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PROBLEM 19.

1
Determine the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration o f a particle
which moves in simple harmonic motion with an amplitude o f 400 mm
and a period o f 1.4 s.

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion

x = xmsin(cont +

2n 2n
= = 4.488 rad/s
r (1.4 s)

xm = Amplitude = 400 mm = 0.4 m

x = (0.4 m)sin(4.488f + <f>)

x = xmco cos (o)nt + <(>)

vm = (0.4 m)(4.480 rad/s)

= 1.795 m/s

vm = 1.795 m/s A

x = - x m(o2
n sm{cont + f )

am = -(0 .4 m )(4.488 rad/s)2

8.06 m/s'

am = 8.06 m/s2 A
PROBLEM 19.2
Determine the amplitude and maximum velocity o f a particle which
moves in simple harmonic motion with a maximum acceleration o f
21.6 ft/s2 and a frequency o f 8 Hz.

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion

x - xms in (c y + <t>)

con = -2 n fn = 2;r(8 H z ) = 16;r rad/s

X = v = xmfi}n cos(fflt + (f>)

Vm = Xmn

x = a = - x mco2
n sin(a>t + </>)

21.6 ft/s2 = xm(16/r rad/s)

or xm = 0.00855 ft

or 0.10259 in.

xm = 0.1026 in. A

vm = xmcon = (0.00855 ft) (16^-rad/s)

= 0.42977 ft/s

or 5.1572 in./s

vm = 5.16 in./s M
PROBLEM 19.3
A particle moves in simple harmonic motion. Knowing that the amplitude
is 15 in. and the maximum acceleration is 15 fit/s2, determine the
maximum velocity o f the particle and the frequency o f its motion.

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion

x - xmsin(a>J + j )

xm = 15 in. = 1.25 ft

X = V = xmcon cos ( a ? t + </>)

x = a = - x ma>l sin(a>nt + <j>)

\am\ = 15 ft/s = (1.25 f t K 2

or co = 3.4641 rad/s

fzrl= ^ /-- = 0.55133 Hz



271

/ = 0.551 H z <

Hence, / = 0.551 Hz

Finally, vm = xmca = (1.25 ft)(3.4641 rad/s)

= 4.3301 ft/s

vm = 4.33 ft/s ^
PROBLEM 19.4
A simple pendulum consisting o f a bob attached to a cord oscillates in a
vertical plane with a period o f 1.3 s. Assuming simple harmonic motion
and knowing that the maximum velocity o f the bob is 0.4 m/s, determine
(a ) the amplitude o f the motion in degrees, ( b) the maximum tangential
acceleration o f the bob.

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion

(a ) 9 = 9msm(cont + <p)

2k 2k

" Tn (1.35 s)

= 4.833 rad/s

0 = 0m6)nCOs((Ont + 0 )

v,n = Wm =

Thus, 9, = (1)
lco

For a simple pendulum

Thus,

l = _g_ _ 9.81 m/s2


o^n (4.833 rad/s)2

= 0.420 m

From (1)

0.4 m/s
9m -
la n (0.42 m )(4.833 rad/s)

= 0.197 rad

or 11.287

9m = 11.29 M
PROBLEM 19.4 CONTINUED

(ft) N ow

a, = 19

Hence, the maximum tangential acceleration occurs when 9 is

maximum.

0 = + <f)

{ t ) m = Wnfi>l

or (a ,)m = (0.42 m)(0.197 rad)(4.833 rad/s)2

= 1.9326 m/s2

{ a ,)m = 1.933 m/s2^


PROBLEM 19.5
A simple pendulum consisting o f a bob attached to a cord o f length
/ = 40 in. oscillates in a vertical plane. Assuming simple harmonic
motion and knowing that the bob is released from rest when 9 = 6,
determine (a ) the frequency o f oscillation, ( b) the maximum velocity o f
the bob.

/
Jm
ig

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion

/ = 40 in. = 3.3333 ft

(a ) ct) = M = J 322 ft/s2 = 3.1081 rad/s


" V / V 3.3333 ft

f = ^ = 0.495 Hz
2n

/ = 0.495 H z <

(b ) 9 = 9msrn{ant + <f>)

9 = 9mo)cos(o)nt + <t>)

Vm = 16m =

= (3.3333 ft)(6)| ~ r a d / d e g |(3.1801 rad/s)

= 1.8049 ft/s

= 13.019 in./s

vm = 13.02 in./s M
PROBLEM 19.6
A 10-kg block is initially held so that the vertical spring attached as
V shown is undeformed. Knowing that the block is suddenly released from
rest, determine (a ) the amplitude and frequency o f the resulting motion,
16 kN/m () the maximum velocity and maximum acceleration o f the block.

Okg

S O L U T IO N

Simple Harmonic Motion

IV (I0 k g )(9 .8 1 m/s')


S = = v ; = 0.0061313 m
5 k 16000 N/m

IT 116000 .. . .
' V - ' Y 10 40rad/s = 2' ' /

(a ) amplitude = Ss = xm =6.13 mm xm = 6.13 mm A

40 rad/s
/ = ---------- = 6.37 Hz
2*

f = 6.37 H z A

(ft) vm = <yxm = (40 rad/s)(6.13 mm) = 245.2 mm/s

vm
m = 245 mm/s A

am = <y2rm = (40 rad/s) (6.13 mm) = 9808 mm

= 9.81 m/s2

am
m = 9.81 m/s2 A
PROBLEM 19.7
A 70-lb block is attached to a spring and can move without friction in a
slot as shown. The block is in its equilibrium position when it is struck by
a hammer which imparts to the block an initial velocity o f 10 ft/s.
Determine (a ) the period and frequency o f the resulting motion, ( b) the
k - 9 kips/ft
amplitude o f the motion and the maximum acceleration o f the block.

SOLUTION
or- 0 Simple Harmonic Motion

1--------1 ~ T (a ) x = xmsin
in(<y/ +
l. j T 9000 lb/ft
(70 lb )(32.2 lb/s2)

j" = 64.343 rad/s

r = = 0.90765 s
V . --- / 0 f t /s co

f n = = 10.240 Hz
r

/ = 10.24 H z

(b ) At t = 0: x0 = 0, jc0 = v0 = 10 ft/s 1

*0 = 0 = *msin(<yn(0 ) + <*)=> <t> = 0

*0 = vo = *m<yn c o s (< y ,,(0 ) + <f>) = x m0)

Substituting 10 ft/s = xm64.343 rad/s

or xm = 0.1554 ft = 1.865 in.

= xma>2
n = (0.15542 ft)(64.343 rad/s)2

= 643.4 ft/s2

am = 643 ft/s2 <


PROBLEM 19.8
An instrument package A is bolted to a shaker table as shown. The table
moves vertically in simple harmonic motion at the same frequency as the
variable-speed motor which drives it. The package is to be tested at a
peak acceleration o f 50 m/s2. Knowing that the amplitude o f the shaker
table is 58 mm, determine (a ) the required speed o f the motor in rpm, ( b)
the maximum velocity o f the table.

SOLUTION
In Simple Harmonic Motion

A.
n
(a )

3*
3

Substituting 50 m/s2 = (0.058 m)<y2

or col = 862.07(rad/s)2

con = 29.361 rad/s

Now / = <W" = 29-361 rad/s = 4.6729 Hz


" 2n In

Then / in Hz = \C/ Cle = 1 Hz


(1 m in)(60 s/min) 60

/H z 4.6729 Hz . .
So ----- r = ------ ------- = 280.37 r/min
U H4 i
and 280 rpm A

(b ) m = xmcon = (0.058 m)(29.361 rad/s) = 1.7029 m/s

vm = 1.703 m/s A
PROBLEM 19.9
A
b k p A 5-kg block A rests on top o f a 20-kg plate B which is attached to an
unstretched spring o f constant k = 900 N/m. Plate B is slowly moved
1 60 mm to the left and released from rest. Assuming that block A does not
slip on the plate, determine (a) the amplitude and frequency o f the
resulting motion, (b) the corresponding smallest required value o f the
coefficient o f static friction.

SOLUTION
Simple Harmonic Motion:

900 N/m
6 rad/s
25 kg

Hz
2n In

() xm = 0.06 m, / = 0.955 Hz

2
= ;x:m<2 = (0.06 m )(6 rad/s)
'Wi^

a !1 A = 2.16 m/s2

o-
Ff =
Ff wi (K,
m6
or Fs=
g
~
216 m/s2
9.81 m/s
= 0.220 <
PROBLEM 19.10
The motion o f a particle is described by the equation
x = 10 sin2r + 8 cos 21, where x is expressed in feet and t in seconds.
Determine (a ) the period o f the motion, (b) its amplitude, (c ) its phase
angle.

S O L U T IO N

For Simple Harmonic Motion

x = xm sin(<wr + <f>)

From trigonometry sin (a + /?) = sinacos/? + sin/?cosa

Let a = cont, p = <)>

Then x = xmsin (o )nt + </>)

- xm sin cont cos (/> + xmsin^cos cont

- (x mcos^)sin t + (x msin^)cos<ai

Given x = 10sin2t + 8cos2 1


to

Comparing:
II
$

xmcos <j) = 10 (1)

xm sin <f> = 8 (2)

2n 2n
(a ) T = ---- = = 71 S
(On 2

r = 3.14 s A

(.b) Squaring (1) and (2) and adding, gives

x2 cos2 <f> + x2 sin2 <j> - 164

x 2 (cos2^ + sin2^ ) = 164 => xm = 12.806 ft

xm = 12.81 ft M

(c) Divide (2) by (1)

tan^ = => d> = 0.6747 rad = 38.66


10

<f> = 38.7 <


PROBLEM 19.11
The motion o f a particle is described by the equation x = 0.2 cos 10Kt +
0.15sin(10^r? zr/3), where x is expressed in feet and t in seconds.
Determine (a) the period o f the resulting motion, (b) its amplitude, (c) its
phase angle.

SOLUTION

x = 0.2cos(l0;rt) + 0.15 sin 10a t +


3/

= 0.2cosl0^t + 0.15 sinlO^tcos - cos 10/z7 sin

0.075sinl0;zt + 0.070096cosl0;zt (1)

N ow

xmsin(10;rt + </>) = xmsinlO/rf cos^ + xmcos 10^? sin ^ ( 2)


Comparing (1) and (2) gives

0.075 = xmcos^,0.070096 = xmsin^

2n 27i -
() t = = ------ = 0.2 s 4
con 10 n

0b) x2
m = (0.75)2 + (0.70096)2

xm = 0.1027 ft A

0.070096
(c ) tan ^ = <f> = 0.7516 rad = 43.06 <
0.075
PROBLEM 19.12
A 70-lb block attached to a spring o f constant k = 9 kips/ft can move
without friction in a slot as shown. The block is given an initial 15-in.
displacement downward from its equilibrium position and released.
k 9 Idps/ft
Determine 1.5 s after the block has been released (a) the total distance
traveled by the block, ( b) the acceleration o f the block.

SOLUTION
Eauilibrium
( )

W x = xms in (e y + <f>)

9000 lb/ft
(70 lb)
xtO^lSin. (32.2 lb's2)

= 64.343 rad/s

r = = 0.9765 s

x (0 )- 0
With the initial conditions: x(0) = 15 in. = 1.25 ft, x(0) = 0

1.25 ft = xmsin(0 + </>)

n
i (0 ) = 0 = xm(on cos(0 + </>)=> <f> =
v\\NN

xm = 1.25 ft

Then

x{t) = (1.25 ft)sin| 64.343r +


2j

t= 1.5s
ti x (l.5) = (1.25 ft)sin 64.343(1.5 s) + - = -0.80137 ft
m

x(1.5) = (1.25 ft)(64.343)cos 64.343(1.5 s) + y = -61.726 ft/s

61.776ft/s
0.80137ft
In 1.5 s, the block completes

1.5 s
= 15.361 cycles
0.09765 s/cycle
Eauilibrium
PROBLEM 19.12 CONTINUED

So, in one cycle, the block travels

4(1.25 ft) = 5 ft

Fifteen cycles take

15(0.09765 s/cycle) = 1.46477 s

Thus, the total distance traveled is

15(5 ft) + 1.25 ft + (1.25 - 0.80137)ft = 77.1 ft

Total = 77.1 ft A

(b )

x(1.5) = -(1.25 ft)(64.343/s)2sin (64.343/s)(1.5 s) + y

= 3317.68 ft/s2 x = 3320 ft/s2 A


PROBLEM 19.13

A 1.4-kg block is supported as shown by a spring o f constant


k k = 400 N/m which can act in tension or compression. The block is in
its equilibrium position when it is struck from below by a hammer which
imparts to the block an upward velocity o f 2.5 m/s. Determine (a ) the
i time required for the block to move 60 mm upward, (b ) the corresponding
velocity and acceleration o f the block.

SOLUTION
y y z s z y /s Simple Harmonic Motion, thus

x = xms in (fly +

17 _ 400
Im . N/m
(o. = 16.903 rad/s
~ \ m ~ V LA kg

Now x(0 ) = 0 = xmsin(0 + <f>) => <f> = 0

x=60mm Then

x(0) = xm(on cos(0 + 0)


x=0
i ( 0 ) - 2.5m Is Equilibrium or 2.5 m/s = (xm)m (l 6.903 rad/s) => xm = 0.14790 m
x(0)-0
Then x = (0.14790 m )sin [(l6 .90 3 rad/s)f]

(a )

At x = 0.06m: 0.06 m = (0.14790 m )sin[(l6.903 rad/s)f]

Sin- * I 0.06 m \
r = 1.02471 s
[o]4190mj = O.c
16.903 rad/s

I = 0.0247 s <

(b ) Now

x = xma)ncos((Dnt )

X = ~XmCOn sin (< y t)

Then, for t = 0.024713 s

x = (0.1479 m )(l6.903 rad/s)cos[(16.903 rad/s)(0.024713 s )]

= 2.285 m/s x = 2.29 m/s j <

And

x = -(0.1479 m )(l6.903 rad/s)2sin[(l6.903rad/s)(0.024713s)]

=-17 .1 43 m/s2 x = 17.14 m/s2 { A


PROBLEM 19.14
In Prob. 19.13, determine the position, velocity, and acceleration o f the
block 0.90 s after it has been struck by the hammer.

SOLUTION
Referring to the figure o f Problem 19.13

x - xmsin ( a y + <f>)

X = Xm0)nCOs(0)t + f )

* = + <!>)

Using the data from Problem 19.13: <f> = 0, xm = 0.1479 m, con = 16.903 rad/s

x, x, x are j

And x - (0.14790 m )sin[(l6.903 rad/s)f]

So, at t = 0.9 s,

x = (0.1479 m )sin [(16.903 rad/s)(0.9 s )]

= 0.0703 m x = 0.0703 m ) 4

x = (0.1479 m )(l6.903 rad/s)cos[(16.903 rad/s)(0.9 s )]

= -2.19957 m/s x = 2.19957 m/s | 4

x = (0.1479 m )(l6.903 rad/s)2sin[(l6.903 rad/s)(0.9 s )]

= -20.083 m/s2 x = 20.083 m/s2 j -4


PROBLEM 19.15
The bob o f a simple pendulum o f length / = 40 in. is released from rest
when 0 - +5. Assuming simple harmonic motion, determine 1.6 s after
release (a ) the angle 0, (b) the magnitudes o f the velocity and
acceleration o f the bob.

SOLUTION

For simple harmonic motion and 1 = 40 in. = 3.333 ft:

con = p - = J 32'2 = 3.1082 rad/s


" V/ V 3.333 ft

Then, with

0 = dmsm(a>nt + ,

And with

0 (0 ) = 5 = 0.08727 rad, and 0 (0 ) = 0:

For

0(0) = 0 = 0 ^ c o s (O + <) => 4 = y , with em = 0(0) = ^ = 0.08727 tad

Then

a n
0 = sin (3.1082 rad/s)f +
180

= (0.08727 rad)sin (3.1082 rad/s)t + y

* ** (a ) A t t = 1.6 s,
+6/% +9
5n .
0 = sm (3.1082 rad/s)(l.6 s) + y 0.022496 rad = 1.288
180

0 = 1.288 A

(b)
0 = dmconcos(a)nt + </>)

5/r
(3.1082 rad/s)cos (3.1082 rad/s)(l.6 s) + y
180

= 0.262074 rad/s

0 ,^ 8 v = 10 (3.3333 ft) (0.262074 rad/s) = 0.874 fl/s

v (l.6 s) = 0.874 ft/s A


PROBLEM 19.15 CONTINUED

6 = ~m0)1n s in (? + 4>)

= - ^ ( 3 . 1 0 8 2 rad/s)2cos (3.1082 rad/s)(l.6 s) + y

= -0.21733 rad/s2

N ow

a = \l(an f + ( a/)2

2
an = y = W 2 = (3.3333 ft)(0.26207 rad/s)2 = 0.22894 m/s2

a, = Id = (3.333 ft)^ 0.21733 rad/s2) 2 = -0.72443 m/s2

a = 0.75974 m/s2 a = 0.759 ft/s2 <


PROBLEM 19.16

A 10-lb collar rests on but is not attached to the spring shown. It is


observed that when the collar is pushed down 9 in. or more and released,
it loses contact with the spring. Determine (a ) the spring constant, ( b) the
position, velocity, and acceleration o f the collar 0.16 s after it has been
pushed down 9 in. and released.

SOLUTION

(a)
x = xms\n((ont + <fi)

'/ / / / / ,
*0 = XmS*n(0 + 0 ) = 0-75 ft

x0 = 0 = jcm<wcos(0 + <*),=> <f> = y


v= 0
a=+g| Xm = 0-75 ft

When the collar just leaves the spring, its acceleration is


g (downward) and v = 0.
x=0 , Equil. N ow

x = (0.75 ft)<u cos a)nt +


< 2

x (0 ) = v = 0 = (0.75 ft)<ycosj^,,/ + j j , = > cot + ^ = y


x=0.75ft
v0= 0 And

a = - g = -(0 .7 5 ft)<y;sin^<yr + y
777777.
or ~8 - -(0.75 ft)o^

= J 32.2 ft/s- = 6_5524 fadys


0.75 ft

Then

IT
k = mojl = , (6.5524 rad/s)
=Vm 32.2 ft/s2 V

= 13.333 lb/ft

k = 13.33 lb/ft <

(b ) con = 6.5524 rad/s


PROBLEM 19.16 CONTINUED

A t t = 1.6 s:

n
x = (0.75 ft)sin (6.5524 rad/s)(l.6 s) = -0.36727 ft

x = -0.367 ft above equilibrium A

x = (0.75 ft)(6.5524rad/s)cos (6.5524 rad/s)(l.6s)+ ~ 4.2848 fl/s

v = 4.28 ft/s | <

a = x = -(0.75 ft)(6.5524rad/s)"sin (6.5524 rad/s)(l.6 s) + ~ = 15.768 ft/s2

a = 15.77 ft/s2 1 A
PROBLEM 19.17
A 5-kg collar C is released from rest in the position shown and slides
without friction on a vertical rod until it hits a spring o f constant
k = 720 N/m which it compresses. The velocity o f the collar is reduced to
zero and the collar reverses the direction o f its motion and returns to its
initial position. The cycle is then repeated. Determine (a ) the period o f
the motion o f the collar, ([b) the velocity o f the collar 0.4 s after it was
released. (Note. This is a periodic motion, but not simple harmonic
motion.)

