t, where Sm = 200 mm, determine the maximum allowable circular frequency <yy i f the cord is not to become slack. SOLUTION Cord becomes slack when the net deflection o f the cord is greater than the static deflection, S,ST ii V O o T O F e \ Phasc I 1 r ## w (0.36 kg)(9.81 m/s2) JST = = - = 0. 0505 m 70 N/m 2 k 70 N/m 1Q, , , -i co:. = = -----------= 194.44 s m 0.36 kg ## From Equation (19.31 and 19.33') 'm = '< -Q 4> ## Xm ~ <$ ST SO - - 1 < 5ST

1-3-

1 0.0505 ,
or - < + 1
0.2
i--4
a>

So - 5 - < 1.2525
1- 194.44

1 co
< 1-
1.2525 194.44

-c o ] > 194.44(0.79840 - 1 )
PROBLEM 19.110 CONTINUED

## co) < 39.198 s_1

PROBLEM 19.111
The 2.4-lb bob o f a simple pendulum o f length / = 30 in. is suspended
from a 2.8-lb collar C. The collar is forced to move according to the
relation xc = 5m sin cof t, with an amplitude Sm = 0.5 in. and a
frequency f f = 0.5 Hz. Determine (a ) the amplitude o f the motion o f
the bob, ( b) the force that must be applied to collar C to maintain the
motion.

S O L U T IO N

(a )

iSvwSiuu^ti \ I X O = n
D J fe
!\ \
1 h ^
1 V

I Fx = max

- T sin# = mx

I F v = T cos# - mg = 0

For small angles cos# = 1. Acceleration in the y direction is second order and is neglected

T = mg

mx = -m g sin#

#
sm a = --------
x xc
/

mx + m ^-x = x = Smsincof t
1 I c I f

" /

Sm
xm = 2
i--4
K

## So a ij = ( 2Jtfn)~ = 4;r2(0.5)" = n 2 s~2

12 1
PROBLEM 19.111 CONTINUED

## = = 0.17827 ft = 2.1393 in.

1- *
12.88

:m = 2.14 in. ^

(b )

rF &<
_ r* - C O

ac = xc = - 8 mail s m a rt

## _+_ SFX = wc.ac

F - r sin 9 = ma

x -x c
From part (a): T = mg, sin# = --------

x - x
Thus F = ~mg + mcxc

- m a 2x + m a2xc + mcxc

= ~m a1
nxms'mcOft + m a 2Smsina^t - mca 2Sm sina } t

## / 0.5>v 2.8 '

2 A \l2.88)(0.17827) + [ ^ i 1(12.88) n sin^rr
32.2 32.2 12 32.2.

-0.16690 sin nt

## F = -0.1669sinnt (lb ) <

PROBLEM 19.112
A motor o f mass M is supported by springs with an equivalent spring
constant k. The unbalance o f its rotor is equivalent to a mass m located at
a distance r from the axis o f rotation. Show that when the angular
velocity o f the rotor is (of , the amplitude xm o f the motion o f the motor
is
r (m / M )(c o j I a )^

\ - ( ( D f l(On)~
PROBLEM 19.113
A s the rotational speed o f a spring-supported 200-lb motor is increased,
the amplitude o f the vibration due to the imbalance o f its 30-lb rotor first
increases and then decreases. It is observed that as very high speeds are
reached, the amplitude o f the vibration approaches 0.165 in. Determine
the distance between the mass center o f the rotor and its axis o f rotation
{Hint. Use the formula derived in Prob. 19.112.)
PROBLEM 19.114
A s the rotational speed o f a spring-supported motor is slowly increased
from 200 to 300 rpm, the amplitude o f the vibration due to the unbalance
o f its rotor is observed to increase continuously from 0.125 to 0.4 in.
Determine the speed at which resonance w ill occur.

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.112

r ll2 L )(fH
\M)\ C0
X = ----------------------
m / \2

*-(? )

(i)

-(? )

And 0.040 - (2 )

## 0.125 '- ( ? ) poof

Dividing (1) by (2)
0.40 I _ J200j2 U O O J

\2
^200' 300
0.7031 1 - = 1-
y COn
,

## (o. = 457 rpm <41

PROBLEM 19.115
A 200-kg motor is supported by springs having a totai constant o f
215 kN/m. The unbalance o f the rotor is equivalent to a 30-g mass
located 200 mm from the axis o f rotation. Determine the range o f
allowable values o f the motor speed i f the amplitude o f the vibration is
not to exceed 1.5 mm.
PROBLEM 19.115 CONTINUED

= 31001 rev/min

'- ( * ) U J

## cof > 3 1 6 rpm A

PROBLEM 19.116
A 100-kg motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam. The unbalance o f its
rotor is equivalent to a 57-g mass located 100 mm from the axis o f
rotation. Knowing that resonance occurs at a motor speed o f 400 rpm,
4 determine the amplitude o f the steady-state vibration at (a ) 800 rpm,
^ (b ) 200 rpm, (c ) 425 rpm.

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.113

## Resonance at 400 rpm means that co = 400 rpm

0.057 kg
= 57 x 10"6 m
100 kg

CO f 800 y =
(a)
co, ~~ V 400 J
57 x 10~6 m ( 4 ) ,
= -------------------- _ _76 x io "6 m
1 -4

x, = -0.076 mm A

co 200
(b ) L I I z n . I = o.25
400

## (57 X 10-6 m )(0.25)

= 19x10"
1 - 0.25

xm = 0.019 mm A

co,
(c)
y<n
! =fT - 1
U 00J
1289

( 5 7 x l 0 " 6 m ) ( l. l 2 8 9)
x . = = -499.18 x 10"6 m
1-1.1289

xm = -0.499 mm A
PROBLEM 19.117
A 360-lb motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam. The unbalance o f its
rotor is equivalent to a 0.9-oz weight located 7.5 in. from the axis o f

Q
~
--..... ......
" "A
rotation, and the static deflection o f the beam due to the weight o f the
motor is 0.6 in. The amplitude o f the vibration due to the unbalance can
be decreased by adding a plate to the base o f the motor. I f the amplitude
o f vibration is to be less than 2.16 x 10 in. for motor speeds above
300 rpm, determine the required weight o f the plate.

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.112

-(s )fe f

'- f e f

(? )< /
Since Mco~ = k. =

- m

## Before plate is added CO.2 = = fir = 6 4 4 S -2

*' l T ft

360 lb
k - M col = (644 s-2) = 7200 lb/ft
32.2 ft/s2

* # lb
m = ----- = 0.0017469 lb s2/ft
32.2 ft/s2

mr _ 0.0017469 lb s2/ft
r^ ft = 151.64 x 10-9 ft s2
k ~ 7200 lb/ft l 12

## co changes since M changes

< 2=
" M

Since amplitude o f vibration is to be less than 2.16 x 10'3 in. for motor speeds above 300 rpm

,2
/ (151.64 x 10'9 ft-s2) ^ 3 0 0 - ^ r )
2.16 x 10-3
.r.M ft
12
PROBLEM 19.117 CONTINUED
149.663 x l O " 6
Solve for <y': -0.18 x 10 3 = j _ 986.96
K )2

Mf= 538.89 = A
M' = = 13.361
538.89

## A W = 430.2 lb - 360 lb = 70.22 lb

Wrplate 70.2 lb A
PROBLEM 19.118
A counter-rotating eccentric mass exciter consisting o f two rotating 100-g
masses describing circles o f radius r at the same speed but in opposite
senses is placed on a machine element to induce a steady-state vibration
o f the element. The total mass o f the system is 300 kg, the constant o f
each spring is k = 600 kN/m, and the rotational speed o f the exciter is
1200 rpm. Knowing that the amplitude o f the total fluctuating force
exerted on the foundation is 160 N, determine the radius r.

