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IIW Doc.

V- 1523 -12

METHOD TO CALCULATE ULTRASONIC WAVE VELOCITY BY USING


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS

METODE IZRAUNAVANJA BRZINE ULTRAZVUNIH TALASA KORIENJEM


HEMIJSKOG SASTAVA AUSTENITNOG NERAJUEG ELIKA

Tatsuya YOSHIMOTO1, Hideki HORIKAWA1, Takumi SUGIOKA1, Yoji WADA1,


Tomiko YAMAGUCH2 and Kazumasa NISHIO2
1
Sankyu Incorporated, Fukuoka, Japan
2
Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Japan

Key Words: Austenitic Stainless Steel, Density, Youngs Modulus, Poissons ratio, Ultrasonic wave
velocity, Lattice Parameter
Kljune rei: austenitni nerajui elik, gustina, Jungov modul, Poasonov odnos, brzina
ultrazvunog talasa, parametar reetke

Abstract
Various kinds of austenitic stainless steel have been used in oil refinery and chemical plant, and a
value of ultrasonic wave velocity is necessary for not only thickness measurement but also evaluation of
material deterioration. Although ultrasonic wave velocity depends generally on chemical composition,
material structure, grain size etc., it is hard to study the influence of all factors for calculating ultrasonic
wave velocity. Therefore, we noticed chemical composition of materials only.
Since ultrasonic wave velocity depends generally on parameter such as density , Youngs modulus E
and Poissons ratio , we calculated these parameters by using material data of respective elementary
substances. Then, we have investigated the relationship between the calculated values of ultrasonic
wave velocity and the experimental ones measured by ultrasonic testing.

Rezime

Razne vrste austenitnih nerajuih elika koriste se u u rafinerijama nafte i hemijskim postrojenjima, a
vrednost brzine ultrazvunog talasa je potrebna, ne samo za merenje debljine, ve i za ocenjivanje
propadanja materijala. Iako brzine ultrazvunog talasa uglavnom zavise od hemijskog sastava, strukture
materijala, veliine zrna itd, teko je prouavati uticaj svih faktora za izraunavanje brzine ultrazvunog
vala. Stoga smo razmatrali samo hemijski sastav materijala.
Dok brzina ultrazvunog talasa uglavnom zavisi od parametara, kao to su gustina, Jungov modul E i
Poasonov odnos , izraunali smo ove parametre pomou podataka za materijale od odgovarajuih
osnovnih supstanci. Zatim smo istraivali odnos izmeu izraunate vrednosti brzine ultrazvunog talasa
i eksperimentalno dobijenih ultrazvunim ispitivanjem.

1. Introduction
In measuring thickness of various kinds of austenitic stainless steels using in oil refinery and
chemical plant, it is hard to find out the velocity except for a typical type of stainless steel (for example,
AISI type 304 and 347) in a public handbook. Especially, an accurate value of longitudinal wave
velocity is necessary for thickness measurement by using ultrasonic pulse echo technique. Also, for
estimating deterioration of material, it is useful to examine a deviation in ultrasonic wave velocity such
as longitudinal or transverse wave velocity.
Longitudinal wave velocity CL and transverse wave velocity CS are given by the following
equations1) respectively

1
1. Uvod
Pri merenju debljine raznih vrsta austenitnog nerajueg elika koji se koriste u rafinerijama nafte i
hemijskim postrojenjima, teko je nai u raspoloeivim prirunicima brzinu, osim za tipine vrste
nerajueg elika (na primjer, AISI tip 304 i 347). Posebno, precizna vrednost brzine longitudinalnog
talasa je potrebna za merenje debljine pomou ultrazvune impuls -eho tehnike. Takoe, za procenu
pogoranje materijala, korisno je ispitati odstupanje brzine ultrazvunog talasa, kao to su brzine
longitudinalnog ili transverzalnog talasa.
Brzina longitudinalnog talasa CL i transverzalnog talasa CS date su jednainama1)
.
E (1 )
CL (1)
(1 )(1 2 )
E
CS (2)
2 (1 )
where E is Youngs modulus, is Poissons ratio and is density.
gde je E Jungov modul, Poasonov odnos i je gustina.
If parameters such as E, and can be estimated by using material data of respective elementary
substances of austenitic stainless steel, it will be possible to calculate ultrasonic wave velocity.
When measured longitudinal wave velocity CL (m/s) and transverse wave velocity CS (m/s), E (GPa),
and can be calculated as follows.
Ako se parametri kao to su E, i mogu se proceniti pomou podataka za materijale odgovarajuih
osnovnih supstanci austenitnog nerajueg elika, onda je mogue izraunati brzine ultrazvunog talasa.
Kada se meri brzina longitudinalnog talasa CL (m / s) i brzina transverzalnog talasa CS (m / s), E
(GPa), moe se izraunati kako sledi
CS2 (3C L2 4CS2 ) (3)
E
C L2 CS2
1 1
1 (4)
2 (C L / C S ) 1
2

In order to simulate a deviation in ultrasonic wave velocity, we set that one of these factors was
variable and others were constant.
Kako bi simulirali odstupanje u brzini ultrazvunog talasa, postavili smo da jedan od tih faktora varira
a ostali su bili konstantni.

2. Materials Used for Calculating Ultrasonic Wave Velocity


We measured E, and of T.P. No.1-1 1-6 in Table 1, and these materials were goods on the
market, which were produced by solution treatment in accordance with Japanese Industrial Standard.
Data of other materials listed in Table 1 were based on those by H.M.Ledbetter 2) 5), because he had
measured both E and of AISI type 304, 304L, 316 and 310S stainless steel by measuring both CL and
CS. The data of T.P. No.1-1 1-6 in Table 1 shows both figures of mill-sheet issued by fabricator and
the results by fluorescent x-ray analysis (FXA). Carbon and sulfur of T.P.No.1-1 1-6 were analyzed
by equipment for analyzing carbon and sulfur simultaneously, because it is hard to analyze these
elements by FXA.
We used figures of mill-sheet, because the difference between mill-sheet and FXA were negligibly
small.

2. Materijali se koristi za izraunavanje brzine ultrazvunog talasa

Merili smo E, i od T.P. No.1-1 ~ 1-6 u tabeli 1, a ovi materijali su roba na tritu, i proizvedeni su
rastvarajuim tretmanom u skladu sa japanskim industrijskim standardima.
Podaci o drugim materijalima navedenim u tabeli 1 su na osnovu tih po H.M.Ledbetter 2) ~ 5), zato to je
mereno i E i nerajueg elika tipa AISI 304, 304L, 316 i 310S merenjem i C L i CS. Podaci za T.P.
No.1-1 ~ 1-6 u tabeli 1 pokazuju obe slike valjaonikih podataka koje izdaje proizvoa i rezultate
dobijene fluorescentnom analizom x-zracima (FXA). Ugljenik i sumpor u T.P.No.1-1 ~ 1-6 su

2
analizirani opremom za analizu ugljenika i sumpora istovremeno, jer je teko analiziranje ovih
elemenata pomou FXA.
Koristili smo valjaonike podatke , jer je razlika izmeu valjaonikih lista i FXA su zanemarljiva.

