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Glossary of Project Management Terms

Term
Abstract resource

Acceptance

Acceptance criteria

Acceptance test

Accountability Matrix
Accrued costs
Acquisition strategy

Action Item

Active

Activity

Activity Definition

Activity Description (AD)

Activity duration
Activity Duration Estimating
Activity file
Activities ID
Activity
Activity

Activity status

Actual Cost (AC)

Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)(Spent Costs)


Actual dates

Actual direct costs

Actual Finish Date (AF)

Actual Start Date (AS)


ACWP
AD
Adjourning
ADM
Administrative Closure

Advanced material release

AF

AND relationship

AOA
AON

Approved

AS

Assumption

Accountability Matrix

Activity

Activity Definition

Activity Description (AD)

Activity Duration Estimating


Activity
Activity

Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)

Actual Finish Date (AF)

Actual Start Date (AS)


Administrative Closure
APIs
Application Area

Approval

Approval to proceed

Arrow

Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)

Arrow diagram
Arrow diagram method
AS

As late as possible (ALAP)

As

Associated revenue

As soon as possible (ASAP)

Assumptions

Audit

Authorization
Authorized un

Authorized work

Automatic decision event

Backward Pas
Bar Chart

Baseline

Baseline Finish Date


Baseline Start Date
BAC

Backward Pass

Balanced matrix

Bar Char

Baseline

Baseline cost

Baseline dates

Baseline Finish Date

Baseline review

Baseline schedule

Baseline Start Date


BCWP
BCWS

Benefits

Benefits framework
Benefits management

Benefits management plan

Bid
Bid analysis

Bottom up cost estimating

Brainstorming

Breakdown structure

Budget

Budget at completion (BAC)


Budget cost
Budget Estimate

Budgetary control

Note: a budget should provide the information necessary to enable

Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)

Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS)

Budget element

Budget estimate

Budgeting

Budget unit

Burden

Business case
Calendar Unit

Calendars

Cancelled

Capital cost

Note: see also revenue cost.

Capital employed

Cascade chart

Cash flow
Cash flow, net
CCB

Champion

Change control

Change Control Board (CCB)

Change in Scope
Change log
Change management

Change Request

Chart of Accounts

Charter

Child activity

Client or Customer

Close out
Closure

CMM

Code of Accounts

Commissioning

Commitment
Committed costs
Communication
Communications planning

Completed

Completion date
Compound risk

Conception phase

Concurrent Engineering

Configuration

Configurations audit

Configurations control
Configuration identification

Configuration item

Configuration management

Configuration status accounting

Conflict management

Constraint

Consumable resource
Contingencies

Contingency
Contingency Allowance
Contingency plan

Contingency planning

Contingency Reserve

Contract

Fixed price or lump sum contractsthis category of contract involve

Cost reimbursable contractsthis category of contract involves paym

Unit price contractsthe contractor is paid a preset amount per uni

Contract Administration
Contract budget base
Contract Close

Contractor

Contract target cost

Contract target price

Control

Control Charts

Coordination

Coordinated matrix

Corrective Action

Cost account
Cost account manager

Cost benefit analysis

Note: the hard, tangible, readily measurable benefits may sometim

Cost breakdown structure


Cost budgeting

Cost center

Cost code

Cost Control

Cost control point

Cost control system

Cost curve

Cost element

Cost Estimating

Cost incurred

Cost management

Cost of Quality

Cost overrun

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

Cost performance report

Cost plan

Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) Contract

Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) Contract


Cost reimbursement type contracts

Cost

Cost Variance (CV)

Any difference between the estimated cost of an activity and the ac

In earned value, BCWP less ACWP

CPFF
CPIF
CPI
CPM

Crashing

Critical Activity

Criticality index

Critical Path

Critical path analysis

Critical Path Method (CPM)


Critical performance indicator
Critical success factor
Current Finish Date
Current Start Date

Customer

Cut
CV

Dangle

Data Date (DD)

DD
Decision

Decision event

Definitive Estimate

Delaying resource

Delegation

Deliberate decision event

Deliverables

Delphi technique

Denied

Dependency

Dependency arrow

Design authority
Design and development

Deterministic network
Direct costs

Discounted cash flow (DCF)

Discrete milestone
Logical link that may require time but no other resource.

Dummy activity in activity on arrow network

DU

Dummy Activity

Duration (DU)

Duration Compression

EAC

Earliest feasible date

Early dates

Early Finish Date (EF)

Early Start Date (ES)

Earned hours

Earned Value (EV)

Earned value analysis

Earned value cost control

EF
Effort

Effort

Effort remaining

Elapsed time

End activity
End event (of a project)

Environmental factoring

Equivalent activity

ES

Estimate

Estimate at completion (EAC)

Estimate to complete (ETC)

Estimating

ETC
EV

Event

Event

Exception report

Exclusive OR relationship

Execution phase
Expenditure

Exceptions

Expected Monetary Value

External constraint

Fasttracking

Fallback plan

Feasibility phase

Feasibility study

Feasible schedule

FF
FFP

Final report

Finish date

Finishing activity

Finish

Finish

Finish

Finish

Firm Fixed Price (FFP) Contract

Fixed date

Fixed

Fixed finish
Fixed

Fixed start

Fixed Price Incentive Fee (FPIF) Contract

Float

Forecast at completion
Forecast Final Cost

Forward Pass

FPIF
Fragnet

Free Float (FF)

FS

Functional Manager

Functional matrix

Functional organization

Functional specification

Funding profile

Gantt chart

(A Gantt chart is a time

GERT

Goal

Grade
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)

Hammock

Hammock activity

Handover

Hanger

hierarchical coding structure

Hierarchy of networks

Histogram

Holiday
Host organization
Hypercritical activities
IFB
Impact
Impact analysis
Implementation phase
(Note: realization is the internationally accepted and preferred te
Imposed date
Note: a symbol is inserted immediately above the event concerned
Imposed finish
Imposed start

Inclusive OR relationship

Incurred costs

Indirect cost

Information Distribution
In
Initiation
In progress
Integrated Cost/Schedule Reporting

Integrated logistics support

Integration
Internal rate of return (IRR)
Note: IRR is a special case of the discounted cash flow procedure
Inverted matrix

Invitation for Bid (IFB)

Issue

Key events major events, the achievement of which that are deemed

Key Event Schedule

Key performance indicators

Labor rate variances

Ladder

Lag

Late dates

Latest event time

Late event date

Late Finish Date (LF)

Latest finish time

Late Start Date (LS)


Latest start time

Lead

Lead contractor
Leadership

Letter of intent

Level of Effort (LOE)

Leveling
LF
Life cycle

Life

Likelihood
Line Manager
The manager of any group that actually makes a product or perfor
A functional manager.
Link
Linked bar chart
LOE
Logic

Logic diagram

Logical Relationship

Finish
Finish
Start
Start

Loop

Management by project
Management development

Management Reserve
Mandate

Master network

Master Schedule

Material

Mathematical Analysis

Matrix Organization

Methodology

Mid

Milestone

Milestone plan
Milestone schedule

Mission statement

Mitigation

Mobilization

Modern Project Management (MPM)

Monitoring

Monte carol simulation

MPM
Multi
Multi

Multi

Multi

Near

Negative total float

Negotiated contract cost

Negotiation
Net present value

Network

Network Analysis

Network interface
Network Logic
Network Path

Node

Nodes

Non

Non
Note: resources should not be diverted from a non
No earlier than
No later than
Objectives
OBS

On

Operation phase
Opportunity
Order of magnitude estimate
Organizational breakdown structure (OBS)

Organization designs
Organizational Planning

Original budget

Original duration

Other direct costs (ODC)

Out

Output format

Outsourcing
Overall change control
Overlap

Overhead

Overrun

Parallel activities

Parametric Estimating

Parent activity

Pareto Diagram

Parties (to a contract)

Path

Path Convergence

Path Float
PC
PDM
Pending

Percent Complete (PC)


Performance measurement techniques

Performance Reporting

Performance specification

Performing
Performing Organization
PERT
PERT Chart
PF

Phase (of a project)

Physical percent complete


Pilot

Plan

Planned activity
Planned cost
Planned Finish Date (PF)
Planned Start Date (PS)

Planned Value (PV)

Planner

Planning

Planning stage

PM
PMBOK
PMP

Portfolio

Portfolio management
Positive float

Post implementation review

Post project appraisal

Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)

Precedence network

Start of activity depends on finish of preceding activity, either im

Finish of activity depends on finish of preceding activity, either i

Start of activity depends on start of preceding activity, either imm

Finish of activity depends on start of preceding activity, either im

Precedence Relationship

Preceding event

Pre

Predecessor
Predecessor Activity
In the arrow diagramming method, the activity which logically pre
In the precedence diagramming method, the from activity.
Prime or lead contractor
Probabilistic network
Probability
Process
Procurement
Procurement Planning
Product breakdown structure

Product description

Product flow diagram

Program

Program benefits review

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Program director

Program directorate

Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)

Program management

Program management Office


Program manager
Program support office
Progress

Progress payments

Progress report

Project

Project appraisal
Project base date

Project board
Project brief

Project calendar

Project Change Control

Project Change Control Board (PCCB)

Project Communications Management

Project coordination

Project coordination procedure

Project champion
Project closure

Project Cost Management

Project culture

Project definition

Project director

Project environment

Project evaluation

Project file

Project Human Resource Management

Project initiation

Project initiation document


Project Integration Management

Project issue report


Project life cycle
Note: the project life cycle may include the operation and disposal
Project life cycle cost
Project log
Project logic
Project logic drawing

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)

Project Management Plan

Project Management Office

Project Management Professional (PMP)

Project Management Software

Project Management Team

Project Manager (PM)

Project Management (PM)

Project matrix

Project monitoring

Project network

Project Network Diagram

Project network techniques


Note: the terms program evaluation and review technique (PERT)

Project organization

Project Phase

Project Plan

Project Plan Development

Project Plan Execution


Project Planning
Project Portfolio

Project Portfolio Management (PPM

Project procedures manual

project procurement management

Project progress report

Project Quality Management

Project Procurement Management

Project review calendar

Project Risk Management


Project Schedule

Project Scope Management

Project sponsor

The individual or body for whom the project is undertaken, the pri

The individual representing the sponsoring body and to whom the

A person or organization providing funds for the project.

Project start
Project Status Indicators
Green = On Track
Yellow = Caution, at risk, behind schedule, over budget, action n
Red = Alert, project in serious trouble and almost certain to mis
Project status report
Project strategy
Project success/failure criteria

Project support office

Project team

Project Team Members The people who report either directly or indirectly to the project manager.

Project technical plan

Project Time Management A subset of project management including the processes required to ensu

Projectized Organization Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority

PS

Public relations
QA Quality Assurance

QC Quality Control

Qualitative risk analysis

Quality

Quality Assurance (QA)

Quality assurance plan

Quality audit

Quality Control (QC)

Quality criteria

Quality guide

Quality plan (for a project)


Quality Planning
Quality review
RAM
RDU

Recurring costs

Relationship
Remaining Duration (RDU)

Re

Request for change

Request for Proposal (RFP)

Request for Quotation (RFQ)


Requirements
Requirements definition

Reserve

Resource
Resource aggregation

Resource allocation

Resource analysis

Resource assignment
Resource availability

Resource breakdown structure

Resource calendar
Resource constraint

Resource accumulation

Resource driven task durations

Resource histogram

Resource level

Resource Leveling

Resource

Resource optimization

Resource plan

Resource Planning

Resource requirement

Resource scheduling

Resource smoothing

Responsibility matrix

Responsible organization
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

Responsibility Chart
Responsibility Matrix

Retainage

Retention

Revenue cost
RFP
RFQ

Risk

Risk analysis

Risk assessment

Risk avoidance
Risk Evaluation
Risk Event
Risk Identification

Risk management

Risk management plan

Risk matrix

Risk prioritizing

Risk Quantification
Risk Ranking
Risk Reduction

Risk Register

Risk response

Risk Response Control


Risk Response Development
Risk, secondary
Risk sharing

Risk transfer

Risk treatment

Safety plan

Schedule

Schedule control

Schedule dates

Schedule performance index (SPI)

Schedule variance (cost)

Scheduled finish

Scheduled start

Scheduling

Scope
Scope change
Scope change control
Scope verification
Scope of work
Secondary risk

Schedule A time sequence of activities and events representing an operating timetable for performin

Schedule Analysis See network analysis.