SOLUTION
Imrcof
2 2k
Pm = 2mrcof , xm = or. =
" M
i
- m

2mrco
With 2kxm = 160 N = - 7 W f = 40^ rad/s
I M f
2k

Solving for

(3 0 0 k g )| 4 0 .T s 11
160 N 1200000N/m
r = - = 0.1493 m
2(0.1 kg)(40/rs~ )

r - 149.3 mm A
PROBLEM 19.119
A 360-lb motor is supported by springs o f total constant 12.5 kips/ft. The
unbalance o f the rotor is equivalent to a 0.9-oz weight located 7.5 in.
from the axis o f rotation. Determine the range o f speeds o f the motor for
which the amplitude o f the fluctuating force exerted on the foundation is
less than 5 lb.

SOLUTION

## From Problem 19.112

i_ (s

rmco
And (F t ) m = kxm, = o2
n, (F T ) m =
-(Z L

7.5
Then rm ft
12
= 0.0010918 l b s 2
32.2 ft/s2

2 k 12500lb/ft 1 1 l o l _2
COZ = ---------- =
360 lb = 1118.1s
M
32.2 ft/s2

CO,
(F r ) = f 0.0010918 lb-s2 )-
V f
1 - 1118.1

CO,
or (0.0010918 l b s 2)
w , 1118.1

\ ft)
( Fr)m = + (0.0010918) co,
1118

1 H 8 .1 (^ L
Then a
(F r ) +1.2207

2 1118.1(5) ,
(a) (F rl +5: col = --------------- 898.69 s~2,
3 5 + 1.2207

## < 286.26 rpm < 286 rpm A

, V , 1 1 1 8 .l(-5 ) ,
Qb) (F T ) = -5 : col = -----------------= 1479.2 s ,
v !m 3 -5 + 1.2207

## > 367.27 rpm go, > 367 rpm A

PROBLEM 19.120
A vibrometer used to measure the amplitude o f vibrations consists o f a
box containing a mass-spring system with a known natural frequency o f
150 Hz. The box is rigidly attached to a surface which is moving
according to the equation y = 8m sin cof t. I f the amplitude zm o f the
motion o f the mass relative to the box is used as a measure o f the
amplitude 8m o f the vibration o f the surface, determine (a ) the percent
_______ error when the frequency o f the vibration is 750 Hz, (b ) the frequency at
which the error is zero.

SOLUTION

x = sin<y,/

"n

y = 8msin cort

z = relative motion

z = x - y - -t - K sinner

m = 8,m -i
i - 4

fZ50!2
(a )
zm ^ = y 150 J ^ 25
1.0417 <
24
1-3-
I 150

Error = 4.17%

( b) s l = 1=
8.

\= l X fr = = (150) = 106.07 Hz
f 2 2

f = 106.1 Hz <
PROBLEM 19.121
A certain accelerometer consists essentially o f a box containing a mass-
spring system with a known natural frequency o f 1760 Hz. The box is
rigidly attached to a surface which is moving according to the equation
y = Sm sin o)f t. I f the amplitude zm o f the motion o f the mass relative to
the box times a scale factor co2 is used as a measure o f the maximum
acceleration am = Sma>2 o f the vibrating surface, determine the percent
error when the frequency o f the vibration is 480 Hz.

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.120

zm = Sm
m -
or
. - 4

Now am f SO

1 -^

= 0.07438
U J 1 1760 J

1
Then = 1.0803
1 - 0.07438

## Error = 8.03% <

PROBLEM 19.122
f - rmsn. m i Figures (1) and (2) show how springs can be used to support a block in
two different situations. In Fig. (1) they help decrease the amplitude o f
the fluctuating force transmitted by the block to the foundation. In
Fig. (2) they help decrease the amplitude o f the fluctuating displacement
E J transmitted by the foundation to the block. The ratio o f the transmitted
force to the impressed force or the ratio o f the transmitted displacement
x h to the impressed displacement is called the transmissibility. Derive an
(i) (2) equation for the transmissibility for each situation. Give your answer in
terms o f the ratio a>f /eo o f the frequency oo1 o f the impressed force or
impressed displacement to the natural frequency (On o f the spring-mass
system. Show that in order to cause any reduction in transmissibility, the
ratio (Oflcon must be greater than J l .

S O L U T IO N

## (1) From Equation (19.33)

>

i
m .
i- - r
\a> f

Force transmitted, {PT )m = =

Thus

( P ) 1
Transmissibility = = -----------

- )
(2) From Equation (19.33')

.. _ K
Displacement transmitted

i? r

X 1
Transmissibility = = -----------=- M

s- ' - m
PROBLEM 19.122 CONTINUED

(P T ) x
For or - 2- to be less than 1
P, 8m

< i

- m

i <

CO f j
> 2 - 2 - > V2 Q.E.D 4
\<nj <*>n
PROBLEM 19.123
A 27-kg disk is attached with an eccentricity e - 150 //m to the
midpoint o f a vertical shaft AB which revolves at a constant angular
velocity (of . Knowing that the spring constant k for horizontal movement
o f the disk is 580 kN/m, determine (a) the angular velocity (o f at which
resonance will occur, ( b) the deflection r o f the shaft when
to, = 1200 rpm.
PROBLEM 19.123 CONTINUED

r = 0.416 mm 4
PROBLEM 19.124
A small trailer and its load have a total weight o f 500-lb. The trailer is
supported by two springs, each o f constant 350 lb/ft, and is pulled over a
road, the surface o f which can be approximated by a sine curve with an
amplitude o f 2 in. and a wavelength o f 15 ft (that is, the distance between
successive crests is 15 ft and the vertical distance from crest to trough is
4 in.). Determine (a ) the speed at which resonance will occur, ( b) the
amplitude o f the vibration o f the trailer at a speed o f 30 mi/h.

S O L U T IO N

A_r

(a ) co, 500 lb
45.08 s-
m
32.2 ft/s'

## A = 15 ft, Sm = 2 in. = 0.16667 ft

y = <*msin J> x = vt

A 2/r
t, r = and cof = ,
v r

2;rv _ 2/rv
so y = 0.16667 sin to A where =
~ r ~ i r

1-4-

' 15

## v = 16.029 ft/s = 10.93 mph ^

M 3 0 )(iH ) = 18.431s'1
(ft)
15

0.16667
r HI = = -0.0255 ft <
(18.431)
1-
45.08
PROBLEM 19.125
Block A can move without friction in the slot as shown and is acted upon
by a vertical periodic force o f magnitude P = Pm sin (of t, where
P P , Mil (til /
(Of = 2 rad/s and Pm - 5 lb. A spring o f constant k is attached to the
bottom o f block A and to a 44-lb block B. Determine (a ) the value o f the
constant k which will prevent a steady-state vibration o f block A, ( b) the
corresponding amplitude o f the vibration o f block B.
^Krr

S O L U T IO N

In steady state vibration, block A does not move and therefore remains in
its original equilibrium position

(a ) Block A { I F = 0

kx = - P msin (Oft ( 1)
Block B + 1 I F = mBx,

mBx + kx = 0

h r i*
w ix | |b X = xmsin<yr, (o\ = klmB

## (0 = (of = 2 rad/s, kxm = - P m

= 2r 1
m b

441b
k = 4 s '2 = 5.4658 lb/ft
32.2 ft/s2

## (b) kxm = - P xm = ------ = 0.91477 ft

m 5.4658 lb/ft

= 0.915 ft <
PROBLEM 19.126
Show that in the case o f heavy damping ( c > cc ), a body never passes
through its position o f equilibrium O (a ) i f it is released with no initial
velocity from an arbitrary position or ( b) i f it is started from O with an
arbitrary initial velocity.

