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The Bhagavad Gita

Chapter 4

Translated by
Michael Douglas Neely
Chapter 4/Verse 13 26

Table of Contents Chapter 4/Verse 14 27


Table of Contents 2 Chapter 4/Verse 15 29
Introduction 4 Chapter 4/Verse 16 30
The Translator and the Translation 4 Chapter 4/Verse 17 32
Chapter 4 Verse Detail 6 Chapter 4/Verse 18 33
Chapter 4/Verse 1 10 Chapter 4/Verse 19 35
Chapter 4/Verse 2 11 Chapter 4/Verse 20 36
Chapter 4/Verse 3 13 Chapter 4/Verse 21 37
Chapter 4/Verse 4 14 Chapter 4/Verse 22 38
Chapter 4/Verse 5 16 Chapter 4/Verse 23 40
Chapter 4/Verse 6 17 Chapter 4/Verse 24 41
Chapter 4/Verse 7 19 Chapter 4/Verse 25 43
Chapter 4/Verse 8 20 Chapter 4/Verse 26 44

Chapter 4/Verse 9 21 Chapter 4/Verse 27 45


Chapter 4/Verse 10 22 Chapter 4/Verse 28 46
Chapter 4/Verse 11 23 Chapter 4/Verse 29 47
Chapter 4/Verse 12 25 Chapter 4/Verse 30 49
Chapter 4/Verse 31 50

Chapter 4/Verse 32 51

Chapter 4/Verse 33 53

Chapter 4/Verse 34 54

Chapter 4/Verse 35 55

Chapter 4/Verse 36 56

Chapter 4/Verse 37 57

Chapter 4/Verse 38 59

Chapter 4/Verse 39 60

Chapter 4/Verse 40 62

Chapter 4/Verse 41 63

Chapter 4/Verse 42 64
this time period on my academia.edu
profile: https://independent.academia.edu/MichaelNeely
Introduction In mid-2007 I lost interest in studying Sanskrit and stopped
The Bhagavad Gita has been translated into English hundreds studying it. In 2014 my interest in Sanskrit was rekindled. I felt
of times since its first translation into English by Charles a calling to come back to it and started reviewing various
Wilkens in 1785. The translations range from poetic Sanskrit primers and textbooks.
interpretations inspired from various English translations to
highly academic ones. I chose to translate the Bhagavad Gita
from Sanskrit to English to improve my Sanskrit proficiency, In July 2015 I felt confident enough to start translating
for the love of the wisdom of the book, and because there are the Bhagavad Gita in order continue increasing my proficiency
many academic translations on the market and online to in the Sanskrit language while feeling the excitement of
reference. In particular, the Winthrop Sargeants and Laurie L. actually reading and comprehending the Sanskrit of
Pattons versions were constantly consulted during this the Bhagavad Gita and then translating the Sanskrit into
translation for clarification and comparison. English.

I am not a Sanskrit professor nor do I claim to be an expert in


The Translator and the the Sanskrit language. Various translations of the Bhagavad
Gita, Sanskrit primers and textbooks, and the Academic Room
Translation Sanskrit-English Dictionary app were consulted during this
translation. In particular, I relied heavily on the Sanskrit primer
I am a mostly self-taught Sanskrit enthusiast. I went to a Devavanipravesika by Robert and Sally Goldman, the Sanskrit
Sanskrit presentation at a yoga studio sometime in the late Reference Manual by William Bucknell, and the app just
1990s. That was my first exposure to any structured Sanskrit mentioned in making sure I understood the Sanskrit underlying
class. The studio arranged a second follow-up class, but no one the translation.
showed up, except me. I will take that as an omen. In 2003 I
took two Sanskrit workshops that emphasized learning the In my translations, I tried to be as literal as possible, not adding
Sanskrit alphabet and some noun declensions and verb anything to the translation that was not in the original Sanskrit
conjunctions. In 2005 I was able to find a Sanskrit mentor to text. For each verse translated, I show the Sanskrit devanagari
teach me Sanskrit until about mid-2006. From mid-2006 to text, the transliteration of the Sanskrit in English (IAST
mid-2007 I continued my Sanskrit studies and Sanskrit to format), and the English translation I created. After that, I
English translations. You can see my translation work during broke down each word of the Sanskrit text into its
pre-sandhi form and listed the various grammatical identifiers
of each word. I also explain why my translation is different
from other translations and provide other background
information essential to understanding the verses. Every
translation has it place in the world. My disagreement with a
translation is just an exercise in how it departs from the literal
translation.

Some Sanskritists may criticize this book given I am not a


credentialed Sanskritist in the guise that I made certain
grammar and translation errors. I am not immune to error, but I
am definitely confident that I provide a valuable Sanskrit and
Bhagavad Gita resource in this book. If one feels moved to
criticize my work, I would appreciate a detailed response in
regards to my error and not some off the cuff rebuke from on
high. I understand societys tendency to give the benefit of the
doubt to a credentialed person over a non-credentialed
enthusiast, but just be aware that credentialed and
uncredentialed people make errors all the same. This book is
filling a void that has not been provided by the credentialed
Sanskrit community that rarely engages the Sanskrit enthusiast
community in any public outreach minus the availability of
their print and online publications.
He further states, the one who knows his divine birth and
Chapter 4 Verse Detail action will come to Krishna. And then upon abandoning the
body, that one will not be reborn. And further clarifies that that
person is free of passion, danger, and anger, and is absorbed in
Bhagavad Gita Series: Chapter 4 (The Yoga of Krishna. Many purified by the austerity in knowledge return to
Renunciation of Action in Knowledge) his state of being.

The Supreme Teaching of Yoga and Krishnas Divinity Krishna clarifies that he accepts all in whatever way they take
In this chapter Krishna begins by stating that the perennial refuge in him and everywhere human beings follow his path.
Yoga he declared to Arjuna was also declared to the great But those who desire accomplishment sacrifice to the deities,
luminaries of ancient India, such as Vivasvat, Manu, and which in the human world, success is quickly born from such
Ikshvaku. By knowing this yoga, the lineage became actions.
accomplished. But through the passage of time Yoga was
destroyed on earth. Krishna declared it to Arjuna because he Action Explained
was devoted and a friend of Krishna, and he also stated that the
teaching of Yoga was supreme among mystical teachings. In regards to the distribution of the actions of the gunas, which
are related to the four main types of people, Krishna is the
From this, Arjuna became confused given Krishna said he creator of that. But he is imperishable and a non-doer. Actions
declared these matters to past great luminaries. It seemed do not stain Krishna and his desire is not in the fruit of action.
impossible that Krishna could do this given he was born in the If one understands this wisdom, that one is not bound by
current era of Arjuna long after the great luminaries were born. action. Krishna then comes back full circle to the ancients that
Showing his divinity, Krishna answers that, unlike Arjuna, he performed actions desirous of release. Just as the ancients did,
knows of all the past births. so also Arjuna is implored to do so.

Krishna states that he is unborn, has an imperishable self, and Krishna states the difference between action and inaction, and
is the lord of beings. He states that he has governance over his what is right and wrong action is enigmatic and difficult to
own nature and comes into being by the magical power of the understand. He promises release from unpleasantness if the
self. He comes into being whenever there is decay in dharma differences can be understood.
and adharma rises up. When he incarnates, he rescues the
righteous and destroys the evil doers. He does this from age to
age in order to reestablish dharma.
The following is the discourse of verses concerning action:

4:17. Indeed, of action to be known, and of wrong action to be


known, and even of inaction to be known. The way of action is
difficult to understand.