3. Experimental Method
3.1 Measurement of Lattice Parameter and Density
Lattice parameter d of T.P. No.1-1 1-6 were measured by X-ray diffraction method to investigate a
deviation in density coused by lattice parameter. Since the relation between cos 2 and d is represented
by a straight line, d was obtained by extrapolating to cos2 = 0 6), where is Bragg angle.
Density of T.P. No.1-1 1-6 was obtained by measuring the mass of the test piece in air and water
to compare experimental values with ones calculated by using d.
Densities of other materials were referred from the papers by H.M.Ledbetter2)5).

3. Eksperimentalna metoda
3.1 Merenje parametra reetke i gustine
Parametar reetke d za T.P. No.1-1 ~ 1-6 meren je metodom difrakcije x zraka radi istraivanja
odstupanja u gustini uzrokovanog parametrom reetke. S obzirom da je odnos izmeu cos 2 i d
predstavljen ravnom linijom, d je dobijen ekstrapolacijom do cos2 = 0 6), gde je Brag-ov ugao.
Gustina za T.P. No.1-1 ~ 1-6 je dobijena merenjem mase ispitnog komada u vazduhu i vodi radi
uporeenja eksperimentalnih vrednosti sa onima izraunatim preko d.
Gustine drugih materijala su uzete iz radova H.M.Ledbetter 2) ~ 5).

Table 1: Chemical composition of materials used


Tabela 1- Hemijski sastav korienih materijala

T.P.No. AISI No. Analysis C Si Mn P S Ni Cr Mo Cu N Ref.No.


Mill-sheet 0.060 0.47 0.85 0.030 0.003 8.07 18.13
1-1
FXA 0.059 0.59 0.94 0.032 0.005 7.54 18.09 0.20 0.372
Mill-sheet 0.050 0.51 0.92 0.032 0.003 8.05 18.13
1-2 304
FXA 0.054 0.76 1.02 0.034 0.004 7.45 18.20 0.14 0.211
Mill-sheet 0.040 0.53 0.92 0.036 0.002 8.06 18.08
1-3
FXA 0.034 0.72 1.01 0.034 0.006 7.52 18.18 0.15 0.278
T.P.No. AISI No. Analysis C Si Mn P S Ni Cr Mo Cu N Ref.No.
Mill-sheet 0.017 0.37
0.85 1.32 0.029 0.004 18.13
9.07 18.12
1-4
1-1 304L Mill-sheet 0.060 0.47 0.030 0.003 8.07
FXAFXA 0.0590.0230.59 0.640.94 1.41
0.032 0.029
0.005 0.006 18.09
7.54 8.41 0.2018.25
0.372 0.25 0.332
1-2 304 Mill-sheet
Mill-sheet 0.040
0.050 0.51 0.71
0.92 0.9
0.032 0.022
0.003 0.001 18.13
8.05 19.20 24.91
1-5 310S FXAFXA 0.0540.0350.76 0.861.02 1.01
0.034 0.004
0.026 7.45
0.001 18.20
17.890.1424.950.211 0.05 0.088
Mill-sheet 0.040 0.53 0.92 0.036 0.002 8.06 18.08
1-3 Mill-sheet
FXA
0.060
0.034 0.72
0.55
1.01
0.84
0.034
0.027
0.006
0.000
7.52
10.06
18.18 0.15
16.06
0.278
2.09
1-6 316
FXA 0.0170.0590.37 0.69
Mill-sheet 1.32 0.92
0.029 0.051
0.004 0.001 18.12
9.07 9.37 16.35 2.07
0.250