SOLUTION
With the given properties:

720 N/m
= 12 rad/s
5 kg

From free fall o f the collar

v0 = ^2gh - ^ 2g(0.5 m ) = yfg = 3.132 m/s

The free-fall time is thus:

3193 s

Now, to simplify the analysis we measure the displacement from the


position o f static displacement o f the spring, under the weight o f the
collar:

Note that the static deflection is:

w (5kg)(9.81m /s2)
$ ST ~ ------- = 0.068125 m
720 N/m

Then 5x + 720* = 0, where x is measured positively up from the


position o f static deflection. The solution is:

x = xmsin(<yf + </)), with velocity

x = xm(oncos{cont + <j>)

Now, to determine xm and <f>, impose the conditions at impact and


IMPACT count the time from there. Thus:

A t impact:

'St T t = 0, x = SST = 0.068125 m and v = -3.132 m/s (downward)


X 72o(0.o4S-7f)
or 0.068125 m = xmsin^
DtSPU
-3.132 m/s = (12 rad/s)xmcos^
PROBLEM 19.17 CONTINUED

Solving for xm and <f>


xm - -0.26975 m

0 = -0.25531 rad

So, from time o f impact, the time o f flight is the time necessary for the
collar to come to rest on its downward motion. Thus, t2is the time such
that

x (t 2) = 0 => 12t2 + = ~

or 12/,-0.25531 =
2 2
x (t 2) = 0 => 12/2 + <j>

or 12/,-0.25531 =
2 2

Hence, t2 - 0.15217 s

Thus, the period o f the motion is

t = 2 (/, + t2) = 2(0.3193 s + 0.1522 s)

= 0.94274 s r = 0.943 s <

(b ) After 0.4 seconds, the velocity is

* (0 .4 ) = xmcon c o s [o (0.4 - % ) + +

= (12 rad/s)(-0.26975 m )c o s [(l2 rad/s)(0.4 - 0.3193 s)

-0.25531 rad]

= -2.4483 m/s v(0 .4 ) = 2.45 m/s | <


PROBLEM 19.18
A 50-kg block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. The block
is moved vertically downward from its equilibrium position and released.
Knowing that the amplitude o f the resulting motion is 60 mm, determine
(a ) the period and frequency o f the motion, (b ) the maximum velocity and
maximum acceleration o f the block.

12

SOLUTION

(a ) First, calculate the spring constant

P = (24 kN/m)<5 + (12 kN/m) 8 + (12 kN/m)<5 = (48 kN/m) 5

k = 48 kN/m

Then

fit 40 x 103 N/m


= 30.984 rad/s
50 kg

r = = 0.20279 s
<y

1
fn = 4.9312 Hz

r = 0.203 s <

/ = 4.93 H z 4

(b); N ow

* = x m s i n ( f t > t + <f>)

And, since jc0 = 0.060 m

x = (0.060 m )sin[(30.984 rad/s)f +

x = (0.060 m)(30.984 rad/s)cos[(30.984 rad/s)t +

x = -(0.060 m)(30.984 rad/s)2sin[(30.984 rad/s) t +

Hence vmax = 1.859 m/s 4

amv = 57.6 m/s2 4


PROBLEM 19.19
13 A 50-kg block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. The block

^ 24kN*/m is moved vertically downward from its equilibrium position and released.
Knowing that the amplitude o f the resulting motion is 60 mm, determine
t (a ) the period and frequency o f the motion, (b ) the maximum velocity and

24kN/m maximum acceleration o f the block.

SOLUTION

(a ) First, calculate the spring constant

~ _ _ P P P
8 = 5 ,+ + =
' 2 24 24 it

Hence, I = 12 kN/m
it 24 + 24

2n 2n
Then = 0.40558 s
r" IT 1(12000kN/m)
V \ 50 kg

r = 0.405 s <

f = = 2.4656 Hz / = 2.47 Hz <


r

(b )

con - 2 n f n - 15.492 rad/s

x = (0.060 m )sin [(15.492 rad/s)f +

x = (0.060 m )(l5.492 rad/s)cos[(l5.492 rad/s)/ + <f>J

x = -(0.060 m ) ( l 5.492 rad/s)2sin[(15.492 rad/s)f + </>]

Then vmax = 0-92951 m/s A

amax = 14.400 m/s <


PROBLEM 19.20
A 13.6-kg block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. I f the
block is moved from its equilibrium 44 mm vertically downward and
UlkN/n
released, determine (a ) the period and frequency o f the resulting motion,
...
(b ) the maximum velocity and acceleration o f the block.
.I IN in :

LEL

SOLUTION

j _L

f $ T T T T

<lz
U S-z.

,
I, ,
Ft

Determine the constant k o f a single spring equivalent to the three springs shown.

Springs I and 2:

S = d', + S i, and = +
1 * k kx k2

Hence

k = k'k2
A;, + k2

Where k' is the spring constant o f a single spring equivalent o f springs 1 and 2.
Springs A:'and 3 Deflection in each spring is the same)

So P = Px + P 2, and P = kS, Px = k'S, P2 = k}S

Now kS = k'S + k2S

k = k' + k, = + *3
k, + ki

(3.5 kN/m)(2.1 kN/m) ,


or k = ,_v ______ ,A , \ + 2.8 kN/m = 4.11 kN/m = 4.11 x 103 N/m
(3.5 kN/m )+ (2.1 kN/m)

_ 2k
(ci) = 0.361 s A
4.11 x 103 N/m
" I 13.6 kg

1
f, = = = 2.77 Hz <
r 0.3614 s
PROBLEM 19.20 CONTINUED

And xm = 44 mm = 0.044 m

(On = 2 x f n = {2n)2.11 H z ) = 17.384 rad/s

And

x - (0.044 m )s in [(l7 .4 rad/s)/ +

x = (0.044 m )(l7 .4 rad/s)cos[(l7.4 rad/s)/ +

Then vmax = (0.044 m )(l7 .4 rad/s) = 0.766 m/s

x = -(0.044 m )(l7 .4 rad/s)2sin [(l7 .4 rad/s)/ +

Then max - (0.044 m )(l7 .4 rad/s)2 = 13.3 m/s2

vmax = 0-765 m/s A

max = 13.31 m/s2 A


PROBLEM 19.21
A 10-lb block, attached to the lower end o f a spring whose upper end is
fixed, vibrates with a period o f 6.8 s. Knowing that the constant k o f the
spring is inversely proportional to its length, determine the period o f a
6-lb block which is attached to the center o f the same spring i f the upper
and lower ends o f the spring are fixed.
PROBLEM 19.22
A 10-lb block is supported as shown by three springs, each o f which has
a constant k. In the equilibrium position the tensions in springs A, B, and
C are 3 lb, 4 lb, and 3 lb, respectively. The block is moved vertically
downward 0.5 in. from its equilibrium position and released from rest.
Knowing that in the resulting motion the minimum tension in spring B is
k *" k zero, determine (a ) the spring constant k, ( b) the frequency o f the motion,
Iq ii, ~1 (c ) the maximum compression in spring A.

SOLUTION
For equilibrium
w \
w \ V \ \

Equal stretch x-
SA -
3 ,b v v
- S C. i s =
4 lb

Ta = Tc = 3 lb + kx, Th = 4 lb + kx

mx = 10 - 2(3 + kx) - (4 + kx)

nix + 3kx = 0

0.5 [3k
= COS. ------ 1
12 Vm
/ 0.5 N
(a ) Then Tr = 4 + k (-1 ) = 0 => Ar = 96 lb/fi A
1 t M I 12

3k
(b) cor, =
m

f = 4.85 Hz <

05 [3T
(c) Ta = 3 + 96 cos I /
\ 12 / Vm

= minimum when cos


Vm

( T a) . = 3 - 9 6
' 1'mm 12

max comp: 1 lb A
PROBLEM 19.23
Tw o springs o f constants and k2 are connected in series to a block A
that vibrates in simple harmonic motion with a period o f 5 s. When the
same two springs are connected in parallel to the same block, the block
vibrates with a period o f 2 s. Determine the ratio k] /k2 o f the two spring
constants.

SOLUTION

Equivalent Springs

Series: k. = -*1 *2 -
+ k2

Parallel: kp = kx + k2

2n 2n 2n In
tp =
(0
W

/ \2 /.x2
1^

- (I )2 * i + *2 _ { ^ + k 2f
II

\2J (*1*2) k,k-


\TP , 1*2
(*1 -*-*2)

(6.25)(*,*2) = k{ + l k xk2 + k \

_ (4.25 )k2 1 yl(4.25)2 k; - 4k?

- L = 2.125 ; V 3 . 5 16
*2

kL = 4 <
k-,
PROBLEM 19.24
~ w The period o f vibration o f the system shown is observed to be 0.7 s. After
I*, the spring o f constant k2 = 900 lb/ft is removed from the system, the
period is observed to be 0.9 s. Determine (a ) the constant A:,, ( b) the
weight o f block ,4.
a
- it, _yonlb/ft
1 *

J L

SOLUTION
Equivalent springs
ki Fl; = kx8; F2 = k28

Jy
X f ] + F2 = F = *t.<5

A:,<5 + Ar2tJ = kc8

ke = At, + k2

In
(a) Both springs = 0.7 s
V?
n
k. Alone, r' = = 0.9s

T.
r 0.7 s _ *. _ j 0.7 s'! = 0.6049
r -
r' 0.9 s V *r ^J k, + k2 At, + k 2 [o .9 sJ

(0.6049)(Ar, + 900 lb/ft) = it, => it, = 1378.1 lb/ft

it, = 1378 lb/ft <

(b ) =. ( o .9)2 = - M ^
fK y 1378 lb/ft

or m = 28.275 lb/(ft/s2)

W = mg = (28.275 lb/ft/s2)(32.2 ft/s2) = 910.46 lb

IT = 910 lb -4
PROBLEM 19.25
The period o f small oscillations o f the system shown is observed to be
1.6 s. After a 14-lb collar is placed on top o f collar A, the period o f
oscillation is observed to be 2.1 s. Determine (a) the weight o f collar A,
(b) the spring constant k.

SOLUTION

Initially x - ^ = = 1.6 s
k
After the 14 lb weight is added to A,

in
x = 2.1s
I mA+mB

\m A + mB
(a)
m.

2A A
+B
1.6 m .

141b
(\ .1 2 2 l)(m A) = mA + mB Note mB = T
32.2 ft/s2

f 141b x
mA = 1.3838wfl = 1.3838
V 32.2 ft/s2 /

141b
WA = mA(?>2.2 ft/s2j = 1.3838j - 19.373 lb
V32.2 ft/s"

WA - 19.37 lb <

2xx
0b
) T =

*-(**)2
(
^
(r)
/ 19.373 lb \
1 32.2 ft/s2 )
k - { 2 tx)
(l-6 s)
k = 9.278 lb/ft

k = 9.28 lb/ft
PROBLEM 19.26
The period o f vibration o f the system shown is observed to be 0.2 s. After
the spring o f constant k2 = 3.5 kN/m is removed and block A is
connected to the spring o f constant kx, the period is observed to be
i, - 3.5kN/m 0.12 s. Determine (a ) the constant kx o f the remaining spring, (6) the
mass o f b lo ck s.

SOLUTION
The equivalent spring constant for springs in series is:

kxk2
k. -
kx + k2

2n 2n
For kx and k2 t =
K I kl k2
mA \ m A ( ki + * 2 )

2n
For kx alone r' =

(a ) = kx + k2
\? j

t 0.2 s
= 0.16667
t' 0.12 s

And with k7 = 3.5 kN/m

(3.5 kN/m )(l.6667)2 = kx + 3.5 kN/m

or kx = 6.22 kN/m <

(Ib) r> = 2"

WA
mA =
g
\2

xf2
( * l ) kl
ntj =
(2

And with kx = 6.22 kN/m = 6.22 x 103 N\m

(0.12 s)2f 6.22 x 103 N/tn)


m, = ^ . L = 2.2688 N s2/m = 2.2688 kg
M 2

mA = 2.27 kg <1
PROBLEM 19.27
A I The 50-kg block D is supported as shown by three springs, each o f which
has a constant k. The period o f vertical vibration is to remain unchanged
when the block is replaced by a 60-kg block, spring A is replaced by a
spring o f constant kA, and the other two springs are unchanged.
Knowing that the period o f vibration is 0.4 s, determine the values o f k
and kA.
/; -%
K S
*&

J5L

SOLUTION
The equivalent spring constant, accounting for the springs in series, is

, , k
Kq =k + -

_ , 2k 2k
T = 0.4 S :
1
3 k/g
\ 50 kg y 50 leg

(a ) It follows that k = 8.225 kN/m

k - 8.22 kN/m <

After the changes

2k
t = 0.4 s
I keg
y 60 kg

Thus kea = 14.8044 kN/m

Since

or

_ k{keq - k )
kj =
2k ~ Kq

kA = 32.9 kN/m 4
PROBLEM 19.28
From mechanics o f materials it is known that when a static load P is
applied at the end B o f a uniform metal rod fixed at end A, the length o f
the rod will increase by an amount S = PL/ AE, where L is the length o f
the undeformed rod, A is its cross-sectional area, and E is the modulus o f
elasticity of the material. Knowing that L = 18 in. and
= 29 x 106 lb/in2 and that the diameter o f the rod is 0.32 in., and
neglecting the weight o f the rod, determine (a ) the equivalent spring
constant o f the rod, ( b) the frequency o f the vertical vibrations o f a block
o f weight W' = 16 lb attached to end B o f the same rod.

(a) (b)

SOLUTION

(a )

ff(0.32 in.)
[29 x 10h psi]
AE
k. = = 129.57 x 103 lb/in.
18 in.

ke = 129.6 x 103 lb/in. <

Ml29.57xlO3 lb/in.

r (16 lb)
J V (32.2 IVs2 )
(b ) / = -2-2- = J = 81.272 Hz
In In

f = 81.3 Hz A
PROBLEM 19.29
From mechanics o f materials it is known that for a simply supported
beam o f uniform cross section a static load P applied at the center w ill
A cause a deflection 5A = P I J/487, where L is the length o f the beam, E
L h is the modulus o f elasticity, and / is the moment o f inertia o f the cross-
2 2
sectional area o f the beam. Knowing that L = 5 m, E = 200 GPa, and
I = 20 x 10 'm4, determine (a ) the equivalent spring constant o f the
beam, (b ) the frequency o f vibration o f a 750 kg block attached to the
center o f the beam. Neglect the mass o f the beam and assume that the
load remains in contact with the beam.
PROBLEM 19.30
A 2.4-in. deflection o f the second floor o f a building is measured directly
under a newly installed 12.3-kips piece o f rotating machinery which has a
slightly unbalanced rotor. Assuming that the deflection o f the floor is
proportional to the load it supports, determine (a ) the equivalent spring
constant o f the floor system, (b ) the speed in rpm o f the rotating
machinery that should be avoided i f it is not to coincide with the natural
frequency o f the floor-machinery system.
PROBLEM 19.31
The force-deflection equation for a nonlinear spring fixed at one end is
F = 4x1/2 where F is the force, expressed in newtons, applied at the
other end and x is the deflection expressed in meters, (a ) Determine the
deflection x 0 i f a 100-g block is suspended from the spring and is at rest.
( b) Assuming that the slope o f the force-deflection curve at the point
corresponding to this loading can be used as an equivalent spring
constant, determine the frequency o f vibration o f the block i f it is given a
very small downward displacement from its equilibrium position and
released.
PROBLEM 19.32
Rod AB is attached to a hinge at A and to two springs, each o f constant
T k = 1.35 kN/m. (a ) Determine the mass m o f the block C for which the
period o f small oscillations is 4 s. ( b) I f end B is depressed 60 mm and
released, determine the maximum velocity o f block C. Neglect the mass
i o f the rod and assume that each spring can act in either tension or
" compression.

SOLUTION

0.75 He. g
1-------- \ . 7 f c r

1 < e * < A

ft
h- 4n 0 .7 5 ^
3------- ,> p - -
1

a
\ S
i c
U

* m o u = /v * f i . i & )

(a) The equation o f motion is:

Y.MA: - (O .75)(O .75*0)(2) = (1.2 m)(l.26>)

-1.125 kd = \ M m 9

1.44m# + \.\25kO = 0

.. 1.125(1.35 x 103)
0 + i '-6 = 0
1.44m

0 + m ^ . e= o
m

2 1054.69 . 2k
Then co; = ---------- , and r = = 4s
m (o

2k Vl 054.69 1054.69 2k
= ------------ or ----------
4 m m iT j

m = 427.45 kg

m = 427 kg <

(b )

At / = 0

9 = = 0.03636 rad
1.65m
PROBLEM 19.32 CONTINUED

And 9 - 0

Then 0.03636 = 9msin <f>

0 = 9mconcos(o)nt + <t>)

Thus ()> - , 6m = 0.0363 rad


2
N ow

9 = = 0.03636 rad
1.65m

9 = 9mconcos(cont + <f)

1054.69 , ..
a> = J = 1.5708 rad/s
427.45

Then

9 = = 0.03636 rad
1.65m

9 - (0.03636 r a d )(l.5708 rad/s)cos (1.5708 rad/s)/+ - j

0max = (0.03636 rad)(l.5708 rad/s) = 0.05712 rad/s

W m ax = (l-2m)(0.05712 rad/s) = 0.06854 m/s

(v Imax = 68.5 mm/s M


PROBLEM 19.33
Denoting by Sst the static deflection o f a beam under a given load, show
that the frequency o f vibration o f the load is

/ =
2
nps
t
Neglect the mass o f the beam, and assume that the load remains in
contact with the beam.
PROBLEM 19.34
Expanding the integrand in Eq. (19.19) o f Sec. 19.4 into a series o f even
powers o f sin^ and integrating, show that the period o f a simple
pendulum o f length I may be approximated by the formula
(
[7 1 2
1 + sin O
j8 \ 4 2 J

where 6m is the amplitude o f the oscillations.


PROBLEM 19.35
Using the formula given in Prob. 19.34, determine the amplitude 6 for
. 3
which the period o f a simple pendulum is percent longer that the
period o f the same pendulum for small oscillations.

SOLUTION

For small oscillations


( r)o =

W e want Tn = 1 0 0 7 5 (r)0 = (1.0075) = ^

Using the formula o f Problem 19.34, we write

= ( r ) o [ 1 + ^'Sin2^ '] = 1-0075( r)o

sin2^ - = 4[l.0075 - l] = 0.03

sin = y/o.03
2

- 0.1741 rad = 9.9742


2

0m = 19.948

9m = 19.95 4
PROBLEM 19.36
Using the date o f Table 19.1, determine the period o f a simple pendulum
o f length / = 600 mm (a ) for small oscillations, ( b) for oscillations o f
amplitude 0m = 30, (c) for oscillations o f amplitude 6m = 120.

SOLUTION

( )
T~ 2 * ' 17

0.6 m
= In . = 1.5539 s
V 9.81 m/s2

- 1.554 s ^

'7 k 'f ^ 2k
( b) For large oscillations 2tc I (1.5539 s)
n U J n

For em= 30, K = 1.598

r.(30) 2(1S98) ( 1'5539 s) , , 58[


n

rn (6 0 ) = 1.581 s A

(c) For 9 = 120, K = 2.157

SA
TV
PROBLEM 19.37
Using the date o f Table 19.1, determine the length in inches o f a simple
pendulum which oscillates with a period o f 3 s and an amplitude o f
em= 60 .

SOLUTION
From Equation 19.20;

For 6m = 60, k = 1.686

(Js) = ( 2 ) ( l . 6 8 6 ) ( 2 ) ^

J = = 0.44484 j - 0.19788
V 32.2 6.744 V 32.2

Thus / = 6.3718 ft = 76.462 in.