4:18. One who could see inaction in action and one who [could
see] action in inaction, that one is wise among humans. That
one is yoked performing all actions.

4:19. Whose every undertaking has abandoned the intentions of


desire, the wise ones call that one a pandit, possessed of action
consumed by the fire of knowledge.

4:20. Having abandoned attachment to the fruit of action,


always satisfied, not dependent. Indeed, even engaging in
action, that one does not do anything.

4:21. Free of desire, the self with the mind controlled,


attainment of complete surrender, Performing action only
related to the body, one does not incur fault.

4:22. Acting as one likes, contentment obtained, gone beyond


opposites, free from envy, equal in success and failure. Even
doing, one is not bound.

4:23. Undertaken for the sacrifice of the attachment gone, of


the liberated, and of the mind established in knowledge is the
action wholly melted away.

The Nature of Brahman and Sacrifice


From the discourse on action, Krishna describes Brahman, the
impersonal supreme being. In the allegory of a ritual fire Through these actions, Krishna states that one enjoying the
sacrifice, Krishna states that Brahman is the entire ritual: the nectar of the remainder of the sacrifice will go to the eternal
offering, the oblation, the pourer, and the fire. Then he goes on Brahman. Krishna also states that one who does not sacrifice in
to state that Brahman is attained when one has samadhi their actions will not gain in this world nor the other. It is
(transcending duality by having equilibrium within it) in the important to understand the metaphor here. Sacrifice is doing
actions of Brahman. something just for the sake of doing it without any selfish
motive or expectation of results. By knowing all the various
Then Krishna goes on to explain the various ways one may kinds of sacrifices born of action for Brahman to consume will
sacrifice in the actions of Brahman: ultimately liberate one. Sacrifice is done with complete
surrender, inquiry, and by service. One knowing this wisdom
4:25. Some yogins partake in sacrifice, indeed, in relation to a will not be confused and see others in ones self and then see
god. Others sacrifice sacrifice, indeed, by sacrifice in the fire of all in the divine.
Brahman.

4:26. Others sacrifice the sense of hearing and so forth in the Krishna states that even the greatest evil-doer of all the sinners
fires of restraint. Others sacrifice the objects of the senses can cross over all wickedness by the boat of knowledge. The
regarding the sounds and so forth in the fires of the senses. fire of knowledge will reduce all actions to ashes. Knowledge
is the greatest purifier in the world. And by Yoga, ones self is
4:27. Others sacrifice all actions of prana and the actions of the perfected. It is through the passage of time that one finds
senses in the fire of the Yoga of the restraint of the self kindled knowledge in the self. One who is full of faith attains that
by knowledge. knowledge and with that knowledge and control of the senses,
one will quickly attain supreme peace. Actions do not bind the
4:28. Thus, others are ascetics with objects of devotion
action abandoned in the practice of Yoga to karma, and doubt
decided, sacrifice objects, austerity, Yoga, and knowledge of
is cut to pieces by knowledge and one who is composed. On
recitation to oneself.
the other hand, the unknowing and unbelieving and the self
4:29. Others also sacrifice prana in the apana and apana in with doubts will be destroyed. The self with doubts has no
prana. Intent on the extension and control of prana having pleasure in this world nor the next; therefore, doubt born of
contained the motion of prana and apana. ignorance abiding in the heart must be cut to pieces with the
sword of knowledge of the self.
4:30. Others, restrained in taking food, sacrifice pranas in the
pranas. All these also are knowers of sacrifice, whose sins are
destroyed by sacrifice.
Krishna ends this discourse by imploring Arjuna to rise up and
perform Yoga.
rbhagavn (stem form: rbhagavant) (masculine, nominative,
Chapter 4/Verse 1 singular) = the Blessed Lord (epithet of Krishna)

uvca (2nd class verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd


person, singular) = one said


imam (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, singular) =
this
-
vivasvate (stem form: vivasvat) (masculine, dative, singular) =
rbhagavnuvca to Vivasvat (Father of Manu Vaivasvata, the 7th of 14 Manus,
and the Noah of Hindu lore and the progenitor of the human
ima vivasvate yoga proktavnahamavyayam race)
vivasvnmanave prha manurikvkave'bravt 4-1
yogam (stem form: yoga) (masculine, accusative, singular) =
yoga

Krishna said, I declared this perennial Yoga to Vivasvat. proktavn (2nd class verb root: vac) (pra + uktavn) (perfect
Vivasvat told it to Manu. Manu said it to Ikshvaku. active participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = declared

aham (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, singular) = I

avyayam (stem form: avyaya) (masculine, accusative, singular)


= perennial

vivasvn (stem form: vivasvat) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = Vivasvat (Father of Manu Vaivasvata, the 7th of 14
Manus, and the Noah of Hindu lore and the progenitor of the
human race)

manave (stem form: manus) (masculine, dative, singular) = to


Manu
prha (1st class verb root: ah) (pra + aha) (perfect, active,
parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one told Chapter 4/Verse 2
manus (stem form: manus) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
Manu (the first human)
ikvkave (stem form: Ikvkus) (masculine, dative, singular) -
= to Ikshvaku (son of Manu)
eva paramparprptamima rjarayo vidu
abravt (irregular 1st class verb root: br) (imperfect,
parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one said sa kleneha mahat yogo naa parantapa 4-2

Thus, the lineage was accomplished. The royal seers knew this;
that after a long time Yoga was destroyed in this world, o
Arjuna.
evam (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus naas (4th class verb root: na) (past passive participle,
masculine, nominative, singular) = destroyed
parampar (stem form: parampar) (feminine, nominative,
singular) = lineage parantapa (stem form: parantapa) (masculine, vocative,
singular) = o Scorcher of the Foe (epithet of Arjuna)
prptam (5th class verb root: p) (pra + ptam) (past passive
participle, accusative, singular) = was accomplished

imam (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, singular) =


this

rjarayas (stem form: rjaris) (rja + rayas) (masculine,


nominative, plural) = royal seers

vidus (2nd class stem form: vid) (perfect, active, 3rd person,
plural) = they knew

sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


that

klena (stem form: kla) (masculine, instrumental, singular) =


with time

iha (adverb) (indeclinable) = in this world

mahat (stem form: mahat) (masculine, instrumental, singular)


= with long

yogas (stem form: yoga) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


Yoga
sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =
Chapter 4/Verse 3 that

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed



ayam (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =
- that

sa evya may te'dya yoga prokta purtana may (pronoun, 1st person, instrumental, singular) = by me
bhakto'si me sakh ceti rahasya hyetaduttamam 4-3
te (pronoun, 2nd person, dative, singular) = to you

adya (adverb) (indeclinable) = today


Indeed, that ancient Yoga, today that was declared to you by
me since you are devoted and a friend of mine. Indeed, that yogas (stem form: yoga) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
mystical teaching is supreme. Yoga

proktas (2nd class verb root: vac) (pra + uktas) (past passive
participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = declared

purtanas (stem form: purtana) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = ancient

bhaktas (1st class verb root: bhaj) (past passive participle,


masculine, nominative, singular) = devoted

asi (present tense, 2nd person, singular)= you are

me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = of mine

sakh (masculine, nominative, singular) = friend


ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and
Chapter 4/Verse 4
iti (punctuation) (indeclinable) = since

rahasyam (stem form: rahasya) (neuter, nominative, singular) =



mystical teaching

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed
-
etad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, nominative, singular) = that
arjuna uvca
uttamam (stem form: uttama) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
supreme apara bhavato janma para janma vivasvata

kathametadvijny tvamdau proktavniti 4-4

Arjuna said, Your birth was later. Vivasvat's birth was earlier.
How should I understand this, You declared it in the
beginning?
arjunas (stem form: arjuna) (masculine, nominative, singular) = dau (stem form: di) (masculine, locative, singular) = in the
Arjuna beginning

uvca (2nd class verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd proktavn (2nd class verb root: vac) (pra + uktavn) (perfect
person, singular) = one said active participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = declared

aparam (stem form: apara) (neuter, nominative, singular) = iti (punctuation) (indeclinable) = (closed quotation marks)
later

bhavatas (stem form: bhavat) (masculine, genitive, singular) =


your

janma (stem form: janman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


birth

param (stem form: para) (neuter, nominative, singular) = earlier

janma (stem form: janman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


birth

vivasvatas (stem form: vivasvat) (masculine, genitive, singular)