S O L U T IO N

## x = c1e/i'l< + c2eA'2 (1)

(2)
v = ~cit = Cl^ eMt + C2^ e h
55

II
X
II
II

o*

<

o
$## From (1) and (2) x0 = c{ + c2 0 = + C2X2 ## Solving for q and c2 Cl = *0 c2 = n x0 /l2 /tj A2 Xj ## Substituting for q and c2 in (1) ## F or x = 0 When t * co, we must have 1 TO TO > > to O ,3 II II (3) I > Recall that ## 4j < 0, 0. Choosing \ and /k so that < X, < 0, we have ## 0 < < 1 and X2 - \ > 0 K Thus a positive solution for t > 0 for Equation (3) cannot exist since it would require that e raised to a positive power be less than 1, which is impossible. Thus x is never 0. ## The x - t curve for "* this case is shown ^ -t < PROBLEM 19.126 CONTINUED ## (b ) t = 0, x = 0, v = v0 Equations (1) and (2), yield 0 = q + c2 v0 = qA, + c2^ ## Solving for q andc2, q = , c2 Aj - Al A ^ -A , ## Substituting into (1) x = ^ [ V 2' - e*1' j A? F o r x = 0, t * a ex- = eht For c > cc, Aj ^ A2 ; Thus no solution can exist for t, and x is never 0. The x - t curve for this motion is as shown PROBLEM 19.127 Show that in the case o f heavy damping ( c > cc ), a body released from an arbitrary position with an arbitrary initial velocity cannot pass more than once through its equilibrium position. SOLUTION Substitute the initial conditions, t - 0, x = x0, v = v0 in Equations (1) and (2) o f Problem 19.127 *0 = C1 + c2 v0 cl \ + c2^2 ( vo ~ ^ * o ) ( vo - V o ) Solving for q and c2, c, - - A2 \ ~ A ## And substituting in (1) * = ^ - Aj ^ V AlX ^ 2' ~ ( V ~ * * > ) * ] F o r x = 0, t * oo (v 0 - M o ) ^ 2' = (v 0 - V o K 1' ei h - k ) _ ( V0 ~ ^2*0 ) (v 0 - V o ) t = - In V ^zX (^2 ~ \ ! v0 _ A x0 This defines one value o f t only for x = 0, which w ill exist i f the natural log is positive, ## i.e, i f 2JLSL > i _ Assuming \ ^ < 0 v0 - V o ## This occurs i f v0 < 2,x0 -}U > p e = - ? v ,X o PROBLEM 19.128 In the case o f light damping, the displacements X j, x 2 , x 3, shown in Fig. 19.11 may be assumed equal to the maximum displacements. Show that the ratio o f any two successive maximum displacements x n and x n+i is constant and that the natural logarithm o f this ratio, called the l o g a r i t h m i c d e c r e m e n t , is h xn 2n ( c i c c) SOLUTION ## For light damping, ccc ## Equation (19.46) x = x ne ( & 0t + <f>) ## A t given maximum displacement, t = t , X = x n s in ( < y 0f + < /) = 1, x n = x 0e (2ni)fn ## A t next maximum displacement, t t+i, x x n+1 . / /\ * 12m s m ( 0t + i + # ) = 1, x n+1 = x Qe ' ; But D t n + 1 " V r A - 2n 2n n+\ 0}D ## Ratio o f successive displacements: -t xne 2m c (* f \ + 7tS- ^ 2m0)D = e, 2m\ln n+ l ) = e ln+1 n + l x 0e 2m , x cn Thus In = ------ CD Si+1 mcor / \ C From Equations (19.45) and (19.41) a>D = 1 - \ r.e C L c ' (O r = . |l - 2m V VC, PROBLEM 19.128 CONTINUED PROBLEM 19.129 In practice, it is often difficult to determine the logarithmic decrement o f a system with light damping defined in Prob. 19.128 by measuring two successive maximum displacements. Show that the logarithmic decrement can also be expressed as (l/ A :)ln (xn/xn+k) , where k is the number o f cycles between readings o f the maximum displacement. SOLUTION As in Problem 19.128, for maximum displacements xn and xn+k at tn and tn+/t, sin(fi>0t + <f) = 1 ## and s in (fty +* + <f>) = 1. r _ r p~{im)f _ r xn ~ x0e xn +k ~ X-dF Ratio o f maximum displacements S ^)tn e lm (<n ~ n + k ) x n+k % ^ ( 2m )tn+k ## But coDtnJrk - 0) Dtn = k {2 n ) tn - tn+k = k 0)'D f \ 2kn Thus = + . = (2) xn+k 2m v <d j Xn+k ma)D But from Problem 19.129 Equation (1) log decrement - In = K xn+\ coD Comparing with Equation (2) ## log decrement = In Q.E.D. A k x +k PROBLEM 19.130 In a system with light damping ( c < cc ), the period o f vibration is commonly defined as the time interval rd = 2n /cod corresponding to two successive points where the displacement-time curve touches one o f the limiting curves shown in Fig. 19.11. Show that the interval o f time (a ) between a maximum positive displacement and the ## fo llow in g negative displacement is t d, ( b) between tw o successive 2 1 z e r o d is p la ce m e n ts is t d, ( c ) b e tw e e n a m axim u m p o s it iv e 2 1 displacement and the following zero displacement is greater than xd, ' 4 SOLUTION Equation (19.46) ## x - x0e sm{a>Dt + <f) ## (a ) Maxima (positive or negative) when x = 0 ## X = ? ' lm' sin(<Df -f + xQcoDe cos(et>D, 2m ## Thus zero velocities occur at times when 2 mmD x = 0, or tan { p Dt + <f) = (1) The time to the first zero velocity, tx, is ## ' ImCOn ' tan 1 -<t> I c J t, = ( 2) 0),D PROBLEM 19.130 CONTINUED The time to the next zero velocity where the displacement is negative is .i f 2mo)c tan - d> + n V c *[ = (3) co'D ## Subtracting (2) from (3) t\ -t|= = ^ ^ Q.E.D (oD In 2 ## (b ) Zero displacements occur when ## sin(<y6,r + <p) = 0 or at intervals o f coDt + <f> = n, 2n nn Thus, (Or (Or ## Time between 0's = (r j)(| - (t, )Q - = = -^2. Q.E.D (On 2n 2 ! 2 Vvm^d /c Iff j / ! U F/z L O Dt . f 4 > ## Plot o f Equation (1) ## (c) The first maxima occurs at 1, (a>z/i + <f>) ## The first zero occurs at K ( 'i W ) = * ## From the above plot (< % ('] )0 + * ) " ( < V i + + ) > f or ' 2<o,, '|/ ## Similar proofs can be made for subsequent max and min PROBLEM 19.131 The block shown in depressed 24 mm from its equilibrium position and -. k ~ % N/m released. Knowing that after 10 cycles the maximum displacement o f the block is 10 mm, determine (a ) the damping factor c/cc, ( b) the value o f the coefficient o f viscous damping. {Hint. See Probs. 19.128 and 19.129.) i- SOLUTION From Problem 19.128 and 19.129 ( \ 2n 0 X*. - In UJ [x + k ) -(t) Where k = number o f cycles = 10 ## (a ) First maximum is, xt = 1.2 in. Thus, n = 1 1.2 2.4 +1 0 0.5 Hi In Cr. In2.4 = 0.08755 10 C \2 2r \ c c 1- f 1 U1 [ 0.08755 \ Cc j \ Cc ; f \2 C ' In ^ +1 = 1 \ Cc J 0.08755 r ^2 c = 0.0001941 \ Cc J (5150 + 1) = 0.01393 A ## (b) cc = 2 m ^ = 24km = 2^/(96 N/m )(4 k g ) = 39.192 N-s/m - 0.01393 c = (0.01393)(39.192) = 0.54594 c = 0.546 N-s/m A PROBLEM 19.132 Successive maximum displacements o f a spring-mass-dashpot system similar to that shown in Fig. 19.10 are 1.25, 0.75, and 0.45 in. Knowing that W = 36 lb and k = 175 lb/ft, determine (a ) the damping factor c/cc, ( b) the value o f the coefficient o f viscous damping c. {Hint. See Probs. 