1-4 304L
2-1 FXA 0.0280.64 0.50
0.023 1.41 1.57
0.029 0.021
0.006 0.019 18.25
8.41 10.10 0.2518.30
0.332 0.200
0.210 0.039
2-2
1-5 310S 0.0580.71 0.500.9 1.57
Mill-sheet 0.040 0.022 0.021
0.001 0.019 24.91
19.20 10.10 18.30 0.200 0.210 0.039
2-3 FXA 0.035
0.0890.86 0.50
1.01 1.57
0.026 0.001
0.021 17.89
0.019 24.95
10.10 0.0518.30
0.088 0.200
0.210 0.039
2-4 Mill-sheet 0.060
0.0370.55 0.57
0.84 1.50
0.027 0.000
0.022 10.06
0.017 16.06
9.91 2.0918.00 0.205 0.197 0.120
1-6 316
FXA 0.059
0.0670.69 0.57
0.92 0.051 0.001 9.37
0.017 16.35
9.91 2.0718.00
0.250
2-5 304 1.50 0.022 0.205 0.197 0.120 2
2-1 0.028 0.50 1.57 0.021 0.019 10.10 18.30 0.200 0.210 0.039
2-6
2-2
0.0940.50 0.57
0.058 1.57
1.50
0.021
0.022
0.019
0.017 9.91 18.00 0.205
10.10 18.30 0.200 0.210 0.039
0.197 0.120
2-7
2-3 0.0300.50 0.55
0.089 1.57 1.42
0.021 0.024
0.019 0.016 18.30
10.10 9.970.20020.30
0.210 0.195
0.039 0.200 0.240
2-8
2-4 0.0570.57 0.55
0.037 1.50 1.42
0.022 0.024
0.017 0.016 18.00
9.91 9.970.20520.30
0.197 0.195
0.120 0.200 0.240
2-5
2-9 304 0.067
0.0850.57 0.55
1.50 1.42
0.022 0.017
0.024 9.91
0.016 18.00
9.970.20520.30
0.197 0.195
0.120 2
0.200 0.240
2-6
3-1 0.094
0.0250.57 0.53
1.50 1.02
0.022 0.017
0.022 9.91
0.013 18.00
8.680.20518.19
0.197 0.32
0.120 0.30 0.11
2-7 0.030 0.55 1.42 0.024 0.016 9.97 20.30 0.195 0.200 0.240
3-2
2-8
0.025
0.057 0.55
0.60
1.42
1.19
0.024
0.023
0.016
0.015
9.97
7.81 19.36
20.30 0.195 0.200 0.240
0.32 0.28 0.19
3-3
2-9 0.0280.55 0.63
0.085 1.42 2.00
0.024 0.021
0.016 0.013 20.30
9.97 8.660.19518.10
0.200 0.31
0.240 0.28 0.11
3-4
3-1 0.0220.53 0.64
0.025 1.02 2.01
0.022 0.023
0.013 0.013 18.19
8.68 7.89 0.3219.350.30 0.32
0.11 0.30 0.19
3-2
3-5 0.025
0.0250.60 0.59
1.19 3.85
0.023 0.015
0.023 7.81
0.013 19.36
8.70 0.3218.220.28 0.31
0.19 0.29 0.11
3-3 304 0.028 0.63 2.00 0.021 0.013 8.66 3
3-6 0.024 0.65 3.85 0.022 0.014 18.10
7.84 0.3119.250.28 0.11
0.31 0.29 0.19
3-4 0.022 0.64 2.01 0.023 0.013 7.89 19.35 0.32 0.30 0.19
3-7
3-5
0.0230.59 0.62
0.025 3.85
4.03
0.023
0.023
0.013
0.014 18.22
8.70
8.22 0.3118.710.29
0.31
0.11
0.30 0.15
3-8 304 0.0240.65 0.61 3
3-6 0.024 3.85 5.79
0.022 0.024
0.014 0.014 19.25
7.84 7.83 0.3119.480.29 0.31
0.19 0.30 0.21
3-9
3-7 0.0310.62 0.62
0.023 4.03 5.80
0.023 0.024
0.014 0.014 18.71
8.22 8.29 0.3118.420.30 0.31
0.15 0.30 0.15
3-8
3-10 0.024
0.0210.61 0.64
5.79 5.81
0.024 0.014
0.023 7.83
0.014 19.48
8.62 0.3118.060.30 0.33
0.21 0.30 0.11
3-9
4-1 0.031
0.0210.62 0.30
5.80 1.05
0.024 0.014
0.002 8.29
0.004 18.42
13.800.31 18.500.30 2.05
0.15 0.00 0.180
3-10 0.021
4-2 0.0240.64 0.30
5.81 0.023
1.00 0.014
0.003 8.62
0.004 18.06
12.000.33 18.000.30 0.11
2.06 0.00 0.188
4-1 0.021 0.30 1.05 0.002 0.004 13.80 18.50 2.05 0.00 0.180
4-3
4-2 0.022 0.30
1.00 1.02 0.002 0.005 18.00
14.002.06 18.200.00 2.98 0.00 0.188
316 0.024 0.30 0.003 0.004 12.00 0.188 4
4-4
4-3 0.0230.30 0.29
0.022 1.02 1.01
0.002 0.002
0.005 0.005 18.20
14.00 11.802.98 18.000.00 3.00
0.188 0.00 0.200
316 4
4-5
4-4 0.0220.29 0.30
0.023 1.01 1.00
0.002 0.002
0.005 0.004 18.00
11.80 14.203.00 17.900.00 4.02
0.200 0.00 0.196
4-5
4-6 0.0200.30 3
0.022 1.00 1.03
0.28 0.002 0.004
0.002 14.20
0.005 17.90
12.104.02 18.200.00 4.08
0.196 0.00 0.204
4-6
5-1 304 0.020
0.0480.28 0.38
1.03 1.88
0.002 0.005
0.019 12.10
0.024 18.20
9.49 4.08 18.65
0.00 0.52
0.204 0.07 0.120
5-1 304 0.048 0.38 1.88 0.019 0.024 9.49 18.65 0.52 0.07 0.120
5-2 310S 0.080 0.70 1.70 0.020 0.020 20.80 24.80 0.10 0.10 5
5-2 310S 0.080 0.70 1.70 0.020 0.020 20.80 24.80 0.10 0.10 5
5-3
5-3 316
316 0.0620.56 0.56
0.062 1.77 1.77
0.030 0.030
0.020 0.020 17.46
12.93 12.932.20 17.46 2.20
(Note)
(Note) FXA meansFluorescent
FXA means Fluorescent X-ray
X-ray Analysis.
Analysis.
Mill-sheet valjaonika lista
FXA znai analiza fluorescentnim X zracima
3.2 Measurement of Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio
Both E and were measured by using both strain gauge method and ultrasonic method.

3.3 Ultrasonic Test Instrument and Size of Test Piece for Measuring Ultrasonic Wave Velocity
Table 2 shows ultrasonic instrument and probes for measuring longitudinal and transverse wave
velocity of T.P.No.1-1 1-6.
Size of test piece is shown in Table 3.
3.2 Merenje Jungovog modula i Poasonovog odnosa
I E i mereni su metodom merila naprezanja i ultrazvunom metodom.

3.3 Ultrazvuni ispitni instrument i veliina ispitnog komada za merenje brzine ultrazvunog talasa
Tabela 2 prikazuje ultrazvuni instrument i sonde za merenje brzine longitudinalnih i transverzalnih
talasa za T.P.No.1-1 ~ 1-6.
Veliina ispitnog komada prikazana je u tabeli 3.
Table 2:Ultrasonic test instrument and probes
Tabela 2: Ultrazvuni ispitni instrument i sonde
Ultrasonic test Model USN 58L,
instrument GE Inspection Technology, Inc.
Probe for Model V109 (5MHz)
longitudinal wave Panametrics-NDT, Inc.
Probe for Model 5Z10X10N-S,
shear wave Japan Probe Co, Ltd.
Table 3: Size of test piece
Tabela 3: Veliina ispitnog komada
T.P. No. AISI No. Size (mm)
1-1 1-4 304, 304L l 200w 50t 15
1-5 1-6 310S, 316 l 200w 50t 9

3.4 Measurement of Transverse Wave Velocity Ratio


To investigate acoustic anisotropy of T.P. No.1-1 1-6, ratio of transverse wave velocity at rolling
direction of material to that at vertical direction was measured.

3.4 Merenje odnosa brzina transverzalnog talasa


Da bi istraili akustinu anizotropiju za T.P. No.1-1 ~ 1-6, izmeren je odnos brzine transverzalnog
talasa u smeru valjanja materijala nasuprot brzini u vertikalnom smeru

3.5 Method to Calculate Ultrasonic Wave Velocity


3.5.1 Method to calculate lattice parameter and density
In calculating by using chemical composition, it is indispensable to estimate d. Although Fig. 1
shows the relation between d and carbon content C in austenitic stainless steel7), original data are for the
range where carbon content is more than 0.275%C. Since carbon content of materials used was from
0.017%C to 0.094%C, we extrapolated the original data to C=0 for estimating lattice parameter
corresponding to respective carbon content of materials used.
W.C.Leslie8) studied a deviation in lattice parameter of iron and its dilute substitutional solid
solutions. He reported that the lattice parameter in BCC (body-centered cubic lattice) depended on
atomic percent solute of dilute substitutional solid solutions. According to his study, Mn, Ni and Cr
didnt cause a deviation in the lattice parameter because of negligibly small size-misfit of atom.
Furthermore, Si and P decreased the lattice parameter a little.
Assuming that a deviation in lattice parameter of FCC (face-centered cubic lattice) would be similar

4
to that in BCC, Eq. (5) was used for estimating d (nm) based on paper8).
d = 0.3555+0.0045C0.000035Si0.00010P +0.000067Mn+0.00007Ni+0.000055Cr (5)
Density (kg/m3) was calculated by Eq. (6)9),
n
A 4
3 i i
Mc ) (6)
( Ma
Nd i 1 1 A
where N is Avogadro constant 6.021023 , d is lattice parameter, Mi is atomic weight except
carbon, ai is atomic fraction except carbon, A is atomic fraction of carbon, and Mc is atomic weight of
carbon.