= of Vivasvat

katham (interrogative) (indeclinable) = how

etad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = this

vijnym (9th class verb root: ja) (vi + jnym) (optative,


parasmaipada, 1st person, singular) = I should understand

tvam (pronoun, 2nd person, nominative, singular) = you


rbhagavn (stem form: rbhagavant) (masculine, nominative,
Chapter 4/Verse 5 singular) = the Blessed Lord (epithet of Krishna)

uvca (2nd class verb root: vac) (perfect, parasmaipada, 3rd



person, singular) = one said


bahni (stem form: bahu) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
many
-
me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my
rbhagavnuvca
vyattni (1st class verb root: i) (vi + ati + itni) (past passive
bahni me vyattni janmni tava crjuna participle, neuter, nominative, plural) = have passed

tnyaha veda sarvi na tva vettha parantapa 4-5 janmni (stem form: janman) (neuter, nominative, plural) =
births

Krishna said, my and your many past births, o Arjuna, I know tava (pronoun, 2nd person, genitive, singular) = of you
them all. You do not know, o Scorcher of the Foe.
ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

arjuna (stem form: arjuna) (masculine, vocative, singular) = O


Arjuna

tni (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = them

aham (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, singular) = I

veda (1st class verb root: vid) (perfect active with present
meaning, 1st person, singular) = I knew

sarvi (stem form: sarva) (neuter, accusative, plural) = all


na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not
Chapter 4/Verse 6
tvam (pronoun, 2nd person, nominative, singular) = you

vettha (1st class verb root: vid) (perfect, parasmaipada, with



present meaning, 2nd person, singular) = you know
-
parantapa (stem form: parantapa) (masculine, vocative,
singular) = o Scorcher of the Foe (epithet of Arjuna) ajo'pi sannavyaytm bhtnmvaro'pi san

prakti svmadhihya sabhavmytmamyay 4-6

Even being an unborn, imperishable self, the lord of beings,


and even being, having governance over my own nature, I
come into being by the magical power of the self.
ajas (stem form: aja) (masculine, nominative, singular) = sabhavmi (1st class verb root: bh) (sam + bhavmi)
unborn (present indicative, parasmaipada, 1st person, singular) = I
come into being
api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even
tmamyay (stem form: tmamy) (tma + myay)
san (2nd class verb root: as) (present participle, parasmaipada, (tatpura compound, feminine, instrumental, singular) = by
masculine, nominative, singular) = being the magical power of the self

avyaytm (stem form: avyaytman) (avyaya + tm)


(karmadhraya compound, masculine, nominative, singular) =
imperishable self

bhtnm (stem form: bhta) (masculine, genitive, plural) = of


beings

varas (stem form: vara) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


lord

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even

san (2nd class verb root: as) (present participle, masculine,


nominative, singular) = being

praktim (stem form: prakti) (feminine, accusative, singular) =


nature

svm (stem form: sv) (feminine, accusative, singular) = my


own

adhihya (1st class verb root: sth) (adhi + hya) (gerund)


(indeclinable) = having governance over
yad yad (adverb) (indeclinable) = whenever
Chapter 4/Verse 7
hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

dharmasya (stem form: dharma) (masculine, genitive, singular)


= of dharma

-
glnis (stem form: glni) (feminine, nominative,singular) =
yad yad hi dharmasya glnirbhavati bhrata decay
abhyutthnamadharmasya tadtmna sjmyaham 4-7
bhavati (1st class verb root: bh) (present indicative,
parasmaipada, active, 3rd person, singular) = it exists
O Arjuna, indeed, whenever decay of dharma exists and
adharma rises up, then I create the self. bhrata (stem form: bhrata) (masculine, vocative, singular) =
o Descendant of Bharata (epithet of Arjuna)

abhyutthnam (stem form: abhyutthna) (abhi + ud + sthnam)


(neuter, accusative, singular) = rises up

adharmasya (stem form: adharma) (masculine, genitive,


singular) = of adharma

tad (adverb) (indeclinable) = then

tmnam (stem form: tman) (masculine, accusative, singular)


= self

sjmi (present indicative, parasmaipada, 1st person, singular)


= I create

aham (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, singular) = I


paritrya (stem form: paritra) (neuter, dative, singular) =
Chapter 4/Verse 8 for rescue

sdhnm (stem form: sdhu) (masculine, genitive, plural) = of



the righteous



- vinya (stem form: vina) (masculine, dative, singular) = for
destruction
paritrya sdhn vinya ca duktm
ca (adverb) (indeclinable) = and
dharmasasthpanrthya sambhavmi yuge yuge 4-8
duktm (stem form: dukt) (masculine, genitive, plural) = of
the evil doers
For rescue of the righteous and for destruction of the evil doers,
from age to age I come into being for the goal of establishing dharmasasthpanrthya (stem form:
dharma. dharmasasthpanrtha) (dharma + sasthpana + arthya)
(tatpura compound, masculine, dative, singular) = for the
goal of establishing dharma

sambhavmi (1st class verb root: bh) (sam + bhavmi)


(present indicative, parasmaipada, 1st person, singular) = I
come into being

yuge yuge (stem form: yuga yuga) (neuter, locative, singular) =


from age to age
janma (stem form: janman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =
Chapter 4/Verse 9 birth

karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


action



- ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

janma karma ca me divyameva yo vetti tattvata me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my
tyaktv deha punarjanma naiti mmeti so'rjuna 4-9
divyam (stem form: ) (neuter, accusative, singular) =divine

evam (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus


Thus, one who truly knows my divine birth and action, that one
goes to me. Abandoning the body, one is not reborn, o Arjuna. yas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =
who

vetti (2nd class verb root: vid) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one knows

tattvatas (adverb) (indeclinable) = truly

tyaktv (1st class verb root: tyaj) (gerund) (indeclinable) =


abandoning

deham (stem form: deha) (neuter, accusative, singular) = body

punarjanma (stem form: punarjanman) (punar + janma) (neuter,


accusative, singular) = reborn

na (adverb) (indeclinable) = not


eti (present indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) =
one goes Chapter 4/Verse 10
mm (pronoun, 1st person, masculine, accusative, singular) =
to me


eti (present indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) =
-
one goes
vtargabhayakrodh manmay mmuprit
sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =
that one bahavo jnatapas pt madbhvamgat 4-10

arjuna (stem form: arjuna) (masculine, vocative, singular) = o


Arjuna
Free of passion, danger, and anger, absorbed in me, taking
refuge in me, many purified by austerity in knowledge return to
my state of being.
vtargabhayakrodhs (stem form: vtargabhayakrodha) (vta
+ rga + bhaya + krodhs) (bahuvrih compound, masculine, Chapter 4/Verse 11
nominative, plural) = free of passion, danger, and anger