19.128 and 19.129.) SOLUTION f \ C 2n ln - s- = \ Cc J (a ) From Problem 19.128, M t f ## For xn = 1.25 in. and xn+l = 0.75 in. 2n\ In 1.25 0.5108 = (t) -(f) 0.75 +1 2k J = 1 \ Cc J 0.5108 J ( \2 C 1_ = 0.006566 v Cc y 151.3 + 1 - 0.0810 A ## 0b) = 2m. = 24km Vm 361b = 2 /(175 lb/ft) = 25.022 lb s/ft ,32.2 ft/s2 c = (0.0810)(25.022) = 2.037 c = 2.04 lb-s/ft A PROBLEM 19.133 A 2-lb block B is connected by a cord to a 5-lb block A which is suspended as shown from two springs, each o f constant k = 12.5 lb/ft, and a dashpot o f damping coefficient c = 0.5 lb s/ft. Knowing that the system is at rest when the cord connecting A and B is cut, determine the minimum tension that w ill occur in each spring during the resulting motion. SOLUTION From the given data ## cc = 2mo) = 3.94055 lb-s/ft ## Stretch at equilibrium = = 0.2 ft 2(12.5 lb/ft) ## Initial stretch = - - = 0.28 ft 2(12.5 lb/ft) With ## From Figure 19.11 ## ( + Minimum x = -0.08e 1-61(0-2496) = -0.053525 ft ## Minimum force in one spring = (12.5 lb/ft)(0.2 - 0.053525) = 1.831 lb A PROBLEM 19.134 A 2-lb block B is connected by a cord to a 5-lb block A which is suspended as shown from two springs, each o f constant k = 12.5 lb/ft, and a dashpot o f damping coefficient c = 4 lb s/ft. Knowing that the system is at rest when the cord connecting A and B is cut, determine the velocity o f block A after 0.1 s. SOLUTION From the given data a n = J = yjl6l rad/s Vm ## cc = 2mcon = 3.94055 lb s/ft ## Stretch at equilibrium = . ^ r = 0.2 ft 2(12.5 lb/ft) 7 lh Initial stretch = = 0.28 ft 2(12.5 lb/ft) ## c > cc : x = cte^' + c2ekl' So f 51b J A2 + 4 lb s/ftA + 25 = 0 \32.2 ft/s ) - 4 y i6 - ^ A = 10 32.2 A, = -10.6677, A, = -15.0923 + 1 / = 0, x = 0.08 ft = c, + c2 solve for c c2 x = 0 = c,A, + c2A2 ## A t t = 0.1 s, x CfA^e0' 1** + c2A2e ^ x = 0.35816 ft/s ## v = 0.358 ft/s { < PROBLEM 19.135 The barrel o f a field gun weighs 1800 lb and is returned into firing position after recoil by a recuperator o f constant c = 1320 lb s/ft. Determine (a ) the constant k which should be used for the recuperator to return the barrel into firing position in the shortest possible time without any oscillation, (b ) the time needed for the barrel to move back two-thirds o f the way from its maximum-recoil position to its firing position. S O L U T IO N ## (a ) A critically damped system regains its equilibrium position in the shortest time. = cc = 1320 = 2m Vm tt-O _ ( * ) _ (im f _ Then = 7790 lb/ft < 1800 lb m 32.2 ft/s2 ## ( b) For a critically damped system: Equation (19.43): ## x = ( q + c2t ) e " >n ## W e take t = 0 at maximum deflection x0 Thus x (0 ) = 0, x (0 ) = x0 ## Using the initial conditions x (0 ) = x0 = (c, + 0 )e , so c, = x0 x = (x 0 + c2t)e ~ <0"' ## And x = -ft>(x0 + c2t)e ~ u>n' + c2e~(0"' ## x (0 ) = 0 = -<ux0 + c2, so c2 = conx0 ## Thus x = x0( l + (ot)e~<0n' For x = ^ ^ = (1 + with a) = 3 3 \m [7790lb7ft ,, W e obtain co = I-.----------- = 11.807 s 1 I 1800 1b \ 32.2 ft/s2 ## And, since c o j = 2.289 t = = 0.19387 11.807 t = 0.1939 s A PROBLEM 19.136 A uniform rod o f mass m is supported by a pin at A and a spring o f constant k at B and is connected at D to a dashpot o f damping coefficient c. Determine in terms o f m, k, and c, for small oscillations, (a ) the differential equation o f motion, (b ) the critical damping coefficient c. PROBLEM 19.136 CONTINUED And obtain the roots 2 -3c (3 c ] __ f ---- 3k] I m + i {m j 2 The critical damping coefficient, cc, is the value o f c, for which the radicand is zero. 150 iiiin PROBLEM 19.137 [---------------450 nun - A 1,8-kg uniform rod is supported by a pin at O and a spring at A and is connected to a dashpot at B. Determine (a ) the differential equation o f motion for small oscillations, (b) the angle that the rod w ill form with the k 73 NViii r 2 .2 N * s / m I horizontal 2.5 s after end B has been pushed 23 mm down and released. _ i> L _ SOLUTION t t. On ## For small angles: sin# = 6, cos# = 1 ## 8yn = 0.15#, S yB = 0.45#, 8yc = 0.15# (a) IA / 0 = ( I A / 0 ) c(T ## + ) -0.15F, +0.15(17.658)-0 .4 5 / d = l a + O.ISma, ( 1) F d = cS yB ~ c(0 .4 5)# ## 7 = J _ OT/2 = m (0.6)2 = 0.03 m 12 12 v ## Kinematics a = #, a, = 0.15a = 0.15# From (1) ## [0.03 m + 0.0225 m ]# + (0.45)2c# + (0.15A:)(o. 15# + - 2.6487 = 0 (2 ) ## In the equilibrium position IA f0 = 0 C + ^ (^ L (0 - 1 5 )- (0 . 1 5 ) (1 7 . 6 5 8 ) = 0 (0.15)A:(<?S7.)^ = 2.6487 PROBLEM 19.137 CONTINUED ## Equation (2) becomes ## 0.0525mO + 0.2025c0 + 0.225kd = 0 ## With m = 1.8, c - 2.2, k = 73 ## Have 0.0945(9 + 0.446(9 + 1.643(9 = 0 < ## (b ) Substituting eXt into the differential equation, we obtain ## 0.0945A2 + 0.4455/1 + 1.6425 = 0 ## Roots \ 2 = -2.3571 3.4387i Since the roots are complex conjugates (light damping) the solution o f the differential equation is: Equation (19.46) ## 0 = <90f2-3571' sin(3.4387r + <f>) (3) ## Initial conditions: SyB( 0) - 0.023m ## ^ 0 (0 ) - -023m = 0.05111 rad v 0.45 m O And II ## From (3): 0 (0 ) = 0.05111 = 0o sin^ ## 0 (0 ) = 0 = -2.35710Q sin <f> + 3.43870o cos<* 3 4387 tan <b= = 1.45887 2.3571 ^ = 0.96989 rad _ 0.05111 _ 0 061965rad And 0 sin^ ## Thus 0 = 0.061965e"23571'sin (3.43 87r + 0.96989) ## Hence 0 (2 .5 ) = -2.4183 x 10-5 rad 0 (2 .5 ) = (24.2 x 10_6)rad<* Above horizontal PROBLEM 19.138 A 500-kg machine element is supported by two springs, each o f constant 4.4 kN/m. A periodic force o f 135-N amplitude is applied to the element with a frequency o f 2.8 Hz. Knowing that the coefficient o f damping is 1.6 kN-s/m, determine the amplitude o f the steady-state vibration o f the element. SOLUTION Equation (19.52) x ## Total spring constant k = (2 )(4 .4 kN/m) = 8800 N/m ## (Of - 2 n f f = 2tt(2.8) = 5.6^ rad/s m = 500 kg 135 N x, 135 N V 2 1 .3 x l0 9 + 0 .7 9 2 x1 0 ' xm = 0.908 x 10 m xm = 0.908 mm -4 PROBLEM 19.139 In Prob. 19.138, determine the required value o f the constant o f each spring i f the amplitude o f the steady-state vibration is to be 1.3 mm. SOLUTION Equation (19.52) k - mcoj'j + ( o y y ) {k - mco2 ^ + (a / ) k - (ca>f f + m et) ## CO, = 2 n f f = 2;r(2.8) = 5.6;r m = 500 kg 135 N [l60 0(5 .6;r)2] 2 + (500 k g)(5 .6 ;r)2 0.0013 m ## k = VlO.784 x 109 - 0.79235 x 109 + 1.5476 x 105 = 254.714 kN/m - - 127.357 kN/m 2 ## - 127.4 kN/m < PROBLEM 19.140 In the case o f the forced vibration o f a system, determine the range o f values o f the damping factor c/cc for which the magnification factor will always decrease as the frequency ratio cOf/a>n increases. SOLUTION Equation (19.53) Magnification Factor m __ m k CO f Find value o f for which there is no maximum for ~ as mcreases cc k a>> \2 hIL .ky _ *-(? ) ( - * ) +4t = 0 -2 +2 v Of For r > there is no maximum for - v- and the magnification factor w ill decrease as increases 5? 2 (M 1 )' m ## > 0.707 < Cc v2 PROBLEM 19.141 Show that for a small value o f the damping factor c/cc, the maximum amplitude o f a forced vibration occurs when o)y a>n and that the ## corresponding value o f the magnification factor is I ( c / c c), SOLUTION Equation (19.53') Magnification factor = ~ 00 f x Find value o f ^ for which is a maximum T / \2 y* Em j >-(?) 