/ - 76.5 in. <


PROBLEM 19.38
The 10-lb uniform rod A C is attached to springs o f constant k = 50 lb/ft
at B and k = 62 lb/ft at C, which can act in tension or compression. I f
the end C is depressed slightly and released, determine (a ) the frequency
o f vibration, (b ) the amplitude o f the motion o f point C, knowing that the
maximum velocity o f that point is 2.7 ft/s.
PROBLEM 19.38 CONTINUED

1 ffir
12 + mf
1 e+ ~ k B + l 2kc 9 = 0
12 1 2.

w /2<9 + 0 = 0
3

i + k, 9 = 0
m

101b
N ow kB = 50 lb/ft, kc = 62 lb/ft, m =
32.2 ft/s2

()

3(32.2) 50
9 + + 62 9 = 0
10
9 + 119.619 = 0

con = V719.67 - 26.827 rad/s

co
f n = = 4.2696 Hz
2k

/ = 4 .2 7 H z

(b)

9 - 9msin ( a y + <(>), 9 = 9mcon cos (< o t + <f>)

Maximiun angular velocity:

Maximum velocity at C :

(2.7 ft/s)(l2 in./ft)


9m = = 0.017253 rad
(70 in.)(26.827 rad/s)

Thus

70 in.
(*c )" = J p M ) 9m = (58333 ft) ( - 017253 rad)

= 0.10064 ft

(x c ) m = 0.1006 ft A
PROBLEM 19.39
The 9-kg uniform rod AB is attached to springs at A and B, each o f
constant 850 N/m, which can act in tension or compression. I f the end A
o f the rod is depressed slightly and released, determine (a ) the frequency
o f vibration, ( b) the amplitude o f the angular motion o f the rod, knowing
that the maximum velocity o f point ^4 is 1.1 mm/s.
- 360 nun

- GOO mm -

SOLUTION

( ' ' 0.4-JL


o.i A
F a = * [ 0.610 + t e , - ) , ] , F b = k [0 A l9 + ( * ) , ]

(a ) L M C = Z(A/c )efT:

-0 .6 lk [o .6 l9 + + 0.1/mg - OAlk^OAld + = l a + OAlma, ( 1)


Equilibrium position: 9 - 0

-0.6lk (S s r ) A + 0.1/mg - 0 A lk (S ST) B = 0 (2 )


Substitute (2) into (1)

l a + 0.1Ima, + (0.6/) 2 kO + (0.4/) 2 >t<9 = 0

or I a + 0.1Ima, + 0.S2l~k9 = 0

But / = a. = 0.1/a, a - 6,
12 '

So 6 + 0.52l2k0 = 0

or 0.093330 + 0.52l 2k9 = 0

0 + 5.5714/2* # = 0

850 N/m
<9 + (5.5714) }o = 0
9 kg )

9 + 526.19 s-2 9 = 0
PROBLEM 19.39 CONTINUED

Thus <o = V526.19 s2 = 22.939 rad/s, , = ^ = 3.6508 H z


2n

f = 3.65 H z 4

(b) 0 = 0msin(cont + <f>), d = 6mcon cos(a>nt + <f>)

0m = 0nfi>n

(*a ).= 0 ( . )
0.0011 m/s = 0.6(0.6 m )(0 m)(22.939 rad/s)

= 0.0001332 rad = 0.0076

6m = 0.0076
PROBLEM 19.40
Tw o identical 3-kg uniform rods are hinged at point B and attached to a
spring o f constant k = 4 kN/m. The rods are guided by small wheels o f
b i
negligible mass and the system is in equilibrium when the rods are
horizontal as shown. Knowing that point B is depressed 20 mm and
0.5 m - 0.5 m - released, determine (a ) the frequency o f the resulting vibration, ( b) the
magnitude o f the maximum angular acceleration o f rod AB.
450 nun
PROBLEM 19.41
A 1.2-kg uniform rod AB is attached to a hinge at A and to two springs,
each o f constant k = 450 N/m . (a ) Determine the mass m o f block C for
which the period o f small oscillations is 0.6 s. ( b) I f end B is depressed
60 mm and released, determine the maximum velocity o f block C.
" >3 $

9(M) nun { 750 m m ->

SOLUTION

! U " e -t
1 j r J ^ q o 7S ^ _ (, w A

L 0 4 5 %.*75ktvI- ^ C"~ ;
r ^ ^ ^ c U _ 0 .8 2 5 - J
(a)

C+ ZMa = 2 (A /,)cfT:
1.2mg + 0.825mRg - 2(0.75)FS = l a + 0.825ms (a,)c + 1.2m(a,)c (1)
Where Fs = k(0.150 + S ^)
At equilibrium, 0 - 0
And

I M A= 0: 1.2mg + 0.825mRg - 2(0.75 )kSST = 0 (2)


Substitute (2) into (1)

l a + 0.825m* (a, )G + 1.2m(a,)f = -2(0.75)/t(0.75)<9

a = 0, (a ,)G = 0.825a, (a,)c = 1.2a

r = m/! = (1.2 kg)(1.65 m )! = _ 2


12 12

[o.2725 + (0.825)2 (1-2) + (l.2)2m ]0 + 2(0.75)2 (450)0 = 0

[1.08925 + 1.44m] 67 + 506.25(9 = 0

6i + 50625 . = 0
1.08925 + 1.44m
PROBLEM 19.41 CONTINUED

2 5 0 6 .2 5 , \2 (2 n ) In
NOW (On = -------------------------------- = ( 2 7 tfn ) hr = 1 0 9 .6 6
" 1 .0 8 9 2 5 + 1 .4 4 m v ( rJ 2 0 6

5 0 6 .2 5 = 1 0 9 .6 6 (1 .0 8 9 2 5 + 1 .4 4 m )

m = 2 .4 4 9 5 k g

m - 2 .4 5 k g 4

(tb ) (v c ) = 1 .2 ( 0 ) 6m = = = 0 .0 3 6 3 6 ra d
v ' max ' ''max. m 1 .6 5 1 .6 5

= (0 .0 3 6 3 6 r a d )(l0 9 .6 6 s 2 f = 0 .3 8 0 7 5 rad / s

( v c ) max - 1 .2 (0 .3 8 0 7 5 ra d / s ) = 0 .4 5 6 9 1 m /s

(\ vc )/ n = 4 5 7 m m /s 4
PROBLEM 19.42
k A 12-lb uniform cylinder can roll without sliding on a horizontal surface
C. c and is attached by a pin at point C to the 8-lb horizontal bar AB. The bar
A B is attached to two springs, each o f constant A: = 30 lb/in. as shown.
Knowing that the bar is moved 0.5 in. to the right o f the equilibrium
position and released, determine (a ) the period o f vibration o f the system,
(b ) the magnitude o f the maximum velocity o f the bar.
PROBLEM 19.43
A 12-lb uniform cylinder is assumed to roll without sliding on a
c MMA horizontal surface and is attached by a pin at point C to the 8-lb
horizontal bar AB. The bar is attached to two springs, each o f constant k =
20 lb/in. as shown. Knowing that the coefficient o f static friction between
the cylinder and the surface is 0.5, determine the maximum amplitude o f
the motion o f point C which is compatible with the assumption o f rolling.

SOLUTION
From 19.42

2k 2(20 lb/in.)(l2in./ft)(32.2 ft/s2)


= 24.382 rad/s
m+ 8 l b + 18 lb

N = W = M g + mg = 12 lb + 8 lb = 20 lb

F r = - M r 2d = - M r 2
2 2 (f)
l(. 121b \
max = 2 1 32.2 ft/s ~ _ ^ 2^ ^ _ A jn p ijt u d e
N 201b

H5 = 0.5 = 12 lb (24.382 rad/s)2A


40 lb(32.2 ft/s2)

or A = 0.090278 ft

A = 1.083 in. A
PROBLEM 19.44
A 270-kg flywheel has a diameter o f 1.2 m and a radius o f gyration o f
0.5 m. A belt is placed over the rim and attached to two springs, each o f
constant k = 13 kN/m. The initial tension in the belt is sufficient to
prevent slipping. I f the end C o f the belt is pulled 25 mm to the right and
released, determine (a ) the period o f vibration, ( b) the maximum angular
velocity o f the flywheel.

SOLUTION

(a)

S " . = r -

F c = *[(<Ssr)c - - 4 f b = * [ + ( M ]

0.6FC - 0.6FS = I 'd

0 .6 [ ( J s r ) c - 0.6 Id] - O .4 *[o .6 0 + (<Js r ) s ] = Id ( 1)


A t equilibrium (d = 0), Fb = k (d ST) g , Fc = k (S ST) c

Z M A = 0 = 0 M ( S s t )c - 0 M ( S s t )b ( 2)

Substitute (2) into (1)

I d + 0.72kd = 0

x2
/ = m h2 = (270 kg)(0.5 m ) = 67.5 kg-m 2

0.72k = (0.72 m2)(l30 00 N /m ) = = 9360 N m

2 0.72A: 9360 N m _2
Thus cot = = ^ - = ------- r = 138.67 s 2
I 67.5 kg-m

2n 2n
r = = 0.5335 s
>n J l 38.67 s

r = 0.534 s 4
PROBLEM 19.44 CONTINUED

(b ) 0 = sin( < V + * ) , # = 0m<n COS (C0nt + </>)

#m ax = m n

G)n = Vl38.67 s-2 = 11.776 s-1

xr 0.025 m .
= ------------= 0.04167 rad
m r 0.6 m

6mm = (0.04167 ra d )(l 1.776 s-1) = 0.49067 rad/s

co = 0.491 rad/s 4
PROBLEM 19.45
For the uniform semicircular plate o f radius r, determine the period o f
small oscillations i f the plate (a ) is suspended from point A as shown, ( b)
a'B
is suspended from a pin located at point B.
PROBLEM 19.46
A thin homogeneous wire is bent into the shape o f an isosceles triangle o f
sides b, b, and 1.6b. Determine the period o f small oscillations i f the wire
(a ) is suspended from point A as shown, ( b) is suspended from point B.
PROBLEM 19.47
5in. 5 in.
A semicircular hole is cut in a uniform square plate which is attached to a
frictionless pin at its geometric center O. Determine (a ) the period o f
small oscillations o f the plate, ( b) the length o f a simple pendulum which
has the same period.

SOLUTION

071467 ft
1/ 2 rrr-
16r -

m = ptr~ 16 - ' = ^ ( 2 . 5 0 5 0 7 ) - ^
2 S

n r* 8r* ;rr2
A, = f (4 r )4 - 2r -
9* + 2 3n

B 6 _ 9n
P tr = / * ( ! . 15333)
3 4
mgb
() /o0 + mgbd = 0, co2 =

x = = 2.81 s <
(O.,

(* ) n = -^ ,
<y2 / = 6.44 ft <
PROBLEM 19.49
Tw o 50-g weights are attached at A and B to the rim o f a 1.5-kg uniform
disk o f radius r = 80 mm. Determine the frequency o f small oscillations
when p = 45.

SOLUTION

From the derivation in Problem 19.48 (Equation 1)

4g cos p 4 9.81 m/s2jcos 45


i.20l
!(< + * )' ( 4 + (0.05g))
(0.08 m)

= 3.1939 s_l

f , = ^ = 0.508 Hz <
" 271
PROBLEM 19.50
A uniform disk o f radius r = 10 in. is attached at A to a 26-in. rod AB o f
negligible weight which can rotate freely in a vertical plane about B.
Determine the period o f small oscillations (a ) i f the disk is free to rotate
in a bearing at A, (b ) i f the rod is riveted to the disk at A.
r = 10 in.

SOLUTION

i*
r2fcin.

'1 0 n2
m = 0.334722 m
:\12,

a = 0

(a ) The disk is free to rotate and is in curvilinear translation.

Thus la - 0

Then = ( I M b )c(T

- m g l sin0 = lman sin# a 0

m l'O + mgld - 0

2 g 32.2 ft/s2
And co = = = 14.861 s"
26 ft
" / 12 11

(On = 3.8551 s_1

rn = = 1.6299 s
co

r = 1.630 s A
PROBLEM 19.50 CONTINUED

When the disk is riveted at A, it rotates at an angular acceleration a


PROBLEM 19.51 CONTINUED

So 6+
3 + 3

Then

(a ) With d - 1m

i ) ( m) = 1.794 s A
r_ = 2n = 1.7943 s t

( 2 + 3 ) (9.81 m/s2

(,b) With d = 0.7 m

r = In , = 1.6509 s t = 1.651 s <


+ l ( 0 - 7))(9-81 m/s2
PROBLEM 19.52
A compound pendulum is defined as a rigid slab which oscillates about a
fixed point O, called the center o f suspension. Show that the period o f
oscillation o f a compound pendulum is equal to the period o f a simple
pendulum j ) f length OA, where the distance from A to the mass center G
is GA = k 2J r . Point A is defined as the center o f oscillation and
coincides with the center o f percussion defined in Prob. 17.57.
PROBLEM 19.53
A rigid slab oscillates about a fixed point O. Show that the smallest
period o f oscillation occurs when the distance 7 from point O to the
mass center G is equal toAr.

SOLUTION

See Solution to Problem 19.52 for derivation o f

0 + sin# = 0
7 + k

For small oscillations sin# 9 and

72 + k 2 27i L k-
= = 2x r +
CO., 8f Vg

k2
For smallest r we must have r + a minimum

r +
/ _ k2
= 1 - =
d7 r

2
r r2
= k

7 = k (Q.E.D) <
PROBLEM 19.54
Show that i f the compound pendulum p f Prob. 19.52 is suspended from A
instead o f O , the period o f oscillation is the same as before and the new
center o f oscillation is located at O.
PROBLEM 19.55
v w w *d The 16-lb uniform bar AB is hinged at C and is attached at A to a spring
o f constant k = 50 lb/ft. I f end A is given a small displacement and
released, determine (a ) the frequency o f small oscillations, ( b) the
smallest value o f the spring constant k for which oscillations w ill occur.

SOLUTION

= 0.04493 lb-ft-s2

a = 9

a = 0.16667$
v !2 ,

sin 6 6

(+ ZM C .( Z M c ) "

~(0.6875)2fc$ + 0.16667mg$ = 1 9 + (0.16667)2m$

/ 16 N
0.04493 + 0.02778 0 + [0.47266A: - (0 .1 6 6 6 7 )(l6 )]$ = 0
32.2

0.05693$ + [0.472661c - 2.6667]$ = 0 ( 1)


(a ) For k = 50 lb/ft, 9 + 368.28$ = 0

-s/36828
f = 3 l - = 3.007 Hz
Jn In In

f n = 3.01 H z -A
PROBLEM 19.55 CONTINUED
(b ) For r -> oo, con 0 oscillations w ill not occur

From Equation (1)

2 0.47266)1 - 2.6667 .
= = 0
0.05873

k = 5.642 lb/ft

k = 5.64 lb/ft M
PROBLEM 19.56
o A 10-kg uniform equilateral triangular plate is suspended from a pin
located at one o f its vertices and is attached to two springs, each o f
. constant k = 200 N/m. Knowing that the plate is given a small angular
k displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the resulting
\ vibration.

I 400 nun - I "


PROBLEM 19.57
Tw o uniform rods, each o f weight W - 24 lb and length L - 40 in., are
welded together to form the assembly shown. Knowing that the constant
o f each spring is k - 50 lb/ft and that end A is given a small
displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the resulting
motion.
PROBLEM 19.58
A uniform disk o f radius r and mass m can roll without slipping on a
cylindrical surface and is attached to bar A B C o f length L and negligible
mass. The bar is attached at point A to a spring o f constant k and can
rotate freely about point B in the vertical plane. Knowing that end A is
given a small displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the
resulting vibration in terms o f m, L, k, and g.
PROBLEM 19.59
A uniform disk o f radius r = 10 in. is attached at A to a 26-in. rod AB o f
T~
negligible weight which can rotate freely in a vertical plane about B. I f
k
the rod is displaced 2 from the position shown and released, determine
\*Y the magnitude o f the maximum velocity o f point A, assuming that the
disk (a ) is free to rotate in a bearing at A, ( b) is riveted to the rod at A.
r s 10In.

5 ^
SOLUTION

r s o is o w

I = m r2 = (0.250) m = a - 6
2 2V 32

a, - la - 0.650#

(a ) The disk is free to rotate and is in curvilinear translatioa

Thus la - 0

Z M b = S (M f l )efr

-m g l sin 9 = Ima,

m l20 + mgl 9 = 0 a>2 = y

From 19.17, the solution to this Equation is

9 = 9ms.m{o)nt + <f>)

^ _ /r 7i .
At t = 0, 9 = 2 ------- - rad, 0 = 0
180 90

0 = 0ma>ncos((ont + 0 )

n
t = 0 0 = 9ma>n cos <f> =

n
= 9msin ^0 + - ' 9 = rad
90 2 ) m 90
PROBLEM 19.59 CONTINUED

Thus a=
9 71 sin
77
<rt + 2
90

( V/< )m ax ^m ax l& m Pn

n
With I = 26 in. = 2.1667 ft, 9m = - rad, co
m 90

( ^ L a x = ( 2 -1 6 6 7 f t )
90 JV 2.1667 ft

= 0.29156 ft/s

= 3.4987 in./s

(v .)
v A /m a x = 3.50in./s,4
( b) For disk riveted at A ( I a included)

I,M b = l ( M s ) ( + - mglsinO = I a + lmat

+ m l2 19 + m gl9 = 0

<y,

a -
71 sin
n
9 nt + - \ (See (a ))
90

( V/l ) m a x ^m ax ^ m 07n

7T (32.2 ft/s2 |(2.1667 ft)


= (2.1667 ft) rad
90 1 / 10in. \2 26 in. \2
2 V12in./ft j + 12in./ft)

= 0.28135 ft/s

= 3.376 in./s

(v ^ )
v A /m a x =3.38in./s-^
PROBLEM 19.60
A homogeneous rod o f mass per unit length equal to 0.4 kg/m is used to
form the assembly shown, which rotates freely about pivot A in a vertical
plane. Knowing that the assembly is displaced 2 clockwise from its
equilibrium position and released, determine its angular velocity and
angular acceleration 5 s later.

SOLUTION

mi = 0.4(2;rr), m2 = 0 .4 (r)

m
b = ------------= 0.01373 m
W| + m2

I A = mxr 2 + m2r 2 = 0.021173 k g m 2

/a6 + (wi, + m2)g b d = 0

2 _ (m, + m2)gb

con = 1.9253 s 6 = 0o coscont j

0 = 2 = rad, + ; ( = -O 0co sin a>nt


180

a = ~d0(o2
cos cont

At r = 5 s, <y = 0.01345 rad/s y -4

a = 0.1268 rad/s2 A
PROBLEM 19.61
B A homogeneous wire bent to form the figure shown is attached to a pin
support at A. Knowing that r = 12 in. and that point B is pushed down
1 in. and released, determine the magnitude o f the velocity o f B, 8 s later.
PROBLEM 19.61 CONTINUED

mr
h = P n r 2-r + 2r -
(2 + *)

mr 2 2r
^ -i 0 + mg - 0 = 0
(2 + 7r) 3 ( 2 + #)

2_ 2g _ 2(32.2 ft/s2)

(*r + | )r ( * + f ) ( ] | ft)

2 =* 16.911s-2 con = 4.1123 r/s

0 = 0ms in ( r+ (2>) ^ = r0

At t = 0 ^ = = 0.08333 f t , * * = 0

7t
^ 8 = 0 = (jyB) me>cos(0 + </>), <j> =

yB = 0.08333 ft = ( y B) msinf 0 + ^ j, (y ^ = 0.0833 ft

7t
y B ~ 0.08333 sin | ont + ^ co - 4.1123 r/s
/

r ^
K
yB = 0.08333 cos (DJ + - -0.08333<y sinf
\
2

A t t = 8 s, yB = -0.08333(4.1123)sin [4.11 23(8 )]

= -0.34134 ft/s = -4.0961 in./s

vB - -4.10 in./s A
PROBLEM 19.62
A homogeneous wire bent to form the figure shown is attached to a pin
support at A. Knowing that r = 320 mm and that point B is pushed
down 30 mm and released, determine the magnitude o f the acceleration
o f B, 10 s later.

SOLUTION

Determine location o f the centroid G.