manmays (stem form: manmaya) (masculine, nominative,


plural) = absorbed in me

-
mm (pronoun, 1st, accusative, singular) = me
ye yath m prapadyante tstathaiva bhajmyaham
uprits (1st class verb root: ri) (upa + + rits) (past
mama vartmnuvartante manuy prtha sarvaa 4-11
passive participle, masculine, nominative, plural) = taking
refuge
The manner in which they take refuge in me, indeed, in that
bahavas (stem form: bahu) (masculine, nominative, plural) = way, I accept them. Everywhere, human beings follow my
many path, o Arjuna.
jnatapas (stem form: jnatapas) (tatpura compound,
neuter, instrumental, singular) = by austerity in knowledge

pts (verb root: p) (past passive participle, masculine,


nominative, plural) = purified

madbhvam (stem form: madbhva) (masculine, accusative,


singular) = my state of being

gats (1st class verb root: gam) ( + gats) (past passive


participle, masculine, nominative, plural) = return
ye (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) = who prtha (stem form: prtha) (masculine, vocative, singular) = o
Son of Pritha (epithet of Arjuna)
yath (adverb) (indeclinable) = the manner in which
sarvaas (adverb) (indeclinable) = everywhere
mm (pronoun, 1st person, accusative, singular) = me

prapadyante (1st class verb root: pad) (pra + padyante) (present


indicative, tmanepada, 3rd person, plural) = they take refuge
in

tm (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, plural) =


them

tath (adverb) (indeclinable) = in that way

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

bhajmi (1st class verb root: bhaj) (present indicative, 1st


person, singular) = I accept

aham (pronoun, 1st person, nominative, singular) = I

mama (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my

vartma (stem form: ) (neuter, accusative, singular) = path

anuvartante (verb root: vt) (anu + vartante) (present indicative,


tmanepada, 3rd person, plural) = they follow

manuys (stem form: manuya) (masculine, nominative,


plural) = human beings
kkantas (1st class verb root: kk) (present participle,
Chapter 4/Verse 12 parasmaipada, masculine, nominative, plural) = desiring

karmam (stem form: karman) (neuter, genitive, plural) = of


actions


- siddhim (stem form: siddhi) (feminine, accusative, singular) =
accomplishment
kkanta karma siddhi yajanta iha devat
yajante (1st class verb root: yaj) (present indicative,
kipra hi mnue loke siddhirbhavati karmaj 4-12
tmanepada, 3rd person, plural) = they sacrifice

iha (adverb) (indeclinable) = here


Those desiring accomplishment, here they sacrifice to the
deities. In the human world success, indeed, is quickly born devats (stem form: deva) (feminine, accusative, plural) =
from such actions. deities

kipram (adverb) (indeclinable) = quickly

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

mnue (stem form: mnu) (masculine, locative, singular) = in


human

loke (stem form: loka) (masculine, locative, singular) = in the


world

siddhis (stem form: siddhi) (feminine, nominative, singular) =


success

bhavati (present indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person,


singular) = it is
karmaj (stem form: karmaj) (feminine, nominative, singular)
= born from such actions Chapter 4/Verse 13

cturvarya may sa guakarmavibhgaa

tasya kartramapi m viddhyakartramavyayam 4-13

In regards to the distribution of the actions of the gunas related


to the four castes created by me; although the creator of that,
you must know me as the imperishable, non-doer.
cturvaryam (stem form: cturvarya) (neuter, nominative,
singular) = related to the four castes Chapter 4/Verse 14
may (pronoun, 1st person, instrumental, singular) = by me


sam (6th class verb root: sj) (past passive participle, neuter,
nominative, singular) = created -

guakarmavibhgaas (gua + karma + vibhga + as) na m karmi limpanti na me karmaphale sph


(adverbial t atpura compound) = in regards to the
distribution of the actions of the gunas iti m yo'bhijnti karmabhirna sa badhyate 4-14

tasya (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, genitive, singular) = of Actions do not stain me. My desire is not in the fruit of action.
that Thus, one who understands me, that one is not bound by
actions.
kartram (stem form: kartra) (masculine, accusative, singular)
= creator

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = although

mm (pronoun, 1st person, accusative, singular) = me

viddhi (2nd class verb root: vid) (imperative, parasmaipada,


2nd person, singular) = you must know

akartram (stem form: akartra) (masculine, accusative,


singular) = non-doer

avyayam (stem form: avyaya) (masculine, accusative, singular)


= imperishable
na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not karmabhis (stem form: karman) (neuter, instrumental, plural) =
by actions
mm (pronoun, 1st person, accusative, singular) = me
na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not
karmi (stem form: karman) (neuter, nominative, plural) =
actions sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =
that one
limpanti (6th class verb root: lip) (present indicative,
parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they stain badhyate (9th class verb root: bandh) (present indicative,
tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = one is bound
na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

me (pronoun, 1st person, genitive, singular) = my

karmaphale (stem form: karmaphala) (karma + phale) (neuter,


locative, singular) = in the fruit of action

sph (stem form: sph) (feminine, nominative, singular) =


desire

iti (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus

mm (pronoun, 1st person, accusative, singular) = me

yas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


one who

abhijnti (9th class verb root: j) (abhi + jnti) (present


indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one
understands
evam (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus
Chapter 4/Verse 15
jtv (9th class verb root: j) (gerund) (indeclinable) =
having known



ktam (8th class verb root: k) (past passive participle, neuter,


- accusative, singular) = was done

eva jtv kta karma prvairapi mumukubhi karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =
action
kuru karmaiva tasmttva prvai prvatara ktam 4-15
prvais (stem form: prva) (masculine, instrumental, plural) =
by the ancients
Thus, having known, even action was done by the ancients
desirous of release. Therefore, indeed, you must engage in api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even
action, as done previously by the ancients.
mumukubhis (stem form: mumuku) (desiderative, masculine,
instrumental, plural) = by desirous of release

kuru (8th class verb root: k) (imperative, parasmaipada, 2nd


person, singular) = you must engage!

karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


action

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

tasmt (masculine, ablative, singular) = therefore

tvam (pronoun, 2nd person, nominative, singular) = you


prvais (stem form: prva) (masculine, instrumental, plural) =
by the ancients Chapter 4/Verse 16
prvataram (comparative) = previously

ktam (8th class verb root: k) (past passive participle, neuter,
accusative, singular) = as done
-

ki karma kimakarmeti kavayo'pyatra mohit

tatte karma pravakymi yajjtv mokyase'ubht 4-16

"What is action? What is inaction" Here, even the poets are


confused about that. I shall explain action to you. Having
known that, you shall be liberated from unpleasantness.
kim (interrogative) (indeclinable) = what?
yad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = which
karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
action jtv (9th class verb root: j) (gerund) (indeclinable) =
having known
kim (interrogative) (indeclinable) = what?
mokyase (6th class verb root: muc) (future passive,
akarma (stem form: akarman) (neuter, nominative, singular) = tmanepada, 2nd person, singular) = you shall be liberated
inaction
aubht (stem form: aubha) (masculine, ablative, singular) =
iti (punctuation) (indeclinable) = (end quotes) from unpleasantness

kavayas (stem form: kavi) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


the poets

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even

atra (adverb) (indeclinable) = here

mohits (stem form: mohita) (past passive participle,


masculine, nominative, plural) = confused

tad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = that

te (pronoun, 2nd person, dative, singular) = to you

karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


action

pravakymi (2nd class verb root: vac) (pra + vakymi)