0 = '(? )" (?)1 +[2(t)(?) / a>, \2 f \2 c -2 + 2 + 4 = 0 \ Cc J co. For small mf co For ## [ > - > f + [ 2(t)> Is 2 C (? ) PROBLEM 19.142 A 30-lb motor is supported by four springs, each o f constant 3.75 kips/ft. The unbalance o f the motor is equivalent to a weight o f 0.64 oz located 5 in. from the axis o f rotation. Knowing that the motor is constrained to move vertically, determine the amplitude o f the steady-state vibration o f the motor at a speed o f 1500 rpm, assuming (a ) that no damping is present, ( b) that the damping factor c/cc is equal to 1.3. PROBLEM 19.143 A 36-lb motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam which has a static deflection o f 0.075 in. due to the weight o f the motor. Knowing that the unbalance o f the rotor is equivalent to a weight o f 0.64 oz located 6.25 in. !A from the axis o f rotation, determine the amplitude o f the vibration o f the motor at a speed o f 900 rpm, assuming (a) that no damping is present, (b ) that the damping factor c/ct. is equal to 0.005. PROBLEM 19.144 A 45-kg motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam which has a static deflection o f 6 mm due to the weight o f the motor. The unbalance o f the motor is equivalent to a mass o f 110 g located 75 mm from the axis o f rotation. Knowing that the amplitude o f the vibration o f the motor is 0.25 mm at a speed o f 300 rpm, determine (a ) the damping factor c/cc, (b ) the coefficient o f damping c. SOLUTION From Equation (19.53') Ik r=7S k (1) M is * = 1635 r * SST 0.06 m n (O f = (300) = 987 s 2 30 co< 987 = 0.60365 V J 1635 ## Pm - m'rco) = (0.11 kg)(0.075 m )(987 s2) = 8.1424 N ## k = mcol = (45 N/m )(l635 s2) = 73.575 kN/m, -- = 0.11067 mm k ## Then, from Equation (1) 0.11067 x l 0 3 m 0.25 x 10 3 m = (1 - 0.60365)2 + 4(0.60365)^ ) / \2 c or 0.19597 = 0.15707 + 2.4147 KCc Then = 0.1269 -4 ## (Ib) cc = 2mo)n = 2(45 k g )(l6 3 5 s2) 2 = 3639.2 N-s/m ## c = (0.1269)(3639.2 N-s/m) 462 N-s/m < PROBLEM 19.145 A 200-lb motor is supported by four springs, each o f constant 7.5 kips/ft, and is connected to the ground by a dashpot having a coefficient o f damping c = 490 lb s/ft. The motor is constrained to move vertically, and the amplitude o f its motion is observed to be 0.10 in. at a speed o f 1200 rpm. Knowing that the weight o f the rotor is 30 lb, determine the distance between the mass center o f the rotor and the axis o f the shaft. PROBLEM 19.146 The unbalance o f the rotor o f a 400-lb motor is equivalent to a 3-oz weight located 6 in. from the axis o f rotation. The pad which is placed between the motor and the foundation is equivalent to a spring o f constant k = 500 lb/ft in parallel with a dashpot o f constant c. Knowing that the magnitude o f the maximum acceleration o f the motor is 0.03 ft/s2at a speed o f 100 rpm, determine the damping factor c/cc. SOLUTION 16 lb 500 lb/ft Pm = mrcoj = (0.5 ft) ^ s_ lj , a)] = 4001b 32.2 ft/s2 32.2 ft/s2 ## Then ic = -<2xmsin (a y f - -<y2xm = 0.03 ft/s2 (O.2f iPm r So 0.03 ft/s2 = i - \( ~ >n)I 2 + 2 M\~ cc ) ) ( 4n2 X >fPm r e * _ 0.0009 k 2 V___________ / -(s )! So = 0.477 < Cr PROBLEM 19.147 P * P, sin A machine element is supported by springs and is connected to a dashpot as shown. Show that i f a periodic force o f magnitude P = Pm sin ojj-t is applied to the element, the amplitude o f the fluctuating force transmitted to the foundation is 1+ F m = Pm SOLUTION From Equation (19.48), the motion o f the machine is, x = x m s\n{o>ft - ## The force transmitted to the foundation is, ## Springs Fs = kx = kxmsin j rayf - ^ j ## DashpotF d = cx = cxm(Oj-cos[ caft - (j\ ## F t = xm \k sin ( m f - tp) + co), cos [ (Ojt - <f>- | ## or recalling the identity, yfsiny + B co s y = 4 a 2 + B 2 sin (y + B srn^ - ^A 2 + B2 co s^ = 4a2+ b 2 ## y'/c2 + (c / ) sin{cOft - <fi + y/\ ## Thus the amplitude o f FT is Fm = XmJ k 2 + ( C / ) (1) Esl From Equation (19.53) k / \2" 2 _ _ I - + 2 ( - J f!/ \ ~m I / _ PROBLEM 19.147 CONTINUED ## Substituting for xm in Equation (1) '+(7-) F. = (2) -fe) + 2(ri 2 k = m ## And Equation (19.41) cc = 2mcon m = ^ ( \ CCOf CCOj- C fV 9 k m ol kCc ; Substituting in (2) 1^1 1 - (N 1+ rife ) 1 -2 ^\2 + / [2(rife )T PROBLEM 19.148 A 91-kg machine element supported by four springs, each o f constant P l m sin (Of t 175 N/m, is subjected to a periodic force o f frequency 0.8 Hz and amplitude 89 N. Determine the amplitude o f the fluctuating force transmitted to the foundation i f (a ) a dashpot with a coefficient o f damping c = 365 N s/m is connected to the machine and to the ground, (b ) the dashpot is removed. SOLUTION -i tOf = 2n f n = 2/r(0.8 H z) = 1.6^ s ## (O' = = - i 175N/m) = 7.6923 s '2, con = 2.7735 s "1 " m 91 kg ## (o, 'j ( l.6n = 3.2846 y n) _ ll7 77735, 35 365 N s/m = 0.72309 cf 2meon 2(91 kg)(2.7735 s 1) 'c * = 0.52286 \ Cc J ## (89 N ) J l + [4(0.S2286)(3.2846)] g ^ i + 6.8695 (a) ^ [l - 3.2846]2 + [4(0.52286)(3.2846)] V5.2194 + 6.8695 = 70.9689 N Fm = 71.0 N < 89 ( b) c = 0 ,F m = = 38.956 V5.2194 Fm = 39.0 N < PROBLEM 19.149 For a steady-state vibration with damping under a harmonic force, show that the mechanical energy dissipated per cycle by the dashpot is E = Ttcx^cQf , where c is the coefficient o f damping, xm is the amplitude o f the motion, and COj is the circular frequency o f the harmonic force. SOLUTION Energy is dissipated by the dashpot. ## From Equation (19.48) the deflection o f the system is x = xmsm{a>ft - (pj ## The force on the dashpot, FD = ex. ## F d = cxmcof cos[cof t - cp) 2K The work done in a complete cycle with co< 2s. E = j^f Fddx (i.e Force x Distance) ## dx = xmo jj cos( cojt - cp^dt ## E = I"7 c x lc o )cos2[cOft - cp^dt |^1 - 2cos{(Oft - cos (corf - (p) = 2k . 2 2 _ CXma f 2 sin{cojt - t - CO{ 2 2 cxmcof 2n (sin (2 ^ - (p) - sin^j) 2 (O f E = ncx^aof Q.E.D. A PROBLEM 19.150 The suspension o f an automobile can be approximated by the simplified spring-dashpot system shown, (a ) Write the differential equation defining the vertical displacement o f the mass m when the system moves at a speed v over a road with a sinusoidal cross section o f amplitude Sm and wavelength L. (b ) Derive an expression for the amplitude o f the vertical displacement o f the mass m. SOLUTION (a ) dx d8\ d 2x + 1 XF = ma: W - k (<5S7. + x - 8 ) - c = m- dt dt dr ## Recalling that W = k8s r, we write d x dx d8 m -r- + c + kx = k8 + c (1) dt1 dt dt w Motion o f wheel is a sine curve, 8 = 8msin (of t the interval o f time needed to travel a distance L at a ## speed v, is t = , which is the period o f the road surface, v 27t 2n 2nv Thus (O. = .. . dS 8 2n And 8 - o m sm (ot t = cos (O ft ## Thus Equation (1) is, ## m ^-^- + c + kx = (sin<y,/ + cat, cos(o ft\8, A dt dt X ' ' ' ' m PROBLEM 19.150 CONTINUED ( b) From the identity ## As'my + B co s y = \lA2 + B 2 sin (y + y/\ B smq) = Ja2+B2 A COS (p \lA 2+B 2 W e can write the differential equation a x dx m 7r + c 1- kx = <5myjk2 + (ccO f) sin(ftjyt + y/) dt2 dt -i c m f y/ = tan k The solution to this equation is (analogous to Equations 19.47 and 19.48, with Pm = J k 2 + (c a f f ## x = xmsin^cDft - <p + i/f), (where analogous to Equations (19.52)) 4 _ ^ 2+K ) 2 ^ I ' 2 2 J (k - ma>2j + [ccO f^ c(0f * tan^j = i-Y 4 k - mcOf CC Of tdxiy/ - - f - 4 PROBLEM 19.151 P Mil M/ Tw o blocks A and B, each o f mass m, are supported as shown by three springs o f the same constant k. Blocks A and B are connected by a dashpot and block B is connected to the ground by two dashpots, each dashpot having the same coefficient o f damping c. B lo c k s is subjected to a force o f magnitude P = Pm sin o)f t. Write the differential equations defining the displacements xA and xB o f the two blocks from their equilibrium positions. SOLUTION i P iw S lN W jX 1 1 ., * 1R ..C l L i 1 60 6 MX < *6 t ir - e Since the origins o f coordinates are chosen from the equilibrium position, we may omit the initial spring compressions and the effect o f gravity For load A ## + | I F = maA; Pmsina)/t + 2k (x B - xA) + c ( x B - x A) = mxA (1) For load B ## + | EF = maB\ - 2 k (x B - xA) - c ( x B - x A) - k x B - 2cxB = mxB (2) ## Rearranging Equations (1) and(2), we find: + C( * A ~ * b ) + 2 k { x A ~ x b ) = < ## mxB + 3cxB - cxA + 3kxB 2kxA = 0 4 PROBLEM 19.152 R Express in terms o f L, C, and E the range o f values o f the resistance R for -V A A / y V which oscillations w ill take place in the circuit shown when switch S is I closed. jo !o SOLUTION For a mechanical system oscillations take place i f c < cc (lightly damped) ## But from Equation (19.41), c, = 2m. - 2sfkm Vm Therefore ## c < 2 4km (1) ## From table 19.2: c -R m -> L k -> (2) C Substituting in (1) the analogous electrical values in (2), we find that oscillations w ill take place if, R < 2." 1 PROBLEM 19.153 Consider the circuit o f Prob. 19.152 when the capacitor C is removed. I f switch S is closed at time t - 0, determine (a ) the final value o f the current in the circuit, ( b) the time t at which the current w ill have reached ( 1 - 1 / e ) times its final value. (The desired value o f t is known as the time constant o f the circuit.) SOLUTION Electrical system Mechanical system www- 5 .- 0 h o o ic = .o W\ I T * 1 The mechanical analogue o f closing a switch S is the sudden application o f a constant force o f magnitude P to the mass. (a ) Final value o f the current corresponds to the final velocity o f the mass, and since the capacitance is zero, the spring constant is also zero W\ T F + | I F = ma d 2x P~ C = m dt dt2 (i) Final velocity occurs when d 2x dt1 dx dx P -C = 0 It final ~dt fin a l P Vmal c From table 19.2: L ,P E, C R Thus R PROBLEM 19.153 CONTINUED ## (b ) Rearranging Equation (1), we have d 2x dx m T + C = P dt2 dt dx . -it P d x -At Substitute = Ae + ; ----- = -A X e dt C dt l f-A Xe^ l+C 1 = P + L J CJ mX + C = 0 X = m Thus + dt p At t = 0 0 = A + A = - * dt C C _ dx _ p l _ e u; dt c ## From table 19.2: V c, p E, c R, m L = * 1- e w R f v ' R ' For L = ( I ) 1- 9 t = 1 V e) R PROBLEM 19.154 Draw the electrical analogue o f the mechanical system shown. (Hint. Draw the loops corresponding to the free bodies m and A .) > '-**)c J TPr 1'*, *ilt / SOLUTION W e note that both the spring and the dashpot affect the motion o f point A. Thus one loop in the electrical circuit should consist o f a capacitor ## => - ja n d a resistance (c => R ). C - R. The other loop consists o f sin cof t -> Emsinrwy/), an inductor ## vv\ -J -H [m - L ) and the resistor (c - R ) W\-=>V_ P -^ e Since the resistor is common to both loops, the circuit is a a a a , I-,- La is - . PROBLEM 19.155 Draw the electrical analogue o f the mechanical system shown. {Hint. Draw the loops corresponding to the free bodies m and A .) PROBLEM 19.156 4 Write the differential equations defining (a ) the displacements o f the >k mass m and o f the point A, (b) the charges on the capacitors o f the electrical analogue. !A j |e P, sinmi PROBLEM 19.156 CONTINUED Substituting into the results from part (a), the analogous electrical characteristics, - <1a ) = ms in O f f < a t' at Note: These equations can also be obtained by summing the voltage drops around the loops in the circuit o f Problem 19.155. PROBLEM 19.157 1," Write the differential equations defining (a ) the displacements o f the mass m and o f the point A, ( b) the charges on the capacitors o f the electrical analogue. & PROBLEM 19.158 r*r ~ A 75-mm-radius hole is cut in a 200-mm-radius uniform disk which is attached to a ffictionless pin at its geometric center A. Determine (a ) the period o f small oscillations o f the disk, (b ) the length o f a simple pendulum which has the same period. r = 250 mm SOLUTION w\H o , i e 0.0'lS'irva I M , = (ZA/0)efr ## -/W/^O.lJsin# = /# - l n d - (0.1) ' mG ## mn = p tn R 2 = ( p t n ) ( 0.2) = (0.04) npt m = p t n r 2 = ( p t n ) ( 0.075)" = (0.005625)/rp/ ## Id = ^ mo R2 = -(0.04/r/rt)(0.2)2 = 800 x 10 6/rpi 1 1 = ^ m r 2 = ^ (0 .0 0 5 6 2 5 ^ r)(0 .0 7 5 )2 = 15.82 x 10' bnpt ## Small angles sin# ~ 0 ## (800 x 10 V - 15.82 x 1 0 'V - (0 .1 ))2(0.005625x ) p / d + (0.005625)/s ^ / (9 .8 l)(0 .l)(9 = 0 ## 727.9 x 10~be + 5.518 x 10"3# = 0 , 5.518 x 10-3 (o = = 7.581 " 727.9 x lO -6 ## con = 2.753 rad/s 2n In r = r = = 2 .2 8 s < CO., 2/753 PROBLEM 19.158 CONTINUED ## (b ) Period o f a simple pendulum r- = H i g In (2.753)' ^9.81 m/s2) 2n I = 1.294 m M PROBLEM 19.159 An instrument package B is placed on table C as shown. The table is made to move horizontally in simple harmonic motion with an amplitude o f 3 in. Knowing that the coefficient o f static friction is 0.65, determine the largest allowable frequency o f the motion i f the package is not to slide on the table. SOLUTION Newton s Law iw _b _ F f = ma N=W Block B moves in simple harmonic motion with the same frequency as c when there is no sliding x - xmsin(<uf + </>) ## x = ~ xnfi*n s in (< V + <(>) Maximum acceleration Ff = mxma)-n For no sliding w Ff > n ,W or n sW > xma>l g ## col > (0.65) (32.2 ft/s: ) , v L = 83.72(rad/s) (A) co >9.150 f = ^ jl= = 1.456 Hz 4 2n In PROBLEM 19.160 A 16-lb uniform disk o f radius 10 in. is welded to a vertical shaft with a fixed end at B. The disk rotates through an angle o f 3 when a static sm ( i 1 couple o f magnitude 3.5 lb -ft is applied to it. I f the disk is acted upon by a periodic torsional couple o f magnitude T = Tm sin co,t, where Tm = 4.2 lb-ft, determine the range o f values o f co, for which the amplitude o f the vibration is less than the angle o f rotation caused by a static couple o f magnitude T. SOLUTION - A _ ftsT 1-4- i - 4 ,o- K where co,2 , = -=- K is the torsional spring constant and / is the centroidal ## moment o f inertia o f the disk 3.5 lb/ft K = = 66.845 lb -ft/rad o f the disk -^( 180) ( 16 lb \, -2 7 = l mr2 = l m f V s i l f _ 1 0 _ Y = 0 . 17253 lb-ft-s- 2 2 U 2ftJ 2 K 66.845 .2 co~ = = ----------= 387.43 s " / 0.7253 _ 0ST 0... = < -O s. ST (Of i < -i + 4 - (o: ## (oj > 2(o~ ## cof > V2 V387A4 = 27.836 s ' 1 ## Note: (ot is independent o f Tm (of > 27.8 rad/s A PROBLEM 19.161 For the disk o f Prob. 19.160 determine the range o f values o f (of for which the amplitude o f the vibration will be less than 3.5. T = Tm sin (Oft SOLUTION From Problem 19.160 ## 7 = 0.17253 lb-ft-s2, k = 66.845 lb-ft/rad co] = 387.44 s2 T . 