Let p = mass per unit length

Then total mass m = p (2 r + n r ) = p r (2 + n )

( 2r\
About C mgc = 0 + n r p\ g = 2r 2p g
Vn )

p r (2 + n ) c = 2 r 'p

2r
c =
(2 + n )

+> Z M 0 = Z(A/0)cff a = 6 a, = ca = c6

-m g c sin 9 - I a + mca sin# a 6

(/ + me2j # + mgcG = 0 I 09 + mgcG - 0


PROBLEM 19.62 CONTINUED

But / + me2 = 70

(2 r f
(^o)semicirc + (2o)line WIs-circr line
+ m\ i
12

m
^s-circ = P n r Kne = P l r P =
(2 + 7t)

2 2r r mr 2
h = P 7ir-r + ------ /r +
(2 + ;r) 3

mr 2 2r
n 6 + mg- -0 = 0
{2
+ x)i 3 (2 +

2g . 2(9.81m/s2)
" (;r + + | )(0.32 m )

aa2 = 16.0999 s~2 con = 4.0125 rad/s

6 = 0ma n ( a j + <p) y B = rd

yB = r0msin(cw/ + <f>) = ( yB) ms in (a y + $ )

At t = 0 y B = 0.03 m yB = 0

(t = 0 ) yB = 0 = (y B) mcos(0 + cj>) <f> =

yB = 0.03 = (y B ) msin ' o + i ' {yB)m = 0-03 m


v 2j

/ 71^
yB = 0.03 sin con = 4.0125 s"
\ 1J

y b = ( 0 . 0 3 ) ( ) c o s L nt + ~ 1 - -(0 .0 3 )6 > sin < v


I " 2,

yB = (-0.03)(<y2)sinj^<v + y j = 0.032cosfiy

A t t = 10 s: (a B\ = yB = 0.03(4.0125)2cos(4.0125(10)) - -0.36437 m/s2

( Vfl) = yB = 0.03(4.0125)sin(4.0125(l0)) - 0.07902 m/s

VB (0.07902)2
O n (-0.36437)2 0.365 m/s2 A
032
PROBLEM 19.63
A uniform disk o f radius r - 6 in. is welded at its center to two elastic
rods o f equal length with fixed ends A and B. Knowing that the disk
rotates through an 8 angle when a 0.375 lb ft couple is applied to the
disk and that it oscillates with a period o f 1.3 s when the couple is
removed, determine (a) the weight o f the disk, ( b) the period o f vibration
i f one o f the rods is removed.
PROBLEM 19.64
,- A 5-kg uniform rod CD o f length / = 0.7 m is welded at C to two elastic
rods, which have fixed ends at A and B and are known to have a
fi
combined torsional spring constant K = 24 N-m/rad.. Determine the
period o f small oscillation, i f the equilibrium position o f C D is
A^ (a ) vertical as shown, ( b) horizontal.
i

U
D
PROBLEM 19.64 CONTINUED

0b)

TT ' To<

W ^ t f e ' + e ^ l <J <z H t = Z ( H t ' W

- K { 6 + 0ST) + m g ^ = J 6 + w f ~ l & = J c&

But in equilibrium (9 = 0) M C = 0 = - K 6 st + m g -

Thus JJ9 + KG - 0

1.159 s 4
g> K 24N-m/rad
PROBLEM 19.65
A 60-kg uniform circular plate is welded to two elastic rods which have
fixed ends at supports A and B as shown. The torsional spring constant o f
each rod is 200 N m/rad and the system is in equilibrium when the plate
0.16hi is vertical. Knowing that the plate is rotated 2 about axis AB and
released, determine (a ) the period o f oscillation, (b ) the magnitude o f the
maximum velocity o f the mass center G o f the plate.
PROBLEM 19.66
A horizontal platform P is held by several rigid bars which are connected
to a vertical wire. The period o f oscillation o f the platform is found to be
2.2 s when the platform is empty and 3.8 s when an object A o f uniform
moment o f inertia is placed on the platform with its mass center directly
above the center o f the plate. Knowing that the wire has a torsional
constant K = 27 N-m/rad, determine the centroidal moment o f inertia
o f object/I.
PROBLEM 19.67
A uniform equilateral triangular plate o f side b is suspended from three
vertical wires o f the same length I. Determine the period o f small
oscillations o f the plate when (a ) it is rotated through a small angle about
a vertical axis through its mass center G, ( b) it is given a small horizontal
displacement in a direction perpendicular to AB.

SOLUTION
be

Geometry

be
m
mg bO
F =
3 />/3

Then + ) I M g = i Ge = - F ^ ~ e

mb' m gb'
or e+ 0 = 0
12 3L

(a) co:
1 \g
PROBLEM 19.68
A 4-lb circular disk o f radius r = 40 in. is suspended at its center C from
wires AB and B C soldered together at B. The torsional spring constants o f
the wires are AT, = 3 lb-ft/rad for AB and K 2 = 1.5 lb-ft/rad for BC.
Determine the period o f oscillation o f the disk about the axis AC.
PROBLEM 19.69
Tw o small spheres, A and C, each o f mass m, are attached to rod AB,
which is supported by a pin and bracket at B and by a spring C D o f
constant k. Knowing that the mass o f the rod is negligible and that the
( ( IB system is in equilibrium when the rod is horizontal, determine the
J "t" J *1 frequency o f the small oscillations o f the system.
PROBLEM 19.70
A 0.7-kg sphere A and a 0.5-kg sphere C are attached to the ends o f a rod
too "m m A C o f negligible mass which can rotate in a vertical plane about an axis at
B. Determine the period o f small oscillations o f the rod.

160 m m

SOLUTION

Datum at

Position

% = 0

V\ = Wc hc - WAhA

hc = B C { l - c o s 0 m)

hA = BA{\ - cos0m)

For small angles 1 - cos(9.

6 = [0 n )(c ) - ( W > r f r f

Vx = [(o.5 kg X 9.81 m/s2j (0.16 m ) - (o.7 kg x 9.81 m/s2)(0.1 m )

.0 :
= (0.785 - 0 .6 8 7 )^ - = 0.098-^
PROBLEM 19.70 CONTINUED

y2 = o. T2 = -mc (Vc t + m A(V A) 2


m,(V e) m = (0.16)0,

T2 = i m c (O.16)20 2 + m A{ 0 . l f % , ( V A) m = ( O .l)0 m

r, = - (0.5 kg)(0 .1 6 )2 + (0.7 k g )(O .l)2] ;0 ,;, el = conem


2

Tj = ^[0.0128 + O.OO7]20 ; = i(O .O 1 9 8 ) ;0 ;

7^ + V, = T2 + r 2: 0 + 0 .0 9 8 ^ = ^ ^ 20 2

2 0.098 oc _2 2n In
co = ----------= 4.95 s , r = = . 2.82 s <
0.0198 con y[4$5
PROBLEM 19.71
Tw o blocks, each o f weight 3 lb, are attached to links which are pin-
connected to bar BC as shown. The weights o f the links and bar are
negligible and the blocks can slide without friction. Block D is attached
to a spring o f constant k = 4 lb/in. Knowing that block A is moved 0.5 in.
from its equilibrium position and released, determine the magnitude o f
the maximum velocity o f block D during the resulting motion.
PROBLEM 19.72
Tw o blocks, each o f weight 3 lb, are attached to links which are pin-
connected to bar BC as shown. The weights o f the links and bar are
negligible and the blocks can slide without friction. Block D is attached
to a spring o f constant k = 4 lb/in. Knowing that block A is at rest when it
is struck horizontally with a mallet and given an initial velocity o f
10 in./s, determine the magnitude o f the maximum displacement o f block
D during the resulting motion.

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.71

o)n = 18.158 rad/s

(10 in./s)(12 in./ft)


0n = = 0.5555 rad/s
0 1.5 ft

max |x0 |= ^ = 0.0612 ft = 0.734 in. <


PROBLEM 19.73
A uniform rod AB can rotate in a vertical plane about a horizontal axis at
C located at a distance c above the mass center G o f the rod. For small
oscillations determine the value o f c for which the frequency o f the
motion w ill be maximum.
PROBLEM 19.73 CONTINUED
Maximum c, when
PROBLEM 19.74
A thin uniform plate cut into the shape o f a quarter circle can rotate in a
vertical plane about a horizontal axis at point O. Determine the period o f
the small oscillations o f the plate.
PROBLEM 19.75
The inner rim o f a 38-kg flywheel is placed on a knife edge, and the
period o f its small oscillations is found to be 1.26 s. Determine the
centroidal moment o f inertia o f the flywheel.
1501

SOLUTION
Datum at

Position

71 = \ Vx = 0

T2 = 0 V2 = mgh

h = r ( l - cos0m) = r2sin2^ -

rOm
'

el
V2 = m g r-z -

Conservation o f energy

T\ + v \ = T2 + V2 ~>70^m + 0 = 0 + m g r^ j-

K = = ms rdl

4/ r2 _
col = Tn = 2
(o: mgr

J 0 = J + mr~ 7 .
J + mr
2= --------- =-----
47Z~

J7 ---------=--------
( r H ' g r ) m r 2
471-

(1 .2 6 s) 2 (3 8 k g )(9 .8 1 m /s2 )(0 . 1 7 5 m )


- (3 8 k g )(0 .1 7 5 m ) 2
4/r"

J = 2 .6 2 3 4 5 Nm s - 1 .1 6 3 7 5 N m s2 = 1 .4 5 9 7 N-m s*

J = 1 .4 6 0 kg-m2 -4
PROBLEM 19.76
A connecting rod is supported by a knife edge at point A ; the period o f its
small oscillations is observed to be 0.895 s. The rod is then inverted and
supported by a knife edge at point B and the period o f its small
oscillations is observed to be 0.805 s. Knowing that ra + rb = 10.5 in.,
determine (a ) the location o f the mass center G, ( b) the centroidal radius
o f gyration k .
PROBLEM 19.76 CONTINUED

P + F 2
() t = 2n1
gr

For a rod suspended at A :

Tn = 0.895 = 2 x r= ra (1 )
V

For a rod suspended at B :

k 2 + r2
Tn = 0-805 = 2 n ~
b, r= rb (2)
V STb

ra + rb = 10.5 in. = 0.875 ft (3)

From ( I ) and (2)

P + r 2 = ^ (0 .8 9 5 f (l'J
An

72 . -2 _ j i f b l A oa<\2
^ + ^ = ^ ( 0-805) ( 2')

Taking the difference ( l '} - { 2 ') :

r] ~ r2 = |-[0.80125ra - 0.648025r6]
4n

(ra - rb){r a + r6) = -^ [0 .8 0 1 2 5 r a - 0.648025rft]


471

( ' ' r>) = 4 ^ ^ 8 7 5 ) [-8012^ - 0-648025r4]

(ra - rh) = 0.746685ra - 0.60406/jb

0.25332ra = 0.39594r6 => = 0,63979ra

ra + 0.63979ra = 0.875 => rfl = 0.533605 ft

= 6.4033 in. r = 6.40 in. M

' 0.895
(b ) k 2 = gra
2n

= (32.2 ft/s2)(0.533605 _ (0.533605 ft )2

- 0.34863 ft2 - 0.28473 ft2 = 0.0639 ft2

k = 0.25278 ft = 3.0334 in.

k = 3.03 in.
PROBLEM 19.77
L'|. s|
A uniform disk o f radius r and mass m can roll without slipping on a
cylindrical surface and is attached to bar A B C o f length L and negligible
mass. The bar is attached to a spring o f constant k and can rotate freely in
the vertical plane about point B. Knowing that end A is given a small
displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the resulting
oscillations in terms o f m, L, k, and g.
PROBLEM 19.78
A 7-kg uniform cylinder can roll without sliding on an incline and is
attached to a spring AB as shown. I f the center o f the cylinder is moved
10 mm down the incline and released, determine (a ) the period o f
vibration, ( b) the maximum velocity o f the center o f the cylinder.

SOLUTION

(a ) Position

?i = 0 V , = ^ k { S S T + rdm) 2

Position

T2 = + J^v2 V2 = mgh + ^ k ( S STf

7; + V, = T2 + V2

0+ + rGm)~ = + m8h +

+ 2kSSTrdm + kv2e l = J 6 i + m v 2
m + 2mgh + (1)

When the disk is in equilibrium

Q+- EA/C = 0 = mg sin f ir kSSTr

Also h = rs'm/30m

Thus mgh - k S ^ r - 0 (2)

Substitute (2) into (1)

Ar 2e l = J 0 i + mvl

0m = vm = rdm = rco9m

kr2ol = ( 3 + mr2)elcol
PROBLEM 19.78 CONTINUED

2 kr2
at: =
J + m r2

J = -m r2

2 kr2 2 k
= 1^ wr 2 + m r"2 = T3
m

t = = . 2n = 0.71983 s
<y /2 (80 N/m)
V 1 2 kg

r = 0.720 s <4

v =

em =

vm = r6mot rOm = 0.01 m

2n
vm = (0.01 m ) = 0.0873 m/s ^
0.720 s
PROBLEM 19.79
Tw o uniform rods, each o f mass m = 0.6 kg and length / = 160 mm,
are welded together to form the assembly shown. Knowing that the
constant o f each spring is k = 120 N/m and that end A is given a small
displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the resulting
motion.

k
PROBLEM 19.79 CONTINUED

IV W 12 2n2
+ ---- I (Q~0~
-m ki2
-------_j_------
n tn = 01
I 6 g 4 g 2 2

=K + iL f,
2_ 2 + 1 6' z * + L
CO =
/ *
V K )

-9.81 m/s* 120 N/m


I 0.160 m
+
0.6 kg

= 166.43 s-2

(o = 12.901 rad/s

/ = -^2- = 2.0532 s '1


" In

f n = 2.05 Hz <
PROBLEM 19.80
A slender 20-lb bar AB o f length / = 2 ft is connected to two collars o f
negligible mass. Collar A is attached to a spring o f constant k = 100 lb/ft
and can slide on a horizontal rod, while collar B can slide freely on a
vertical rod. Knowing that the system is in equilibrium when bar AB is
vertical and that collar A is given a small displacement and released,
determine the period o f the resulting vibrations.

SOLUTION

V = k { l O ) 2 + mg
\ ' /

2'
T = - m l2 + m 6
2 12 (i)
kl- , mg!
co2
= -? <
" ml

2 3k 3g
cot = ---- +
" m 21

20 lb
With k = 100 lb/ft, / = 2 ft, m =
32.2 ft/s2

col = 507.15 s"2

r = = 0.279 s <
PROBLEM 19.81
A slender 10-lb bar AB o f length / = 2 ft is connected to two collars, each
o f weight 5 lb. Collar A is attached to a spring o f constant k - 100 lb/ft
and can slide on a horizontal rod, while collar B can slide freely on a
vertical rod. Knowing that the system is in equilibrium when bar AB is
vertical and that collar A is given a small displacement and released,
determine the period o f the resulting vibrations.
PROBLEM 19.82
A 6-lb slender rod AB is bolted to a 10-lb uniform disk. A spring o f
constant 25 lb/ft is attached to the disk and is unstretched in the position
shown. I f end B o f the rod is given a small displacement and released,
determine the period o f vibration o f the system.

15 iii.
PROBLEM 19.82 CONTINUED

1 2 1 ,2
- m Dr + - m ABl ^ + 0 = 0+ + } - mABg l e i

0m = A

f 1 2 1 ,2^
+ - V 0 = I + mAB&~X el

2 + - m ABl

fr 2 + f g w _ g [^ 2+ i ^ v ]

" j [ i ^ 2 + } * W 2] " i ^ 2+ j W 2

(32.2 ft/s2) (25 lb/ft)(0.33333 ft )2 + } ( 6 lb )(l.2 5 ft)

(10 lb)(0.33333 ft) + 1 (6 lb )(l.2 5 ft)

-2
57.109 s

o)n = 7.5571 rad/s

r = = 0.8314 s
C0

= 0.831s <
PROBLEM 19.83
A 0.7-kg sphere A and a 0.5-kg sphere C are attached to the ends o f a
too 1-kg rod A C which can rotate in a vertical plane about an axis at B.
Determine the period o f small oscillations o f the rod.

160 m m
PROBLEM 19.83 CONTINUED
a fp
With 1 - cos0m = 2sin2^ - *
2 2

V2 = [-(6 .8 7 )(0 .1 ) + (4.91)(0.16) + ( 9 . 8 l ) ( 0 . 0 3 ) ] ^ - 0.3929^-

i i fp
Tx + Vx = T 2 + V2: -i(0.02633)<?2 + 0 = 0 + -(0 .3 9 2 9 )-^ -

om = A

2 = 0.3929 = M 922 s_2


So
" 0.02633

2n _ - -1.62 66 s
con VI 4.922

r = 1.627 s A,
PROBLEM 19.84
Spheres A and C, each o f weight W, are attached to the ends o f a
homogeneous rod o f the same weight W and o f length 21 which is bent
as shown. The system is allowed to oscillate about a frictionless pin at B.
Knowing that P = 40 and / = 25 in., determine the frequency o f small
oscillations.
PROBLEM 19.84 CONTINUED

V2 = - mgl cos /?cos 6m

02
cosdm * l - y (smallangles)

V2 = ~ mgl cos /? 1 - 3 *
2

T\ + Vx = T2 + V2

f ft1 \
m l20 2 - m g lcos0 = 0 - m g lcos 1 _ Zm.
v 2 J

6m = ( r P m

= ^'gC O S/?^

= COS P
14 /

2 15 32.2 ft/s2
cos 40
"= l4 \ 25 in.
12 in./ft /

12.686 s~2

-l
a>n = 3.5617 s

/, = = 0.56686 s-1
2k

f n = 0.567 H z <4
PROBLEM 19.85
Three identical 8-lb uniform slender bars are connected by pins as shown

if
and can move in a vertical plane. Knowing that bar B C is given a small
displacement and released, determine the period o f vibration o f the
system.

30 in.

30 in.
PROBLEM 19.86
Tw o uniform rods AB and CD, each o f length / and mass m, are attached
to gears as shown. Knowing that the mass o f gear C is m and that the
mass o f gear A is 4m, determine the period o f small oscillations o f the
system.

SOLUTION

Kinematics 2rOA = rdc 26A = 6C

2eA= ec
Let 6A =6m 26m=(0c )m

a. = ( < y

Position

m,C D ^26
2

IA = ^ (4 m )(2 r )2 = 8m r2

1 2 1 2
7c = ^ ( m)(r ) = 2 mr

1 m/2
//<fl = 12 m/2 IcD = 12

TT, = 1 m
' r 2' a ' 2 /2 /2 + I12 I
8 r 2 + 4+ + +
1 2 12 3 4
, 2 >

T, = m 10r 2 + - / 2

K,=0
PROBLEM 19.86 CONTINUED
Position

Tx = 0

vi = w g j i 1 ~ C0SO + * ~ ( 1 - cos4(9m)

a .2
For small angles 1 - cos0 = 2sin2
2 2

l - c o s 4 0 m = 2 sin2 20m = 2d l

el
V\ = -mgl -r ie l

.2.2
Tl + VX = T 2 + V2 9 l = < o lnd,

-m 10r 2 + - 12 < 2e.2m+ o = o +,, -mgi


1 ._ ,5 0 2
2
3

col =
Ul 3g l
10r 2 + 1 12 12 r 2 + 212

2n [l2 r 2 + 212
= 2 n.
1 3g l
PROBLEM 19.87
Tw o uniform rods AB and CD, each o f length / and mass m, are attached
to gears as shown. Knowing that the mass o f gear C is m and that the
mass o f gear A is Am, determine the period o f small oscillations o f the
system.

SOLUTION

Kinematics 2rOA = rOc 26A = 6C

26a = ec

Let 6 a = 6m 29m = (0c ) m

Position

7; = + \lc ( + { I abOI + \ l c o f a f + +^ c d J j^

^ = 8" "- 2

'c = ^ H ' 2) = I " " - 2

/ ab = w / 2 /'CD
r n = - r r m l2
12 12
f . ..
a.1
-1

1 8r2 + V 2>
M

rc = m 0;
+

+
1

1 2 ,2> 12 3 4
PROBLEM 19.87 CONTINUED

T, = m 10r2 + - / 2 el V, = 0
1 2 3

Position

T2 = 0 V2 = - m g t ( 1 - cos0m) + - ^ ( 1 - cos20m)

f) ft2
For small angles 1 - c o s 9m - 2sin2
2 2
1 - cos29m = Is m 19m 2<92

V2 = - m g + 20 2 = m gl0 2
2 2 2 2 2

t \ + Vx = T 2 + V2 9m - a>n9l

1 5
m 10r2 + - I 2 0 > 2 + O = O + i m g / | ^ 2
2 3

9g l
" 10r2 + f I2 60r 2 + 1012

2n l60r2 + 10/2
= 271.
' 9g/
PROBLEM 19.88
A 5-kg uniform rod CD is welded at C to a shaft o f negligible mass
which is welded to the centers o f two 10-kg uniform disks A and B.
Knowing that the disks roll without sliding, determine the period o f small
oscillations o f the system.