(future active, parasmaipada, 1st person, singular) = I shall
explain
karmaas (stem form: karman) (neuter, genitive, singular) = of
Chapter 4/Verse 17 action

hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed



api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even
-
boddhavya (1st class verb root: budh) (gerundive, neuter,
karmao hyapi boddhavya boddhavya ca vikarmaa nominative, singular) = to be known
akarmaaca boddhavya gahan karmao gati 4-17 boddhavya (1st class verb root: budh) (gerundive, neuter,
nominative, singular) = to be known

Indeed, of action to be known, and of wrong action to be ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and


known, and even of inaction to be known. The way of action is
difficult to understand. vikarmaas (stem form: karman) (vi + karmaas) (neuter,
genitive, singular) = of wrong action

akarmaas (stem form: akarman) (neuter, genitive, singular) =


of inaction

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

boddhavya (1st class verb root: budh) (gerundive, neuter,


nominative, singular) = to be known

gahan (stem form: gahan) (feminine, nominative, singular) =


difficult to understand

karmaas (stem form: karman) (neuter, genitive, singular) = of


action
gatis (stem form: gati) (feminine, nominative, singular) = the
way Chapter 4/Verse 18

karmayakarma ya payedakarmai ca karma ya

sa buddhimnmanuyeu sa yukta ktsnakarmakt 4-18

One who could see inaction in action and one who [could see]
action in inaction, that one is wise among humans. That one is
yoked performing all actions.
karmai (stem form: karman) (neuter, locative, singular) = in
action

akarma (stem form: akarman) (neuter, accusative, singular) = sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =
inaction that one

yas (pronoun, 3rd person masculine, nominative, singular) = yuktas (7th class verb root: yuj) (past passive participle,
who masculine, nominative, singular) = yoked

payet (1st class verb root: pa) (optative, 3rd person, singular) ktsnakarmakt (stem form: ktsnakarmakt) (neuter,
= one could see nominative, singular) = performing all actions

akarmai (stem form: akarman) (neuter, locative, singular) = in


inaction

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


action

yas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


who

sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


that one

buddhimn (stem form: buddhimant) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = wise

manuyeu (stem form: manuya) (masculine, locative, plural)


= among humans
yasya (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, genitive, singular) =
Chapter 4/Verse 19 whose

sarve (stem form: sarva) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


every


- samrambhs (stem form: samrambha) (masculine,
nominative, plural) = undertakings
yasya sarve samrambh kmasakalpavarjit
kmasakalpavarjits (verb root: vj) (kma + sakalpa +
jngnidagdhakarma tamhu paita budh 4-19 varjits) (bahuvrih compound, past passive participle,
masculine, nominative, plural) = abandoned intentions of
desire
Whose every undertaking has abandoned the intentions of jngnidagdhakarmam (stem form: jngnidagdhakarman)
desire, the wise ones call that one a pandit, possessed of action (jna + agni + dagdha + karmam) (bahuvrih compound,
consumed by the fire of knowledge. masculine, accusative, singular) = one possessed of action
consumed by the fire of knowledge

tam (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, singular) =


that one

hus (1st class verb root: ah) (perfect active used in the present
tense, parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = call

paitam (stem form: paita) (masculine, accusative,


singular) = a pandit

budhs (stem form: budha) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


wise ones
tyaktv (1st class verb root: tyaj) (gerund) (indeclinable) =
Chapter 4/Verse 20 having abandoned

karmaphalsagam (karma + phala + sagam) (tatpura


compound, masculine, accusative, singular) = attachment to the
fruit of action
-
nitya (adverb) (indeclinable) = always
tyaktv karmaphalsaga nityatpto nirraya
tptas (verb root: tp) (past passive participle, masculine,
karmayabhipravtto'pi naiva kicitkaroti sa 4-20 nominative, singular) = satisfied

nirrayas (stem form: nirraya) (nis + + rayas) (masculine,


nominative, singular) = not dependent
Having abandoned attachment to the fruit of action, always
satisfied, not dependent. Indeed, even engaging in action, that karmai (stem form: karman) (neuter, locative, singular) = in
one does not do anything. action

abhipravttas (verb root: vt) (abhi + pra + vttas) (past passive


participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = engaging

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

kicid (adverb) (indeclinable) = anything

karoti (8th class verb root: k) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = that one does
sas (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =
that one Chapter 4/Verse 21

nirryatacitttm tyaktasarvaparigraha

rra kevala karma kurvannpnoti kilbiam 4-21

Free of desire, the self with the mind controlled, attainment of


complete surrender, Performing action only related to the body,
one does not incur fault.
nirs (stem form: ) (masculine, nominative, singular) = free
of desire Chapter 4/Verse 22
yatacitttm (stem form: yatacitttman) (yata + citta + tm)
(bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative, singular) = the
self with the mind controlled
-
tyaktasarvaparigrahas (stem form: tyaktasarvaparigraha)
(tyakta + sarva + parigrahas) (masculine, nominative, singular) yadcchlbhasatuo dvandvtto vimatsara
= attainment of complete surrender
sama siddhvasiddhau ca ktvpi na nibadhyate 4-22
rram (stem form: rra) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
related to the body
Acting as one likes, contentment obtained, gone beyond
kevalam (stem form: kevala) (neuter, nominative, singular) = opposites, free from envy, equal in success and failure. Even
only doing, one is not bound.
karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
action

kurvan (8th class verb root: k) (present active participle,


parasmaipada, masculine, nominative, singular) = performing

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

pnoti (5th class verb root: p) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one incurs

kilbiam (stem form: kilbia) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


fault
yadcch (feminine, nominative, singular) = acting as one likes nibadhyate (1st class verb root: badh) (ni + badhyate) (present
indicative, passive, tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = one is
lbhasatuas (lbha + satuas) (compound) (past passive bound
participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = contentment
obtained

dvandvttas (1st class verb root: i) (dvandva + attas)


(compound) (past passive participle, masculine, nominative,
singular) = gone beyond opposites

vimatsaras (stem form: vimatsara) (masculine, nominative,


singular) = free from envy

samas (stem form: sama) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


equal

siddhau (stem form: siddhi) (feminine, locative, singular) = in


success

asiddhau (stem form: asiddhi) (feminine, locative, singular) =


in failure

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

ktv (8th class verb root: k) (gerund) (indeclinable) = doing

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not


Most translations try to combine the words "yadcch" and
"lbhasatuas," into a phrase, but this is not grammatically Chapter 4/Verse 23
correct because they are both in the nominative case and of
different genders.

gatasagasya muktasya jnvasthitacetasa

yajycarata karma samagra pravilyate 4-23

Undertaken for the sacrifice of the attachment gone, of the


liberated, and of the mind established in knowledge is the
action wholly melted away.
gatasagasya (stem form: gatasaga) (gata + sagasya)
(bahuvrih compound, masculine, genitive, singular) = of the Chapter 4/Verse 24
attachment gone

muktasya (6th class verb root: muc) (past passive participle,


masculine, genitive, singular) = of the liberated
-
jnvasthitacetasas (stem form: jnvasthitacetas) (jna +
avasthita + cetasas) (bahuvrih compound, neuter, genitive, brahmrpaa brahma havirbrahmgnau brahma hutam
singular) = of the mind established in knowledge
brahmaiva tena gantavya brahmakarmasamdhin 4-24
yajya (stem form: yaja) (masculine, dative, singular) = for
sacrifice

caratas (1st class verb root: car) ( + caratas) (present Brahman is offering. Brahman is oblation. Poured out by
participle, active, tmanepada, masculine, nominative, Brahman into the fire of Brahman. Indeed, Brahman is attained
singular) = undertaken by samadhi in the actions of Brahman.

karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


action

samagram (adverb) (indeclinable) = wholly

pravilyate (1st class verb root: l) (pra + vi + lyate) (present


indicative, passive, tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = it is
melted away
brahma (stem form: brahman) (neuter, nominative, singular) = brahmakarmasamdhin (stem form: brahmakarmasamdhin)
Brahman (brahma + karma + samdhi) (bahuvrih compound, masculine,
instrumental, singular) = by samadhi in the actions of Brahman
arpaam (stem form: arpaa) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
offering

brahma (stem form: brahman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


Brahman

havis (stem form: havi) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


oblation

brahmgnau (stem form: brahmgni) (brahma + agnau) (neuter,


locative, singular) = in the fire of Brahman

brahma (stem form: brahman) (neuter, instrumental,


singular) = by Brahman

hutam (3rd class verb root: hu) (past passive participle, neuter,
nominative, singular) = poured out

brahma (stem form: brahman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


Brahman

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

tena (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, instrumental, singular) =


by that one

gantavyam (1st class verb root: gam) (gerundive)


(indeclinable) = to be attained
Chapter 4/Verse 25 daivam (stem form: daiva) (masculine, accusative, singular) =
relating to a god


eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed


- apare (stem form: apara) (masculine, nominative, plural) =
some
daivamevpare yaja yogina paryupsate
yajam (stem form: yaja) (masculine, accusative, singular) =
brahmgnvapare yaja yajenaivopajuhvati 4-25 sacrifice

yoginas (stem form: yogin) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


Some yogins partake in sacrifice, indeed, in relation to a god. yogins
Others sacrifice sacrifice, indeed, by sacrifice in the fire of
Brahman. paryupsate (2nd class verb root: s) (pari + upa + sate)
(present indicative, tmanepada, 3rd person, plural) = they
partake in

brahmgnau (stem form: brahmgni) (brahma + agnau)


(masculine, locative, singular) = in the fire of Brahman

apare (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) =


others

yajam (stem form: yaja) (masculine, accusative, singular) =


sacrifice

yajena (stem form: yaja)(masculine, instrumental, singular)


= by sacrifice

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed


upajuhvati (3rd class verb root: hu) (upa + juhvati) (present Chapter 4/Verse 26
indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they sacrifice

rotrdnndriyyanye sayamgniu juhvati

abddnviaynanya indriygniu juhvati 4-26

Others sacrifice the sense of hearing and so forth in the fires of


restraint. Others sacrifice the objects of the senses regarding
the sounds and so forth in the fires of the senses.
rotrdni (rotra + dni) (neuter, accusative, plural) = hearing
and so forth Chapter 4/Verse 27
indriyi (stem form: indriya) (neuter, accusative, singular) =
sense

anye (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) = -


others
sarvndriyakarmi prakarmi cpare
sayamgniu (stem form: sayamgni) (sayama + agniu)
(masculine, locative, plural) = in the fires of restraint tmasayamayoggnau juhvati jnadpite 4-27

juhvati (3rd class verb root: hu) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they sacrifice
Others sacrifice all actions of prana and the actions of the
abddn (abda + dn) (masculine, accusative, plural) = the senses in the fire of the Yoga of the restraint of the self kindled
sounds and so forth by knowledge.

viayn (stem form: viaya) (masculine, accusative, plural) =


objects of the senses

anye (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) =


others

indriygniu (stem form: indriygni) (indriya + agniu)


(masculine, locative, plural) = in the fires of the senses

juhvati (3rd class verb root: hu) (present indicative,


parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they sacrifice
sarvi (stem form: sarva) (neuter, accusative, plural) = all
Chapter 4/Verse 28
indriyakarmi (stem form: indriyakarman) (indriya +
karmi) (neuter, accusative, plural) = actions of the senses

prakarmi (stem form: prakarman) (pra + karmi)
(neuter, accusative, plural) = actions of prana -

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and dravyayajstapoyaj yogayajstathpare

apare (stem form: apara) (masculine, nominative, plural) = svdhyyajnayajca yataya saitavrat 4-28
others

tmasayamayoggnau (tma+ sayama + yoga + agnau)


(tatpura compound, masculine, locative, singular) = in the Thus, others are ascetics with objects of devotion decided,
fire of the Yoga of the restraint of the self sacrifice objects, austerity, Yoga, and knowledge of recitation
to oneself.
juhvati (3rd class verb root: hu) (present indicative,
parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they sacrifice

jnadpite (4th class verb root: dp) (jna + dpite) (tatpura


compound, past passive participle, masculine, locative,
singular) = kindled by knowledge
dravyayajs (stem form: dravyayaja) (dravya + yajs)
(bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative, plural) = Chapter 4/Verse 29
sacrifices of objects

tapoyajs (stem form: tapoyaja) (tapas + yajs) (bahuvrih


compound, masculine, nominative, plural) = sacrifices of
austerity -

yogayajs (stem form: yogayaja) (yoga + yajs) (bahuvrih apne juhvati pra pre'pna tathpare
compound, masculine, nominative, plural) = sacrifices of Yoga
prpnagat ruddhv prymaparya 4-29
tath (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus

apare (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) =


others Others also sacrifice prana in the apana and apana in prana.
Intent on the extension and control of prana having contained
svdhyyajnayajs (stem form: svdhyyajnayaja) the motion of prana and apana.
(svdhyya + jna + yajs) (bahuvrih compound, masculine,
nominative, plural) = sacrifices of the knowledge of recitation
to oneself

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

yatayas (stem form: yati) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


ascetics

saitavrats (stem form: saitavrata) (saita + vrats)


(masculine, nominative, plural) = objects of devotion decided
apne (stem form: apna) (masculine, locative, singular) = in I chose to keep the words for "apana" and "prana" in Sanskrit
the apana because they can mean the literal "exhalation" and
"inhalation, respectively, which previous translations have
juhvati (3rd class verb root: hu) (present indicative, interpreted the words as. But they can also define esoteric
parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they sacrifice energy forces within the body and the like, which are worked
with in various yogic practices.
pram (stem form: pra) (masculine, accusative, singular) =
prana

pre (stem form: pra) (masculine, locative, singular) = in


prana

apnam (stem form: apna) (masculine, accusative, singular) =


apana

tath (adverb) (indeclinable) = also

apare (stem form: apara) (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine,


nominative, plural) = others

prpnagat (stem form: prpnagati) (pra + apna +


gat) (feminine, accusative, dual) = the motion of prana and
apana

ruddhv (7th class verb root: rudh) (gerund) (indeclinable) =


having contained

prymaparyas (pra + yma + paryas) (tatpura


compound masculine, nominative, plural) = intent on the
extension and control of prana
apare (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) =
Chapter 4/Verse 30 others

niyathrs (niyata + hrs) (bahuvrih compound, masculine,


nominative, plural) = restrained in taking food

- prn (stem form: pra) (masculine, accusative, plural) =


pranas
apare niyathr prnpreu juhvati
sarve'pyete yajavido yajakapitakalma 4-30 preu (stem form: pra) (masculine, locative, plural) = in
the pranas