Schedule Compression See duration compression.

Schedule Control Controlling changes to the project schedule.

Schedule Development Analyzing activity sequences, activity durations, and resource requirements

Schedule performance index (SPI) ratio of work accomplished versus work planned (BCWP/BCWS), fo

Schedule Variance (SV)

Scheduled Finish Date (SF) The point in time work was scheduled to finish on an activity. The schedu

Scheduled Start Date (SS) The point in time work was scheduled to start on an activity. The schedule

Scope The sum of the products and services to be provided as a project.

Scope Baseline See baseline.

Scope Change Any change to the project scope. A scope change almost always requires an adjustme

Scope Change Control Controlling changes to project scope.

Scope Definition Decomposing the major deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to

Scope Planning Developing a written scope statement that includes the project justification, the maj

Scope Verification Ensuring that all identified project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily

Sequence
SF

Should

Slack

Slip chart
Slippage

Soft project
Soft skills
Solicitation
Solicitation Planning
Source Selection
SOW Statement Of Work
SPI

Splittable Activity

Sponsor The executive responsible for the overall project delivery including management, monitorin

SS
Staff Acquisition

Stage

Stage payment

Stakeholder

Start Date
Start event of a project
Note: there may be more than one start event.
Start
Start

Start

Starting activity
Statement of Work (SOW)

Status

Status Report A report completed and distributed to all stakehold

Steering Committee A group of high

Steering group

Subcontract

Subcontractor
Subnet or Subnetwork
Subproject
Success criteria
Success factors
Successor

Successor Activity

Sunk costs

Super

Supplier

SV
System

Systems and procedures

Systems management

Target Completion Date (TC)An imposed date which constrains or otherwise modifies the network ana

Target finish Date


Target Schedule
Target start date
Task
TC
Team Development
Team Members
TF

Time

Target Completion Date

Target Date

Target Finish Date (TF)


Target Start Date (TS)
Target start date

Task

Team

Team building
Team development
Team leader
Technical assurance

Technical guide

Technical products

Tender

Termination

Terms of reference
Tied activities

Time analysis

Time based network

Time limited scheduling

Note: this may cause the envisaged resource levels to be exceede

Time

Time now

Time recording

Time

Time

Time sheet

Top down cost estimating

Total Float (TF)

Total Quality Management (TQM)

TQM
Transit time
Total Quality Management (TQM)
TS
Turnaround Report

Unlimited schedule
Users
Value

Value management

Value engineering

Value planning

Variance

Variance at completion
Variation
Variation orders
WBS
What

What

Work
Work breakdown code

Workaround

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Work Item
Workload

Work Package

Work Units

Zero Float
gement Terms
Definition
Imaginary resource introduced so its availability and activity requirement gives an extra means of
control. (For example, two jobs not being worked upon simultaneously in order to obviate an
accident hazard)
The formal process of accepting delivery of a product or a deliverable.
Performance requirements and essential conditions that have to be achieved before project
deliverables are accepted.
Formal, pre defined test conducted to determine the compliance of the deliverable item(s) with the
acceptance criteria.
See responsibility assignment matrix.
Earmarked for the project and for which payment is due, but has not been made.
Determining the most appropriate means of procuring the component parts or services of a project
Something agreed to be done by a person as a result of a discussion at a meeting and usually
recorded in the minutes or log of the meeting.
Project status describing an approved initiative or project with applied resource and management
activities.

Task, job, operation or process consuming time and possibly other resources. (The smallest self
contained unit of work used to define the logic of a project. In general, activities share the following
characteristics: a definite duration, logic relationships to other activities in a project, use resources
such as people, materials or facilities, and have an associated cost. They should be defined in
terms of start and end dates and the person or organization responsible for their completion.)

Identifying the specific activities to be performed in order to produce the various project
deliverables.
A short phrase or label used in a project network diagram. The activity description normally
describes the scope of work of the activity.
Specifies the length of time (hours, days, weeks, months) that it takes to complete an activity.
Estimating the number of work periods which will be needed to complete individual activities
A file containing all data related to the definition of activities on a particular project.
A unique code identifying each activity in a project.
On arrow networ k arrow diagram, network in which the arrows symbolize the activities.
On node network precedence diagram, a network in which the nodes symbolize the activities.
The state of completion of an activity. A planned activity has not yet started. A started activity is in
progress. A finished activity is complete.
Incurred costs charged to the project budget for which payment has been made or accrued for
payment. See Earned Value Analysis.
Total costs incurred (direct and indirect) in accomplishing work during a given time period. See also
earned value analysis.
Actual dates are entered as the project progresses. These are the dates that activities really started
and finished as opposed to planned or projected dates.
Costs specifically identified with a contract or project. See also direct costs.
The point in time that work actually ended on an activity. (Note: in some application areas, the
activity is considered finished when work is substantially complete.)
The point in time that work actually started on an activity.
Actual Cost of Work Performed
Activity Description
The last stage of team building where the team disbands
Arrow Diagramming Method
Generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize project completion.
A document used by organizations to initiate the purchase of long lead time or time critical
materials prior to the final release of a design.
Actual Finish date
Logical relationship between two or more activities that converge on or diverge from an event.
Note: the AND relationship indicates that every one of the activities has to be undertaken.
Activity On Arrow
Activity On Node
Project status describing Governance or Steering Committee approval prior to the start of project
activities.
Actual Start date
Factors, for planning purposes, considered to be true, real, or certain. Assumptions generally
involve a degree of risk.
See responsibility assignment matrix.
An element of work performed during the course of a project. An activity normally has an expected
duration, an expected cost, and expected resource requirements. Activities are often subdivided
into tasks.
Identifying the specific activities that must be performed in order to produce the various project
deliverables.
A short phrase or label used in a project network diagram. The activity description normally
describes the scope of work of the activity.
Estimating the number of work periods which will be needed to complete individual activities.
On Arrow (AOA) See arrow diagramming method.
On Node (AON) See precedence diagramming method.
Total costs incurred (direct and indirect) in accomplishing work during a given time period. See also
earned value.
The point in time that work actually ended on an activity. (Note: in some application areas, the
activity is considered finished when work is substantially complete.)
The point in time that work actually started on an activity.
Generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize project completion.
Application Programming Interface
A category of projects that have common elements not present in all projects. Application areas are
usually defined in terms of either the product of the project (i.e., by similar technologies or industry
sectors) or the type of customer (e.g., internal vs. external, government vs. commercial).
Application areas often overlap.

The term used when an individual accepts a deliverable as fit for purpose so that the project can
continue.
Approval given to the project at initiation or prior to the beginning of the next stage.
The graphic presentation of an activity. See also arrow diagramming method. A connecting line
between two nodes in a network.

A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. The tail of the
arrow represents the start and the head represents the finish of the activity (the length of the arrow
does not represent the expected duration of the activity). Activities are connected at points called
nodes (usually drawn as small circles) to illustrate the sequence in which the activities are
expected to be performed. See also precedence diagramming method.

See activity on arrow network.


One of two conventions used to represent an activity in a project. Also known as activity on arrow.
Actual Start date
An activity for which the early start date is set as late as possible without delaying the early dates
of any successor.
Of Date See data date.
That part of a project cost that is of a revenue nature and therefore charged as incurred to the
profit and loss account. Note: associated revenue differs from the capital element of the project in
that the capital element is taken as an asset to the balance sheet and depreciated over future
accounting periods.

An activity for which the early start date is set to be as soon as possible. This is the default activity
type in most project management systems.
Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain.
Assumptions generally involve a degree of risk.
Systematic retrospective examination of the whole, or part, of a project or function to measure
conformance with predetermined standards. Note: audit is usually qualified, for example financial
audit, quality audit, design audit, project audit, health and safety audit.
The decision that triggers the allocation of funding needed to carry on the project
Priced work any scope change for which authorization to proceed has been given, but for which
the estimated costs are not yet settled.
The effort which has been defined, plus that work for which authorization has been given, but for
which defined contract costs have not been agreed upon.
Decision event where the decision depends only on the outcome of the preceding activities and
that can be programmed or made automatic.

The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all network
activities. Determined by working backwards through the network logic from the projects end date.
The end date may be calculated in a forward pass or set by the customer or sponsor. See also
network analysis.
A graphic display of schedule related information. In the typical bar chart, activities or other project
elements are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity
durations are shown as date placed horizontal bars. Also called a Gantt chart.

The original plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved changes.
Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement
baseline).
See scheduled finish date.
See scheduled start date.
Budget At Completion
The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all network
activities. Determined by working backwards through the network logic from the projects end date.
The end date may be calculated in a forward pass or set by the customer or sponsor. See also
network analysis.
An organizational matrix where functions and projects have the same priority.
A graphic display of schedule related information. In the typical bar chart, activities or other project
elements are listed down the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity
durations are shown as date placed horizontal bars. Also called a Gantt chart.

The original plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved changes.
Usually used with a modifier (e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement
baseline).
The amount of money an activity was intended to cost when the schedule was baselined.
Original planned start and finish dates for an activity. Used to compare with current planned dates
to determine any delays. Also used to calculate budgeted cost of work scheduled for earned valued
analysis.
See scheduled finish date.
A customer review conducted to determine that a contractor is continuing to use the previously
accepted performance system and is properly implementing a baseline on the contract or option
under review.

The baseline schedule is a fixed project schedule. It is the standard by which project performance is
measured. The current schedule is copied into the baseline schedule which remains frozen until it is
reset. Resetting the baseline is done when the scope of the project has been changed significantly,
for example after a negotiated change. At that point, the original or current baseline becomes
invalid and should not be compared with the current schedule.

See scheduled start date.


Budgeted Cost of Work Performed
Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled
The enhanced efficiency, economy and effectiveness of future business or other operations to be
delivered by a project or program.
An outline of the expected benefits of the project or program, the business operations affected and
current and target performance measures.
Combined with project or program management, Benefits Management is the process for planning,
managing, delivering and measuring the project or program benefits.
Specifies who is responsible for achieving the benefits set out in the benefit profiles and how
achievement of the benefits is to be measured, managed and monitored.
A tender, quotation or any offer to enter into a contract
An analysis of bids or tenders.
This is the method of making estimates for every activity in the work breakdown structure and
summarizing them to provide a total project cost estimate.
The unstructured generation of ideas by a group of people.
A hierarchical structure by which project elements are broken down, or decomposed. See also
product breakdown structure (PBS), organizational breakdown structure (OBS) and work breakdown
structure (WBS).

Quantification of resources needed to achieve a task by a set time, within which the task owners
are required to work. Note: a budget consists of a financial and/or quantitative statement, prepared
and approved prior to a defined period, for the purpose of attaining a given objective for that
period. (The planned cost for an activity or project.)
The sum total of the time phased budgets. The estimated total cost of the project when done.
The cost anticipated at the start of a project.
See estimate.
System of creating budgets, monitoring progress and taking appropriate action to achieve
budgeted performance.
Making bodies to assess a project proposal and reach a rational decision.
The sum of the budget for work completed plus apportioned work in progress to be completed
during a relevant time period. BCWP can also be calculated by taking the percentage of work
completed times the baseline cost of the activity (% Complete x Planned Cost for each activity).

The sum of the budgets for work scheduled to be accomplished during a relevant time period. See
also earned value analysis. The planned cost of work that should have been achieved according to
the project baseline dates. Elapsed costs / baseline cost to date.