SOLUTION

Position

,,
2 WM
disk
tx = - 2 [ i a) el + - r el
1 9 V 'disk m 9
2V s 2

(^)disk = ^"'disk'-2 = { ( 10 kg )(-3 m )2 = 0.45 k g m 2

Tcd = \ n c o l 2 = ^ ( 5 kg)(0 .9 m )2 = 0.3375 kg m2

So 7j = |^2(0.5 kg m2) + 2(10 kg)(0.3 m )2 + 0.3375 kg m2 + (5 kg)(0.45 m - 0.3 m )2]<?2

= {(3-15 ) e l

vx=o
PROBLEM 19.88 CONTINUED

Position 72=0, V2 = WCD l- { 1 -C O S 0 J ;

For small angles l-cos0m= ^ -

- j(5 k g )(9 .8 1 m / s 2)(0.45 m )0 2

= ^(22.073)0;
PROBLEM 19.89
Three collars, each o f mass m, are connected by pins to bars A C and BC,
each o f length I and negligible mass. Collars A and B can slide without
friction on a horizontal rod and are connected by a spring o f constant k.
Collar C can slide without friction on a vertical rod and the system is in
equilibrium in the position shown. Knowing that collar C is given a small
displacement and released, determine the frequency o f the resulting
motion o f the system.
PROBLEM 19.90
Tw o 6-lb uniform semicircular plates are attached to the 4-lb rod AB as
shown. Knowing that the plates roll without sliding, determine the period
6in. / /6in. o f small oscillations o f the system.

- 20 in.
PROBLEM 19.90 CONTINUED

Position F, =0 , V2 = 2mDgc 1 - c o s ^ -j, c = 1 - cos0m = ^ - ( 0 m l)

r 4 r\ 9}
V2 = 2mDg j-a . = fVDr 0 i = (6)| % = 1 .273240*
3n 12

Tt + V} = T2 + V2: 0.0458660 2 + 0 = 0 + 1.273240*

a si 2 1.27324
6m = <y0m: a>~ = ------------- = 27.747
0.045866

= 5.2677, r = = 1.192 s
co

r = 1.192 s A
PROBLEM 19.91
An inverted pendulum consisting o f a sphere o f weight W and a bar ABC
o f length / and negligible weight is supported by a pin and bracket at C.
A spring o f constant k is attached to the bar at B and is undeformed when
the bar is in the vertical position shown. Determine (a) the frequency o f
small oscillations, ( b) the smallest value o f a for which the oscillations
will occur.
PROBLEM 19.91 CONTINUED
PROBLEM 19.92
For the inverted pendulum o f Prob. 19.91 and for given values o f k, a,
k A and /, it is observed that / = 1.5 Hz when m = 0.9 kg and that
W W yB5 / = 0.8 Hz when m = 1.8 kg. Determine the largest value o f m for
which small oscillations w ill occur.

SOLUTION
See solution o f Problem 19.91 for the frequency in terms o f W, k, a and /

ka~
-1
Jn 2tt V I

ka~
/ = 1.5 Hz, m = 0.9 kg: 1.5 = ^ - 1 ( 1)
Jn h 2* V / 0.9 x 9.81 x/

ka
/ = 0.8 Hz, m = 1.8 kg: 0.8 = - 1 (2 )
2n V / 1.8x9.81 x/

Divide (1) by (2) and square

' 1.5 V _ (S29/ *)

(17.658/ )

ka- ka2
or 3.5156 -1 - 1
17.658/ 8.829/

ka2
Then = 29.3088
I

( 29.3088 29.3088
/ = - " I lfn = 0 -1 = 0
Jn 2n V / W ) '" W

W < 29.3088 N or m <, 2.9876 kg

m < 2.99 kg A
PROBLEM 19.93
o A section o f uniform pipe is suspended from two vertical cables attached
at A and B. Determine the frequency o f oscillation when the pipe is given
a small rotation about the centroidal axis O O ' and released.

w
T
i

L
O'
it . 4 lb /ft PROBLEM 19.94
A 4-lb uniform rod A B C is supported by a pin at B and is attached to a
spring at C. It is connected at A to a 4-lb block D E which is attached to a
spring and can roll without friction. Knowing that each spring can act in
tension or compression, determine the frequency o f small oscillations o f
the system when the rod is rotated through a small angle and released.

k 4 lb /ft
PROBLEM 19.94 CONTINUED

Then 7J + V, = T 2 + V 2: O.4852502 + 0 = 0 + 14.3750;

N ow 0m = <on0n => O.48525<y;0; = 14.3750;

<y2 = s~2, (o = 5.4428 s_l


" 0.48525

/ = -2 - = 0.86625 Hz
2;r

/ = 0.866 Hz 4
PROBLEM 19.96
As a submerged body moves through a fluid, the particles o f the fluid
flow around the body and thus acquire kinetic energy. In the case o f a
sphere m oving in an ideal fluid, the total kinetic energy acquired by the
fluid is ( y l g ' j V v 2, where y is the specific weight o f the fluid, V is the

volume o f the sphere, and v is the velocity o f the sphere. Consider a 1-lb
hollow spherical shell o f radius 4 in. which is held submerged in a tank o f
water by a spring o f constant 40 lb/ft. (a ) Neglecting fluid friction,
determine the period o f vibration o f the shell when it is displaced
vertically and then released, (b ) Solve part a, assuming that the tank is
accelerated upward at the constant rate o f 24 ft/s2.

SOLUTION
This is not a damped vibration. However, the kinetic energy o f the fluid
must be included

(a ) Position <D r, = o

V kx2
2~ 2 m

Position

T\ = V + r flu id = i m sv l + ~ | j
Vv

V\=0

/ \
1 2 1 r
wx + vx = t2 + v2 msvm + V vi + 0 = 0 + -ibc2
2 4

f 1 2 2 ;
m. + M V
1 2 2
= - t e m,C>n -
v 2 y

/ . . \
62.4 lb/ft3 4 4 in.
V - i n = 0.15032 lb-s2/ft
2 g 2 32.2 ft/s2 3 12 in./ft

40 lb/ft -2
col - = 220.54 s
( llb , +0.15032 lb-s2/ft)
\ 32.2 ft/s2 /

-i
a> = 14.850 s

2k
Tn - = 0.4231 s
OK

- 0.423 s <

(b ) The acceleration does not change mass


PROBLEM 19.97
A thin plate o f length / rests on a half cylinder o f radius r. Derive an
expression for the period o f small oscillations o f the plate.
PROBLEM 19.98
A 64-lb block is attached to a spring o f constant k = 1 kip/ft and can
P Pmsin (Oft
move without friction in a vertical slot as shown. It is acted upon by a
periodic force o f magnitude P = Pm sin cojt, where cof = 10 rad/s.
Knowing that the amplitude o f the motion is 0.75 in., determine Pm.

k- 1 kip/ ft

SOLUTION
" ( \2"
fjn_
*
* 1Pm - Y
m
1- \ f\
-( )

1000 lb/ft
= 22.43 s- '
64 lb
32.2 ft/s2

-l
0.75 in. 10 s
P. = 1- (1000 lb/ft) = 50.077 lb
12 in./ft 22.43 s"

Pm = 50.1 \ b <
PROBLEM 19.99
A 4-kg collar can slide on a frictionless horizontal rod and is attached to a
spring o f constant 450 N/m. It is acted upon by a periodic force o f
magnitude P = Pm sin co^t, where Pm = 13 N. Determine the amplitude
o f the motion o f the collar i f (a ) cof = 5 rad/s, ( b) co, = 10 rad/s.

SOLUTION

Equation (19.33)

fk

- m

450N/m _ ,0 6 0 7 s '1
4 kg

P 13 N
^2. = = 0.28889 m
k 450 N/m

0.28889 m
=
( mf
\ 10.607

0.28889 m
() = 5: Xm = = 0.03714 m
1
*- V
(
10.607)I 2

(In Phase) xm = 37.1 mm M

0.28889 m
( b) (Of = 10: xm = =- = 0.25984 m
J m . / ,n \2
1 v 10.607)

(In Phase) xm = 260 mm ^


PROBLEM 19.100
A 4-kg collar can slide on a frictionless horizontal rod and is attached to a
spring o f constant k. It is acted upon by a periodic force o f magnitude
P = Pm sin onf t , where Pm = 9 N and cof = 5 rad/s. Determine the
value o f the spring constant k knowing that the motion o f the collar has
an amplitude o f 150 mm and is (a ) in phase with the applied force, ( b) out
o f phase with the applied force.

SOLUTION

Equation (19.33)

Pm
k

(a ) In Phase

9N
k = = 160.0 N/m <
0.15 m +

(b ) Out o f Phase xm = -0.15 m

9N
k = 7 p- = 40.0 N/m <
-0.15 m + (4 kg)^5 s J
PROBLEM 19.101
A collar o f mass m which slides on a ffictionless horizontal rod is
attached to a spring o f constant k and is acted upon by a periodic force o f
magnitude P = Pm sin co, t. Determine the range o f values o f cof for
which the amplitude o f the vibration exceeds three times the static
deflection caused by a constant force o f magnitude Pm.

SOLUTION

Y-w\ Equation (19.33) x =


r 1 -^
PROBLEM 19.102
A small 20-kg b lo ck s is attached to the rod B C o f negligible mass which
is supported at B by a pin and bracket and at C by a spring o f constant
k - 2 kN/m. The system can move in a vertical plane and is in
equilibrium when the rod is horizontal. The rod is acted upon at C by a
periodic force P o f magnitude P = Pmsma>A, where Pm = 6 N .
Knowing that b = 200 mm, determine the range o f values o f o) f for which
the amplitude o f vibration o f b lo ck s exceeds 3.5 mm.

P = J> sin ,
PROBLEM 19.103
A small 20-kg block A is attached to the rod B C o f negligible mass which
is supported at B by a pin and bracket and at C by a spring o f constant
k - 2 kN/m. The system can move in a vertical plane and is in
equilibrium when the rod is horizontal. The rod is acted upon at C by a
periodic force P o f magnitude P = Pmsin&yf, where Pra = 6 N.
Knowing that a>, = 15 rad/s, determine Ihe range o f values o f 6 for
which the amplitude o f vibration o f b lo c k s exceeds 3.5 mm.

P = f', sin tyft

SOLUTION
Referring to the figure and solution Problem 19.102

= 1 W = 1 12000(0.8)2 = 8
a* ~ b i m ~ b ' 2D b

Ranoo 0 _ + 0-0035 , 3 _ 0-24 _ 0-24


g ^ b ~ a>2
- a>2
f " b2{a>2
n - 225) " 64 - 225b2

Lower frequency 0.246 = 0.224 - 0.78756 "

0.7825b2 + 0.246 - 0.224 = 0

6 = 0.40229 m

Upper frequency 0.246 = -0.672 + 0.787562

0.787562 - 0.246 - 0.672 = 0

6 = 0.70706 m

402 mm < 6 < 707 mm A


PROBLEM 19.104
A 2-kg block A slides in a vertical frictionless slot and is connected to a
moving support B by means o f a spring AB o f constant = 117 N/m.
Knowing that the displacement o f the support is 8 = Sm sin cof t, where
FTI 8m = 100 mm and (o , = 5 rad/s, determine (a) the amplitude o f the
motion o f the block, (b ) the amplitude o f the fluctuating force exerted by
the spring on the block.

I 8 'in (Of I
i .
1
+
SOLUTION

From Equation (19.33')

2 k 117 N/m
(o) co = = -----------
m 2 kg

o)2
n = 58.5 s 2

0.1 m
= = 0.17463 m

x = 174.6 mm A

(b ) Since <y2< ty2, x and S arein phase and net spring deflection is

x - S and F = k (x - 8 )

Fm = (117 N/m)(0.17463 m - 0.10 m )


CJyv" }
* I *

Fm = 8.73 N <
PROBLEM 19.105
A 16-lb block A slides in a vertical ffictionless slot and is connected to a
moving support B by means o f a spring AB o f constant k = 130 lb/ft.
Knowing that the displacement o f the support is 5 = 8m sin coA, where
Sm = 6 in., determine the range o f values o f co, for which the amplitude
o f the fluctuating force exerted by the spring on the block is less
than 30 lb.
! - S , sin I

SOLUTION

2 k 130 lb/ft .2
co = = = 261.63 s
m 16 lb
32.2 ft/s2

lj^ 6 5 lb In phase

Fm = k ( Xm ~ 5m) = k#n T - l
i - 5

Fm < 3 0 lb

30 lb
So - 1< = 0.46154

(Of
or 0.68241
G>n

< 1 -0.68241 = 0.31579


toz

co} < 0.31579<y; = (0 .3 1579)(216.63)

coj < 68.409 s-2

So cof < 9.0896 s-2

(Oj < 9.09 rad/s A


PROBLEM 19.105 CONTINUED

Out o f phase

6 in.
Fm = k {x m - 8 m) = 130 lb/ft = 130xm + 65 > 30
12 in./ft

There is no value o f x for which

Fm < |30 lb| whenx and 8 are out o f Phase A


PROBLEM 19.106
,y ,y sjn tatl r^ S k ^ cantilever beam AB supports a block which causes a static deflection o f
40 mm at B. Assuming that the support at A undergoes a vertical periodic
displacement 8 = Sm sin cof t, where 8m = 10 mm, determine the range
o f values o f go, for which the amplitude o f the motion o f the block will
be less than 20 mm. Neglect the mass o f the beam and assume that the
block does not leave the beam.

SOLUTION

S i n -Of t
r , or-
llVlx

mXB = ~ K { XB ~ # )

"&B + K xb = ke8mSmo)ft

Thus, from Equation (19.31) and (19.33')

i _ M l r f = 24525 ,
CO.
" m Sgj- 0.040
O '" m

0.5

1- 245.25

10
|20|>
1- 245.42

co
In phase + 20 1 - > 10
245.25

245.25
CO'f <

cof < 11.0736 rad/s

cOj < 11.07 rad/s A


PROBLEM 19.106 CONTINUED

Q W , i

r ~ IrodfS
2 o K h fttic

i f f
Z
v!
X
>x) *.
2o
'A W v ,^ -
i . 'A

2 \
(Of
Out o f phase -20 1- > 10
245.25

(Of > 0 2 4 5 .2 5 )

(Of > 19.1801 rad/s

(Of > 19.18 rad/s <


PROBLEM 19.107
8 iii. - 8 in .- A small 4-lb sphere B is attached to the bar AB o f negligible weight
which is supported at A by a pin and bracket and connected at C to a
F C moving support D by means o f a spring o f constant k = 20 lb/in. Knowing
that support D undergoes a vertical displacement 8 = 8msin (of t, where
I 8m = 0. 1 in. and co, = 1 5 rad/s, determine (a ) the magnitude o f the
o
1 maximum angular velocity o f bar AB, ( b) the magnitude o f the maximum

f acceleration o f sphere B.
PROBLEM 19.108
A 16-lb b lo ck s slides in a vertical frictionless slot and is connected to a
moving fixed support B by means o f a spring o f constant k = 10 lb/ft.

TT
] Knowing that the acceleration o f the support is a = am sin cOjt, where
am = 4.5 ft/s2 and co) 5 rad/s, determine (a ) the maximum
displacement o f block A, ( b) the amplitude o f the fluctuating force
% exerted by the spring on the block.

, siu {O f t

J:

SOLUTION
(a ) Support motion

a = 8 = amsm (Oft

T " f \
\
O

h a m
sin coft

1
II
2
(O f
\ J J

5 ~a - 4 5 M *2
ft. co,
vf (5 rad/s)

5m = -0.180 ft
B
From Equation (19.31 and 19.33')

8 2 k 10 lb/ft
- - - z s e ;
1- 32.2 ft/s-

0 1&
Xm = 7 ' = 0.74308 ft <y2 = 20.125 s~2
1 _ ( 25 \ "
1 V. 20.125 /

= 8.9169 in.

xm = 8.92 in. A

(b ) x is out o f phase with 8 for o )j = 5 rad/s

Thus
iw
o
F'm = k (x m + 8m) = 10 lb/ft(0.74308 ft + 0.18 ft)

= 9.2308 lb

Fm = 9.23 lb <
PROBLEM 19.109
A 360-g ball is connected to a paddle by means o f an elastic cord AB o f
constant k = 70 N/m. Knowing that the paddle is moved vertically
5 - <$,, sin t t if t according to the relation 8 = 8, sin cof t, with an amplitude
8, = 200 mm and a frequency f , = 0.5 Hz, determine the steady-state
amplitude o f the motion o f the bali.

SOLUTION


MX

X-
I F = ma k (8 - x ) = nix

f L\
X + x = 8

From Equation (19.31 and 19.33')

2 2-2
(Of = 2 n f f = 2 7i |= ^ s a>f - n s
s2

1 = (7 0 N / m )= W 4 4 s , ;
m (0.36 kg)

8, = 0.2 m

x, = r- = 0.21070 m (In Phase)


(( l 194.44 )]

Check to see whether cord goes slack

Static deflection
ST k 5 lb/ft
PROBLEM 19.109 CONTINUED

Since jc and 5 are in phase the maximum

Deflection o f the cord is xm - Sm = 0.21070 - 0.20 = 0.01070 mm

Which is less than the static deflection o f 50.5 mm

xm = 211 mm A
PROBLEM 19.110
A 360-g ball is connected to a paddle by means o f an elastic cord AB o f
constant k = 70 N/m. Knowing that the paddle is moved vertically
<>' M i l It), I according to the relation S = 8m sin cof t, where Sm = 200 mm,
determine the maximum allowable circular frequency <yy i f the cord is
not to become slack.

SOLUTION

Cord becomes slack when the net deflection o f the cord is greater than the static deflection, S,ST

ii

V
O o T O F
e
\ Phasc I 1
r

w (0.36 kg)(9.81 m/s2)


JST = = - = 0. 0505 m
70 N/m

2 k 70 N/m 1Q, , , -i
co:. = = -----------= 194.44 s
m 0.36 kg

From Equation (19.31 and 19.33') 'm


=

'< -Q
4>

Xm ~ < $ ST SO - - 1 < 5ST

1-3-

1 0.0505 ,
or - < + 1
0.2
i--4
a>

So - 5 - < 1.2525
1- 194.44

1 co
< 1-
1.2525 194.44

-c o ] > 194.44(0.79840 - 1 )
PROBLEM 19.110 CONTINUED

co) < 39.198 s_1

(of < 6.2609 rad/s


PROBLEM 19.111
The 2.4-lb bob o f a simple pendulum o f length / = 30 in. is suspended
from a 2.8-lb collar C. The collar is forced to move according to the
relation xc = 5m sin cof t, with an amplitude Sm = 0.5 in. and a
frequency f f = 0.5 Hz. Determine (a ) the amplitude o f the motion o f
the bob, ( b) the force that must be applied to collar C to maintain the
motion.

S O L U T IO N

(a )

iSvwSiuu^ti \ I X O = n
D J fe
!\ \
1 h ^
1 V

I Fx = max

- T sin# = mx

I F v = T cos# - mg = 0

For small angles cos# = 1. Acceleration in the y direction is second order and is neglected

T = mg

mx = -m g sin#

#
sm a = --------
x xc
/

mx + m ^-x = x = Smsincof t
1 I c I f

" /

x + (o\x = (D^Sm sin (Oft

From Equation (19.33')

Sm
xm = 2
i--4
K

So a ij = ( 2Jtfn)~ = 4;r2(0.5)" = n 2 s~2

12 1
PROBLEM 19.111 CONTINUED

= = 0.17827 ft = 2.1393 in.


1- *
12.88

:m = 2.14 in. ^

(b )

rF &<
_ r* - C O

ac = xc = - 8 mail s m a rt

_+_ SFX = wc.ac

F - r sin 9 = ma

x -x c
From part (a): T = mg, sin# = --------

x - x
Thus F = ~mg + mcxc

- m a 2x + m a2xc + mcxc

= ~m a1
nxms'mcOft + m a 2Smsina^t - mca 2Sm sina } t

/ 0.5>v 2.8 '


2 A \l2.88)(0.17827) + [ ^ i 1(12.88) n sin^rr
32.2 32.2 12 32.2.

-0.16690 sin nt

F = -0.1669sinnt (lb ) <


PROBLEM 19.112
A motor o f mass M is supported by springs with an equivalent spring
constant k. The unbalance o f its rotor is equivalent to a mass m located at
a distance r from the axis o f rotation. Show that when the angular
velocity o f the rotor is (of , the amplitude xm o f the motion o f the motor
is
r (m / M )(c o j I a )^

\ - ( ( D f l(On)~
PROBLEM 19.113
A s the rotational speed o f a spring-supported 200-lb motor is increased,
the amplitude o f the vibration due to the imbalance o f its 30-lb rotor first
increases and then decreases. It is observed that as very high speeds are
reached, the amplitude o f the vibration approaches 0.165 in. Determine
the distance between the mass center o f the rotor and its axis o f rotation
{Hint. Use the formula derived in Prob. 19.112.)
PROBLEM 19.114
A s the rotational speed o f a spring-supported motor is slowly increased
from 200 to 300 rpm, the amplitude o f the vibration due to the unbalance
o f its rotor is observed to increase continuously from 0.125 to 0.4 in.
Determine the speed at which resonance w ill occur.