3.5 Metoda za izraunavanje brzine ultrazvunog talasa


3.5.1 Metoda za izraunavanje parametara reetke i gustine
U obraunu pomou hemijskog sastava, neophodno je proceniti d. Iako sl. 1 prikazuje odnos izmeu
d i sadraj ugljenika C u austenitnom nerajuem eliku 7), originalni podaci su za opseg gde je sadraje
ugljenika vei od 0.275% C. s obzirom da je sadraj ugljenika u materijalu koji se koristi od 0.017% C
do 0.094% C, ekstrapolirali smo originalne podatke za C = 0 za procenu parametra reetke, koji
odgovara odgovarajuem sadraju ugljenika u materijalu.
W.C.Leslie 8) je prouavao odstupanje u parametru reetke eleza i njegovim razreenim
supstitucijskim vrstim rastvorima. On je saoptio da parametar reetke u BCC (zapreminski centrirana
kubna reetka) zavisi od atomskog procenta razreenja supstitucijskih vrstih rastvora. Prema ovoj
studiji, Mn, Ni i Cr ne uzrokuju odstupanje u parametru reetke zbog zanemarljivo male veliine-
neprikladosti atoma. Osim toga, Si i P smanjuju malo parametar reetke.
Pod pretpostavkom da je odstupanje u parametra reetke FCC (povrinski entrirana kubna reetka)
slino onom kod BCC, jednaina. (5) je koriena za procenu d (nm) na osnovu rada 8).
d = 0.3555+0.0045C0.000035Si0.00010P +0.000067Mn+0.00007Ni+0.000055Cr (5)

Gustina (kg/m3) je izraunata prema jednaini (6)9),


n
A 4
3 i i
Mc) (6)
( Ma
Nd i 1 1 A
gde je N Avogadrova konstanta (broj)6.021023, d je parametar reetke, Mi je atomska teina sem
ugljenika, ai je atomska frakcija osim ugljenika, A je atomska frakcija ugljenika, i Mc je atomska teina
ugljenika.

0.364
Lattice constant, d (nm)

d = 0.045C + 0.3555
0.362

0.360
0.275
0.358

0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.0


0.3555
Fig. 1 Relation between lattice parameter and carbon content in austenitic steel8)
Carbon content, C (mass%)
Sl. 1. Odnos izmeu prametr reetke i sadraja ugljenika kod austenitnog elika 8)
(lattice constant- konstanta reetke; carbon content-sadraj ugljenika)

3.5.2 Method to calculate Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio


3.5.2 Metode izraunavanja Jungovog modula i Poasonovog odnosa

Since S.Nishikawa10) reported that Youngs modulus of solid-solution type alloy in two component
system was roughly proportional to each atomic percent, we assumed that Youngs modulus in
pluralistic component system would be given by Eq. (7):
n
E ai Ei (7)
i
where, ai is
1 atomic fraction and Ei is Youngs modulus of an elementary substance
S obzirom da je S.Nishikawa 10) saoptio da je Jungov modul kod dvokomponentnih legura tipa

5
vrstog rastvora, priblino proporcionalan svakom atomskom procentu, pretpostavili smo da je Jungov
modul u pluralistikom sistemu komponenta dat izrazom. (7):
n
E ai Ei (7)
gde je i 1 ai atomska frakcija i Ei je Jungov modul elementarne supstance.
Similarly, we assumed that in pluralistic component system would be given by Eq. (8):
n
ai i (8)
where i 1i is Poissons ratio of an elementary substance.
Isto tako, pretpostavili smo da u pluralistikom sistemu komponenta bilo dato izrazom. (8):
n
ai i (8)
i 1
gdje i Poasonov odnos osnovne supstance
The atomic fraction ai was calculated using weight fraction and atomic weight.
Both E and M of the respective elementary substances are listed in Table 4.
CL was calculated by substituting values in Eq. (6), (7) and (8) into Eq. (1). Similarly, CS was
calculated by substituting values in Eq. (6), (7) and (8) into Eq. (2).

Atomska frakcija ai je izraunata korienjem frakcije teine i atomske teine.


I E i M su odgovarajue elementarne supstance navedene u tabeli 4.
CL je izraunat zamenom vrednosti u jednaini. (6), (7) i (8) u jed. (1). Slino tome, C S je izraunat
zamenom vrednosti u jednaini. (6), (7) i (8) u jed. (2).

3.6 Method to Simulate Behavior of Deviation


3.6 Metoda za simuliranje ponaanja odstupanja
3.6.1 Deviation in ultrasonic wave velocity and density
3.6.1 Odstupanje u brzine ultrazvunog talasa i gustine
We examined the influence of the deviation in each parameter in Eq. (1) and (2) on ultrasonic wave
velocity and also the deviation in lattice parameter in Eq. (6) on density.
Analizirali smo uticaj odstupanja svakog parametra u jednaini. (1) i (2) na brzine ultrazvunog talasa
kao i odstupanje parametra reetke u jednaini. (6) na gustinu.

3.6.2 Partial differential equation


3.6.2 Delimine diferencijalne jednaine
Equations (1) and (2) were partially differentiated with respect to each parameter E, , and to
simulate a deviation in ultrasonic wave velocity coused by a deviation in each parameter.
Jednaine (1) i (2) su delimino diferencirane u odnosu na svaki parametar E, , i da simulira
odstupanje u brzine ultrazvunog talasa usled odstupanja svakog parametra..
Partial differentiation of Eq. (1) with regard to E gives Eq. (9).
Delimina diferencijacija jedn. (1) u odnosu na E daje jedn.. (9).
1/ 2
C L 1 (1 ) 1
(9)
E 2 (1 )(1 2 ) E /2
1
Partial differentiation of Eq. (1) with regard to gives Eq. (10).
Delimina diferencijacija jedn. (1) u odnosu na daje jedn.. (10).

1/ 2 1/ 2
C L E ( 2 ) (10
3

(1 )(1 ) (1 2 ) )
3

Partial differentiation of Eq. (1) with regard to gives Eq. (11).