Budget elements are the same as resources the people, materials, or other entities needed to do
the work budget elements can be validated against a resource breakdown structure (RBS). They are
typically assigned to a work package, but can also be defined at the cost account level.
An approximate estimate prepared in the early stages of a project to establish financial viability or
secure resources.
Time phased financial requirements.
The budget unit is the base unit for the calculation. For example, the engineer budget element
might have a budget unit of hours. Since budget units are user defined, they can be any
appropriate unit of measure. For example, a budget unit might be hours, pounds sterling, linear
meters, or tons.
Overhead expenses distributed over appropriate direct labor and/or material base.
Information necessary to enable approval, authorization and policy making bodies to assess a
project proposal and reach a reasoned decision
The smallest unit of time used in scheduling the project. Calendar units are generally in hours,
days, or weeks, but can also be in shifts or even in minutes. Used primarily in relation to project
management software.

A project calendar lists time intervals in which activities or resources can or cannot be scheduled. A
project usually has one default calendar for the normal workweek (for example Monday to Friday),
but may have other calendars as well. Each calendar can be customized with its own holidays and
extra work days. Resources and activities can be attached to any of the calendars that are defined.
Project status given to a cancelled project.
The carrying cost in a balance sheet of acquiring an asset and bringing it to the condition where it
is capable of performing its intended function over a future series of periods.
The carrying cost in a balance sheet of acquiring an asset and bringing it to the condition where it
is capable of performing its intended function over a future series of periods.
Amount of investment in an organization or project, normally the sum of fixed and current assets,
less current liabilities at a particular date.
Bar chart on which the vertical order of activities is such that each activity is dependent only on
activities higher in the list.
Cash receipts and payments in a specified period.
Difference between cash received and payments made during a specific period.
Change Control Board
An end user representative often seconded into a project team. Someone who acts as an advocate
for a proposal or project.
Process that ensures potential changes to the deliverables of a project or the sequence of work in a
project, are recorded, evaluated, authorized, and managed.
A formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for approving or rejecting changes to the
project baselines.
See scope change.
A record of all project changes, proposed, authorized, or rejected.
The formal process where changes to the project are introduced and approved.
A request submitted to obtain formal approval for project changes (see Project Change Control).
Change requests may arise through changes in the business or because of issues in the project.
Change requests should be documented, logged, analyzed, and approved before a change to the
project can be made.

Any numbering system used to monitor project costs by category (e.g., labor, supplies, materials).
The project chart of accounts is usually based upon the corporate chart of accounts of the primary
performing organization. See also code of accounts.
See project charter.
Subordinate task belonging to a parent task existing at a higher level in the work breakdown
structure.
The party to a contract who commissions the work and pays for it on completion. The client or
customer also functions as a representative for the users and is a project stakeholder.
The completion of work on a project.
The formal end point of a project, either because it has been completed or because it has been
terminated early.
Capability Maturity Model
Any numbering system used to uniquely identify each element of the work breakdown structure.
See also chart of accounts.
Advancement of an installation from the stage of static completion to full working order and
achievement of the specified operational requirements.
A binding financial obligation, typically in the form of a purchase order or contract.
Costs legally committed even if delivery has not taken place with invoices neither raised nor paid.
The transmission of information so that the recipient understands clearly what the sender intends.
Determining project stakeholders communication and information needs.
Project status describing work that has moved through the full project lifecycle and has been
accepted as complete by the customer or client.
The date calculated by which the project could finish following careful estimating.
A risk made up of a number of inter related risks.
The phase that triggers and captures new ideas or opportunities and identifies potential candidates
for further development in the feasibility phase
An approach to project staffing that, in its most general form, calls for implementers to be involved
in the design phase. Sometimes confused with fast tracking.

Functional and physical characteristics of a product as defined in technical documents and


achieved in the product. Note: in a project this should contain all items that can be identified as
being relevant to the project and that should only be modified after authorization by the relevant
manager (This includes documentation).

A check to ensure that all deliverable items on a project conform with one another and to the
current specification. It ensures that relevant quality assurance procedures have been implemented
and that there is consistency throughout project documentation.
A system through which changes may be made to configuration items.
Identifies uniquely all items within the configuration.
A part of configuration that has a set function and is designated for configuration management. It
identifies uniquely all items within the configuration.
Technical and administrative activities concerned with the creation, maintenance and controlled
change of configuration throughout the life of the product.
Records and reports the current status and history of all changes to the configuration. Provides a
complete record of what happened to the configuration to date
The ability to manage conflict creatively and effectively.
Applicable restriction affecting the performance of the project. Any factor affecting when an activity
can be scheduled.
A type of resource that only remains available until consumed (for example, a material).
See reserve and contingency planning.
A contingency is the planned allotment of time and cost or other resources for unforeseeable
elements with a project.
See reserve.
Alternative course(s) of action devised to cope with project risks. Note: See risk plan.
The development of a management plan using alternative strategies to minimize or negate the
adverse effects of a risk, should it occur.

A separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which may be planned for only in
part (sometimes called known unknowns). For example, rework is certain, the amount of rework
is not. Contingency reserves may involve cost, schedule, or both. Contingency reserves are
intended to reduce the impact of missing cost or schedule objectives. Contingency reserves are
normally included in the projects cost and schedule baselines.

A contract is a mutually binding agreement which obligates the seller to provide the specified
product and obligates the buyer to pay for it. Contracts generally fall into one of three broad
categories:

Defined product. Fixed price contracts may also include incentives for meeting or exceeding
selected project objectives such as schedule targets.
Defined product. Fixed price contracts may also include incentives for meeting or exceeding
selected project objectives such as schedule targets.
Defined product. Fixed price contracts may also include incentives for meeting or exceeding
selected project objectives such as schedule targets.
Managing the relationship with the seller.
The negotiated contract cost value plus the estimated value of authorized but unpriced work.
Out Completion and settlement of the contract, including resolution of all outstanding items.
A person, company, or firm who holds a contract for carrying out the works and/or the supply of
goods or services in connection with the project

The negotiated costs for the original defined contract and all contractual changes that have been
agreed and approved, but excluding the estimated cost of any authorized, unpriced changes. The
contract target cost equals the value of the budget at completion plus management or contingency
reserve.
The negotiated estimated costs plus profit or fee.
The process of comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances,
evaluating possible alternatives, and taking appropriate corrective action as needed.
Control charts are a graphic display of the results, over time and against established control limits,
of a process. They are used to determine if the process is in control or in need of adjustment.
The act of ensuring that work carried out by different organizations and in different places fits
together effectively. It involves technical matters, time, content, and cost in order to achieve the
project objectives effectively.
An organizational structure where the project leader reports to the functional manager and doesnt
have authority over team members from other departments.
Changes made to bring expected future performance of the project into line with the plan.
Defines what work is to be performed who will perform it and who is to pay for it. Cost accounts are
the focal point for the integration of scope, cost, and schedule. Another term for cost account is
control account.
A member of a functional organization responsible for cost account performance, and for the
management of resources to accomplish such tasks.
An analysis of the relationship between the costs of undertaking a task or project, initial and
recurrent, and the benefits likely to arise from the changed situation, initially and recurrently.
An analysis of the relationship between the costs of undertaking a task or project, initial and
recurrent, and the benefits likely to arise from the changed situation, initially and recurrently.
Hierarchical breakdown of a project into cost elements.
Allocating cost estimates to individual project components.
Location, person, activity or project in respect of which costs may be ascertained and related to
cost units.
Unique identitier for a specified element of work. (Code assigned to activities that allow costs to be
consolidated according to the elements of a code structure.)
Controlling changes to the project budget.
The point within a program at which costs are entered and controlled. Frequently, the cost control
point for a project is either the cost account or the work package.
Any system of keeping costs within the bounds of budgets or standards based upon work actually
performed.
A graph plotted against a horizontal time scale and cumulative cost vertical scale.
A unit of costs to perform a task or to acquire an item. The cost estimated may be a single value or
a range of values.
Estimating the cost of the resources needed to complete project activities.
Costs identified through the use of the accrued method of accounting or costs actually paid. Costs
include direct labor, direct materials, and all allowable indirect costs.
The effective financial control of the project through evaluating, estimating, budgeting, monitoring,
analyzing, forecasting and reporting the cost information.
The costs incurred to ensure quality. The cost of quality includes quality planning, quality control,
quality assurance, and rework.
The amount by which a contractor exceeds or expects to exceed the estimated costs, and/or the
final limitations (the ceiling) of a contract.
The ratio of budgeted costs to actual costs (BCWP/ACWP). CPI is often used to predict the
magnitude of a possible cost overrun using the following formula: original cost estimate/CPI =
projected cost at completion. See also earned value. The cost efficiency ratio of earned value to
actual costs. CPI is often used to predict the magnitude of a possible cost overrun. See also earned
value.
A regular cost report to reflect cost and schedule status information for management.
A budget which shows the amounts and expected dates of incurring costs on the project or on a
contract.
A type of contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the sellers allowable costs (allowable
costs are defined by the contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).
A type of contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the sellers allowable costs (allowable
costs are defined by the contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance
criteria.
A category of contracts based on payments to a contractor for allowable estimated costs, normally
requiring only a best efforts performance standard from the contractor. Risk for all growth over the
estimated value rests with the project owner.

Time resource sheet (CTR) a document that describes each major element in the work breakdown
structure, including a statement of work (SOW) describing the work content, resources required, the
time frame of the work element and a cost estimate.

Time resource sheet (CTR) a document that describes each major element in the work breakdown
structure, including a statement of work (SOW) describing the work content, resources required, the
time frame of the work element and a cost estimate.

Time resource sheet (CTR) a document that describes each major element in the work breakdown
structure, including a statement of work (SOW) describing the work content, resources required, the
time frame of the work element and a cost estimate.

Time resource sheet (CTR) a document that describes each major element in the work breakdown
structure, including a statement of work (SOW) describing the work content, resources required, the
time frame of the work element and a cost estimate.
Cost Plus Fixed Fee
Cost Plus Incentive Fee
Cost Performance Index
Critical Path Method

A specific type of project schedule compression technique performed by taking action to decrease
the total project schedule duration after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to
get the maximum schedule duration compression for the least cost. Typical approaches for crashing
a schedule include reducing schedule activity durations and increasing the assignment of resources
on schedule activities.Credited resource created by an activity or event and can then be used by
the project.

Any activity on a critical path with zero or negative float. Most commonly determined by using the
critical path method. Although some activities are critical in the dictionary sense without being on
the critical path, this meaning is seldom used in the project context.
Used in risk analysis, the criticality index represents the percentage of simulation trails that
resulted in the activity being placed on the critical path.

In a project network diagram, the series of activities which determines the earliest completion of
the project. The critical path will generally change from time to time as activities are completed
ahead of or behind schedule. Although normally calculated for the entire project, the critical path
can also be determined for a milestone or subproject. The critical path is usually defined as those
activities with float less than or equal to a specified value, often zero. See critical path method.

Procedure for calculating the critical path and floats in a network.