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.112

r ll2 L )(fH
\M)\ C0
X = ----------------------
m / \2

*-(? )

(i)

-(? )

And 0.040 - (2 )

0.125 '- ( ? ) poof


Dividing (1) by (2)
0.40 I _ J200j2 U O O J

\2
^200' 300
0.7031 1 - = 1-
y COn
,

col = 208.4 X 103

con - 456.51 rpm

Resonance when cof =<on

(o. = 457 rpm <41


PROBLEM 19.115
A 200-kg motor is supported by springs having a totai constant o f
215 kN/m. The unbalance o f the rotor is equivalent to a 30-g mass
located 200 mm from the axis o f rotation. Determine the range o f
allowable values o f the motor speed i f the amplitude o f the vibration is
not to exceed 1.5 mm.
PROBLEM 19.115 CONTINUED

cof < 0.99015(1075)= = 32.464 rad/s

= (32.46 rad/s)(60 s/min)^- j

= 31001 rev/min

co, < 3 1 0 rpm A

xm 1.5mm: -0.0015 < 30 * 10-6 m f ^ / |

'- ( * ) U J

co, > 1.01015(1075)2 = 33.120 rad/s = 316.27 rev/min

cof > 3 1 6 rpm A


PROBLEM 19.116
A 100-kg motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam. The unbalance o f its
rotor is equivalent to a 57-g mass located 100 mm from the axis o f
rotation. Knowing that resonance occurs at a motor speed o f 400 rpm,
4 determine the amplitude o f the steady-state vibration at (a ) 800 rpm,
^ (b ) 200 rpm, (c ) 425 rpm.

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.113

Resonance at 400 rpm means that co = 400 rpm

0.057 kg
= 57 x 10"6 m
100 kg

CO f 800 y =
(a)
co, ~~ V 400 J
57 x 10~6 m ( 4 ) ,
= -------------------- _ _76 x io "6 m
1 -4

x, = -0.076 mm A

co 200
(b ) L I I z n . I = o.25
400

(57 X 10-6 m )(0.25)


= 19x10"
1 - 0.25

xm = 0.019 mm A

co,
(c)
y<n
! =fT - 1
U 00J
1289

( 5 7 x l 0 " 6 m ) ( l. l 2 8 9)
x . = = -499.18 x 10"6 m
1-1.1289

xm = -0.499 mm A
PROBLEM 19.117
A 360-lb motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam. The unbalance o f its
rotor is equivalent to a 0.9-oz weight located 7.5 in. from the axis o f

Q
~
--..... ......
" "A
rotation, and the static deflection o f the beam due to the weight o f the
motor is 0.6 in. The amplitude o f the vibration due to the unbalance can
be decreased by adding a plate to the base o f the motor. I f the amplitude
o f vibration is to be less than 2.16 x 10 in. for motor speeds above
300 rpm, determine the required weight o f the plate.

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.112

-(s )fe f

'- f e f

(? )< /
Since Mco~ = k. =

- m

Before plate is added CO.2 = = fir = 6 4 4 S -2

*' l T ft

360 lb
k - M col = (644 s-2) = 7200 lb/ft
32.2 ft/s2

* # lb
m = ----- = 0.0017469 lb s2/ft
32.2 ft/s2

mr _ 0.0017469 lb s2/ft
r^ ft = 151.64 x 10-9 ft s2
k ~ 7200 lb/ft l 12
After plate is added

co changes since M changes

< 2=
" M

Since amplitude o f vibration is to be less than 2.16 x 10'3 in. for motor speeds above 300 rpm

,2
/ (151.64 x 10'9 ft-s2) ^ 3 0 0 - ^ r )
2.16 x 10-3
.r.M ft
12
PROBLEM 19.117 CONTINUED
149.663 x l O " 6
Solve for <y': -0.18 x 10 3 = j _ 986.96
K )2

Mf= 538.89 = A
M' = = 13.361
538.89

W ' = M 'g = (13.361)(32.2) = 430.22 lb

A W = 430.2 lb - 360 lb = 70.22 lb

Wrplate 70.2 lb A
PROBLEM 19.118
A counter-rotating eccentric mass exciter consisting o f two rotating 100-g
masses describing circles o f radius r at the same speed but in opposite
senses is placed on a machine element to induce a steady-state vibration
o f the element. The total mass o f the system is 300 kg, the constant o f
each spring is k = 600 kN/m, and the rotational speed o f the exciter is
1200 rpm. Knowing that the amplitude o f the total fluctuating force
exerted on the foundation is 160 N, determine the radius r.

SOLUTION
Imrcof
2 2k
Pm = 2mrcof , xm = or. =
" M
i
- m

2mrco
With 2kxm = 160 N = - 7 W f = 40^ rad/s
I M f
2k

Solving for

(3 0 0 k g )| 4 0 .T s 11
160 N 1200000N/m
r = - = 0.1493 m
2(0.1 kg)(40/rs~ )

r - 149.3 mm A
PROBLEM 19.119
A 360-lb motor is supported by springs o f total constant 12.5 kips/ft. The
unbalance o f the rotor is equivalent to a 0.9-oz weight located 7.5 in.
from the axis o f rotation. Determine the range o f speeds o f the motor for
which the amplitude o f the fluctuating force exerted on the foundation is
less than 5 lb.

SOLUTION

From Problem 19.112


i_ (s

rmco
And (F t ) m = kxm, = o2
n, (F T ) m =
-(Z L

7.5
Then rm ft
12
= 0.0010918 l b s 2
32.2 ft/s2

2 k 12500lb/ft 1 1 l o l _2
COZ = ---------- =
360 lb = 1118.1s
M
32.2 ft/s2

CO,
(F r ) = f 0.0010918 lb-s2 )-
V f
1 - 1118.1

CO,
or (0.0010918 l b s 2)
w , 1118.1

\ ft)
( Fr)m = + (0.0010918) co,
1118

1 H 8 .1 (^ L
Then a
(F r ) +1.2207

2 1118.1(5) ,
(a) (F rl +5: col = --------------- 898.69 s~2,
3 5 + 1.2207

cOf < 29.978 rad/s

< 286.26 rpm < 286 rpm A

, V , 1 1 1 8 .l(-5 ) ,
Qb) (F T ) = -5 : col = -----------------= 1479.2 s ,
v !m 3 -5 + 1.2207

C0f > 38.461 rad/s

> 367.27 rpm go, > 367 rpm A


PROBLEM 19.120
A vibrometer used to measure the amplitude o f vibrations consists o f a
box containing a mass-spring system with a known natural frequency o f
150 Hz. The box is rigidly attached to a surface which is moving
according to the equation y = 8m sin cof t. I f the amplitude zm o f the
motion o f the mass relative to the box is used as a measure o f the
amplitude 8m o f the vibration o f the surface, determine (a ) the percent
_______ error when the frequency o f the vibration is 750 Hz, (b ) the frequency at
which the error is zero.

SOLUTION

x = sin<y,/

"n

y = 8msin cort

z = relative motion

z = x - y - -t - K sinner

m = 8,m -i
i - 4

fZ50!2
(a )
zm ^ = y 150 J ^ 25
1.0417 <
24
1-3-
I 150

Error = 4.17%

( b) s l = 1=
8.

\= l X fr = = (150) = 106.07 Hz
f 2 2

f = 106.1 Hz <
PROBLEM 19.121
A certain accelerometer consists essentially o f a box containing a mass-
spring system with a known natural frequency o f 1760 Hz. The box is
rigidly attached to a surface which is moving according to the equation
y = Sm sin o)f t. I f the amplitude zm o f the motion o f the mass relative to
the box times a scale factor co2 is used as a measure o f the maximum
acceleration am = Sma>2 o f the vibrating surface, determine the percent
error when the frequency o f the vibration is 480 Hz.

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.120

zm = Sm
m -
or
. - 4

Now am f SO

1 -^

= 0.07438
U J 1 1760 J

1
Then = 1.0803
1 - 0.07438

Error = 8.03% <


PROBLEM 19.122
f - rmsn. m i Figures (1) and (2) show how springs can be used to support a block in
two different situations. In Fig. (1) they help decrease the amplitude o f
the fluctuating force transmitted by the block to the foundation. In
Fig. (2) they help decrease the amplitude o f the fluctuating displacement
E J transmitted by the foundation to the block. The ratio o f the transmitted
force to the impressed force or the ratio o f the transmitted displacement
x h to the impressed displacement is called the transmissibility. Derive an
(i) (2) equation for the transmissibility for each situation. Give your answer in
terms o f the ratio a>f /eo o f the frequency oo1 o f the impressed force or
impressed displacement to the natural frequency (On o f the spring-mass
system. Show that in order to cause any reduction in transmissibility, the
ratio (Oflcon must be greater than J l .

S O L U T IO N

(1) From Equation (19.33)


>

i
m .
i- - r
\a> f


Force transmitted, {PT )m = =

Thus

( P ) 1
Transmissibility = = -----------

- )
(2) From Equation (19.33')

.. _ K
Displacement transmitted

i? r

X 1
Transmissibility = = -----------=- M

s- ' - m
PROBLEM 19.122 CONTINUED

(P T ) x
For or - 2- to be less than 1
P, 8m

< i

- m

i <

CO f j
> 2 - 2 - > V2 Q.E.D 4
\<nj <*>n
PROBLEM 19.123
A 27-kg disk is attached with an eccentricity e - 150 //m to the
midpoint o f a vertical shaft AB which revolves at a constant angular
velocity (of . Knowing that the spring constant k for horizontal movement
o f the disk is 580 kN/m, determine (a) the angular velocity (o f at which
resonance will occur, ( b) the deflection r o f the shaft when
to, = 1200 rpm.
PROBLEM 19.123 CONTINUED

r = 0.416 mm 4
PROBLEM 19.124
A small trailer and its load have a total weight o f 500-lb. The trailer is
supported by two springs, each o f constant 350 lb/ft, and is pulled over a
road, the surface o f which can be approximated by a sine curve with an
amplitude o f 2 in. and a wavelength o f 15 ft (that is, the distance between
successive crests is 15 ft and the vertical distance from crest to trough is
4 in.). Determine (a ) the speed at which resonance will occur, ( b) the
amplitude o f the vibration o f the trailer at a speed o f 30 mi/h.

S O L U T IO N

Total spring constant k = 2(350 lb/ft) = 700 lb/ft


A_r

(a ) co, 500 lb
45.08 s-
m
32.2 ft/s'

A = 15 ft, Sm = 2 in. = 0.16667 ft

y = <*msin J> x = vt

A 2/r
t, r = and cof = ,
v r

2;rv _ 2/rv
so y = 0.16667 sin to A where =
~ r ~ i r

From Equation (19.33'), =

1-4-

Resonance: <y, = = con = n/45.08 s ' 1,


' 15

v = 16.029 ft/s = 10.93 mph ^

M 3 0 )(iH ) = 18.431s'1
(ft)
15

0.16667
r HI = = -0.0255 ft <
(18.431)
1-
45.08
PROBLEM 19.125
Block A can move without friction in the slot as shown and is acted upon
by a vertical periodic force o f magnitude P = Pm sin (of t, where
P P , Mil (til /
(Of = 2 rad/s and Pm - 5 lb. A spring o f constant k is attached to the
bottom o f block A and to a 44-lb block B. Determine (a ) the value o f the
constant k which will prevent a steady-state vibration o f block A, ( b) the
corresponding amplitude o f the vibration o f block B.
^Krr

S O L U T IO N

In steady state vibration, block A does not move and therefore remains in
its original equilibrium position

(a ) Block A { I F = 0

kx = - P msin (Oft ( 1)
Block B + 1 I F = mBx,

mBx + kx = 0

h r i*
w ix | |b X = xmsin<yr, (o\ = klmB

From (1) kxmsin (ont = - P msin (of t

(0 = (of = 2 rad/s, kxm = - P m

= 2r 1
m b

441b
k = 4 s '2 = 5.4658 lb/ft
32.2 ft/s2

k = 5.47 lb/ft <

(b) kxm = - P xm = ------ = 0.91477 ft


m 5.4658 lb/ft

= 0.915 ft <
PROBLEM 19.126
Show that in the case o f heavy damping ( c > cc ), a body never passes
through its position o f equilibrium O (a ) i f it is released with no initial
velocity from an arbitrary position or ( b) i f it is started from O with an
arbitrary initial velocity.

S O L U T IO N

Since c > cc we use equation (19.42), where

\ < 0, /*2 < 0

x = c1e/i'l< + c2eA'2 (1)

(2)
v = ~cit = Cl^ eMt + C2^ e h
55

II
X
II
II

o*

<

o
$

From (1) and (2) x0 = c{ + c2

0 = + C2X2

Solving for q and c2

Cl = *0 c2 = n x0
/l2 /tj A2 Xj

Substituting for q and c2 in (1)

F or x = 0 When t * co, we must have


1
TO
TO

>
>
to

O
,3

II

II

(3)
I
>

Recall that

4j < 0, 0. Choosing \ and /k so that < X, < 0, we have

0 < < 1 and X2 - \ > 0


K

Thus a positive solution for t > 0 for Equation (3) cannot exist since it would require that e raised to a
positive power be less than 1, which is impossible. Thus x is never 0.

The x - t curve for "*


this case is shown ^

-t <
PROBLEM 19.126 CONTINUED

(b ) t = 0, x = 0, v = v0 Equations (1) and (2), yield

0 = q + c2 v0 = qA, + c2^

Solving for q andc2, q = , c2


Aj - Al A ^ -A ,

Substituting into (1)

x = ^ [ V 2' - e*1' j
A?

F o r x = 0, t * a

ex- = eht

For c > cc, Aj ^ A2 ; Thus no solution can exist for t, and x is never 0.

The x - t curve
for this motion
is as shown
PROBLEM 19.127
Show that in the case o f heavy damping ( c > cc ), a body released from
an arbitrary position with an arbitrary initial velocity cannot pass more
than once through its equilibrium position.

SOLUTION
Substitute the initial conditions, t - 0, x = x0, v = v0 in Equations (1) and (2) o f Problem 19.127

*0 = C1 + c2 v0 cl \ + c2^2

( vo ~ ^ * o ) ( vo - V o )
Solving for q and c2, c, - -
A2 \ ~ A

And substituting in (1)


* = ^ - Aj ^ V AlX ^ 2' ~ ( V ~ * * > ) * ]

F o r x = 0, t * oo (v 0 - M o ) ^ 2' = (v 0 - V o K 1'

ei h - k ) _ ( V0 ~ ^2*0 )
(v 0 - V o )

t = - In V ^zX
(^2 ~ \ ! v0 _ A x0

This defines one value o f t only for x = 0, which w ill exist i f the natural log is positive,

i.e, i f 2JLSL > i _ Assuming \ ^ < 0


v0 - V o

This occurs i f v0 < 2,x0

-}U > p e = - ? v ,X o
PROBLEM 19.128
In the case o f light damping, the displacements X j, x 2 , x 3, shown in
Fig. 19.11 may be assumed equal to the maximum displacements. Show
that the ratio o f any two successive maximum displacements x n and
x n+i is constant and that the natural logarithm o f this ratio, called the
l o g a r i t h m i c d e c r e m e n t , is
h xn 2n ( c i c c)

SOLUTION

For light damping, ccc

Equation (19.46) x = x ne ( & 0t + <f>)

A t given maximum displacement, t = t , X = x n

s in ( < y 0f + < /) = 1, x n = x 0e
(2ni)fn

A t next maximum displacement, t t+i, x x n+1

. / /\ * 12m
s m ( 0t + i + # ) = 1, x n+1 = x Qe ' ;

But D t n + 1 " V r A - 2n

2n
n+\
0}D

Ratio o f successive displacements:

-t
xne 2m c (* f \ + 7tS-
^ 2m0)D
= e, 2m\ln n+ l ) =
e
ln+1
n + l x 0e 2m

, x cn
Thus In = ------ CD
Si+1 mcor

/ \
C
From Equations (19.45) and (19.41) a>D = 1 -
\ r.e

C L c '
(O r = . |l -
2m V VC,
PROBLEM 19.128 CONTINUED
PROBLEM 19.129
In practice, it is often difficult to determine the logarithmic decrement o f
a system with light damping defined in Prob. 19.128 by measuring two
successive maximum displacements. Show that the logarithmic
decrement can also be expressed as (l/ A :)ln (xn/xn+k) , where k is the
number o f cycles between readings o f the maximum displacement.

SOLUTION

As in Problem 19.128, for maximum displacements xn and xn+k at tn and tn+/t, sin(fi>0t + <f) = 1

and s in (fty +* + <f>) = 1.

r _ r p~{im)f _ r
xn ~ x0e xn +k ~ X-dF
Ratio o f maximum displacements

S
^)tn e lm
(<n ~ n + k )

x n+k % ^ ( 2m )tn+k

But coDtnJrk - 0) Dtn = k {2 n ) tn - tn+k = k


0)'D

f \
2kn
Thus = + . = (2)
xn+k 2m v <d j Xn+k ma)D
But from Problem 19.129 Equation (1)

log decrement - In = K
xn+\ coD
Comparing with Equation (2)

log decrement = In Q.E.D. A


k x +k
PROBLEM 19.130
In a system with light damping ( c < cc ), the period o f vibration
is commonly defined as the time interval rd = 2n /cod corresponding
to two successive points where the displacement-time curve touches
one o f the limiting curves shown in Fig. 19.11. Show that the
interval o f time (a ) between a maximum positive displacement and the

fo llow in g negative displacement is t d, ( b) between tw o successive


2
1
z e r o d is p la ce m e n ts is t d, ( c ) b e tw e e n a m axim u m p o s it iv e
2 1
displacement and the following zero displacement is greater than xd,
' 4

SOLUTION

Equation (19.46)

x - x0e sm{a>Dt + <f)

(a ) Maxima (positive or negative) when x = 0

X = ? ' lm' sin(<Df -f + xQcoDe cos(et>D,


2m

Thus zero velocities occur at times when

2 mmD
x = 0, or tan { p Dt + <f) = (1)
The time to the first zero velocity, tx, is

' ImCOn '


tan 1 -<t>
I c J
t, = ( 2)
0),D
PROBLEM 19.130 CONTINUED

The time to the next zero velocity where the displacement is negative is

.i f 2mo)c
tan - d> + n
V c
*[ = (3)
co'D

Subtracting (2) from (3)

t\ -t|= = ^ ^ Q.E.D
(oD In 2

(b ) Zero displacements occur when

sin(<y6,r + <p) = 0 or at intervals o f

coDt + <f> = n, 2n nn

Thus,
(Or (Or

Time between 0's = (r j)(| - (t, )Q - = = -^2. Q.E.D


(On 2n 2

! 2 Vvm^d /c

Iff j / ! U F/z
L O Dt . f 4 >

Plot o f Equation (1)

(c) The first maxima occurs at 1, (a>z/i + <f>)

The first zero occurs at K ( 'i W ) = *

From the above plot (< % ('] )0 + * ) " ( < V i + + ) > f

or
' 2<o,, '|/

Similar proofs can be made for subsequent max and min


PROBLEM 19.131
The block shown in depressed 24 mm from its equilibrium position and
-. k ~ % N/m released. Knowing that after 10 cycles the maximum displacement o f the
block is 10 mm, determine (a ) the damping factor c/cc, ( b) the value o f
the coefficient o f viscous damping. {Hint. See Probs. 19.128 and 19.129.)

i-

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.128 and 19.129

( \ 2n
0 X*.
- In
UJ [x + k )
-(t)
Where k = number o f cycles = 10

(a ) First maximum is, xt = 1.2 in.