Others, restrained in taking food, sacrifice pranas in the juhvati (3rd class verb root: hu) (present indicative,
pranas. All these also are knowers of sacrifice, whose sins are parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they sacrifice
destroyed by sacrifice.
sarve (stem form: sarva) (masculine, nominative, plural) = all

api (adverb) (indeclinable) = also

ete (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, plural) =


these

yajavidas (stem form: yajavid) (yaja + vidas) (masculine,


nominative, plural) = knowers of sacrifice

yajakapitakalmas (stem form: yajakapitakalmaa) (yaja


+ kapita + kalmas) (bahuvrih compound, masculine,
nominative, plural) = sins destroyed by sacrifice
yajaimtabhujas (stem form: yajaimtabhuj) (yaja +
Chapter 4/Verse 31 ia + amta + bhujas) (bahuvrih compound, feminine,
nominative, plural) = enjoying the nectar of the remainder of
the sacrifice



ynti (2nd class verb root: y) (present indicative,
- parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they go

yajaimtabhujo ynti brahma santanam brahma (stem form: brahman) (neuter, accusative, singular) =
Brahman
nya loko'styayajasya kuto'nya kurusattama 4-31
santanam (stem form: santana) (neuter, accusative, singular)
= eternal

Enjoying the nectar of the remainder of the sacrifice they go to na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not
the eternal Brahman. The non-sacrificing one does not have
this world, how then the other, o Arjuna? ayam (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =
this

lokas (stem form: loka) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


world

asti (2nd class verb root: as) (present indicative, parasmaipada,


3rd person, singular) = it is

ayajasya (stem form: ayaja) (a + yajasya) (masculine,


genitive, singular) = of the non-sacrificing

kutas (interrogative) (indeclinable) = how?

anyas (stem form: anya) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


other
kurusattama (stem form: kurusattama) (masculine, vocative,
singular) = o Best of the Kurus (epithet of Arjuna) Chapter 4/Verse 32

eva bahuvidh yaj vitat brahmao mukhe

karmajnviddhi tnsarvneva jtv vimokyase 4-32

Thus, many kinds of sacrifices are arranged in the the mouth of


Brahman. You must know all of them are born of action. Thus
having known, you shall be liberated.
evam (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus vimokyase (future tense, passive, tmanepada, 2nd person,
singular) = you shall be liberated
bahuvidhs (stem form: bahuvidha) (masculine, nominative,
plural) = many kinds

yajs (stem form: yaja) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


sacrifices

vitats (8th class verb root: tan) (vi + tats) (past passive
participle, masculine, nominative, plural) = arranged

brahmaas (stem form: brahman) (neuter, genitive, singular) =


of Brahman

mukhe (stem form: mukha) (neuter, locative, singular) = in the


mouth

karmajn (stem form: karmaja) (karma + jn) (masculine,


accusative, plural) = born of action

viddhi (2nd class verb root: vid) (imperative, parasmaipada,


2nd person, singular) = you must know

tn (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, plural) = them

sarvn (stem form: sarva) (masculine, accusative, plural) = all

evam (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus

jtv (9th class verb root: j) (gerund) (indeclinable) =


having known
reyn (comparative, masculine, nominative, singular) = better
Chapter 4/Verse 33
dravyamayt (stem form: dravyamaya) (masculine, ablative,
singular) = than material possessions

yajt (stem form: yaja) (masculine, ablative, singular) = than
- sacrifice

reyndravyamaydyajjjnayaja parantapa jnayajas (stem form: jnayaja) (jna + yajas)


(tatpura compound, masculine, nominative, singular) =
sarva karmkhila prtha jne parisampyate 4-33 sacrifice of wisdom

parantapa (stem form: parantapa) (masculine, vocative,


singular) = o Scorcher of the Foe (epithet of Arjuna)
Sacrifice of wisdom is better than sacrifice of material
possessions, o Arjuna. All cultivated action is fully sarvam (stem form: sarva) (neuter, nominative, singular) = all
comprehended in knowledge, o Arjuna.
karma (stem form: karman) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
action

akhilam (stem form: akhila) (neuter, nominative, singular) =


cultivated

prtha (stem form: prtha) (masculine, vocative, singular) =


Son of Pritha (epithet of Arjuna)

jne (stem form: jna) (neuter, locative, singular) = in


knowledge

parisampyate (5th class verb root: p) (present indicative,


tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = it is fully comprehended
tad (pronoun, 3rd, neuter, accusative, singular) = that
Chapter 4/Verse 34
viddhi (2nd class verb root: vid) (imperative, parasmaipada,
2nd person, singular) = you must know

praiptena (stem form: praipta) (masculine, instrumental,
- singular) = by complete surrender

tadviddhi praiptena paripranena sevay paripranena (stem form: pariprana) (masculine, instrumental,
singular) = by inquiry
upadekyanti te jna jninastattvadarina 4-34
sevay (stem form: sev) (feminine, instrumental, singular) =
by service

You must know that by complete surrender, by inquiry, by upadekyanti (6th class verb root: di) (upa + dekyanti) (future
service. The wise ones, seers of reality, will teach knowledge active, parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they will teach
to thee.
te (pronoun, 3rd person, dative, singular) = to thee

jnam (stem form: jna) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


knowledge

jninas (stem form: jnin) (masculine, nominative, plural) =


the wise ones

tattvadarinas (stem form: tattvadarin) (tattva + darinas)


(adjective, masculine, nominative, plural) = seers of reality
yad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = which
Chapter 4/Verse 35
jtv (9th class verb root: j) (gerund) (indeclinable) =
having known


na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not


-
punar (adverb) (indeclinable) = again
yajjtv na punarmohameva ysyasi pava
moham (stem form: moha) (masculine, accusative, singular) =
yena bhtnyaeea drakyasytmanyatho mayi 4-35 confusion

evam (adverb) (indeclinable) = thus


Having known that, there is not again confusion. Thus, by that ysyasi (2nd class verb root: y) (future tense, parasmaipada,
wholeness you will go, you will see beings in the self, then in 2nd person, singular) = you will go
me, o Arjuna.
pava (stem form: pava) (masculine, vocative, singular)
= o Son of Pandu (epithet of Arjuna)

yena (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, instrumental, singular) =


by which

bhtni (1st class verb root: bh) (past passive participle,


neuter, accusative, plural) = beings

aeea (stem form: aea) (masculine, instrumental, singular)


= by wholeness

drakyasi (1st class verb root: dr) (future active,


parasmaipada, 2nd person, singular) = you will see
tmani (stem form: tman) (masculine, locative, singular) = in
the self Chapter 4/Verse 36
atho (adverb) (indeclinable) = then

mayi (pronoun, 1st person, locative, singular) = in me

-

api cedasi ppebhya sarvebhya ppakttama

sarva jnaplavenaiva vjina santariyasi 4-36

Even if you are the greatest evil-doer of all the sinners, indeed,
you will cross over all wickedness by the boat of knowledge.
api (adverb) (indeclinable) = even

ced (conjunction) (indeclinable) = if

asi (2nd class verb root: as) (present indicative, parasmaipada, Chapter 4/Verse 37
2nd person, singular) = you are

ppebhyas (stem form: ppa) (masculine, ablative, plural) = of



the sinners
-
sarvebhyas (stem form: sarva) (masculine, ablative, plural) = of
all yathaidhsi samiddho'gnirbhasmastkurute'rjuna

jngni sarvakarmi bhasmastkurute tath 4-37


ppakttamas (stem form: ppakt) (superlative, masculine,
nominative, singular) = the greatest evil-doer
Arjuna, just as lit fire reduces kindling to ashes, just so the fire
sarvam (stem form: sarva) (neuter, accusative, singular) = all of knowledge reduces all actions to ashes.