A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing which sequence of
activities (which path) has the least amount of scheduling flexibility (the least amount of float).
Early dates are calculated by means of a forward pass using a specified start date. Late dates are
calculated by means of a backward pass starting from a specified completion date (usually the
forward passs calculated project early finish date).
A critical factor against which aspects of project performance may be assessed
A factor considered to be most conducive to the achievement of a successful project
The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will be completed.
The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will begin.
Any person who defines needs or wants, justifies or pays for part or the entire project, or evaluates
or uses the results. Could be the project promoter, client, owner or employer
Off date the ending date of a reporting period.
Cost Variance
An activity or network which has either no predecessors or no successors. If neither, it is referred to
as an isolated activity.
The point in time that separates actual (historical) data from future (scheduled) data. Also called as
of date.
Data Date
The removal of uncertainty with respect to a course of action.
State in the progress of a project when a decision is required before the start of any succeeding
activity. Note: the decision determines which of a number of alternative paths is to be followed.
See estimate.
In resource scheduling, inadequate availability of one or more resources may require that the
completion of an activity be delayed beyond the date on which it could otherwise be completed.
The delaying resource is the first resource on an activity that causes the activity to be delayed.
The practice of effectively getting others to perform work which one chooses not to do oneself. The
process by which authority and responsibility is distributed from project manager to subordinates.
Decision event where the decision is made as a result of the outcomes of the preceding activities
and possibly other information. A deliberate decision event cannot be made automatically
End products of a project or the measurable results of intermediate activities within the project
organization. Note: deliverables may be in the form of hardware, software, services, processes,
documents, or any combination thereof.
A process where a consensus view is reached by consultation with experts. Often used as an
estimating technique.
Project status describing proposed project work that will not be considered.
Precedence relationship. Restriction that one activity has to precede, either in part or in total,
another activity. (Dependencies are relationships between products or tasks. For example, one
product may be made up of several other dependent products or a task may not begin until a
dependent task is complete.) See logical relationship

A link arrow used in an activity on a node network to represent the interrelationships of activities in
a project.
The person or organization with overall design responsibility for the products of the project
Phase The time period in which facility and production processes are developed and designed.
Contains paths, all of which have to be followed and whose durations are fixed. Note: deterministic
network is a term used to distinguish traditional networking from probabilistic networking.
Costs specifically attributable to an activity or group of activities without apportionment. (Direct
costs are best contrasted with indirect costs that cannot be identified to a specific project.)
Concept of relating future cash inflows and outflows over the life of a project or operation to a
common base value thereby allowing more validity to comparison of projects with different
durations and rates of cash flow.
A milestone that has a definite scheduled occurrence in time.
A milestone that has a definite scheduled occurrence in time.
An activity representing no actual work to be done but required for reasons of logic or
nomenclature. Note: there are three uses for a dummy activity in activity on arrow network: logic,
time delay, and Uniqueness.
Duration
An activity of zero duration used to show a logical relationship in the arrow diagramming method.
Dummy activities are used when logical relationships cannot be completely or correctly described
with regular activity arrows. Dummies are shown graphically as a dashed line headed by an arrow.

The number of work periods (not including holidays or other non working periods) required to
complete an activity or other project element. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks.
Sometimes incorrectly equated with elapsed time. See also effort.
Shortening the project schedule without reducing the project scope. Duration compression is not
always possible and often requires an increase in project cost.
Estimate At Completion
The earliest date on which the activity could be scheduled to start based on the scheduled dates of
all its predecessors, but in the absence of any resource constraints on the activity itself. This date is
calculated by resource scheduling.
Calculated in the forward pass of time analysis, early dates are the earliest dates on which an
activity can start and finish.
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of
an activity (or the project) can finish based on the network logic and any schedule constraints.
Early finish dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan.

In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of
an activity (or the project) can start, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early
start dates can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the project plan.
The time in standard hours credited as a result of the completion of a given task or a group of
tasks.
A measure of the value of completed work. Earned value uses original estimates and progress to
date to show whether the actual costs incurred are on budget and whether the tasks are ahead or
behind the baseline schedule.
Analysis of project progress where the actual money, hours (or other measure) budgeted and spent
is compared to the value of the work achieved.
The quantification of the overall progress of a project in financial terms so as to provide a realistic
yardstick against which to compare the actual cost to date.
Early Finish date
The number of labor units necessary to complete the work. Effort is usually expressed in staff
hours, staff days or staff weeks and should not be confused with duration.
Driven activity an activity whose duration is governed by resource usage and availability. The
resource requiring the greatest time to complete the specified amount of work on the activity will
determine its duration.
The estimate of effort remaining to complete an activity.
Elapsed time is the total number of calendar days (excluding non work days such as weekends or
holidays) that is needed to complete an activity. It gives a realistic view of how long an activity is
scheduled to take for completion.
An activity with no logical successors.
Event with proceeding, but no succeeding activities. Note: there may be more than one end event.
Use of data relating to an external factor (such as the weather) to modify or bias the value of
parameters concerned.
Activity that is equivalent, in the probabilistic sense, to any combination of series and parallel
activities.
Early Start date

An assessment of the likely quantitative result. Usually applied to project costs and durations and
should always include some indication of accuracy (e.g., x percent). Usually used with a modifier
(e.g., preliminary, conceptual, feasibility). Some application areas have specific modifiers that imply
particular accuracy ranges (e.g., order of magnitude estimate, budget estimate, and definitive
estimate in engineering and construction projects).

A value expressed in either money and/or hours, to represent the projected final costs of work when
completed. The EAC is calculated as ETC + ACWP.
The value expressed in either money or hours developed to represent the cost of the work required
to complete a task.
The act of combining the results of post project reviews, metrics, consultation and informed
assessment to arrive at time and resource requirements for an activity.
Estimate (or Estimated) To Complete (or Completion)
Earned Value
State in the progress of a project after the completion of all preceding activities, but before the
start of any succeeding activity. (A defined point that is the beginning or end of an activity)
On Node A network diagramming technique in which events are represented by boxes (or nodes)
connected by arrows to show the sequence in which the events are to occur. Used in the original
Program Evaluation and Review Technique.

Focused report drawing attention to instances where planned and actual results are expected to be,
or are already, significantly different. Note: an exception report is usually triggered when actual
values are expected to cross a predetermined threshold that is set with reference to the project
plan. The actual values may be trending better or worse than plan.
Logical relationship indicating that only one of the possible activities can be undertaken.
The phase of a project in which work towards direct achievement of the projects objectives and the
production of the projects deliverables occurs. Sometimes called the implementation phase
A charge against available funds, evidenced by a voucher, claim, or other documents. Expenditures
represent the actual payment of funds.
Occurrences causing deviation from a plan, such as issues, change requests and risks. Exceptions
can also refer to items where the cost variance and schedule variance exceed predefined
thresholds.
The product of an events probability of occurrence and the gain or loss that will result. For
example, if there is a 50 percent probability that it will rain, and rain will result in a $100 loss, the
expected monetary value of the rain event is $50 (.5 x $100).
A constraint from outside the project network.
Reducing the duration of a project usually by overlapping phases or activities originally planned to
be to done sequentially. (The process of reducing the number of sequential relationships and
replacing them typically with parallel relationships, usually to achieve shorter overall durations but
often with increased risk).

A plan for an alternative course of action that can be adopted to overcome the consequences of a
risk, should it occur (including carrying out any advance activities that may be required to render
the plan practical).

The project phase that demonstrates that the clients requirement can be achieved, this phase
identifies and evaluates the options to determine the one preferred solution.
Analysis to determine if a course of action is possible within the terms of reference of the project.
Any schedule capable of implementation within the externally determined constraints of time
and/or resource limits.
Free Float or Finish to Finish
Firm Fixed Price
Post implementation report. Normally a retrospective report that formally closes the project having
handed over the project deliverables for operational use. Note: the report should draw attention to
experiences that may be of benefit to future projects and may form part of the accountability of the
project team
The actual or estimated time associated with an activitys completion.
A finishing activity is the last activity that must be completed before a project can be considered
finished. This activity is not a predecessor to any other activity it has no successors.
To Finish (FF) See logical relationship.
To finish lag the finish to finish lag is the minimum amount of time that must pass between the
finish of one activity and the finish of its successor(s).
To Start (FS) See logical relationship.
To start lag the finish to start lag is the minimum amount of time that must pass between the
finish of one activity and the start of its successor(s). The default finish to start lag is zero.
A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract)
regardless of the sellers costs.
A calendar date (associated with a plan) that cannot be moved or changed during the schedule.
Duration scheduling a scheduling method in which, regardless of the number of resources
assigned to the task, the duration remains the same.
See imposed finish.
Price contracts a generic category of contracts based on the establishment of firm legal
commitments to complete the required work. A performing contractor is legally obligated to finish
the job, no matter how much it costs to complete. Risks of all cost growth rest on the performing
contractor.
See imposed start.
A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and
the seller can earn an additional amount if it meets defined performance criteria.
The amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the project
finish date. Float is a mathematical calculation and can change as the project progresses and
changes are made to the project plan. Also called slack, total float, and path float. See also free
float.
Scheduled cost for a task.
See estimate at completion.
The calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network
activities. See also network analysis and backward pass.
Fixed Price Incentive Fee
See subnet.
The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately
following activities. See also float.
Finish to Start
A manager responsible for activities in a specialized department or functional group (e.g.,
engineering, manufacturing, marketing).
An organization type where the project has a team leader in each functional department and the
products are passed from one team to the next.
Management structure where specific functions of an organization are grouped into specialist
departments providing dedicated services. Examples of functional organization are finance,
marketing and design departments.
A document specifying in some detail the functions that is required of a system and the constraints
that will apply
An estimate of funding requirements over time.
Particular type of bar chart showing planned activity against time. Note: Gantt chart, although
named for a particular type of bar chart, is in current usage as a name for bar charts in general.
Phased graphic display of activity durations. Activities are listed with other tabular information on
the left side with time intervals over the bars. Activity durations are shown in the form of horizontal
bars.)
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique
A one sentence definition of specifically what will be accomplished, while incorporating an event
signifying completion.
A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (e.g., hammer)
but do not share the same requirements for quality (e.g., different hammers may need to withstand
different amounts of force).
A network analysis technique that allows for conditional and probabilistic treatment of logical
relationships (i.e., some activities may not be performed).
An aggregate or summary activity (a group of related activities is shown as one and reported at a
summary level). A hammock may or may not have an internal sequence. See also subproject and
subnet.

Joining two specified points, that span two or more activities. (Note: its duration is initially
unspecified and is only determined by the durations of the specified activities. Hammocks are
usually used to collect time dependent information, e.g. overheads. A group of activities,
milestones, or other hammocks aggregated together for analysis or reporting purposes. Sometimes
used to describe an activity such as management support that has no duration of its own but
derives one from the time difference between the two points to which it is connected.)

The formal process of transferring responsibility for and ownership of the products of a project to
the operator or owner.
An unintended break in a network path. Hangers are usually caused by missing activities or missing
logical relationships.
A coding system that can be represented as a multi level tree structure in which every code except
those at the top of the tree has a parent code.
Range of networks at different levels of detail, from summary down to working levels, showing the
relationships between those networks.
A graphic display of planned and or actual resource usage over a period of time. It is in the form of
a vertical bar chart, the height of each bar representing the quantity of resource usage in a given
time unit. Bars may be single, multiple, or show stacked resources.
An otherwise valid working day that has been designated as exempt from work.
Organization providing the administrative and logistical support for the project.
Activities on the critical path with negative float.
Invitation For Bid
The assessment of the adverse effects of an occurring risk.
Assessing the merits of pursuing a particular course of action.
The project phase that develops the chosen solution into a completed deliverable.
The project phase that develops the chosen solution into a completed deliverable.
Point in time determined by circumstances outside the network.
Point in time determined by circumstances outside the network.
A finished date imposed on an activity by external constraints.
A start date imposed on an activity by external constraints.
Logical relationship indicating that at least one but not necessarily all of the activities have to be
undertaken.
Sum of actual and committed costs, whether invoiced/paid or not, at a specified time.
Costs associated with a project that cannot be directly attributed to an activity or group of
activities. (Resources expended which are not directly identified to any specific contract, project,
product or service, such as overheads and general administration).
Making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
House project a project commissioned and carried out entirely within a single organization
Committing the organization to begin a project or phase.
An activity that has been started, but not yet completed.
See earned value.
Disciplined approach to activities necessary to a) cause support considerations to be integrated
into product design, b) develop support arrangements that are consistently related to design and to
each other, and c) provide the necessary support at the beginning and during customer use at
optimum cost.
The process of bringing people, activities and other things together to perform effectively.
Discount rate at which the net present value of a future cash flow is zero.
Discount rate at which the net present value of a future cash flow is zero.
A project oriented organization structure that employs permanent specialists to support projects.
Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas it
may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
An immediate problem requiring resolution. If a risk (see Risk) does occur, it may turn into an issue
or issues and be managed as an issue.
An immediate problem requiring resolution. If a risk (see Risk) does occur, it may turn into an issue
or issues and be managed as an issue.
See master schedule.
Measurable indicators used to report progress chosen to reflect the critical success factors of the
project.
Difference between planned labor rates and actual labor rates.
Device for representing a set of overlapping activities in a network diagram. Note: The start and
finish of each succeeding activity are linked only to the start and finish of the preceding activity by
lead and lag activities, which consume only time.