Thus, n = 1
1.2 2.4
+1 0 0.5

Hi
In
Cr.
In2.4 = 0.08755
10

C \2 2r \
c c
1- f 1
U1
[ 0.08755
\ Cc j \ Cc ;

f \2
C ' In ^
+1 = 1
\ Cc J 0.08755

r ^2
c
= 0.0001941
\ Cc J (5150 + 1)

= 0.01393 A

(b) cc = 2 m ^ = 24km = 2^/(96 N/m )(4 k g ) = 39.192 N-s/m

- 0.01393

c = (0.01393)(39.192) = 0.54594

c = 0.546 N-s/m A
PROBLEM 19.132
Successive maximum displacements o f a spring-mass-dashpot system
similar to that shown in Fig. 19.10 are 1.25, 0.75, and 0.45 in. Knowing
that W = 36 lb and k = 175 lb/ft, determine (a ) the damping factor
c/cc, ( b) the value o f the coefficient o f viscous damping c. {Hint. See
Probs. 19.128 and 19.129.)

SOLUTION
f \
C
2n
ln - s- = \ Cc J
(a ) From Problem 19.128,

M t f

For xn = 1.25 in. and xn+l = 0.75 in.

2n\
In
1.25
0.5108 = (t)

-(f)
0.75

+1
2k J
= 1
\ Cc J 0.5108 J
( \2
C 1_
= 0.006566
v Cc y 151.3 + 1

- 0.0810 A

0b) = 2m. = 24km


Vm

361b
= 2 /(175 lb/ft) = 25.022 lb s/ft
,32.2 ft/s2

c = (0.0810)(25.022) = 2.037

c = 2.04 lb-s/ft A
PROBLEM 19.133
A 2-lb block B is connected by a cord to a 5-lb block A which is
suspended as shown from two springs, each o f constant k = 12.5 lb/ft, and
a dashpot o f damping coefficient c = 0.5 lb s/ft. Knowing that the system
is at rest when the cord connecting A and B is cut, determine the
minimum tension that w ill occur in each spring during the resulting
motion.

SOLUTION
From the given data

cc = 2mo) = 3.94055 lb-s/ft

Stretch at equilibrium = = 0.2 ft


2(12.5 lb/ft)

Initial stretch = - - = 0.28 ft


2(12.5 lb/ft)

With

From Figure 19.11

( + Minimum x = -0.08e 1-61(0-2496) = -0.053525 ft

Minimum force in one spring = (12.5 lb/ft)(0.2 - 0.053525) = 1.831 lb A


PROBLEM 19.134
A 2-lb block B is connected by a cord to a 5-lb block A which is
suspended as shown from two springs, each o f constant k = 12.5 lb/ft, and
a dashpot o f damping coefficient c = 4 lb s/ft. Knowing that the system
is at rest when the cord connecting A and B is cut, determine the velocity
o f block A after 0.1 s.

SOLUTION
From the given data

a n = J = yjl6l rad/s
Vm

cc = 2mcon = 3.94055 lb s/ft

Stretch at equilibrium = . ^ r = 0.2 ft


2(12.5 lb/ft)

7 lh
Initial stretch = = 0.28 ft
2(12.5 lb/ft)

c > cc : x = cte^' + c2ekl'

So f 51b J A2 + 4 lb s/ftA + 25 = 0
\32.2 ft/s )

- 4 y i6 - ^
A =
10
32.2

A, = -10.6677, A, = -15.0923

+ 1 / = 0, x = 0.08 ft = c, + c2
solve for c c2
x = 0 = c,A, + c2A2

A t t = 0.1 s, x CfA^e0' 1** + c2A2e ^

x = 0.35816 ft/s

v = 0.358 ft/s { <


PROBLEM 19.135
The barrel o f a field gun weighs 1800 lb and is returned into firing
position after recoil by a recuperator o f constant c = 1320 lb s/ft.
Determine (a ) the constant k which should be used for the recuperator to
return the barrel into firing position in the shortest possible time without
any oscillation, (b ) the time needed for the barrel to move back two-thirds
o f the way from its maximum-recoil position to its firing position.

S O L U T IO N

(a ) A critically damped system regains its equilibrium position in the


shortest time.

= cc = 1320 = 2m
Vm
tt-O
_ ( * ) _ (im f _
Then = 7790 lb/ft <
1800 lb
m
32.2 ft/s2

( b) For a critically damped system: Equation (19.43):

x = ( q + c2t ) e " >n

W e take t = 0 at maximum deflection x0

Thus x (0 ) = 0, x (0 ) = x0

Using the initial conditions

x (0 ) = x0 = (c, + 0 )e , so c, = x0

x = (x 0 + c2t)e ~ <0"'

And x = -ft>(x0 + c2t)e ~ u>n' + c2e~(0"'

x (0 ) = 0 = -<ux0 + c2, so c2 = conx0

Thus x = x0( l + (ot)e~<0n'

For x = ^ ^ = (1 + with a) =
3 3 \m

[7790lb7ft ,,
W e obtain co = I-.----------- = 11.807 s 1
I 1800 1b
\ 32.2 ft/s2

And, since c o j = 2.289

t = = 0.19387
11.807

t = 0.1939 s A
PROBLEM 19.136
A uniform rod o f mass m is supported by a pin at A and a spring o f
constant k at B and is connected at D to a dashpot o f damping
coefficient c. Determine in terms o f m, k, and c, for small oscillations,
(a ) the differential equation o f motion, (b ) the critical damping
coefficient c.
PROBLEM 19.136 CONTINUED
And obtain the roots

2
-3c (3 c ] __ f ----
3k]
I
m + i {m j
2

The critical damping coefficient, cc, is the value o f c, for which the
radicand is zero.
150 iiiin
PROBLEM 19.137
[---------------450 nun -
A 1,8-kg uniform rod is supported by a pin at O and a spring at A and is
connected to a dashpot at B. Determine (a ) the differential equation o f
motion for small oscillations, (b) the angle that the rod w ill form with the
k 73 NViii r 2 .2 N * s / m I
horizontal 2.5 s after end B has been pushed 23 mm down and released.

_ i> L _

SOLUTION

t t.
On

For small angles:

sin# = 6, cos# = 1

8yn = 0.15#, S yB = 0.45#, 8yc = 0.15#

(a) IA / 0 = ( I A / 0 ) c(T

+ ) -0.15F, +0.15(17.658)-0 .4 5 / d = l a + O.ISma, ( 1)

F d = cS yB ~ c(0 .4 5)#

7 = J _ OT/2 = m (0.6)2 = 0.03 m


12 12 v

Kinematics a = #, a, = 0.15a = 0.15#

From (1)

[0.03 m + 0.0225 m ]# + (0.45)2c# + (0.15A:)(o. 15# + - 2.6487 = 0 (2 )

In the equilibrium position IA f0 = 0

C + ^ (^ L (0 - 1 5 )- (0 . 1 5 ) (1 7 . 6 5 8 ) = 0

(0.15)A:(<?S7.)^ = 2.6487
PROBLEM 19.137 CONTINUED

Equation (2) becomes

0.0525mO + 0.2025c0 + 0.225kd = 0

With m = 1.8, c - 2.2, k = 73

Have 0.0945(9 + 0.446(9 + 1.643(9 = 0 <

(b ) Substituting eXt into the differential equation, we obtain

0.0945A2 + 0.4455/1 + 1.6425 = 0

Roots \ 2 = -2.3571 3.4387i

Since the roots are complex conjugates (light damping) the solution o f the differential equation is:
Equation (19.46)

0 = <90f2-3571' sin(3.4387r + <f>) (3)

Initial conditions: SyB( 0) - 0.023m

^ 0 (0 ) - -023m = 0.05111 rad


v 0.45 m
O
And
II

From (3): 0 (0 ) = 0.05111 = 0o sin^

0 (0 ) = 0 = -2.35710Q sin <f> + 3.43870o cos<*

3 4387
tan <b= = 1.45887
2.3571

^ = 0.96989 rad

_ 0.05111 _ 0 061965rad
And
0 sin^

Thus 0 = 0.061965e"23571'sin (3.43 87r + 0.96989)

Hence 0 (2 .5 ) = -2.4183 x 10-5 rad

0 (2 .5 ) = (24.2 x 10_6)rad<*

Above horizontal
PROBLEM 19.138
A 500-kg machine element is supported by two springs, each o f constant
4.4 kN/m. A periodic force o f 135-N amplitude is applied to the element
with a frequency o f 2.8 Hz. Knowing that the coefficient o f damping is
1.6 kN-s/m, determine the amplitude o f the steady-state vibration o f the
element.

SOLUTION

Equation (19.52) x

Total spring constant k = (2 )(4 .4 kN/m)

= 8800 N/m

(Of - 2 n f f = 2tt(2.8) = 5.6^ rad/s

m = 500 kg

135 N
x,

135 N

V 2 1 .3 x l0 9 + 0 .7 9 2 x1 0 '

xm = 0.908 x 10 m

xm = 0.908 mm -4
PROBLEM 19.139
In Prob. 19.138, determine the required value o f the constant o f each spring
i f the amplitude o f the steady-state vibration is to be 1.3 mm.

SOLUTION

Equation (19.52)
k - mcoj'j + ( o y y )

{k - mco2
^ + (a / )

k - (ca>f f + m et)

CO, = 2 n f f = 2;r(2.8) = 5.6;r m = 500 kg

135 N
[l60 0(5 .6;r)2] 2 + (500 k g)(5 .6 ;r)2
0.0013 m

k = VlO.784 x 109 - 0.79235 x 109 + 1.5476 x 105

= 254.714 kN/m

- - 127.357 kN/m
2

- 127.4 kN/m <


PROBLEM 19.140
In the case o f the forced vibration o f a system, determine the range o f
values o f the damping factor c/cc for which the magnification factor will
always decrease as the frequency ratio cOf/a>n increases.

SOLUTION

Equation (19.53)

Magnification Factor m __
m
k

CO
f
Find value o f for which there is no maximum for ~ as mcreases
cc k a>>

\2
hIL
.ky _ *-(? ) ( - * ) +4t
= 0

-2 +2

v Of
For r > there is no maximum for - v- and the magnification factor w ill decrease as increases
5? 2
(M
1 )' m

> 0.707 <


Cc v2
PROBLEM 19.141
Show that for a small value o f the damping factor c/cc, the maximum
amplitude o f a forced vibration occurs when o)y a>n and that the

corresponding value o f the magnification factor is I ( c / c c),

SOLUTION
Equation (19.53')

Magnification factor = ~

00 f x
Find value o f ^ for which is a maximum
T

/ \2

y*
Em
j
>-(?)
0 =

'(? )"
(?)1 +[2(t)(?)
/ a>, \2 f \2
c
-2 + 2 + 4 = 0
\ Cc J

co.
For small mf
co

For

[ > - > f + [ 2(t)>

Is
2 C
(? )
PROBLEM 19.142
A 30-lb motor is supported by four springs, each o f constant 3.75 kips/ft.
The unbalance o f the motor is equivalent to a weight o f 0.64 oz located
5 in. from the axis o f rotation. Knowing that the motor is constrained to
move vertically, determine the amplitude o f the steady-state vibration o f
the motor at a speed o f 1500 rpm, assuming (a ) that no damping is
present, ( b) that the damping factor c/cc is equal to 1.3.
PROBLEM 19.143
A 36-lb motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam which has a static
deflection o f 0.075 in. due to the weight o f the motor. Knowing that the
unbalance o f the rotor is equivalent to a weight o f 0.64 oz located 6.25 in.
!A from the axis o f rotation, determine the amplitude o f the vibration o f the
motor at a speed o f 900 rpm, assuming (a) that no damping is present,
(b ) that the damping factor c/ct. is equal to 0.005.
PROBLEM 19.144
A 45-kg motor is bolted to a light horizontal beam which has a static
deflection o f 6 mm due to the weight o f the motor. The unbalance o f the
motor is equivalent to a mass o f 110 g located 75 mm from the axis o f
rotation. Knowing that the amplitude o f the vibration o f the motor is
0.25 mm at a speed o f 300 rpm, determine (a ) the damping factor c/cc,
(b ) the coefficient o f damping c.

SOLUTION
From Equation (19.53')

Ik
r=7S k
(1)

M is * = 1635 r *
SST 0.06 m

n
(O f = (300) = 987 s 2
30

co< 987
= 0.60365
V J
1635

Pm - m'rco) = (0.11 kg)(0.075 m )(987 s2) = 8.1424 N

k = mcol = (45 N/m )(l635 s2) = 73.575 kN/m,

-- = 0.11067 mm
k

Then, from Equation (1)

0.11067 x l 0 3 m
0.25 x 10 3 m =
(1 - 0.60365)2 + 4(0.60365)^ )

/ \2
c
or 0.19597 = 0.15707 + 2.4147
KCc

Then = 0.1269 -4

(Ib) cc = 2mo)n = 2(45 k g )(l6 3 5 s2) 2 = 3639.2 N-s/m

c = (0.1269)(3639.2 N-s/m) 462 N-s/m <


PROBLEM 19.145
A 200-lb motor is supported by four springs, each o f constant 7.5 kips/ft,
and is connected to the ground by a dashpot having a coefficient o f
damping c = 490 lb s/ft. The motor is constrained to move vertically,
and the amplitude o f its motion is observed to be 0.10 in. at a speed o f
1200 rpm. Knowing that the weight o f the rotor is 30 lb, determine the
distance between the mass center o f the rotor and the axis o f the shaft.
PROBLEM 19.146
The unbalance o f the rotor o f a 400-lb motor is equivalent to a 3-oz
weight located 6 in. from the axis o f rotation. The pad which is placed
between the motor and the foundation is equivalent to a spring o f
constant k = 500 lb/ft in parallel with a dashpot o f constant c. Knowing
that the magnitude o f the maximum acceleration o f the motor is
0.03 ft/s2at a speed o f 100 rpm, determine the damping factor c/cc.

SOLUTION

16 lb
500 lb/ft
Pm = mrcoj = (0.5 ft) ^ s_ lj , a)] =
4001b
32.2 ft/s2
32.2 ft/s2

Then ic = -<2xmsin (a y f - -<y2xm = 0.03 ft/s2

(O.2f iPm
r
So 0.03 ft/s2 =

i - \( ~
>n)I 2 + 2
M\~
cc ) )

( 4n2 X
>fPm
r e * _
0.0009 k 2
V___________ /
-(s )!
So

= 0.477 <
Cr
PROBLEM 19.147
P * P, sin
A machine element is supported by springs and is connected to a dashpot
as shown. Show that i f a periodic force o f magnitude P = Pm sin ojj-t is
applied to the element, the amplitude o f the fluctuating force transmitted
to the foundation is

1+
F m = Pm

SOLUTION
From Equation (19.48), the motion o f the machine is, x = x m s\n{o>ft -

The force transmitted to the foundation is,

Springs Fs = kx = kxmsin j rayf - ^ j

DashpotF d = cx = cxm(Oj-cos[ caft - (j\

F t = xm \k sin ( m f - tp) + co), cos [ (Ojt - <f>- |

or recalling the identity,

yfsiny + B co s y = 4 a 2 + B 2 sin (y +

B
srn^ -
^A 2 + B2

co s^ =
4a2+ b 2

y'/c2 + (c / ) sin{cOft - <fi + y/\

Thus the amplitude o f FT is

Fm = XmJ k 2 + ( C / ) (1)

Esl
From Equation (19.53) k
/ \2"
2 _ _
I - + 2 ( - J f!/
\ ~m I / _
PROBLEM 19.147 CONTINUED

Substituting for xm in Equation (1)

'+(7-)
F. = (2)

-fe) + 2(ri

2 k
=
m

And Equation (19.41) cc = 2mcon m = ^

( \
CCOf CCOj- C fV
9
k m ol kCc ;

Substituting in (2)

1^1
1
-
(N
1+
rife )

1
-2
^\2 +
/ [2(rife )T
PROBLEM 19.148
A 91-kg machine element supported by four springs, each o f constant
P l m sin (Of t
175 N/m, is subjected to a periodic force o f frequency 0.8 Hz and
amplitude 89 N. Determine the amplitude o f the fluctuating force
transmitted to the foundation i f (a ) a dashpot with a coefficient o f
damping c = 365 N s/m is connected to the machine and to the ground,
(b ) the dashpot is removed.

SOLUTION
-i
tOf = 2n f n = 2/r(0.8 H z) = 1.6^ s

(O' = = - i 175N/m) = 7.6923 s '2, con = 2.7735 s "1


" m 91 kg

(o, 'j ( l.6n


= 3.2846
y n) _ ll7 77735,
35

365 N s/m
= 0.72309
cf 2meon 2(91 kg)(2.7735 s 1)

'c *
= 0.52286
\ Cc J

(89 N ) J l + [4(0.S2286)(3.2846)] g ^ i + 6.8695


(a)
^ [l - 3.2846]2 + [4(0.52286)(3.2846)] V5.2194 + 6.8695

= 70.9689 N

Fm = 71.0 N <

89
( b) c = 0 ,F m = = 38.956
V5.2194

Fm = 39.0 N <
PROBLEM 19.149
For a steady-state vibration with damping under a harmonic force, show
that the mechanical energy dissipated per cycle by the dashpot is
E = Ttcx^cQf , where c is the coefficient o f damping, xm is the amplitude
o f the motion, and COj is the circular frequency o f the harmonic force.

SOLUTION
Energy is dissipated by the dashpot.

From Equation (19.48) the deflection o f the system is x = xmsm{a>ft - (pj

The force on the dashpot, FD = ex.

F d = cxmcof cos[cof t - cp)

2K
The work done in a complete cycle with
co<

2s.
E = j^f Fddx (i.e Force x Distance)

dx = xmo jj cos( cojt - cp^dt

E = I"7 c x lc o )cos2[cOft - cp^dt

|^1 - 2cos{(Oft -
cos (corf - (p) =

2k .
2 2
_ CXma f 2 sin{cojt -
t -
CO{

2 2
cxmcof 2n
(sin (2 ^ - (p) - sin^j)
2 (O f

E = ncx^aof Q.E.D. A
PROBLEM 19.150
The suspension o f an automobile can be approximated by the simplified
spring-dashpot system shown, (a ) Write the differential equation defining
the vertical displacement o f the mass m when the system moves at a
speed v over a road with a sinusoidal cross section o f amplitude Sm and
wavelength L. (b ) Derive an expression for the amplitude o f the vertical
displacement o f the mass m.

SOLUTION
(a )

dx d8\ d 2x
+ 1 XF = ma: W - k (<5S7. + x - 8 ) - c = m-
dt dt dr

Recalling that W = k8s r, we write

d x dx d8
m -r- + c + kx = k8 + c (1)
dt1 dt dt w

Motion o f wheel is a sine curve, 8 = 8msin (of t the interval o f time needed to travel a distance L at a

speed v, is t = , which is the period o f the road surface,


v

27t 2n 2nv
Thus (O. =

.. . dS 8 2n
And 8 - o m sm (ot t = cos (O ft

Thus Equation (1) is,

m ^-^- + c + kx = (sin<y,/ + cat, cos(o ft\8, A


dt dt X ' ' ' ' m
PROBLEM 19.150 CONTINUED
( b) From the identity

As'my + B co s y = \lA2 + B 2 sin (y + y/\

B
smq) =
Ja2+B2

A
COS (p
\lA
2+B
2
W e can write the differential equation

a x dx
m 7r + c 1- kx = <5myjk2 + (ccO f) sin(ftjyt + y/)
dt2 dt

-i c m f
y/ = tan
k

The solution to this equation is (analogous to Equations 19.47 and 19.48, with

Pm = J k 2 + (c a f f

x = xmsin^cDft - <p + i/f), (where analogous to Equations (19.52)) 4

_ ^ 2+K ) 2 ^
I ' 2 2
J (k - ma>2j + [ccO f^

c(0f *
tan^j = i-Y 4
k - mcOf

CC Of
tdxiy/ - - f - 4
PROBLEM 19.151
P Mil M/ Tw o blocks A and B, each o f mass m, are supported as shown by three
springs o f the same constant k. Blocks A and B are connected by a
dashpot and block B is connected to the ground by two dashpots, each
dashpot having the same coefficient o f damping c. B lo c k s is subjected to
a force o f magnitude P = Pm sin o)f t. Write the differential equations
defining the displacements xA and xB o f the two blocks from their
equilibrium positions.