Delimina diferencijacija jedn. (1) u odnosu na daje jedn.. (11).
1/ 2
C L 1 E (1 )
3 / 2 (11
2 (1 )(1 2 ) )
Partial differentiation of Eq. (2) with regard to E gives Eq. (12).
Delimina diferencijacija jedn. (2) u odnosu na E daje jedn.. (12).

6
1/ 2
CS 2 1 (12
E ( 1 / 2)
E 4 (1 ) )
Partial differentiation of Eq. (2) with regard to gives Eq. (13).
Delimina diferencijacija jedn. (2) u odnosu na daje jedn.. (13).

1/ 2
CS 2 E
(1 ) ( 3 / 2) (13
4 )
Partial differentiation of Eq. (2) with regard to density gives Eq. (14).
Delimina diferencijacija jedn. (2) u odnosu na daje jedn.. (14).

1/ 2
CS 2 E (14
( 3 / 2)
4 (1 ) )
Moreover, Eq. (6) was partially differentiated with respect to d to simulate a deviation in coused by a
deviation in d and Eq. (15) can be given.
ta vie, jedn. (6) je delimino difrencirana u odnosu na d da bi simulirali odstupanje uzrokovano
odstupanjem d i moe se dati jedn. (15)

12 n
A
d

Nd 4
M i ai 1 A Mc (15
i 1 )
4. Results and Discussions
4. Rezultati i diskusija
4.1 Acoustic Anisotropy Concerning Transverse Wave Velocity Ratio
4.1 Akustina anizotropija u odnosu na odnos brzina transverzalnog talasa
Table 5 shows the measured values of transverse wave velocity ratio. Since transverse wave velocity
ratio of T.P.No.1-1 1-6 is very small, it is evident that acoustic anisotropy for these materials is not
observed.
Tabela 5 prikazuje izmerene vrednosti odnos brzine transverzalnog talasa. S obzirom da je odnos
brzine transverzalnog talasa za T.P.No.1-1 ~ 1-6 je vrlo mali, evidentno je da nije utvrena akustina
anizotropija za ove materijale.

Table 4 Reference data of Youngs modulus, Poissons ratio and atomic weight of elementary substance
Tabela 4 Referentni podaci o Jungovom modulu, Poasonovog odnosa i atomske mase elementarnih
supstanci

Dimension Ref. No. C Si Mn P S Ni Cr Mo Fe


7 198.0 205.0 253.0 327.0 190.0
Young's
GPa 11 4.8 113.1 158.6 206.1 248.2 324.1 196.5
Modulus
Ave. 4.8 113.1 178.3 205.55 250.6 325.55 193.25
TablePoisson's 12
5 Measured values of transverse 0.44 ratio
wave velocity 0.24 0.31 0.30 0.30 0.29
5. IzmereneNone
Tabela Ratio 13
vrednosti koeficijenta brzine transverzalnog talasa 0.31 0.21 0.29 0.29
Ave. 0.44 0.24 0.31 0.255 0.295 0.29
7 12.01 28.09 54.94 30.97 32.07 58.69 52.00 95.94 55.85
Atomic
T.P. No.None
AISI No. Transverse Wave Volocity
10 12.01 28.09 Ratio
54.94 30.97 32.07 58.69 52.00 95.94 55.85
Weight 1-1 304 Ave. 1.003
12.01 28.09 54.94 30.97 32.07 58.69 52.00 95.94 55.85
1-2 304 1.002
1-3 304 1.000
1-4 304L 1.002
1-5 310S 1.004
transverse
1-6 wave velocity
316 ratio- odnos brzine transverzalnog talasa
1.004
4.2 Measured Values of Density, Youngs modulus and Poissons ratio
4.2 Izmerene vrednosti gustine, Jungovog modula i Poasonovog odnosa
Table 6 shows the measured values of , E and of T.P. No.1-1 1-6.
It was observed that of AISI type 304 stainless steel (T.P.No.1-1 1-3) and AISI type 304L
stainless steel (T.P.No.1-4) slightly decreased with the increase in carbon content, although the

7
concentration of Ni and Cr were almost the same.
Error between E measured by ultrasonic testing and one by strain gauge method, was in a range of
approximately -2 3 % as shown in Table 4.
Error between measured by ultrasonic testing and one by strain gauge method was in a range of
approximately -5 5 %.
E and measured by ultrasonic testing were compared with the calculated ones.
Tabela 6 prikazuje izmerene vrednosti , E i za T.P. No.1-1 ~ 1-6.
Uoeno je da se, kod AISI 304 tipa nerajueg elika (TPNo.1-1 ~ 1-3) i tip 304L nehrajueg elika
(TPNo.1-4) neznatno smanjio s poveanjem sadraja ugljenika, iako su koncentracija Ni i Cr bili gotovo
isti.
Greka izmeu izemerenog E ultrazvunim ispitivanjem i metodom meraa naprezanja, bila je u
rasponu od oko -2 ~ 3% kao to je prikazano u tabeli 4.
Greka izmeu izmerenih ultrazvunim ispitivanjem i metodom meraa naprezanja je u rasponu od
oko -5 ~ 5%.
E i izmerene ultrazvuno ispitivanjem su uporeene u odnosu na izraunate vrednosti.

4.3 Comparison between Calculated Values and Experimental Ones


4.3 Poreenje izraunatih i eksperimentalnih vrednosti
4.3.1 Lattice parameter
4.3.1 Parametar reetke
Fig. 2 shows the relation between experimental values and ones calculated by Eq. (5). In this figure,
the calculated values were within an allowable margin of error, (we assumed that a few percent of error
could be allowed, based on our experience), when compared with experimental values.
Sl. 2 prikazuje odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih vrednosti i izraunatih prema jedn. (5). Na ovoj slici,
izraunate vrednosti su bile unutar dozvoljenih margina greke, (pretpostavili smo da nekoliko
procenata greka moe biti dozvoljeno, na osnovu naeg iskustva), u odnosu na eksperimentalne
vrednosti.
4.3.2 Density
4.3.2. Gustina
Fig. 3 shows the relation between experimental values and the calculated ones of . In this figure, the
calculated values were smaller than experimental ones and a margin of error was less than 2.2%. Then
we can say that an error coused by the calculation of lattice parameter was within an allowable margin.
Sl. 3 prikazuje odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih vrednosti i izraunatih za . Na ovoj slici, izraunate
vrednosti su bile manje od eksperimentalnih i margina greke bila je manja od 2,2%. Onda moemo rei
da je greka uzrokovana izraunavanjem parametra reetke je unutar dozvoljenih margina.