A) In a network diagram, the minimum necessary lapse of time between the finish of one activity
and the finish of an overlapping activity or b) delay incurred between two specified activities. For
example, in a finish to start dependency with a 10 day lag, the successor activity cannot start until
10 days after the predecessor has finished. See also lead.

Calculated in the backward pass of time analysis, late dates are the latest dates by which an
activity can be allowed to start or finish.
Latest time by which an event has to occur within the logical and imposed constraints of the
network, without affecting the total project duration.
Calculated from backward pass, it is the latest date an event can occur.
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may be completed
without delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date).
The latest possible time by which an activity has to finish within the logical activity and imposed
constraints of the network, without affecting the total project duration.
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may begin without
delaying a specified milestone (usually the project finish date).
Latest possible time by which an activity has to start within the logical and imposed constraints of
the network, without affecting the total project duration.
In a network diagram, the minimum necessary lapse of time between the start of one activity and
the start of an overlapping activity. For example, in a finish to start dependency with a 10 day lead,
the successor activity can start 10 days before the predecessor has finished. See also lag.
The contractor who has responsibility for overall project management and quality assurance
Getting others to follow.
A letter indicating intent to sign a contract, usually so that work can commence prior to signing that
contract.
Support type activity (e.g., vendor or customer liaison) that does not readily lend itself to
measurement of discrete accomplishment. It is generally characterized by a uniform rate of activity
over a specific period of time.
See resource leveling.
Late Finish date
A sequence of defined stages over the full duration of a project.
Cycle Costing The concept of including acquisition, operating, and disposal costs when evaluating
various alternatives.
Assessment of the probability that a risk will occur.
Assessment of the probability that a risk will occur.
Assessment of the probability that a risk will occur.
Assessment of the probability that a risk will occur.
See logical relationship.
A bar chart that shows the dependency links between activities
Level Of Effort
See network logic.
A diagram that displays the logical relationships between project activities. See project network
diagram.
A dependency between two project activities, or between a project activity and a milestone. See
also precedence relationship. The four possible types of logical relationships are:
To startthe from activity must finish before the to activity can start.
To finishthe from activity must finish before the to activity can finish.
To startthe from activity must start before the to activity can start.
To finishthe from activity must start before the to activity can finish.
A network path that passes the same node twice. Loops cannot be analyzed using traditional
network analysis techniques and are treated as errors.LS Late Start date
A term used to describe normal management processes that are being project managed.
All aspects of staff planning, recruitment, development, training and assessment.
A separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which are impossible to predict
(sometimes called unknown unknowns). Management reserves may involve cost or schedule.
Management reserves are intended to reduce the risk of missing cost or schedule objectives. Use of
management reserve requires a change to the projects cost baseline.
A document that defines the goals and constraints of a project and functions as a working
agreement or contract between the client and the project manager.
Network showing the complete project, from which more detailed networks are derived
A summary level schedule which identifies the major activities and key milestones. See also
milestone schedule.

Property which may be incorporated into or attached to an end item to be delivered under a
contract, or which may be consumed or expended in the performance of a contract. It includes, but
is not limited to, raw and processed material, parts, components, assemblies, fuels and lubricants,
and small tools and supplies which may be consumed in normal use in the performance of a
contract.

See network analysis.


Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional
managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to the project.
A documented process for management of projects containing the process, definitions, and roles
and responsibilities. An organization may have multiple methodologies for various types of
activities, initiatives, or projects.

Stage assessment an assessment in the middle of a project that can be held for several reasons:
1) At the request of the project board, 2) to authorize work on the next stage before current one is
completed, 3) to allow for a formal review in the middle of a long project, or 4) to review exception
plans.

A key event. An event selected for its importance in the project. Note: milestones are commonly
used in relation to progress. (A milestone is often chosen to represent the start of a new phase or
the completion of a major deliverable. They are used to monitor progress at summary level.
Milestones are activities of zero duration).
A plan containing only milestones which highlight key points of the project.
A schedule that identifies the major milestones. See also master schedule.
Brief summary, approximately one or two sentences, that sums up the background, purposes and
benefits of the project.
Working to reduce risk by lowering its chances of occurring or by reducing its effect if it occurs.
The bringing together of project personnel and securing equipment and facilities. carried out during
project start up phases.
A term used to distinguish the current broad range of project management (scope, cost, time,
quality, risk, etc.) from narrower, traditional use that focused on cost and time.
The capture, analysis, and reporting of project performance, usually as compared to plan.
A schedule risk assessment technique used to estimate the likely range of outcomes from a
complex process by simulating the process under randomly selected conditions a large number of
times.
Modern Project Management
Project a project consisting of multiple sub projects.
Project analysis multi project analysis is used to analyze the impact and interaction of activities
and resources whose progress affects the progress of a group of projects or for projects with shared
resources or both. Multi project analysis can also be used for composite reporting on projects
having no dependencies or resources in common.

Project management managing multiple projects that are interconnected either logically or by
shared resources.
Project scheduling use of the techniques of resource allocation to schedule more than one project
concurrently.
Critical Activity An activity that has low total float.
Time by which the duration of an activity or path has to be reduced in order to permit a limiting
imposed date to be achieved.
The estimated cost negotiated in a cost plus fixed fee contract or the negotiated contract target
cost in either a fixed price incentive contract or a cost plus incentive fee contract. See also contract
target cost.
The art of satisfying needs by reaching agreement or compromise with other parties.
Aggregate of future net cash flows discounted back to a common base date, usually the present.
A pictorial presentation of project data in which the project logic is the main determinant of the
placements of the activities in the drawing. Frequently called a flowchart, PERT chart, logic drawing,
or logic diagram. See project network diagram.

The process of identifying early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of
project activities. See also Critical Path Method, Program Evaluation and Review Technique, and
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique.
Activity or event common to two or more network diagrams.
The collection of activity dependencies making up a project network diagram.
Any continuous series of connected activities in a project network diagram.
One of the defining points of a network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other
dependency lines. See also arrow diagramming method and precedence diagramming method.
Points in a network at which arrows start and finish.
Recurring costs expenditures against specific tasks that are expected to occur only once on a
given project.
Splittable activity an activity that, once started, has to be completed to plan without interruption.
Splittable activity to another activity.
A restriction on an activity that indicates that it may not start or end earlier than a specified date.
A restriction on an activity that indicates that it may not start or end later than a specified date.
Predetermined results towards which effort is directed.
Organization(al) Breakdown Structure
Hold Status describing a change from Active (see Active) to being held, generally due to other
work demands or priorities.
Period when the completed deliverable is used and maintained in service for its intended purpose.
The opposite of a risk. The chance to enhance the project benefits.
An estimate carried out to give very approximate indication of likely out turn costs. See estimate.
Hierarchical way in which the organization may be divided into management levels and groups, for
planning and control purposes and to relate work packages to organizational units.
The design of the most appropriate organizational design for a project.
Identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.
The initial budget established at or near the time a contract was signed or a project authorized,
based on the negotiated contract cost or managements authorization.
The duration of activities or groups of activities as recorded in the baseline schedule.
A group of accounting elements which can be isolated to specific tasks, other than labor and
material. Included in ODC are such items as travel, computer time, and services.
Of sequence progress progress that has been reported even though activities that have been
deemed predecessors in project logic have not been completed.
Information that governs the final appearance of a report or drawing. (Usually refers to computer
generated documents).
Contracting out, buying in facilities or work (as opposed to using in house resources).
Coordinating and controlling changes across an entire project.
See lead.
Costs incurred in the operation of a business that cannot be directly related to the individual
products or services being produced. See also indirect cost.
Costs incurred in excess of the contract target costs on an incentive type contract or the estimated
costs on a fixed price contract. An overrun is that value of costs which are needed to complete a
project, over that value originally authorized by management.
Parallel activities are two or more activities than can be done at the same time. This allows a
project to be completed faster than if the activities were arranged serially.
An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other
variables (e.g., square footage in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate
an estimate.
Task within the work breakdown structure that embodies several subordinate child tasks.
A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by
each identified cause.
The persons or companies who sign a contract with one another.
A set of sequentially connected activities in a project network diagram. (Refer to critical path
method for information on critical and non critical paths).
In mathematical analysis, the tendency of parallel paths of approximately equal duration to delay
the completion of the milestone where they meet.
See float.
Percent Complete
Precedence Diagramming Method
Status describing project work submitted for review but not yet discussed.
An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work which has been completed on an
activity or group of activities. May be aggregated to sections of a project or the whole project.
Performance measurement techniques are the methods used to estimate earned value. Different
methods are appropriate to different work packages, either due to the nature of the work or to the
planned duration of the work package.
Collecting and disseminating information about project performance to help ensure project
progress.
Statement of the totality of needs expressed by the benefits, features, characteristics, process
conditions, boundaries and constraints that together define the expected performance of a
deliverable. Note: a performance specification should provide for innovation and alternative
solutions, by not defining or unduly constraining the technical attributes of the intended
deliverable.
A team building stage where the emphasis is on the work currently being performed.
The enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in doing the work of the project.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
A specific type of project network diagram. See Program Evaluation and Review Technique.
Planned Finish date
That part of a project during which a set of related and interlinked activities are performed. Note: a
project consists of a series of phases that together constitute the whole project life cycle. See
project phase.
The percentage of the work content of an activity that has been achieved.
A form of testing a new development and its implementation prior to committing to its full release.
An intended future course of action. It is owned by the project manager, it is the basis of the project
controls and includes the what, how, when, and who.
An activity not yet started.
Estimated cost of achieving a specified objective.
See scheduled finish date.
See scheduled start date.
The sum of the budgets for all planned work scheduled to be accomplished within a given time
period. Also known as the Budgeted Costs of Work Scheduled (BCWS).
A member of a project team or project support office with the responsibility for planning, scheduling
and tracking of projects. They are often primarily concerned with schedule, progress and manpower
resources.
The process of identifying the means, resources and actions necessary to accomplish an objective.
The stage prior to the implementation stage when product activity, resource and quality plans are
produced.
Project Management or Project Manager
Project Management Body of Knowledge
Project Management Professional
A grouping of projects and programs for management convenience. They may or may not have a
common objective and are often related only by the use of common resources, funding, or by
company departments.
The management of a number of projects that do not share a common objective
Positive float is defined as the amount of time that an activitys start can be delayed without
affecting the project completion date. An activity with positive float is not on the critical path and is
called a non critical activity. The difference between early and late dates (start or finish) determines
the amount of float.

A review between 6 12 months after a system in a project has met its objectives to verify that it
continues to meet user requirements.
An evaluation that provides feedback in order to learn for the future.
A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by boxes (or nodes) and the
relationship between them by arrows. Activities are linked by precedence relationships to show the
sequence in which the activities are to be performed.

