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CHAPTER TWENTY-FOUR

Harmonic Extensions
and Chromatic
Techniques

KEY CONCEPTS IN
THIS CHAPTER
TRIADIC EXTENSIONS: CLIMBING THE triadic extension
OVERTONE SERIES linear chromaticism

From the tenth century to the twentieth, Western harmonic sequence


harmony has ascended the harmonic series. From
the open-fth chanting of Guidos day to full
acceptance of the triad in the later Middle Ages,
from the extension of the triad to include sevenths
in the Baroque era to the further accretionsninths,
elevenths, and thirteenthsin the nineteenth
century, each addition to the vocabulary scaled the
next higher rung on the overtone ladder. See
Example 24-1.

The Dominant Ninth Chord


A ninth chord is a ve-member sonority in which
a third above the chord seventh creates a ninth
above the root. Though many different ninth-chord
types can be formed this way, only a few have been
widely assimilated into the vocabulary. In the
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the most
common were the dominant ninth chords. See
Example 24-2.
HARMONIC EXTENSIONS AND CHROMATIC TECHNIQUES 415

EXAMPLE 24-1

EXAMPLE 24-2

Notes:
1. The dominant-major ninth, shown in a, contains a major ninth above the root of
a majorminor seventh chord (MmM).
2. The dominant-minor ninth, shown in b, contains a minor ninth above the root of
a majorminor seventh chord (Mmm).
3. Roman-numeral symbols for a and b are V9 and V9, respectively. Common lead sheet
symbols are G9 and G79 or G79.

In art music, dominant ninth chords, like dominant seventh chords, typically behave in
only one wayas a dominantmaking it possible to refer to them by function (dominant
ninth) rather than by structure (majorminormajor ninth and so on). Both the ninth
and seventh can usually be analyzed as downward-stepping nonchord tones.

Common Voicings
Example 24-3 shows some common voicings and resolutions. All but d are in root position,
a reection of actual practice.
416 ADVANCED CHROMATIC HARMONY

EXAMPLE 24-3

Arrows = resolution of 7th, 9th, and LT

Note: In four-voice settings, the chord fth is omitted.

EXAMPLE 24-4 Chopin: Etude op. 10, no. 3

Notes:
1. As in this example, the fth is frequently omitted. Here is the chord of m. 3, beat 2.

2. In m. 3, the ninth (C) immediately resolves stepwise, in the manner of an appoggiatura. The seventh
(A) resolves to G in m. 4.
HARMONIC EXTENSIONS AND CHROMATIC TECHNIQUES 417

When the ninth resolves as it does in Example 24-4, you may wonder whether to analyze
the harmony as a true ninth chord or as a seventh chord with a nonharmonic tone.
Although either analysis is often valid, we can apply the same guideline to ninth chords
as we did to seventh chords:

A ninth as long as the chord belongs to the chord.


In Example 24-5, the ninths appear not to resolve. This fact, along with their prominence,
justies their analysis as chord members.

EXAMPLE 24-5 Tchaikovsky: Lenskis Aria from Eugene Onegin (act 2, scene 2)
418 ADVANCED CHROMATIC HARMONY

Notes:
1. Three dominant-minor ninth chords appear in the passage. Their lack of an immediate or obvious
resolution reects the progressive liberation of dissonance at the pens of nineteenth-century composers.
2. One V9 (m. 96) is in rst inversion.

Inverted Ninth Chords


As with altered dominants, inversions of ninth chords are usually not indicated in the
chord symbols because the symbols become unwieldy. Although ninth chords can be found
in all inversions, the ninth is rarely, if ever, on the bottom of the chord and rarely in a
lower position than the chord root.

ADDED PRACTICE
Add key signatures, voice the following ninth chords for SATB, and resolve them: F9; D9;
V9 in A; V9 in A.
HARMONIC EXTENSIONS AND CHROMATIC TECHNIQUES 419

Secondary Dominant Ninth Chords


Dominant ninth chords can tonicize just as effectively as dominant seventh chords.

EXAMPLE 24-6 Puccini: Che gelida manina from La Boheme (act one)
420 ADVANCED CHROMATIC HARMONY

ADDED PRACTICE
Does the ninth of the V9/V in Example 24-6 resolve? In Example 24-7, one secondary dominant ninth chord
and its resolution have been identied. Identify all others.

EXAMPLE 24-7 Tchaikovsky: Romeo and Juliet

Assignment 1A in workbook Chapter 24 can be completed now.

Other Ninth Chords


After dominant ninth chords, the most common types are the major ninth chord
(MMM) and minor ninth chord (mmM). Although rare in the nineteenth century, these
chords are common in jazz. Example 24-8 shows their diatonic forms in major and minor
keys.

EXAMPLE 24-8

Note: An alternative symbol for maj9 is M9.