0.370
Lattice parameter
Experimental value (nm)

0.360
+0.7%

0.350
T.P.1-1 1-4
T.P.1-5
T.P.1-6
0.340
Fig. 2 Relation
8300 between
0.340 0.350 experimental
0.360 values and calculated ones of lattice parameter
0.370
Density
Sl. 2: Odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih i izraunatih vrednosti parametra reetke
Experimental value (kg/m )

Calculated value (nm)

T
.
P. N
o
.
3

8200

8100



1
-
1
1
- 1
-
4
5
6
2
- 2
-
9
8000

7900 -2.2%



3
1
4
-
5
- 3
1
0
4
-
6
1
5-23

7800
8
7700
7700 7900 8100 8300 8500
3
Calculated value (kg/m )
Fig. 3 Relation between experimental values and calculated ones of density
Sl. 3: Odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih i izraunatih vrednosti gustine

Table 6. Experimental values of density, Youngs Modulus and Poissons ratio


Tabela 6: Eksperimentalne vrednosti gustine, Jungovog modula i Poasonovog odnosa
Young's Modulus (GPa) Poisson's Ratio
Density
T.P.No. AISI No. Ultrasonic Strain Error Ultrasonic Strain Error
(kg/m3)
Testing Gauge (%) Testing Gauge (%)
1-1 304 7945 200.9 199.3 -0.8 0.288 0.292 +1.39
1-2 304 7953 202.0 202.0 0.0 0.299 0.283 -5.35
1-3 304 7955 201.3 200.4 -0.45 0.290 0.285 -1.72
1-4 304L 7977 203.4 199.5 -1.92 0.284 0.277 -2.46
1-5 310S 7933 195.8 192.0 -1.94 0.289 0.292 +1.04
ultrasonic testing-ultrazvuno ispitivanje; strain gaugemera naprezanja; error-greka
1-6 316 8007 199.2 204.8 +2.81 0.272 0.285 +4.78
4.3.3 Youngs modulus
4.3.3 Jungov modul
Fig. 4 shows the relation between experimental values and calculated ones of E. The calculated values
were smaller than experimental ones, and a margin of error except T.P.No.5-2 (AISI type 310S in Table
2) was less than 5.7%. It seemed that a margin of error mainly depended on the lack of data concerning
Youngs modulus necessary for calculation. Especially, it was hard to find out data concerning
phosphorus and sulfur.
Sl. 4 prikazuje odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih vrednosti i izraunatih za E. Izraunate vrednosti su
bile manje od eksperimentalnih i margina greke osim za T.P.No.5-2 (tip AISI 310S u tabeli 2) je bila
manja od 5,7%. inilo se da je margina greke uglavnom vezana za nedostatak podataka o Jungov
modul potrebnih za izraunavanje. Posebno je bilo teko saznati podatke koji se odnose na fosfor i
sumpor.

215
Experimental value (GPa)

Young's modulus

T
1
.
P
-
1
.N
o
1
-
4.
205


1-5
6
195

185

2


3
4
-

1
-
2
-
9
3
1
4
-
60

5-1
5-2
175
-5.7%

3
165
Fig.165 175 185between
4 Relation 195 205 215 225 235
experimental 245and calculated ones of Youngs modulus
values
Calculated value (GPa)
Sl. 4. Odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih i izraunatih vrednosti za Jungov modul

4.3.4 Poissons ratio


4.3.4 Poasonov odnos
Fig. 5 shows the relation between experimental values and the calculated ones of . Calculated values
were almost constant, and were independent of experimental ones. It seemed that a margin of error
depended on the lack of data concerning Poissons ratio of non-metallic elements such as carbon,
phosphorus and sulfur.

9
Sl. 5 prikazuje odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih i izraunatih vrednosti za . Izraunate vrednosti su
gotovo konstantne, i bile su nezavisne od eksperimentalnih. inilo se da margina greke uzrokovana
nedostatkom podataka za Poasonov odnos nemetalnih elemenata kao to su ugljenik, fosfor i sumpor.

0.32
Poisson's ratio

T
1
.
P
-
1
.N
o
1
-
4.
0.31
Experimental value

+7.0%


1-5
6
0.30

0.29 -5.2%

2


3
4
-

1
-
2
-
9
3
1
4
-
60

5-1
5-2
0.28

3
0.27
0.27 0.28 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.32 0.33 0.34
Fig. 5 Relation between experimental values and
calculated ones of Poissons ratio
Calculated value
Sl. 5. Odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih i izraunatih vrednosti Poasonovog odnosa

4.3.5 Longitudinal wave velocity


4.3.5 Brzina longitudinalnog talasa
Fig. 6 (a) shows the relation between experimental values and calculated ones of CL. Since a margin
of error was from 0.5% to -2.1%, we can say that longitudinal wave velocity of austenitic stainless steel
would be able to be estimated within an allowable margin of error in accordance with the method shown
in this paper.
Sl. 6 (a) prikazuje odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih i izraunatih vrednosti za CL. S obzirom da je
margina greke bila od 0,5% do -2.1%, moemo rei da je brzina longitudinalnog talasa austenitnog
nerajueg elika e biti u mogunosti da se proceni u okviru dozvoljene margine greke u skladu sa
metodom prikazan u ovom radu.

4.3.6 Transverse wave velocity


4.3.6 Brzina transverzalnog talasa
Fig. 6 (b) shows the relation between experimental values and calculated ones of CS. A margin of error
except AISI type 310S stainless steel was from 0.2% to -2.2%, and a maximum error of AISI type 310S
was -4.9%. It is necessary to reexamine the method for estimating transverse wave velocity of AISI type
310S. Hence, we can say that transverse wave velocity of austenitic stainless steel except AISI type
310S can be estimated within an acceptable margin of error in accordance with the method shown in this
paper.
Sl. 6 (b) prikazuje odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih i izraunatih vrednosti za CS. Margina greke osim
za AISI tip 310S nerajui elik je od 0,2% do -2.2%, a maksimalna greka za AISI tip 310S je -4.9%.
Potrebno je preispitati metode za procenu brzine transverzalnog talasa za tip AISI 310S. Dakle, moemo
rei da se brzina transverzalnog talasa austenitnog nerajueg elika, osim za AISI tip 310S moe
proceniti u prihvatljivoj margini greke u skladu sa metodom prikazanom u ovom radu.
6000
Longitudinal +0.5%

T
.
P. N
o
.
wave velocity
Experimental value (m/s)

1
-
1 1
-
4
5900

5800



1
2
--
5
6
2
-
9
(a) Longitudinal wave velocity 5700 -2.1%



3
1
4
-
5
- 3
1
0
4
-
6
1
5-23

(a) Brzina longitudinalnog talasa
5600
5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200
3250 Calculated value (m/s)
Transverse

T
.
P. N
o
.
3200 wave velocity
Experimental value (m/s)