A multiple dependency network. An activity on node network in which a sequence arrow represents
one of four forms of precedence relationship, depending on the positioning of the head and the tail
of the sequence arrow. The relationships are:

A multiple dependency network. An activity on node network in which a sequence arrow represents
one of four forms of precedence relationship, depending on the positioning of the head and the tail
of the sequence arrow. The relationships are:

A multiple dependency network. An activity on node network in which a sequence arrow represents
one of four forms of precedence relationship, depending on the positioning of the head and the tail
of the sequence arrow. The relationships are:

A multiple dependency network. An activity on node network in which a sequence arrow represents
one of four forms of precedence relationship, depending on the positioning of the head and the tail
of the sequence arrow. The relationships are:

A multiple dependency network. An activity on node network in which a sequence arrow represents
one of four forms of precedence relationship, depending on the positioning of the head and the tail
of the sequence arrow. The relationships are:

The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In current usage,
however, precedence relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are widely used
interchangeably regardless of the diagramming method in use.
In an activity on arrow network, an event at the beginning of an activity
Commissioning that work which is carried out prior to commissioning in order to demonstrate that
commissioning may be safely undertaken.
An activity that must be completed (or be partially completed) before a specified activity can begin.
An activity that must be completed (or be partially completed) before a specified activity can begin.
An activity that must be completed (or be partially completed) before a specified activity can begin.
An activity that must be completed (or be partially completed) before a specified activity can begin.
A main supplier who has a contract for much or all of the work on a contract
Network containing alternative paths with which probabilities are associated
Likelihood of a risk occurring.
Set of interrelated resources and activities which transform inputs into outputs
The securing of goods or services
Determining what to procure and when.
A hierarchy of deliverable products which are required to be produced on the project. It forms the
base document from which the execution strategy and product based work breakdown structure
may be derived. It provides a guide for configuration control documentation.
The description of the purpose form and components of a product. It should always be used as a
basis for acceptance of the product by the customer.
Represents how the products are produced by identifying their derivation and the dependencies
between them.
A portfolio of projects selected, planned, and managed in a coordinated way to achieve a set of
defined objectives; a single, large or very complex project with phases managed as separate
projects; or a set of otherwise unrelated projects bounded by a business cycle.
A review to assess if targets have been reached and to measure the performance levels in the
resulting business operations.

An event oriented network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a
high degree of uncer tainty with the individual activity duration estimates. PERT applies the critical
path method to a weighted average duration estimate. Also given as Program Evaluation and
Review Technique.
The senior manager with the responsibility for the overall success of the program.
A committee that directs the program when circumstances arise where there is no individual to
direct the program.

PERT is a project management technique for determining how much time a project needs before it
is completed. Each activity is assigned a best, worst, and most probable completion time estimate.
These estimates are used to determine the average completion time. The average times are used
to calculate the critical path and the standard deviation of completion times for the entire project.

The effective management of several individual but related projects or functional activities in order
to produce an overall system that works effectively.
The office responsible for the business and technical management of a specific contract or
program.
Individual or body with responsibility for managing a group of projects.
A group that gives administrative support to the program manager and the program executive.
The partial completion of a project, or a measure of the same.
Payments made to a contractor during the life of a fixed price type contract, on the basis of some
agreed to formula, for example, budget cost of work performed or simply costs incurred.
A regular report to senior personnel, sponsors or stakeholders summarizing the progress of a
project including key events, milestones, costs and other issues.
The application of resources to a unique set of coordinated activities, with a defined start and
finish, undertaken to meet specific objectives within defined cost and performance parameters.
The discipline of calculating the viability of a project.
Reference date used as a basis for the start of a project calendar.
A project board is the body to which the project manager is accountable for achieving the project
objectives.
Statement that describes the purpose, cost, time and performance requirements/constraints for a
project. (A statement of reference terms for a project. A written statement of the clients goals and
requirements in relation to the project.)
A calendar that defines global project working and non working periods.
The process ensuring potential changes to a project including scope, cost, resources, time
(schedule), deliverables, design, methods, costs, or any other planned aspects of a project are
recorded, evaluated, authorized, and managed.

A formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for approving or rejecting project change
requests. In some cases, the project Steering Committee may serve as the PCCB. Project Charter. A
document issued by senior management that provides the project manager with the authority to
apply organizational resources to project activities.

A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure proper collection
and dissemination of project information. It consists of communications planning, information
distribution, performance reporting, and administrative closure.

Communication linking various areas of a project to ensure the transfer of information or hardware
at interface points at the appropriate times and identification of any further necessary resources.
Defines the parties relevant to the project and the approved means of communicating between
them.
Person within the parent organization who promotes and defends a project.
Formal termination of a project at any point during its life.
A subset of project management including resource planning, cost estimating, cost control and cost
budgeting in an effort to complete the project within its approved budget.
The general attitude toward projects within the business.
A report defining a project, i.e. Why it is required? What will be done? How when and where it will
be delivered? The organization and resources required the standards and procedures to be
followed.
The manager of a very large project that demands senior level responsibility or the person at the
board level in an organization who has the overall responsibility for the management of projects.
The project environment is the context within which the project is formulated, assessed and
realized. This includes all external factors that have an impact on the project.
A documented review of the projects performance, produced at project closure. It ensures that the
experience of the project is recorded for the benefit of others.
A file containing the overall plans of a project and any other important documents.
A subset of project management that includes the processes required to make the most effective
use of the people involved with the project. It consists of organizational planning, staff acquisition,
and team development.
The beginning of a project at which point certain management activities are required to ensure that
the project is established with clear reference terms and adequate management structure.
A document approved by the project board at project initiation that defines the terms of reference
for the project.
A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the various
elements of the project are properly coordinated. It consists of project plan development, project
plan execution, and overall change control.
A report that raises either technical or managerial issues in a project.
All phases or stages between a projects conception and its termination.
All phases or stages between a projects conception and its termination.
Cumulative cost of a project over its whole life cycle
A project diary. A chronological record of significant occurrences throughout the project
The relationships between the various activities in a project.
A representation of the logical relationships of a project.

An inclusive term describing the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management.
As with other professions such as law, medicine, and accounting, the body of knowledge rests with
the practitioners and academics who apply and advance it. The PMBOK includes proven, traditional
practices which are widely applied as well as innovative and advanced ones which have seen more
limited use.

A plan for carrying out a project, to meet specific objectives, that is prepared by or for the project
manager
The office or department responsible for establishing, maintaining and enforcing project delivery
and management processes, procedures, and standards. It provides services, support, and training
for project managers.
An individual certified as such by the Project Management Institute.
A class of computer applications specifically designed to aid with planning and controlling project
costs and schedules.
The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. On
some smaller projects, the project management team may include virtually all of the project team
members.

The person responsible for all elements of planning, managing, executing, and controlling the
project and who is responsible for bringing the project in on time, cost, to specifications, and to a
given quality with agreed upon resources
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or
exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from a project.
An organization matrix that is project based, in which the functional structures are duplicated in
each project.
Comparison of current project status with what was planned to be done to identify and report any
deviations.
Representation of activities and/or events with their inter relationships and dependencies.
Any schematic display of the logical relationships of project activities. Always drawn from left to
right to reflect project chronology. Often incorrectly referred to as a PERT chart.
Group of techniques that, for the description, analysis, planning, and control of projects, considers
the logical inter relationships of all project activities The group includes techniques concerned with
time, resources, costs, and other influencing factors, e.g. uncertainty.
Group of techniques that, for the description, analysis, planning, and control of projects, considers
the logical inter relationships of all project activities The group includes techniques concerned with
time, resources, costs, and other influencing factors, e.g. uncertainty.
Structure that is created or evolves to serve the project and its participants. (A term which refers to
the structure, roles, and responsibilities of the project team and its interfaces to the outside world.)
A collection of logically related project activities, usually culminating in the completion of a major
deliverable.

A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and project control. The primary
uses of the project plan are to document planning assumptions and decisions, to facilitate
communication among stakeholders, and to document approved scope, cost, and schedule
baselines. A project plan may be summary or detailed.

Taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent
document.
Carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein.
The development and maintenance of the project plan.
The constituent projects within a program.

The organization of projects and programs into a single portfolio to allow prioritization based on
factors such as alignment with corporate strategy, ROI, risk, applied resource levels, and
technology focus. Used wisely, it will increase the companys value by exposing redundant or risky
projects, while revealing how to shift funds from low value investments to high value, strategic
ones. The process also allows the corporate strategy to be communicated throughout the
organization, better equipping it to choose and execute those projects and initiatives that support
the strategy, while eliminating those that do not.

A collected set of the management and administrative procedures needed for the project.
A subset of project management that includes procurement planning, source selection, enquiry,
tender assessment, placement of purchase orders and contracts for goods and services, contract
and purchase order administration and close out in an effort to obtain goods and services from
outside organizations.

Formal statement that compares the project progress, achievements and expectations with the
project plan.
A subset of project management including the processes required to ensure that the project will
satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. It consists of quality planning, quality assurance, and
quality control.

A subset of project management that includes the processes required to acquire goods and services
from outside the performing organization. It consists of procurement planning, solicitation planning,
solicitation, source selection, contract administration, and contract closeout.
Calendar of project review dates, meetings and issues of reports set against project week numbers
or dates.
A subset of project management including the processes concerned with identifying, analyzing, and
responding to project risk. It consists of risk identification, risk quantification, risk response
development, and risk response control.
The planned dates for performing activities and meeting milestones.
A subset of project management including the processes required to ensure that the project
includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It
consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control.

A subset of project management including the processes required to ensure that the project
includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It
consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control.

A subset of project management including the processes required to ensure that the project
includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It
consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control.

A subset of project management including the processes required to ensure that the project
includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It
consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control.

A subset of project management including the processes required to ensure that the project
includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It
consists of initiation, scope planning, scope definition, scope verification, and scope change control.
Up the creation of the project team.
Up the creation of the project team.
Up the creation of the project team.
Up the creation of the project team.
Up the creation of the project team.
A report on the status of accomplishments and any variances to spending and schedule plans.
A comprehensive definition of how a project will be developed and managed.
The criteria by which the success or failure of a project may be judged.
The central location of planning and project support functions. Often provides personnel and
facilities for centralized planning, cost management, estimating, documentation control and
sometimes procurement to a number of projects.
Set of individuals, groups and/or organizations that are responsible to the project manager for
undertaking project tasks (this includes all contractors and consultants).
Set of individuals, groups and/or organizations that are responsible to the project manager for
undertaking project tasks (this includes all contractors and consultants).
A plan produced at the beginning of a project that addresses technical issues and strategic issues
related to quality control and configuration management.
A plan produced at the beginning of a project that addresses technical issues and strategic issues
related to quality control and configuration management.
A plan produced at the beginning of a project that addresses technical issues and strategic issues
related to quality control and configuration management.
Planned Start date
An activity meant to improve the project organizations environment in order to improve project
performance and reception.
An activity meant to improve the project organizations environment in order to improve project
performance and reception.
An activity meant to improve the project organizations environment in order to improve project
performance and reception.
A generic term for subjective methods of assessing risks.
A trait or characteristic used to measure the degree of excellence of a product or service. Meeting
customers needs.
(1) The process of evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence
that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards. (2) The organizational unit that is
assigned responsibility for quality assurance.
A plan that guarantees a quality approach and conformance to all customer requirements for all
activities in a project.
An official examination to determine whether practices conform to specified standards or a critical
analysis of whether a deliverable meets quality criteria
(1) The process of monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant
quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. (2) The
organizational unit that is assigned responsibility for quality control.
The characteristics of a product that determines whether it meets certain requirements.
The quality guide describes quality and configuration management procedures and is aimed at
people directly involved with quality reviews, configuration management and technical exceptions.
The part of the project plan that concerns quality management and quality assurance strategies.
Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to apply them.
A review of a product against an established set of quality criteria.
Responsibility Assignment Matrix
Remaining Duration
Expenditures against specific tasks that would occur on a repetitive basis. Examples are hire of
computer equipment, tool maintenance, etc.
A logical connection between two activities.
The time needed to complete an activity or project.
Planning actions performed for any remaining effort within project scope. Often the cost and/or
schedule variances are zeroed out at this time for history items.
A proposal by the project manager for a change to the project as a result of a project issue report.
A type of bid document used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers of products or services. In
some application areas it may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal, but with more specific application areas.
A negotiated set of measurable customer wants and needs.
Statement of the needs that a project has to satisfy.
A provision in the project plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk. Often used with a modifier
(e.g., management reserve, contingency reserve) to provide further detail on what types of risk are
meant to be mitigated. The specific meaning of the modified term varies by application area.
Any personnel, material or equipment required for the performance of an activity.
Summation of the requirements for each resource, and for each time period. Note: where the
earliest start time of an activity is used alone, it is often termed an early start aggregation.
Similarly a late start aggregation uses the latest start times.
Scheduling of activities and the resources required by those activities, so that predetermined
constraints of resource availability and/or project time are not exceeded.
The process of analyzing and optimizing the use of resources on a project. Often uses resource
leveling and resource smoothing techniques.
The work on an activity related to a specific resource.
The level of availability of a resource, which may vary over time.
A hierarchical structure of resources that enables scheduling at the detailed requirements level,
and roll up of both requirements and availabilities to a higher level.
A calendar that defines the working and non working patterns for specific resources.
Limitation due to the availability of a resource.
Process of accumulating the requirements for each resource to give the total required to date at all
times throughout the project.
Task durations that are driven by the need for scarce resources.
A view of project data in which resource requirements, usage, and availability are shown using
vertical bars against a horizontal time scale.
A specified level of resource units required by an activity per time unit.
Any form of network analysis in which scheduling decisions (start and finish dates) are driven by
resource management concerns (e.g., limited resource availability or difficult to manage changes in
resource levels).