4.2 lb ft = 0.062832 rad k 66.845 lb-ft/rad ## <9, = 3.5 = 0.061087 rad 0. Jy- i- 4 4 V UJ? i ./ 0.062832 > -0.061087 / 1- f 1 387.44 (O 0.62832 < 1- (0.061087) 387.44 co, 1.02853 < - 1 387.44 ## (O', > 785.934 ## a), > 28.035 ## (o f > 28.0 rad/s ^ PROBLEM 19.162 A beam A B C is supported by a pin connection at A and by rollers at B. A 120-kg block placed on the end o f the beam causes a static deflection o f 15 mm at C. Assuming that the support at A undergoes a vertical periodic displacement S = Sm sin (Oft, where Sm = 10 mm and a>f = 1 8 rad/s, and the support at B does not move, determine the maximum acceleration 4ks^5<%? o f the block at C. Neglect the weight o f the beam and assume that the block does not leave the beam. PROBLEM 19.163 A rod o f mass m and length L rests on two pulleys A and B which rotate in opposite directions as shown. Denoting by n k the coefficient o f kinetic friction between the rod and the pulleys, determine the frequency o f vibration i f the rod is given a small displacement to the right and released. PROBLEM 19.164 A 4-kg block A is dropped from a height o f 800 mm onto a 9-kg block B _T which is at rest. Block B is supported by a spring o f constant k = 1500 N/mand is attached to a dashpot o f damping coefficient c = 230 N s/m. Knowing that there is no rebound, determine the maximum distance the blocks will move after the impact. 11 k x Ir L ^ ... SOLUTION Velocity o f Block A just before impact ## vA = yjlgh = >/ 2(9 .8 l)(0.8 ) = 3.962 m/s ## Velocity o f Blocks A and B immediately after impact. Conservation o f momentum m AVA + m HVR = { m A + ## (4)(3 .9 62) + 0 = (4 + 9 )v' ## v' = 1.219 m/s I HP^cT ^ _ + j 2 19 ,^/s | = 1 6 Static deflection (Block A ) 0 k 1500 ## x = 0, Equil. position for both blocks ## cc = 24km = 2N/(1500)(13) = 279.3 N-s/m ## Since c < c( Equation (19.44) x - e [qsinftfy/ + CiCostU/y] 230 = 8.846 s_l 2m (2 )(1 3 ) ## From top o f page 1221 (Oj} = ----- m 2m i / \ /1500 230 (O n = = 6.094 rad/s 13 1(2)(13)J ## x = e (c, sin 6.094/ + c, cos 6.094/) PROBLEM 19.164 CONTINUED ## Initial conditions x0 = -0,02619 m (? = 0) x0 = +1.219 m/s ## x0 = -0.02619 = e [c, (0 ) + c2( l ) ] c2 = -0.02619 ## x (0 ) = -8.846e(" 8-846)0[c, (0 ) + (-0.02619 ) ( l ) ] ## + e("8-846)f) [6.094c, (1) + c2(0 ) = 1.219 ## 1.219 = (-8.846)(-0.02619) + 6.094c, c, = 0.16202 ## X = <? 8'84fo(0.16202sin6.0941 - 0.02619cos6.094?) ## Maximum deflection occurs when x = 0 ## x = 0 = -8.846c-8 846'' (0.16202 sin 6.094?m - 0.02619cos 6.094?,) ## + e '8-846' [6.094] [0.1620 cos 6.094?m + 0.02619 sin 6.094?^] ## 0 = [(-8 .8 4 6 )(0 .16202) + (6.094)(0.02619)]sin6.094?m ## + [(-8 .8 4 6 )(-0 .0 2 6 1 9 ) + (6.094)(0.1620)]cos6.094?m ## 0 = -1.274sin6.Q94? + 1.219 cos 6.094? ## tan 6.094? = = 0.957 1.274 ## Time at maximum deflection = ?, = - 0.1253 s 6.094 ## xm = g-(8-846)(0 1253) [o.i620sin(6.094)(0.1253j - 0.02619cos(6.094)(0.1253)1 ## xm = (0.330l)(0.1120 - 0.0189) = 0.307 m ## Blocks move, static deflection + xm ## Total distance = 0.02619 + 0.307 = 0.0569 m = 56.9 mm A PROBLEM 19.165 Solve Prob. 19.164 assuming that the damping coefficient o f the dashpot is c = 300 N-s/m. SOLUTION Velocity o f Block A just before impact ## vA = J2gh = ^2(9.81)(0.8) = 3.962 m/s ## Velocity o f Blocks A and B immediately after impact. Conservation o f momentum ## m AVA + m BVB = ( m A + m B ) V' ## (4)(3 .9 62) + 0 = (4 + 9 )v ' ## v' = 1.219 m/s = x0 -IMPACT x0 = +1.219 m/s | ## Static deflection (Block A ) ft B Xq = = _ ( 4X 9-82) = -0.02619 m - 0 k 1500 ## x = 0, Equil. position for both blocks n cc = 2 4km = 2>/ (l5 0 0 )(l3 ) cc = 279.3 N s/m ## Since c = 300 N-s/m > cc system is heavily damped and (Equation (19.42)) x = cleA'1 + c2e*- Equation (19.40) a = - i ] - i 2m \ (2 m J m ## A _ 300 If 300 V _ 1500 26 V l 26 J 13 A = -11.538 4.213 \ = -15.751 /L = -7.325 -15.751/ -7.325/ x = c,e + c7e PROBLEM 19.165 CONTINUED ## Initial conditions xQ = -0.02619 m, x0 = 1.219 m/s ## * ( 0 ) = x0 = -0.02619 = c,? + c2e ## i ( 0 ) = i 0 = 1.219 = (-1 5 .7 5 l)c, + (-7.325 )c 2 ## Solving simultaneously for c, and c2 c, = -0.1219, c2 = 0.09571 ## x ( r ) = -0.1219e-15 75' + 0.0957k-7 325' ## Maximum deflection when x = 0 ## x = 0 = ( - 0 . 1219)(-15.75)e~l5'75'm + (0.0957 l)(- 7 .3 2 5 )e f7-325'' 0 = 1.920e'l5-75/- -0 .7 0 k -7-325'1 1 920 _ g( 7.325+1S.75)/m 0.701 2.739 = e8-425'" In 2.739 _ 8.425 ~~ t,n tm = 0.1196 s ## xm = (-0.1 2 1 9 )e-(,5 75X ,,96> + (0.0957l)e-<7 325X ,l96> ## xm = -0.01851 + 0.03986 = 0.02136 m ## Total deflection = static deflection + xm ## Total deflection = 0.02619 + 0.02136 = 0.0475 m = 47.5 mm 4 PROBLEM 19.166 A 30-lb uniform cylinder can roll without sliding on a 15 incline. A belt is attached to the rim o f the cylinder, and a spring holds the cylinder at rest in the position shown. I f the center o f the cylinder is moved 2 in. down the incline and released, determine (a ) the period o f vibration, (b ) the maximum acceleration o f the center o f the cylinder. SOLUTION Po s it io n Spring deflection, x M = r6 9 = x0/r xA = 2x0 Fs = k ( x A + Ss ) = k (2 x 0 + Ss r ) ^ = (EA/)ejr ## -2 rk (2 x t) + SST) + n'sinl5 = rmx() + 10 ( 1) But in equilibrium. *o = 0 ## EA/r = 0 = -2 rkSsf + rvvsin 15 (2) ## Substitute (2) into (1) and noting that 0 = ^ o = ^ r r rmx(l + / + 4 rkxn = 0 I = m r2 r 2 mrx0 + 4rkx{) = 0 (8 k } ~ ~ \*o = \3 m ) PROBLEM 19.166 CONTINUED 8 k_ (8 )(3 0 x 12 lb/ft) = . (3 0 lb) 3m (3) (3 2 .2 ft/s2 ) 2n 2rc 0.1957 s a> 32.1 r = 0.1957 s < (b) xo = ( * o ) m s in ( r + # ) 2 At t = 0 Xn ft Xn 0 0 12 0 ## *0 = ( xo) m c o s ( o nt + <f>), t = 0, 0 - (x 0) mmnc o s t Thus 2 ## t = 0 x o(0 ) = ^ f t = (2c0) msin^ = ( x0) m( l ) ( x0) = ft V u Jm ^ ## % = (*0 ) m(al ^ { (0nt + <P) ## () = (*o) = = -(7 *-') = 171-7 ^ ## = 171.7 ft/s2 < PROBLEM 19.167 An 800-g rod AB is bolted to a 1.2-kg disk. A spring o f constant k = 12 N/m is attached to the center o f the disk at A and to the wall at C. Knowing that the disk rolls without sliding, determine the period o f small oscillations o f the system. SOLUTION T \ 0= O.JM 7 F t 0.5W\ x Position ## ^ 2 ^ G^AB^m + 2 mAB( 2 r) + 2 ^ C ^disk^m + 2 m diskr (T L= um/2=h (-8)(-6)2 = -024 kgm2 ## mAB r) = (-8 )(-3 - 0.25)2 = 0.002 kg-m2 ## (/<7)disk = \">&sv.r2 = ~ ( l -2)(0.25)2 = 0.0375 kg-m2 ## /ndiskr 2 = 1.2(0.25)" = 0.0750 kg-m2 ## 7] = ^[0.024 + 0.002 + 0.0375 + 0.0750]<?2 7] = i[0 .1 3 8 5 ]^ 2 K, = 0 Position @ 7*2 = 0 ## V2 = \ k ( r 9 n ,)2 + f ABg j ( 1 - CO S0m ) ## 1 - cos6m = 2sin~ a (small angles) PROBLEM 19.167 CONTINUED 11'\ /$
V2 = - (l2 N / m )(0 . 2 5 m )2^ + (8 k g )(9 .8 1 m / s2) f ^ - ^
2 ~ )