3150



1
-
1

1- 1
-
4
5
6
2
-
2
-
9
+0.2%

3
1 3
1
0
3100

4
-
4
-
6
-4.9%

5- 1
-2.2%
10
3050

5-23

3000
3000 3050 3100 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350
Calculated value (m/s)
(b) Transverse wave velocity
(b) Brzina transverzalnog talasa

Fig. 6 Relation between experimental values and calculated ones of ultrasonic wave velocity
Sl.6. Odnos izmeu eksperimentalnih i izraunatih vrednosti brzine ultrazvunog talasa

4.4 Behavior of Deviation


4.4 Ponaanje odstupanja

4.4.1 Deviation in longitudinal wave velocity


4.4.1 Odstupanje brzine longitudinalnog talasa
Fig. 7 shows the relation between longitudinal wave velocity and the ratio of a deviation in each
parameter, E and in Eq. (1) to the value calculated by Eq. (1), based on the assumption that one of
these parameters was variable and others were constant. Zero of the horizontal axis shows that each
parameter is equal to experimental value and ratio of a deviation in each parameter is zero.
Longitudinal wave velocity increased with the increase in the deviation of E and . On the contrary,
decreased with the increase in . Curve of and E was reversed, because Eq. (1) shows that longitudinal
wave velocity is in proportion to a square root of E/.
Sl. 7 prikazuje odnos izmeu brzine longitudinalnog talasa i odnos odstupanja svakog parametra , E
i u jednaini. (1) od izraunatih vrednosti prema jedn. (1), zasnovan na pretpostavci da je jedan od tih
parametara bio promenljiv a ostali su bili konstantni. Nula na horizontalnoj osi pokazuje da je svaki
parametar jednak eksperimentalnoj vrednosti i da je odnos odstupanja u svakom parametru nula.
Brzina longitudinalnog talasa se poveava sa porastom odstupanja E i . Naprotiv, opada sa
poveanjem . Krive i E su obrnute, jer jedn. (1) pokazuje da je brzina podunog talasa
proporcionalna kvadratnom korenu iz E / .
Longitudinal wave velocity (m/s)

7500
Deviation in CL
7000
6500

6000

5500
Density
5000 Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
4500
-20 -10 0 10 20
Fig. 7 Relation between longitudinal wave velocity and ratio of deviation in factor of Eq. (1)
Ratio ofizmeu
Sl. 7. Odnos deviation to calculated
brzine value (%) talasa i odnos odstupanja faktora jedn. (1)
longitudinalnog

4.4.2 Deviation in transverse wave velocity


4.4.2 Odstupanje brzine transverzalnog talasa
Fig. 8 shows the relation between CS and the ratio of a deviation of each parameter, E and in Eq.
(2) to the value calculated by Eq. (2). In Fig. 8, CS decreased with the increase in a deviation of and ,
and increased with the increase in E, because Eq. (2) shows that transverse wave velocity is in
proportion to a square root of E/.
Comparing a curve of CS with that of CL, a deviation in CS was definitely smaller than that in CL,
because 1/(2(1+)) in Eq. (2) is smaller than (1 )/((1+)(1 2)) in Eq. (1). For
example, when = 0.288 (experimental value in Table 5) of T.P.No.1-1, 1/(2(1+)) was 0.62 and
(1)/((1+)(12)) was 1.14.

11
Sl. 8 prikazuje odnos izmeu CS i odnos odstupanja svakog parametra , E i u jednaini. (2) od
izraunatih vrednosti prema jedn. (2). Na sl. 8, CS je smanjen sa poveanjem odstupanja i , a raste sa
poveanjem E, jer jed. (2) pokazuje da je brzina transverzalnog talasa proporcionalna kvadratnom
korenu iz E / .
Uporeujui krivu CS sa CL, odstupanje CS je definitivno manje nego CL, jer 1 / (2 (1 + ))u
jednaini. (2) je manje od (1-) / ((1 + ) (1-2))u jednaini. (1). Na primer, kada je = 0.288
(eksperimentalna vrednost u tabeli 5) za TPNo.1-1, 1 / (2 (1 + )) je 0.62 i (1-) / ((1+ )
(1-2)) je 1.14.

4000
Deviation in CS
Transverse wave velocity (m/s)

3500

3000

2500 Density
Young'smodulus
Poisson's ratio
2000
-20 -10 0 10 20
Fig. 8 Relation between transverse wave velocity and ratio of deviation of parameter , E and in Eq.(2)
Ratio of deviation to calculated value (%)
to calculated value
Sl. 8. Odnos izmeu brzine transverzalnog talasa i odnosa odstupanja parametara , E i ujedn. (2) za
izraunate vrednosti

4.4.3 Deviation in density


4.4.3 Odstupanje gustine
Fig. 9 shows the relation between density and the ratio of a deviation in lattice parameter to that
calculated by Eq. (5). In Fig.9, increased rapidly with the decrease in a deviation in d.
Sl. 9 pokazuje odnos izmeu gustina i odnos odstupanja parametra reetke u odnosu na izraunate
prema jedn. (5). Na sl.9, je nagli porast pri smanjenju odstupanja d.

18000
Deviation in
Calculated density (kg/m )
3

16000
14000
12000
10000
8000
6000
4000
-20 between
Fig. 9 Relation -10 density 0 and 10 ratio of20deviation to lattice parameter calculated
Ratio of deviation to lattice
Sl. 9. Odnos izmeu gustine i odnosa izraunatog odstupanja parametra reetke
parameter calculated (%)

4.4.4 Deviation in partial differentiation of /d with regard to lattice parameter


4.4.4 Odstupanje parcijalne diferencijacije /d u odnosu na parametar reetke
Fig. 10 shows the relation between /d and the ratio of a deviation in d to the calculated value.
In Fig. 10, /d increased rapidly with the increase in a deviation in d. Since figures of /d was
minus, it seemed that the curve in Fig. 9 corresponded with the deviation of /d in Fig. 10.
Sl. 10 pokazuje odnos izmeu /d i odnos odstupanja d prema izraunatoj vrednosti.
Na sl. 10, /d je naglo poraslo sa porastom odstupanja d. S obzirom da su slike /d bile u minusu,
to znai da kriva na sl. 9 odgovara odstupanju /d na sl. 10.