Limited Schedule A project schedule whose start and finish dates reflect expected resource
availability so predetermined resource levels are never exceeded. The final project schedule should
always be resource limited. Note: this may cause the minimum overall or specified project duration
to be exceeded
A term for resource leveling and resource smoothing.
Part of the definition statement stating how the program will be resource loaded and what
supporting services, infrastructure and third party services are required.
Determining what resources (people, equipment, materials) are needed in what quantities to
perform project activities.
The requirement for a particular resource by a particular activity.
The process of determining dates on which activities should be performed in order to smooth the
demand for resources, or to avoid exceeding stated constraints on these restraints.
Scheduling of activities, within the limits of their float, so that fluctuations in individual resource
requirements are minimized. (In smoothing, as opposed to resource leveling, the project completion
date may not be delayed)
A document correlating the work required by a work breakdown structure element to the functional
organizations responsible for accomplishing the assigned tasks.
A defined unit within the organization structure which is assigned responsibility for accomplishing
specific tasks, or cost accounts.
A structure which relates the project organization structure to the work breakdown structure to help
ensure that each element of the projects scope of work is assigned to a responsible individual.
See responsibility assignment matrix.
See responsibility assignment matrix.
A portion of a contract payment that is held until contract completion in order to ensure full
performance of the contract terms.
A part of payment withheld until the project is completed in order to ensure satisfactory
performance or completion of contract terms.
Expenditure charged to the profit and loss account as incurred or accrued due.
Request For Proposal
Request For Quotation
The likelihood of the occurrence of an event expressed in terms of probability, impact, and a
triggering event.
Systematic use of available information to determine how often specified events may occur and the
magnitude of their likely consequences. (A technique designed to quantify the impact of
uncertainty)
The process of identifying potential risks, quantifying their likelihood of occurrence and assessing
their likely impact on the project
Planning activities to avoid risks that have been identified.
Process used to determine risk management priorities.
A discrete occurrence that may affect the project for better or worse.
Determining which risk events are likely to affect the project.
Systematic application of policies, procedures, methods and practices to the tasks of identifying,
analyzing, evaluating, treating and monitoring risk. (The process whereby decisions are made to
accept known or assessed risks and /or the implementation of actions to reduce the consequences
or probability of occurrence.)

A document defining how project risk analysis and management is to be implemented in the
context of a particular project.
A matrix with risks located in rows and with impact and likelihood in columns.
Ordering of risks according first to their risk value, and then by which risks need to be considered
for risk reduction, risk avoidance, and risk transfer.
Evaluating the probability of risk event occurrence and effect.
Allocating a classification to the impact and likelihood of a risk.
Action taken to reduce the likelihood and impact of a risk.
Formal record of identified risks (a body of information listing all the risks identified for the project,
explaining the nature of each risk and recording information relevant to its assessment and
management).
Contingency plans to manage a risk should it materialize (action to reduce the probability of the
risk arising, or to reduce the significance of its detrimental impact if it does arise).
Responding to changes in risk over the course of the project.
Defining enhancement steps for opportunities and mitigation steps for threats.
Risk that can occur as a result of treating a risk.
Diminution of a risk by sharing it with others, usually for some consideration.
A contractual arrangement between two parties for delivery and acceptance of a product where the
liability for the costs of a risk is transferred from one party to the other.
Selection and implementation of appropriate options for dealing with risk.
The standards and methods which minimize to an acceptable level the likelihood of accident or
damage to people or equipment
The timetable for a project. It shows how project tasks and milestones are planned out over a
period of time.
Controlling schedule changes.
Start and finish dates calculated with regard to resource or external constraints as well as project
logic.
Ratio of work accomplished versus work planned, for a specified time period. The SPI is an
efficiency rating for work accomplishment, comparing work accomplished to what should have
been accomplished.

The difference between the budgeted cost of work performed and the budgeted cost of work
scheduled at any point in time.
The earliest date on which an activity can finish, having regard to resource or external constraints
as well as project logic.
The earliest date on which an activity can start, having regard to resource or external constraints as
well as project logic.

Scheduling is the process of determining when project activities will take place depending on
defined durations and precedent activities. Schedule constraints specify when an activity should
start or end based on duration, predecessors, external predecessor relationships, resource
availability, or target dates.
The scope is the sum of work content of a project.
Any change in a project scope that requires a change in the projects cost or schedule.
Controlling changes to the scope.
Ensuring all identified project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily.
A description of the work to be accomplished or resources to be supplied.
The risk that may occur as a result of invoking a risk response or fall back plan.
Curve Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, or other quantities, plotted against time.
The name derives from the S like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in
the middle) produced on a project that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off.

Curve Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, or other quantities, plotted against time.
The name derives from the S like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in
the middle) produced on a project that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off.

Curve Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, or other quantities, plotted against time.
The name derives from the S like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in
the middle) produced on a project that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off.
Curve Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, or other quantities, plotted against time.
The name derives from the S like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in
the middle) produced on a project that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off.

Curve Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, or other quantities, plotted against time.
The name derives from the S like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in
the middle) produced on a project that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off.

Curve Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, or other quantities, plotted against time.
The name derives from the S like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in
the middle) produced on a project that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off.

Curve Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, or other quantities, plotted against time.
The name derives from the S like shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in
the middle) produced on a project that starts slowly, accelerates, and then tails off.

(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of
that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.
(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of
that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.
(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of
that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.
(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of
that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.
(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of
that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.
(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of
that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.
(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of
that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.
(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of
that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.
(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of
that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.
(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of
that activity. (2) In earned value, BCWP less BCWS.
Sequence is the order in which activities will occur with respect to one another.
Scheduled Finish date or Start to Finish
Cost Estimates An estimate of the cost of a product or service used to provide an assessment of
the reasonableness of a prospective contractors proposed cost.
Calculated time span during which an event has to occur within the logical and imposed constraints
of the network, without affecting the total project duration. Note 1: it may be made negative by an
imposed date. Note 2. the term slack is used as referring only to an event. See PERT.
A pictorial representation of the predicted completion dates of milestones (also referred to as trend
chart)
The amount of slack or float time used up by the current activity due to a delayed start or increased
duration.
A project that is intended to bring about change and does not have a physical end product.
Soft skills include team building, conflict management and negotiation.
Obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals as appropriate.
Documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources.
Choosing from among potential contractors.
Choosing from among potential contractors.
Schedule Performance Index
Activity that can be interrupted in order to allow its resources to be transferred temporarily to
another activity.
Activity that can be interrupted in order to allow its resources to be transferred temporarily to
another activity.
Scheduled Start date or Start to Start
Getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project.
A natural high level subsection of a project that has its own organizational structure, lifespan and
manager.
Payment part way through a project at some predetermined milestone.
Individuals and organizations involved in or affected by project activities. Project managers,
sponsors, and clients/customers are all stakeholders.
The date project work is officially scheduled to begin.
Event with succeeding, but no preceding activities.
Event with succeeding, but no preceding activities.
To Finish See logical relationship.
To Start See logical relationship.
To start lag start to start lag is the minimum amount of time that must pass between the start of
one activity and the start of its successor(s). This may be expressed in terms of duration or
percentage.
A starting activity has no predecessors. It does not have to wait for any other activity to start.
A narrative description of products or services to be supplied under contract.
The comparison of actual against planned progress to determine variance and corrective action.
Possible statuses are: Active, Approved, Cancelled, Completed, On hold, and Pending.
The comparison of actual against planned progress to determine variance and corrective action.
Possible statuses are: Active, Approved, Cancelled, Completed, On hold, and Pending.
Level stakeholders responsible for providing guidance on overall strategic direction and represent
the goals of the customer/client.
A body established to monitor the project and give guidance to the project sponsor or project
manager.
A contractual document which legally transfers the responsibility and effort of providing goods,
services, data, or other hardware, from one firm to another.
An organization that supplies goods or services to a supplier.
A division of a project network diagram representing a subproject.
A group of activities represented as a single activity within a higher level of the overall project.
Criteria to be used for judging if the project is successful.
Critical factors that will ensure achievement of success criteria.
A successor is an activity whose start or finish depends on the start or finish of a predecessor
activity.
(1) In the arrow diagramming method, the activity which departs a node. (2) In the precedence
diagramming method, the to activity.
Unavoidable costs (even if the project were to be terminated)
Critical activity an activity that is behind schedule is considered to be super critical. If it has been
delayed to a point where its float is calculated to be a negative value.
Includes contractors, consultants and any organization that supplies services or goods to the
customer.
Schedule Variance
The complete technical output of the project including technical products.
Systems and procedure detail the standard methods, practices, and procedures of handling
frequently occurring events within the project.
Management that includes the prime activities of systems analysis, systems design and
engineering and systems development.
Management that includes the prime activities of systems analysis, systems design and
engineering and systems development.
The date planned to finish work on a project, initiative, or activity.
See baseline.
The planned date for start of work on a project, initiative, or activity.
See activity.
Target Completion date
Developing individual and group skills to enhance project performance.
See project team members.
Total Float or Target Finish date
Scaled Network Diagram Any project network diagram drawn in such a way that thepositioning
and length of the activity represents its duration. Essentially, it is a bar chart that includes network
logic.
A date which contractors strive towards for completion of the activity.
Date imposed on an activity or project by the user. There are two types of target dates; target start
dates, and target finish dates.
The date work is planned (targeted) to finish on an activity.
The date work is planned (targeted) to start on an activity.
The date planned to start work on an activity.
The smallest indivisible part of an activity when it is broken down to a level best understood and
performed by a specific person or organization.
A team is made up of two or more people working interdependently towards a common goal and a
shared reward.
The ability to gather the right people to join a project team and get them working together for the
benefit of a project.
Developing skills, as a group and individually, that enhance project performance.
Person responsible for leading a team.
The monitoring of the technical integrity of products.
A document that guides managers, team leaders and technical assurance coordinators on planning
the production of products.
Products produced by a project for an end user.
A document proposing to meet a specification in a certain way and at a stated price (or on a
particular financial basis), an offer of price and conditions under which the tenderer is willing to
undertake work for the client.
Completion of the project, either upon formal acceptance of its deliverables by the client and/or the
disposal of such deliverables at the end of their life
A specification of a team members responsibilities and authorities within the project.
Activities that have to be performed sequentially or within a predetermined time of each other
The process of calculating the early and late dates for each activity on a project, based on the
duration of the activities and the logical relations between them.
A linked bar chart, a bar chart that shows the logical and time relationships between activities.
Scheduling of activities, so that the specified project duration, or any imposed dates, are not
exceeded.
Scheduling of activities, so that the specified project duration, or any imposed dates, are not
exceeded.
Limited resource scheduling the production of scheduled dates in which resource constraints may
be relaxed in order to avoid any delay in project completion.
Specified date from which the forward analysis is deemed to commence (The date to which current
progress is reported. Sometimes referred to as the status date because all progress information
entered for a project should be correct as of this date)
The recording of effort expended on each activity in order to update a project plan.
Scaled logic drawing a drawing that displays the logical connection between activities in the
context of a timescale in which each horizontal position represents a point in time.
Scaled network diagram a project network diagram drawn so that the positioning of the activity
represents the schedule.
A means of recording the actual effort expended against project and non project activities.
The total project cost is estimated based on historical costs and other project variables and then
subdivided down to individual activities.
Time by which an activity may be delayed or extended without affecting the total project duration
(or violating a target finish date). See float
A strategic, integrated management systems for customer satisfaction that guides all employees in
every aspect of their work.
Total Quality Management
Dependency link that requires time and no other resources. It may be a negative time
A common approach to implementing a quality improvement program within an organization.
Target Start date
A report created specially for the various responsible managers to enter their progress status
against a list of activities that are scheduled to be in progress during a particular time window.
Infinite schedule, schedule produced without resource constraint.
The group of people who are intended to benefit from the project.
A standard, principle, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable.
A structured means of improving business effectiveness that includes the use of management
techniques such as value engineering and value analysis.
A technique for analyzing qualitative and quantitative costs and benefits of component parts of a
proposed system.
A technique for assessing, before significant investment is made, the desirability of a proposal
based on the value that will accrue to the organization from that proposal.
A discrepancy between the actual and planned performance on a project, either in terms of
schedule or cost.
The difference between budget at completion and estimate at completion.
A change in scope or timing of work which a supplier is obliged to do under a contract.
The document authorizing an approved technical change or variation.
Work Breakdown Structure
If analysis the process of evaluating alternative strategies.
If simulation changing the value of the parameters of the project network to study its behavior
under various conditions of its operation.
The total number of hours, people or effort required to complete a task.
A code that represents the family tree of an element in a work breakdown structure.
A response to a negative risk event. Distinguished from contingency plan in that a workaround is
not planned in advance of the occurrence of the risk event.
A deliverable oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total work scope
of the project. Each descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project
work.
See activity.
Workload is the amount of work units assigned to a resource over a period of time.
A group of related tasks that are defined at the same level within a work breakdown structure. (In
traditional cost/schedule systems, the criteria for defining work packages is as follows:
1. Each work package is clearly distinguishable from all other work packages,
2. Each work package has a scheduled start and finish date,
3. Each work package has an assigned budget that is time-phased over the duration of the work packa
4. Each work package either has a relatively short duration, or can be divided into a series of mileston
5. Each work package has a schedule that is integrated with higher Level schedules.
Work units provide the measurement units for resources. For example, people as a resource can be
measured by the number of hours they work.
Zero float is a condition where there is no excess time between activities. An activity with zero float
is considered a critical activity. If the duration of any critical activity is increased (the activity slips),
the project finish date will slip
work package,
of milestones whose status can be objectively measured, or
SDLC Phase Term
Abstract resource