HARMONIC EXTENSIONS AND CHROMATIC TECHNIQUES 421

As with the dominant ninth chords, these chords are found most often in root position,
and even in inversions, the ninth is normally voiced higher than the root. It may or may
not resolve downward.

EXAMPLE 24-9 Burt Bacharach and Hal David: What the World Needs Now

Note: All three of the ninth chord types shown in Example 24-8 are present in Example 24-9a, along with
the dominant ninth chord and a less common type (mMM). Traditional resolution of the ninth is not a
priority in this vernacular style.

b
422 ADVANCED CHROMATIC HARMONY

ADDED PRACTICE
On the staff given, voice the following ninth chords for SATB and resolve them
appropriately: Fm9; GM9; B9; DM9; Bm9. Omit the chord fth. To decide on a key
signature and function for each chord, refer to the ninth-chord types shown in Example
24-8. For instance, a MMM9 (as the GM9) could be a I or IV in a major key or a VI in a
minor key. Feel free to choose.

Well return to nondominant ninth chords in Chapter 28.

Eleventh Chords
Eleventh chords result when a third is piled atop the ninth. These chords are found only
occasionally in the nineteenth century, almost always as a dominant (V11). They are almost
never complete; the eleventh usually replaces the third.

EXAMPLE 24-10

The upper members of this chord can be disposed in any way. However, even more often
than with ninth chords, the root remains the lowest tone. Possible voicings include:

EXAMPLE 24-11
HARMONIC EXTENSIONS AND CHROMATIC TECHNIQUES 423

Wagner often spins long cables of dominant harmony in which the individual melodic
strands intertwine to produce eleventh chords. The process often occurs over a pedal point
that serves as the chords root, as in Example 24-12.

EXAMPLE 24-12 Wagner: Wahn! Wahn! (Die Meistersinger von Nrnberg) (act 3, scene 1)

Like nondominant ninth chords, nondominant eleventh chords were as rare in the
nineteenth century as they are common in jazz. They are prevalent in the music of Debussy,
Ravel, and some other twentieth-century composers and as such will be considered in
Chapter 28. The most common eleventh chord, aside from the V11, is the minor
eleventh, which can have the diatonic functions shown in Example 24-13. (When stacked
as shown you can see why these chords are sometimes called tall chords.)

EXAMPLE 24-13

Note: Eleventh chords can be complete or incomplete. They almost always appear in root
position, and though often stacked as shown, the upper members can be disposed in other
ways.
424 ADVANCED CHROMATIC HARMONY

EXAMPLE 24-14 Hart and Webber: All I ask of you (from Phantom of the Opera)

ADDED PRACTICE
Add lead-sheet symbols to Example 24-14. On the blank staff below, construct the boxed chords in simplest
position, blackening the omitted chord tones.

Example 24-15 contains ninth and eleventh chords as well as altered chords recently
discussed.

EXAMPLE 24-15 Joe McBride: Secret Rendezvous


HARMONIC EXTENSIONS AND CHROMATIC TECHNIQUES 425

Notes:
1. Ninth and eleventh chords are shown stacked in simplest structure on the extra staff.
2. The iii9 is so marked because the ninth (F) is a chromatically raised pitch in C.

REVIEW AND REINFORCEMENT


In the empty measures above, ll in the missing chords and supply their roman-
numeral symbols. Referring back to Examples 248 and 2413, add lead-sheet
symbols above the music. Note: The rst chord is the topic of the next paragraph.

Thirteenth Chords
The thirteenth chord represents the ultimate extension of the triad. A complete thirteenth
chord contains all seven tones of the scale. Such structures are truly rare. Like ninth and
eleventh chords, the thirteenth chord most often appears as a root-position dominant. In
nineteenth-century music, the chord is incomplete, with either the eleventh or, more often,
the third present (never together). In four-voice settings, the chord members critical to
its identity are the root, third, seventh, and thirteenth. These are the members present in
the V13 that begins Example 24-15. It (a) and other possible voicings are shown on the
following page.
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EXAMPLE 24-16 In A minor the thirteenth is C; in A major, the thirteenth is C

Three of these chord members are tendency tonesthe third (the leading tone),
the seventh, and the thirteenth. The lowered thirteenth (C in Example 24-16) is
enharmonically the same pitch as a raised fth (B). The spelling reects the resolution
and determines whether the chord should be analyzed as V13 or V+57.

In nineteenth-century music, the thirteenth topples down to the tonic, either directly (a)
or stepwise through the fth of the dominant (b).

EXAMPLE 24-17
HARMONIC EXTENSIONS AND CHROMATIC TECHNIQUES 427

Example 24-18 contains both resolutions.

EXAMPLE 24-18 Chopin: Nocturne op. 32, no. 1

Note: In both cases, the chord members present are the root, the third, the seventh, and the thirteenth. In
both cases, the thirteenth resolves downwardby leap in m. 1, by step in m. 7.
428 ADVANCED CHROMATIC HARMONY

ADDED PRACTICE
Look again at Example 24-4. Can you locate a dominant thirteenth chord? How does the
thirteenth resolve?