12
Partial differentiation of
density (kg/m )
3
0.0E+00

-4.0E+13

-8.0E+13

-1.2E+14

-1.6E+14
-20 -15 -10 -5

Deviation in

d 0 5 10 15 20


L

-2.0E+14
Fig.10 Relation between /d and ratio of deviation to d

C
Ratio of deviation to lattice

C
Sl.10. Odnos izmeu /d i odnos odstupanja d
parameter calculated (%)
4.4.5 Deviation in partial differentiation of C/ with regard to density
4.4.5 Odstupanje parcijalne diferencijacije C / s obzirom na gustinu

S
Fig. 11 shows the relation between C/ and the ratio of a deviation to . In this figure, zero at
horizontal axis represents that a deviation in of experimental value shown in Table 5 is zero. In Fig. 11,
C/ of CL increased moderately with the increase in the ratio of a deviation to . On the other hand,
C/ of CS increased slightly with the increase in the ratio of a deviation to .
Sl. 11 pokazuje odnos izmeu C / i odnos odstupanja .. Na ovoj slici, nula na horizontalnoj osi
predstavlja odstupanje eksperimentalnih vrednosti prikazano u tabeli 5 koje iznosi nula. Na Sl. 11,
C / CL raste umereno sa poveanjem odnosa odstupanja . S druge strane, C / CS se blago
poveava sa poveanjem odnosa odstupanja .

-20 -10 0 10 20
0.0
Partial differentiation of

Deviation in and
-0.1
( /)

-0.2
density C

-0.3
-0.4
-0.5

C
L
L ongitudinal wave velocity
-0.6
Transverse wave velocity
-0.7

C
Ratio of deviation to density calculated (%)
Fig.11 Relation between C/ and ratio of deviation to

EE
Sl.11. Odnos C / i odnos odstupanja

4.4.6 Deviation in partial differentiation of C/E with regard to Youngs modulus

S
4.4.6 Odstupanje parcijalne diferencijacije C / E s obzirom na Jungov modul

Fig. 12 shows the relation between C/E and the ratio of a deviation in E to the calculated value.
Since C/E in Fig. 12 decreased with the increase in the ratio of deviation to E, the increment of CL
in Fig. 7 and that of CS in Fig. 8 decreased gradually.
In Fig. 12 the decrement of CL/E was larger than that of CS/E.
Sl. 12 pokazuje odnos izmeu C / E i odnos odstupanja E prema izraunatim vrednostima.
S obzirom da je C / E na sl. 12 smanjeno sa poveanjem odnosa odstupanja do E, prirast C L na sl. 7
i dok CS sa sl. 8 se postupno se smanjuje.
Na sl. 12 opadanje CL / E je vee nego CS / E.

20
Young's modulus ( C /E )

Deviation in and
16
Partial differentiation of

12

4 L ongitudinal wave velocity


Transverse wave velocity
0
-20 -10 0 10 13
20
Ratio of deviation to Young's
modulus calculated (%)
LC
C S
Fig.12 Relation between C/E and ratio of deviation to E
Sl.12. Odnos izmeu C/E i odnos odstupanja E

4.4.7 Deviation in partial differentiation of C/with regard to Poissons ratio


4.4.7 Odstupanje u parcijalne diferencijaciji C / with obzirom na odnos Poissonov
Fig. 13 shows the relation between C/ and the ratio of a deviation to . In this figure, zero at
horizontal axis represents that the deviation in is zero. In Fig. 13 the increment of CL/ was
considerably larger than that of CS/.
Sl. 13 prikazuje odnos izmeu C / i odnos odstupanja . . Na ovoj slici, nula na horizontalnoj osi
predstavlja odstupanje koje je nula.. Na sl. 13 prirast CL / bio znatno vei od CS / .
(C /)

2.5E+04
Deviation in and
2.0E+04
1.5E+04
1.0E+04
Partial differentiation of

5.0E+03
0.0E+00
-5.0E+03 L ongitudinal wave velocity
Transverse wave velocity
-1.0E+04
-20 -10 0 10 20
Fig.13 Relation betweenRatio
C/ and ratio
of deviation to of deviation
calculated (%) to
Sl.13. Odnos C / i odnos odstupanja

5. Conclusions
5. Zakljuci
(1) In calculating both lattice parameter and density by using chemical composition of material used, the
calculated values were within an allowable margin of error, when assuming a few percent of error
can be allowed, based on our experience. However, the calculated values of Youngs modulus and
Poissons ratio were beyond an allowable margin of error, because it was impossible to find out data
of elementary substance.
(2) Acoustic anisotropy concerning transverse wave velocity ratio of T.P. No.1-1 1-6 was not
observed.
(3) The calculated value of longitudinal wave velocity were within an allowable margin of error.
Similarly, the calculated values of transverse wave velocity except AISI type 310S stainless steel
were within an allowable margin of error.
(4) The calculated value of density was gradually decreased with the increase in the ratio of a deviation
in lattice parameter.
(5) Longitudinal wave velocity increased with the increase in a deviation of Poissons ratio, and was in
proportion to a square root of E/.
(6) Transverse wave velocity decreased with the increase in a deviation of Poissons ratio, and was in
proportion to a square root of E/.
(7) The deviation in longitudinal wave velocity due to the deviation of each parameters in Eqs. (1) and
(2) was considerably larger than that in transverse wave velocity.

1) Pri izraunavanju i reetke parametara i gustine, koristei hemijski sastav materijala, izraunate
vrednosti su bile unutar dozvoljenih margina greke, kada je pretpostavljeno da nekoliko procenata
greke moe biti dozvoljeno, na osnovu naeg iskustva. Meutim, izraunate vrednosti Jungovog
modula i Poasonovog odnosa su bili van dozvoljene margine greke, jer je bilo nemogue saznati

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podatke osnovne supstance.
(2) Akustina anizotropija vezana za odnos brzina transverzalnog talasa za T.P. No.1-1 ~ 1-6 nije
uoena.
(3) Izraunata vrednost brzine longitudinalnog talasa su unutar dozvoljenih margina greke. Slino
tome, izraunate vrednosti brzina transverzalnog talasa, osim za AISI tip 310S nerajueg elika su
unutar dozvoljenih margina greke.
(4) Izraunata vrednost gustine je postepeno smanjena sa porastom odnosa odstupanja parametara
reetke.
(5) Uzduno brzina vala poveala s poveanjem odstupanje od Poissonov omjer, i bio je u odnosu na
kvadratni korijen od E / .
(6) Brzina transverzalnog talasa se smanjuje s poveanjem odstupanja Poasonovog odnosa, i
proporcionalan je kvadratnom korenu iz E / .
(7) Odstupanje brzine transverzalnog talasa zbog odstupanja svakog parametara u jednainama. (1) i (2)
bio je znatno vei nego kod brzine transverzalnog talasa.

References
Literatura
1) Handbook for Non-destructive Inspection (New Version), Edited by The Japanese Society for Non-
Destructive Inspection. Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun (1992), p.1283
2) H.M.Ledbetter, H.W.Austin Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen on the Elastic Constants of AISI
Type 304 Stainless Steel, Materials Science and Engineering, 70(1985), p.143-149.
3) H.M.Ledbetter Manganese contributions on the elastic constants of face centred cubic Fe-Cr-Ni
stainless steel, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, 20(1985), p.2923-2929.
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