## V2 = i[0 .7 5 0 + 2 .3 5 4 ]^ = |(3.1O 4 )02 N -m

Tl + V l = T 2 + V2 e l = coldl

i(O . 1 3 8 5 )0 > 2 + 0 = 0 + 1 (3 .1 0 4 )^

(3.104 N-m)| s. 2

(0.1385 k g m 2)

2n 2n
1.327 s A
mn ~ >/22.41
PROBLEM 19.168
A 1.8-kg collar A is attached to a spring o f constant 800 N/m and can
slide without friction on a horizontal rod. I f the collar is moved 70 mm to
the left from its equilibrium position and released, determine the
maximum velocity and maximum acceleration o f the collar during the
resulting motion.

SOLUTION

, CD
I
Datum at

Position

T = 0 V, = - k x l

Position

T2 = mv2 V2 = 0 v2 = xm

1
T\ + P| = T-, + V-, 0 + kx;,, = + 0

## 1 . > 1 i > > k 800 N/m

(o: = =
2 km = 2 m(0" X'" m 1.8 kg

## xm = o>lxm = ( 2 1.08 s2)(0.070 m ) = 31.1 m/s: A

PROBLEM 19.169
A 30-lb block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. The block
is moved from its equilibrium position 0.8 in. vertically downward and
released. Knowing that the period o f the resulting motion is 1.5 s,
determine (a ) the constant k, ( b) the maximum velocity and maximum
acceleration o f the block.

SOLUTION
Since the force in each spring is the same, the constant k' o f a single equivalent spring is

## = + + k! = (See Problem 19.19)

k' 2k k k 2.5 v

(a) t I1 1cs =
= 1.5
f In f fw;
(2.5)
v 1-5 ^J
&

k =
(2 4 30 ib
(2.5) = 40.868 lb/ft
(1.5 s)- 32.2 ft/s2

(b ) x= + f)

## X = xmcon cos(tvnt + <t>)

o) = = = 4.189 rad/s
t 1.5 s

## vm = 0.279 ft/s <

x = - x mco^cos(o)t + <t>)

1.170 ft/s2 ^