jnaplavena (stem form: jnaplava) (jna + plavena)


(masculine, instrumental, singular) = by the boat of knowledge

eva (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

vjinam (stem form: vjina) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


wickedness

santariyasi (verb root: t) (sam + tariyasi) (future active,


parasmaipada, 2nd person, singular) = you will cross over
yath (adverb) (indeclinable) = just as tath (adverb) (indeclinable) = just so

edhsi (stem form: edhas) (neuter, nominative, plural) =


kindling

samiddhas (verb root: indh) (sam + iddhas) (past passive


participle, masculine, nominative, singular) = lit

agnis (stem form: agni) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


fire

bhasmast (adverb) (indeclinable) = to ashes

kurute (8th class verb root: k) (present indicative,


tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = reduces

arjuna (stem form: arjuna) (masculine, vocative, singular) =


Arjuna

jngnis (stem form: jngni) (jna + agnis)


(karmadhraya compound, masculine, nominative, singular) =
the fire of knowledge

sarvakarmi (stem form: sarvakarman) (sarva + karmi)


(karmadhraya compound, neuter, accusative, plural) = all
actions

bhasmast (adverb) (indeclinable) = to ashes

kurute (8th class verb root: k) (present indicative,


tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = reduces
na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not
Chapter 4/Verse 38
hi (adverb) (indeclinable) = indeed

jnena (stem form: jna) (neuter, instrumental, singular) =


by knowledge
-
sadam (stem form: sada) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
na hi jnena sada pavitramiha vidyate similar

tatsvaya yogasasiddha klentmani vindati 4-38 pavitram (stem form: pavitra) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
purifier
Indeed, no similar purifier like knowledge is found in the iha (adverb) (indeclinable) = in the world
world. One's self is perfected by Yoga. With time one finds
that [knowledge] in the self. vidyate (2nd class verb root: vid) (present indicative, passive,
tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = it is found

tad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = that

svayam (adverb) (indeclinable) = one's self

yogasasiddhas (stem form: yogasasiddha) (yoga + sam +


siddhas) (tatpura compound, masculine, nominative,
singular) = perfected by Yoga

klena (stem form: kla) (masculine, instrumental, singular) =


with time

tmani (stem form: tman) (masculine, locative, singular) = in


the self
vindati (2nd class verb root: vid) (present indicative,
parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one finds Chapter 4/Verse 39

raddhvmllabhate jna tatpara sayatendriya

jna labdhv par ntimaciredhigacchati 4-39

Full of faith one attains that knowledge. Having attained


knowledge, one devoted to control of the senses speedily
attains supreme peace.
raddhvn (stem form: raddhvant) (masculine, nominative, adhigacchati (1st class verb root: gam) (adhi + gacchati)
singular) = full of faith (present indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one
attains
labhate (1st class verb root: labh) (present indicative, passive,
tmanepada, 3rd person, singular) = one attains

jnam (stem form: jna) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


knowledge

tad (pronoun, 3rd person, neuter, accusative, singular) = that

paras (stem form: para) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


one devoted to

sayatendriyas (stem form: sayatendriya) (sayata +


indriyas) (bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative,
singular) = control of the senses

jnam (stem form: jna) (neuter, accusative, singular) =


knowledge

labdhv (1st class verb root: labh) (gerund) (indeclinable) =


having attained

parm (stem form: par) (feminine, accusative, singular) =


supreme

ntim (stem form: nti) (feminine, accusative, singular) =


peace

acirea (adverb) (indeclinable) = speedily


ajas (stem form: aja) (masculine, nominative, singular) =
Chapter 4/Verse 40 unknowing

ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and



araddadhnas (stem form: araddadhna) (masculine,

- nominative, singular) = unbelieving

ajacraddadhnaca saaytm vinayati ca (conjunction) (indeclinable) = and

nya loko'sti na paro na sukha saaytmana 4-40 saaytm (stem form: saaytman) (saaya + tm)
(bahuvrih compound, masculine, nominative, singular) = the
self with doubts
Unknowing and unbelieving and the self with doubts one is vinayati (4th class verb root: na) (vi + nayati) (present
destroyed. The self with doubts has no pleasure in this world indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) = one is
nor the beyond. destroyed

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

ayam (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, nominative, singular) =


this

lokas (stem form: ) loka) (masculine, nominative, singular) =


world

asti (present indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, singular) =


it is

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

paras (adverb) (indeclinable) = beyond


na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not Chapter 4/Verse 41
sukham (stem form: sukha) (neuter, nominative, singular) =
pleasure

saaytmanas (stem form: saaytman) (saaya + -


tmanas) (bahuvrih compound, masculine, genitive, singular)
= of the self with doubts yogasanyastakarma jnasachinnasaayam

tmavanta na karmi nibadhnanti dhanajaya 4-41

Actions do not bind action abandoned in Yoga, doubt cut to


pieces by knowledge, the composed, o Arjuna.
yogasanyastakarmam (stem form: yogasanyastakarman)
(yoga + sanyasta + karmam) (bahuvrih compound, neuter, Chapter 4/Verse 42
accusative, singular) = action abandoned in Yoga

jnasachinnasaayam (stem form:



jnasachinnasaaya) (jna + sachinna + saayam)
(bahuvrih compound, masculine, accusative, singular) = doubt -
cut to pieces by knowledge
tasmdajnasambhta htstha jnsintmana
tmavantam (stem form: tmavant) (masculine, accusative,
singular) = the composed chittvaina saaya yogamtihottiha bhrata 4-42

na (particle of negation) (indeclinable) = not

karmi (stem form: karman) (neuter, nominative, plural) = Therefore, having cut into pieces this doubt born in ignorance
actions abiding in the heart with the sword of knowledge of the self,
you must stand up and perform Yoga, o Arjuna.
nibadhnanti (1st class verb root: badh) (ni + badhnanti)
(present indicative, parasmaipada, 3rd person, plural) = they
bind

dhanajaya (stem form: dhanajaya) (masculine, vocative,


singular) = o Conqueror of Wealth (epithet of Arjuna)
tasmt (masculine, ablative, singular) = therefore uttiha (1st class verb root: sth) (imperative, active,
parasmaipada, 2nd person, singular) = you must stand up
ajnasambhtam (1st class verb root: bh) (ajna +
sambhtam) (bahuvrih compound, past passive participle, bhrata (masculine, vocative, singular) = o Descendant of
masculine, accusative, singular) = born in ignorance Bharata (epithet of Arjuna)

htstham (stem form: htstha) (hd + stham) (bahuvrih


compound, masculine, accusative, singular) = abiding in the
heart

jnsin (stem form: jnsintman) (jna + asin)


(tatpura compound, masculine, instrumental, singular) =
with the sword of knowledge

tmanas (stem form: tman) (masculine, genitive, singular) =


of the self

chittva (7th class verb root: chid) (gerund) (indeclinable) =


having cut into pieces

enam (pronoun, 3rd person, masculine, accusative, singular) =


this

saayam (stem form: saaya) (masculine, accusative,


singular) = doubt

yogam (stem form: yoga) (masculine, accusative, singular) =


Yoga

tiha (1st class verb root: sth) ( + tiha) (imperative, active,


parasmaipada, 2nd person, singular) = you must perform