For assignments on triadic extensions, turn to workbook Chapter 24, Assignments 1A1F.

LINEAR CHROMATICISM

Almost all chromatic harmonies are linear (melodic) at the core because the inected chord
members have an enhanced melodic push to the next pitch. When more than one chord
member is alteredbut not at the same timethe chord undergoes a gradual identity
change that has been called chord mutation because the harmonies evolve. Because
harmonies generated in this way are by-products of the voice leading, they are often
nonfunctional. Roman numeral labeling may be uninformative and needlessly confusing.
If Chopin was not the rst major composer to experiment with chords mutability, he
produced the most renowned examples of the technique. Example 24-19a shows how a
chromatic descent by each voice generates familiar chords that behave in unfamiliar ways
the V7/V does not resolve to V, the vii7/VI does not resolve to VI, and so on.

EXAMPLE 24-19a Chopin: Mazurka op. posth. 68, no. 4; analysis by roman numeral

EXAMPLE 24-19b A better way


HARMONIC EXTENSIONS AND CHROMATIC TECHNIQUES 429

Notes:
1. In many cases, only a single pitch change occurs between the chords.
2. Each voice of the texture, including the melody, descends chromatically. If each voice moved downward
at the same time, descending dominant seventh chords would result: G7G7F7E7, as shown in b.
Lead-sheet symbols such as these are probably more informative than roman numerals.
3. b shows both the harmonic essence of the passage and the voice leading.

The next example is particularly well known.

EXAMPLE 24-20 Chopin: Prelude op. 28, no. 4

Notes:
1. Asterisks indicate roman numerals that are enharmonic interpretations of the notated chords.
2. As in the previous passage, each voice in the left-hand accompaniment descends the chromatic ladder,
although not in synchronization. Unlike Example 24-19, many of the harmonies generated still function
in traditional ways. Measures 1 and 2 and mm. 5 and 6 make perfect functional sense in e, while mm.
3 and 4 and mm. 7 and 9 are understandable in a.

For assignments on linear chromaticism, turn to workbook Chapter 24, Assignments


2A2C.
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HARMONIC SEQUENCE

Harmonic sequence was introduced earlier. It rates an encore here because of its
prominence in music of the nineteenth century and beyond. In Example 24-21, the linear
chromaticism in the left-hand part generates a tonicizing chord group that is repeated
sequentially, tonicizing rst C, then B, and nally B (without ever sounding the tonicized
chord).

EXAMPLE 24-21 Chopin: Mazurka op. 17, no. 4

Voice leading in mm. 711

Usually, a harmonic sequence is generated when each voice of the texture forms a melodic
sequence, as in the next example.

EXAMPLE 24-22 Chopin: Nocturne op. 48, no. 2


HARMONIC EXTENSIONS AND CHROMATIC TECHNIQUES 431

ADDED PRACTICE
Which members of the V13 chords in mm. 81 and 83 are present? How does the thirteenth
resolve?

Example 24-23 contains seventh, ninth, eleventh, and thirteenth chords in a two-chord
harmonic sequence (somewhat inexact) that descends the circle of fths.

EXAMPLE 24-23 David Foster, Jay Graydon, and Jim Champlin: After the Love Has Gone
432 ADVANCED CHROMATIC HARMONY

Example 24-24 shows the lovely sequential passage that forms the basis for an entire movement. Shorter
sequences are embedded within longer ones.

EXAMPLE 24-24 Saint-Sans: Trio in E Minor, op. 92 (third movement)


HARMONIC EXTENSIONS AND CHROMATIC TECHNIQUES 433

ADDED PRACTICE
Although in a different key and meter, and although it contains melodic chromaticism not
present in Example 24-22, Example 24-24 is similar to it in some fundamental ways. Explain
this. Provide a complete harmonic analysis. Identify the largest-level sequence and the
embedded sequences within.

For assignments on harmonic sequence, turn to workbook Chapter 24, Assignments 3A3C.

CODA
At the beginning of Part Seven, the nineteenth century was credited with an expansion
of the harmonic practice that comprised both new vocabulary and new syntax.
Everything discussed in Part Seven falls into one or the other of these categories.
The triadic extensions described in this chapter represent additions to the
vocabularythat is, new chords (similar to new words). The linear and sequential
processes spawned new syntaxthat is, new chord order (analogous to word
order). Collectively, these innovations are the harmonic stuff and substance of
nineteenth-century music. Triadic extension and linear chromaticism in particular set
the stage for further innovation by Claude Debussy and other Classical composers
as well as jazz innovators in the twentieth century. These are described in Part Nine.

DO YOU KNOW THESE TERMS?

chord mutation linear chromaticism


dominant-major ninth chord major ninth chord
dominant-minor ninth chord minor ninth chord
dominant ninth chords ninth chord
eleventh chord thirteenth chord
harmonic sequence