SOLUTION

i P iw S lN W jX

1 1 .,
* 1R

..C l L i
1 60
6 MX

< *6 t ir - e

Since the origins o f coordinates are chosen from the equilibrium position, we may omit the initial spring
compressions and the effect o f gravity

For load A

+ | I F = maA; Pmsina)/t + 2k (x B - xA) + c ( x B - x A) = mxA (1)

For load B

+ | EF = maB\ - 2 k (x B - xA) - c ( x B - x A) - k x B - 2cxB = mxB (2)

Rearranging Equations (1) and(2), we find:

+ C( * A ~ * b ) + 2 k { x A ~ x b ) = <

mxB + 3cxB - cxA + 3kxB 2kxA = 0 4


PROBLEM 19.152
R Express in terms o f L, C, and E the range o f values o f the resistance R for
-V A A / y V which oscillations w ill take place in the circuit shown when switch S is
I closed.

jo
!o

SOLUTION
For a mechanical system oscillations take place i f c < cc (lightly damped)

But from Equation (19.41),

c, = 2m. - 2sfkm
Vm
Therefore

c < 2 4km (1)

From table 19.2:

c -R

m -> L

k -> (2)
C

Substituting in (1) the analogous electrical values in (2), we find that oscillations w ill take place if,

R < 2." 1
PROBLEM 19.153
Consider the circuit o f Prob. 19.152 when the capacitor C is removed. I f
switch S is closed at time t - 0, determine (a ) the final value o f the
current in the circuit, ( b) the time t at which the current w ill have reached
( 1 - 1 / e ) times its final value. (The desired value o f t is known as the
time constant o f the circuit.)

SOLUTION
Electrical system Mechanical system

www-
5 .- 0

h o
o
ic = .o

W\
I
T *
1

The mechanical analogue o f closing a switch S is the sudden application o f a constant force o f magnitude P to
the mass.

(a ) Final value o f the current corresponds to the final velocity o f the mass, and since the capacitance is zero,
the spring constant is also zero

W\

T
F
+ | I F = ma

d 2x
P~ C = m
dt dt2
(i)
Final velocity occurs when

d 2x
dt1

dx dx
P -C = 0
It final
~dt fin a l

P

Vmal
c
From table 19.2: L ,P E, C R

Thus
R
PROBLEM 19.153 CONTINUED

(b ) Rearranging Equation (1), we have

d 2x dx
m T + C = P
dt2 dt

dx . -it P d x -At
Substitute = Ae + ; ----- = -A X e
dt C dt

l
f-A
Xe^
l+C

1
= P

+
L J CJ

mX + C = 0 X =
m

Thus +
dt

p
At t = 0 0 = A + A = - *
dt C C

_ dx _ p l _ e u;
dt c

From table 19.2: V c, p E, c R, m

L = * 1- e w
R

f
v ' R '
For L = ( I ) 1- 9 t = 1
V e)

R
PROBLEM 19.154
Draw the electrical analogue o f the mechanical system shown. (Hint.
Draw the loops corresponding to the free bodies m and A .)
>

'-**)c

J
TPr 1'*, *ilt /

SOLUTION
W e note that both the spring and the dashpot affect the motion o f point A.
Thus one loop in the electrical circuit should consist o f a capacitor

=> - ja n d a resistance (c => R ).

C - R.
The other loop consists o f sin cof t -> Emsinrwy/), an inductor

vv\ -J -H [m - L ) and the resistor (c - R )


W\-=>V_
P -^ e Since the resistor is common to both loops, the circuit is


a a a a ,
I-,- La
is - .
PROBLEM 19.155
Draw the electrical analogue o f the mechanical system shown. {Hint.
Draw the loops corresponding to the free bodies m and A .)
PROBLEM 19.156
4 Write the differential equations defining (a ) the displacements o f the
>k mass m and o f the point A, (b) the charges on the capacitors o f the
electrical analogue.
!A

j |e

P, sinmi
PROBLEM 19.156 CONTINUED

Substituting into the results from part (a), the analogous electrical characteristics,

- <1a ) = ms in O f f <
a t' at

Note: These equations can also be obtained by summing the voltage drops around the loops in the circuit
o f Problem 19.155.
PROBLEM 19.157
1," Write the differential equations defining (a ) the displacements o f the
mass m and o f the point A, ( b) the charges on the capacitors o f the
electrical analogue.

&
PROBLEM 19.158
r*r ~ A 75-mm-radius hole is cut in a 200-mm-radius uniform disk which is
attached to a ffictionless pin at its geometric center A. Determine (a ) the
period o f small oscillations o f the disk, (b ) the length o f a simple
pendulum which has the same period.
r = 250 mm

SOLUTION

w\H o , i e

0.0'lS'irva

I M , = (ZA/0)efr

-/W/^O.lJsin# = /# - l n d - (0.1) ' mG

mn = p tn R 2 = ( p t n ) ( 0.2) = (0.04) npt

m = p t n r 2 = ( p t n ) ( 0.075)" = (0.005625)/rp/

Id = ^ mo R2 = -(0.04/r/rt)(0.2)2 = 800 x 10 6/rpi

1
1 = ^ m r 2 = ^ (0 .0 0 5 6 2 5 ^ r)(0 .0 7 5 )2 = 15.82 x 10' bnpt

Small angles sin# ~ 0

(800 x 10 V - 15.82 x 1 0 'V - (0 .1 ))2(0.005625x ) p / d + (0.005625)/s ^ / (9 .8 l)(0 .l)(9 = 0

727.9 x 10~be + 5.518 x 10"3# = 0

, 5.518 x 10-3
(o = = 7.581
" 727.9 x lO -6

con = 2.753 rad/s

2n In
r = r = = 2 .2 8 s <
CO., 2/753
PROBLEM 19.158 CONTINUED

(b ) Period o f a simple pendulum

r- = H

i g
In

(2.753)'
^9.81 m/s2)
2n

I = 1.294 m M
PROBLEM 19.159
An instrument package B is placed on table C as shown. The table is
made to move horizontally in simple harmonic motion with an amplitude
o f 3 in. Knowing that the coefficient o f static friction is 0.65, determine
the largest allowable frequency o f the motion i f the package is not to slide
on the table.

SOLUTION
Newton s Law
iw
_b _
F f = ma

N=W
Block B moves in simple harmonic motion with the same frequency as c
when there is no sliding

x - xmsin(<uf + </>)

x = ~ xnfi*n s in (< V + <(>)

Maximum acceleration

Ff = mxma)-n

For no sliding

w
Ff > n ,W or n sW > xma>l
g

col > (0.65) (32.2 ft/s: ) ,


v L = 83.72(rad/s)
(A)
co >9.150

f = ^ jl= = 1.456 Hz 4
2n In
PROBLEM 19.160
A 16-lb uniform disk o f radius 10 in. is welded to a vertical shaft with a
fixed end at B. The disk rotates through an angle o f 3 when a static
sm ( i 1 couple o f magnitude 3.5 lb -ft is applied to it. I f the disk is acted upon by
a periodic torsional couple o f magnitude T = Tm sin co,t, where
Tm = 4.2 lb-ft, determine the range o f values o f co, for which the
amplitude o f the vibration is less than the angle o f rotation caused by a
static couple o f magnitude T.

SOLUTION

- A _ ftsT

1-4- i - 4
,o-

K
where co,2
, = -=- K is the torsional spring constant and / is the centroidal

moment o f inertia o f the disk

3.5 lb/ft
K = = 66.845 lb -ft/rad o f the disk
-^( 180)

( 16 lb \, -2
7 = l mr2 = l m f V s i l f _ 1 0 _ Y = 0 . 17253 lb-ft-s-
2 2 U 2ftJ

2 K 66.845 .2
co~ = = ----------= 387.43 s
" / 0.7253

_
0ST
0... = < -O s.
ST

(Of
i < -i + 4 -
(o:

(oj > 2(o~

cof > V2 V387A4 = 27.836 s ' 1

Note: (ot is independent o f Tm (of > 27.8 rad/s A


PROBLEM 19.161
For the disk o f Prob. 19.160 determine the range o f values o f (of for
which the amplitude o f the vibration will be less than 3.5.
T = Tm sin (Oft

SOLUTION
From Problem 19.160

7 = 0.17253 lb-ft-s2, k = 66.845 lb-ft/rad

co] = 387.44 s2

T . 4.2 lb ft
= 0.062832 rad
k 66.845 lb-ft/rad

<9, = 3.5 = 0.061087 rad

0.
Jy- i- 4
4 V UJ?
i
./ 0.062832
> -0.061087
/ 1- f
1 387.44

(O
0.62832 < 1- (0.061087)
387.44

co,
1.02853 < - 1
387.44

(O', > 785.934

a), > 28.035

(o f > 28.0 rad/s ^


PROBLEM 19.162
A beam A B C is supported by a pin connection at A and by rollers at B. A
120-kg block placed on the end o f the beam causes a static deflection o f
15 mm at C. Assuming that the support at A undergoes a vertical periodic
displacement S = Sm sin (Oft, where Sm = 10 mm and a>f = 1 8 rad/s,
and the support at B does not move, determine the maximum acceleration
4ks^5<%? o f the block at C. Neglect the weight o f the beam and assume that the
block does not leave the beam.
PROBLEM 19.163
A rod o f mass m and length L rests on two pulleys A and B which rotate
in opposite directions as shown. Denoting by n k the coefficient o f
kinetic friction between the rod and the pulleys, determine the frequency
o f vibration i f the rod is given a small displacement to the right and
released.
PROBLEM 19.164
A 4-kg block A is dropped from a height o f 800 mm onto a 9-kg block B
_T which is at rest. Block B is supported by a spring o f constant
k = 1500 N/mand is attached to a dashpot o f damping coefficient
c = 230 N s/m. Knowing that there is no rebound, determine the
maximum distance the blocks will move after the impact.

11
k x
Ir
L ^ ...

SOLUTION
Velocity o f Block A just before impact

vA = yjlgh = >/ 2(9 .8 l)(0.8 ) = 3.962 m/s

Velocity o f Blocks A and B immediately after impact.

Conservation o f momentum

m AVA + m HVR = { m A +

(4)(3 .9 62) + 0 = (4 + 9 )v'

v' = 1.219 m/s


I HP^cT ^ _ + j 2 19 ,^/s | =
1
6
Static deflection (Block A )

0 k 1500

x = 0, Equil. position for both blocks

cc = 24km = 2N/(1500)(13) = 279.3 N-s/m

Since c < c( Equation (19.44)

x - e [qsinftfy/ + CiCostU/y]

230
= 8.846 s_l
2m (2 )(1 3 )

From top o f page 1221 (Oj} = -----


m 2m

i / \
/1500 230
(O n = = 6.094 rad/s
13 1(2)(13)J

x = e (c, sin 6.094/ + c, cos 6.094/)


PROBLEM 19.164 CONTINUED

Initial conditions x0 = -0,02619 m

(? = 0) x0 = +1.219 m/s

x0 = -0.02619 = e [c, (0 ) + c2( l ) ]

c2 = -0.02619

x (0 ) = -8.846e(" 8-846)0[c, (0 ) + (-0.02619 ) ( l ) ]

+ e("8-846)f) [6.094c, (1) + c2(0 ) = 1.219

1.219 = (-8.846)(-0.02619) + 6.094c,

c, = 0.16202

X = <? 8'84fo(0.16202sin6.0941 - 0.02619cos6.094?)

Maximum deflection occurs when x = 0

x = 0 = -8.846c-8 846'' (0.16202 sin 6.094?m - 0.02619cos 6.094?,)

+ e '8-846' [6.094] [0.1620 cos 6.094?m + 0.02619 sin 6.094?^]

0 = [(-8 .8 4 6 )(0 .16202) + (6.094)(0.02619)]sin6.094?m

+ [(-8 .8 4 6 )(-0 .0 2 6 1 9 ) + (6.094)(0.1620)]cos6.094?m

0 = -1.274sin6.Q94? + 1.219 cos 6.094?

tan 6.094? = = 0.957


1.274

Time at maximum deflection = ?, = - 0.1253 s


6.094

xm = g-(8-846)(0 1253) [o.i620sin(6.094)(0.1253j

- 0.02619cos(6.094)(0.1253)1

xm = (0.330l)(0.1120 - 0.0189) = 0.307 m

Blocks move, static deflection + xm

Total distance = 0.02619 + 0.307 = 0.0569 m = 56.9 mm A


PROBLEM 19.165
Solve Prob. 19.164 assuming that the damping coefficient o f the dashpot
is c = 300 N-s/m.

SOLUTION
Velocity o f Block A just before impact

vA = J2gh = ^2(9.81)(0.8) = 3.962 m/s

Velocity o f Blocks A and B immediately after impact.

Conservation o f momentum

m AVA + m BVB = ( m A + m B ) V'

(4)(3 .9 62) + 0 = (4 + 9 )v '

v' = 1.219 m/s = x0


-IMPACT
x0 = +1.219 m/s |

Static deflection (Block A )


ft
B Xq = = _ ( 4X 9-82) = -0.02619 m
- 0 k 1500

x = 0, Equil. position for both blocks


n
cc = 2 4km = 2>/ (l5 0 0 )(l3 )

cc = 279.3 N s/m

Since c = 300 N-s/m > cc system is heavily damped and


(Equation (19.42))

x = cleA'1 + c2e*-

Equation (19.40) a = - i ] - i
2m \ (2 m J m

A _ 300 If 300 V _ 1500


26 V l 26 J 13

A = -11.538 4.213

\ = -15.751 /L = -7.325

-15.751/ -7.325/
x = c,e + c7e
PROBLEM 19.165 CONTINUED

Initial conditions xQ = -0.02619 m, x0 = 1.219 m/s

* ( 0 ) = x0 = -0.02619 = c,? + c2e

i ( 0 ) = i 0 = 1.219 = (-1 5 .7 5 l)c, + (-7.325 )c 2

Solving simultaneously for c, and c2

c, = -0.1219, c2 = 0.09571

x ( r ) = -0.1219e-15 75' + 0.0957k-7 325'

Maximum deflection when x = 0

x = 0 = ( - 0 . 1219)(-15.75)e~l5'75'm + (0.0957 l)(- 7 .3 2 5 )e f7-325''

0 = 1.920e'l5-75/- -0 .7 0 k -7-325'1

1 920 _ g( 7.325+1S.75)/m
0.701

2.739 = e8-425'"

In 2.739 _
8.425 ~~ t,n

tm = 0.1196 s

xm = (-0.1 2 1 9 )e-(,5 75X ,,96> + (0.0957l)e-<7 325X ,l96>

xm = -0.01851 + 0.03986 = 0.02136 m

Total deflection = static deflection + xm

Total deflection = 0.02619 + 0.02136 = 0.0475 m = 47.5 mm 4


PROBLEM 19.166
A 30-lb uniform cylinder can roll without sliding on a 15 incline. A belt
is attached to the rim o f the cylinder, and a spring holds the cylinder at
rest in the position shown. I f the center o f the cylinder is moved 2 in.
down the incline and released, determine (a ) the period o f vibration,
(b ) the maximum acceleration o f the center o f the cylinder.

SOLUTION
Po s it io n

Spring deflection,

x M = r6 9 = x0/r

xA = 2x0

Fs = k ( x A + Ss ) = k (2 x 0 + Ss r )

^ = (EA/)ejr

-2 rk (2 x t) + SST) + n'sinl5 = rmx() + 10 ( 1)

But in equilibrium. *o = 0

EA/r = 0 = -2 rkSsf + rvvsin 15 (2)

Substitute (2) into (1) and noting that 0 = ^ o = ^


r r

rmx(l + / + 4 rkxn = 0 I = m r2
r 2

mrx0 + 4rkx{) = 0

(8 k }
~ ~ \*o =
\3 m )
PROBLEM 19.166 CONTINUED

8 k_ (8 )(3 0 x 12 lb/ft) = .
(3 0 lb)
3m
(3) (3 2 .2 ft/s2 )

2n 2rc
0.1957 s
a> 32.1

r = 0.1957 s <

(b) xo = ( * o ) m s in ( r + # )

2
At t = 0 Xn ft Xn 0
0 12 0

*0 = ( xo) m c o s ( o nt + <f>), t = 0, 0 - (x 0) mmnc o s t

Thus
2

t = 0 x o(0 ) = ^ f t = (2c0) msin^ = ( x0) m( l )

( x0) = ft
V u Jm ^

% = (*0 ) m(al ^ { (0nt + <P)

() = (*o) = = -(7 *-') = 171-7 ^

= 171.7 ft/s2 <


PROBLEM 19.167
An 800-g rod AB is bolted to a 1.2-kg disk. A spring o f constant
k = 12 N/m is attached to the center o f the disk at A and to the wall at C.
Knowing that the disk rolls without sliding, determine the period o f small
oscillations o f the system.

SOLUTION

T \
0= O.JM
7
F
t 0.5W\
x


Position

^ 2 ^ G^AB^m + 2 mAB( 2 r) + 2 ^ C ^disk^m + 2 m diskr

(T
L=
um/2=h (-8)(-6)2 = -024 kgm2

mAB r) = (-8 )(-3 - 0.25)2 = 0.002 kg-m2

(/<7)disk = \">&sv.r2 = ~ ( l -2)(0.25)2 = 0.0375 kg-m2

/ndiskr 2 = 1.2(0.25)" = 0.0750 kg-m2

7] = ^[0.024 + 0.002 + 0.0375 + 0.0750]<?2

7] = i[0 .1 3 8 5 ]^ 2

K, = 0

Position @

7*2 = 0

V2 = \ k ( r 9 n ,)2 + f ABg j ( 1 - CO S0m )

1 - cos6m = 2sin~ a (small angles)


PROBLEM 19.167 CONTINUED

11'\ /$
V2 = - (l2 N / m )(0 . 2 5 m )2^ + (8 k g )(9 .8 1 m / s2) f ^ - ^
2 ~ )

V2 = i[0 .7 5 0 + 2 .3 5 4 ]^ = |(3.1O 4 )02 N -m

Tl + V l = T 2 + V2 e l = coldl

i(O . 1 3 8 5 )0 > 2 + 0 = 0 + 1 (3 .1 0 4 )^

(3.104 N-m)| s. 2

(0.1385 k g m 2)

2n 2n
1.327 s A
mn ~ >/22.41
PROBLEM 19.168
A 1.8-kg collar A is attached to a spring o f constant 800 N/m and can
slide without friction on a horizontal rod. I f the collar is moved 70 mm to
the left from its equilibrium position and released, determine the
maximum velocity and maximum acceleration o f the collar during the
resulting motion.

SOLUTION

, CD
I
Datum at

Position

T = 0 V, = - k x l

Position

T2 = mv2 V2 = 0 v2 = xm

1
T\ + P| = T-, + V-, 0 + kx;,, = + 0

1 . > 1 i > > k 800 N/m


(o: = =
2 km = 2 m(0" X'" m 1.8 kg

a)' = 444.4 s ' (on = 21.08 rad/s

xm = (onxm = (21.08 s~')(0.070 m ) = 1.476 m/s A

xm = o>lxm = ( 2 1.08 s2)(0.070 m ) = 31.1 m/s: A


PROBLEM 19.169
A 30-lb block is supported by the spring arrangement shown. The block
is moved from its equilibrium position 0.8 in. vertically downward and
released. Knowing that the period o f the resulting motion is 1.5 s,
determine (a ) the constant k, ( b) the maximum velocity and maximum
acceleration o f the block.

SOLUTION
Since the force in each spring is the same, the constant k' o f a single equivalent spring is

= + + k! = (See Problem 19.19)


k' 2k k k 2.5 v

(a) t I1 1cs =
= 1.5
f In f fw;
(2.5)
v 1-5 ^J
&

k =
(2 4 30 ib
(2.5) = 40.868 lb/ft
(1.5 s)- 32.2 ft/s2

k = 40.9 lb/ft <

(b ) x= + f)

X = xmcon cos(tvnt + <t>)

o) = = = 4.189 rad/s
t 1.5 s

xm = 0.8 in. = 0.06667 ft

vmax = (0.06667 ft)(4.189 rad/s)

vm = 0.279 ft/s <

x = - x mco^cos(o)t + <t>)

kax| = x ^ = (0.06667 ft)(4 .1 8 9 )2

1.170 ft/s2 ^