Acceptance

Acceptance Criteria
Acceptance criteria
Acceptance test
Acceptance
Accountability Matrix
Accountability Matrix
Accrued costs
Acquisition strategy

Action Item

Active
Activities ID
Activity
Activity
Activity
Activity
Activity Definition
Activity Definition
Activity Definition

Activity Description (AD)

Activity Description (AD)

Activity Duration

Activity Duration Estimating


Activity Duration Estimating
Activity duration
Activity file

Activity List

Activity Sequencing

Activity status
Activity

Activity

Actual Cost (ac)

Actual Cost (AC)

Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)


Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP)(Spent Costs)

Actual dates

Actual direct costs

Actual Finish Date (AF)

Actual Finish Date (AF)

Actual Start Date (AS)


Actual Start Date (AS)
ACWP
AD
Addition
Adjourning
ADM

Administrative Closure

Administrative Closure
Administrative Closure

Advanced material release

AF

Analogous Estimating

AND relationship

AOA
AON
APIs
Application Area

Appraisal Costs

Approval to proceed
Approval
Approved
Arrow diagram method
Arrow diagram

Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)

Arrow

As
As late as possible (ALAP)

As soon as possible (ASAP)

AS
AS

Associated revenue

Assumption
Assumption

Assumptions

Audit

Authorization

Authorized un

Authorized work

Automatic decision event

Avoiding
BAC

Backward Pas

Backward Pass

Backward Pass

Balanced matrix

Bar Char

Bar Chart

Baseline cost

Baseline dates

Baseline Finish Date


Baseline Finish Date

Baseline review

Baseline schedule

Baseline Start Date


Baseline Start Date

Baseline

Baseline

BCWP
BCWS

Benchmarking

Benefit Measurement Methods


Benefits framework

Benefits management plan

Benefits management

Benefits

Bid analysis
Bid

Bidder Conference

Bottom up cost estimating

Bottom Up Estimating

Brainstorming

Breakdown structure

Budget At Completion (bac)


Budget at completion (BAC)
Budget cost

Budget element

Budget Estimate
Budget estimate

Budget unit

Budget

Budgetary control

Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)

Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS)

Budgeting
Burden

Business Analyst

Business Case

Business case

Business Process Reengineering

Business Requirements

Calendar Unit

Calendars

Cancelled

Capital cost

Capital employed

Cascade chart
Cash flow
Cash flow, net

Cause-and-effect Diagram

CCB
Champion

Change Control Board (ccb)

Change Control Board (CCB)

Change control

Change in Scope
Change log
Change management

Change Request

Chart of Accounts
Charter
Child activity

Client or Customer

Close out
Close Procurements
Closing
Closure
CMM
Code of Accounts
Collocated
Commercial Off The Shelf (cots)

Commissioning

Commitment
Committed costs

Common Causes Of Variances

Communication

Communications Management Plan

Communications Planning

Communications planning

Completed

Completion date
Compound risk

Comprehensive Project Plan

Compromise

Conception phase

Concurrent Engineering

Configuration identification

Configuration item
Configuration Management

Configuration management

Configuration status accounting

Configuration

Configurations audit

Configurations control
Conflict management

Confronting

Constrained Optimization Models


Constraint
Constraint
Consumable resource
Contingencies
Contingency Allowance
Contingency plan

Contingency planning

Contingency Reserve

Contingency Reserve

Contingency

Contract

Contract Administration
Contract Administration
Contract budget base
Contract Close

Contract Closeout
Contract target cost

Contract target price

Contract

Contractor

Control Chart

Control Charts

Control

Coordinated matrix

Coordination

Corrective Action

Corrective Actions

Cost account manager

Cost account

Cost Baseline

Cost Benefit Analysis (cba)

Cost benefit analysis

Cost breakdown structure

Cost Budgeting

Cost budgeting
Cost center

Cost code
Cost Control

Cost control point

Cost control system


Cost Control
Cost curve
Cost element
Cost Estimating
Cost Estimating

Cost incurred

Cost management

Cost Of Quality

Cost of Quality

Cost overrun

Cost Performance Index (cpi)

Cost Performance Index (CPI)

Cost performance report


Cost plan

Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) Contract

Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF) Contract

Cost Reimbursable Contract

Cost reimbursable contracts

Cost reimbursement type contracts


Cost Time resource sheet (CTR)

Cost Variance
Cost Variance (CV)
CPFF
CPI
CPIF
CPM
Crashing

Crashing

Critical Activity

Critical Path (cp)


Critical path analysis

Critical Path Method (cpm)

Critical Path Method (CPM)

Critical Path

Critical performance indicator

Critical Success Factor

Critical success factor

Criticality index

Current Finish Date


Current Start Date

Customer

Customer
Cut Off date
CV
Dangle
Data Date (DD)
DD

Decision event

Decision Model

Decision

Decomposition

Defect Repairs

Definitive Estimate

Definitive Estimate

Delaying resource

Delegation

Deliberate decision event

Deliverable

Deliverables

Delphi technique
Denied
Dependencies
Dependency arrow
Dependency Relationships

Dependency

Design and development


Design authority

Deterministic network
Direct costs

Discounted Cash Flow (dcf)

Discounted cash flow (DCF)

Discrete milestone

Discretionary Dependency

Document Control Process


DU

Dummy activity in activity on arrow network

Dummy Activity

Duration (DU)

Duration Compression

Duration Compression

EAC

Earliest feasible date

Early dates
Early Finish

Early Finish Date (EF)

Early Start

Early Start Date (ES)

Earned hours
Earned Value (ev)

Earned Value (EV)

Earned value analysis

Earned value cost control


Earned Value Measurement (evm)

Economic Model

EF

Effort Driven activity

Effort remaining

Effort

Elapsed time

End activity
End event (of a project)
Enterprise Project
Environmental factoring

Equipment

Equivalent activity
ES

Estimate At Completion (eac)

Estimate at completion (EAC)

Estimate To Complete (etc)


Estimate to complete (ETC)

Estimate

Estimating

ETC
EV

Event On Node

Event
Exception report

Exceptions

Exclusive OR relationship
Executing

Execution phase

Expected Monetary Value

Expenditure

Expert Judgment

External constraint

External Dependency

Extinction
Failure Costs

Fallback plan

Fast Tracking

Fasttracking

Feasibility phase

Feasibility Study

Feasibility study
Feasible schedule
FF
FFP

Final report

Finish
Finish
Finish date
Finish To Finish
Finish To Finish (FF)

Finish To finish lag

Finish To Start
Finish To Start (FS)

Finish To start lag

Finishing activity

Firm Fixed Price (FFP) Contract

Fixed

Fixed

Fixed date
Fixed finish
Fixed Price Contracts

Fixed Price Incentive Fee (FPIF) Contract

Fixed price or lump sum contracts


Fixed start

Float Time

Float

Flowchart

Forcing

Forecast at completion
Forecast Final Cost

Formal Communications

Forward Pass

Forward Pass
FPIF
Fragnet

Free Float (FF)

FS

Functional Manager

Functional matrix

Functional Organization

Functional organization

Functional Requirements
Functional specification
Funding profile

Gantt chart

GERT
Goal

Grade

Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)

Hammock activity

Hammock

Handover
Hanger

Hierarchical coding structure

Hierarchy of networks

High Level Requirements


Histogram

Holiday
Host organization
Human Resources

Human Resources Planning

Hypercritical activities
IFB
Impact
Impact analysis
Impact

Implementation phase

Imposed date

Imposed finish
Imposed start
In House project
In progress
Inclusive OR relationship
Incurred costs

Indirect cost

Informal Communications

Information Distribution

Information Distribution

Initiating

Initiation
Inspection

Integrated Change Control

Integrated Cost/Schedule Reporting

Integrated logistics support


Integration

Integration

Internal Rate Of Return (irr)

Internal rate of return (IRR)

Inverted matrix

Invitation for Bid (IFB)

Ishikawa Diagram

Issue

Iterative Process

Key Event Schedule

Key events major events, the achievement of which that are

Key Performance Indicators (kpis)

Key performance indicators


Labor rate variances

Ladder

Lag

Late dates

Late event date


Late Finish

Late Finish Date (LF)

Late Start

Late Start Date (LS)

Latest event time

Latest finish time


Latest start time

Lead contractor

Lead

Leadership

Lessons Learned

Letter of intent

Level of Effort (LOE)

Leveling
LF
Life
Life cycle
Likelihood
Line Manager

Lines Of Communication

Link
Linked bar chart

Loaded Rate

LOE
Logic diagram
Logic

Logical Relationship

Logical Relationships

Loop

Make Or Buy Analysis


Management by project
Management development

Management Reserve

Managerial Reserve
Mandate

Mandatory Dependency
Master network
Master Schedule

Material

Materials

Mathematical Analysis
Mathematical Analysis

Matrix Organization

Matrix Organization

Methodology

Metric

Mid

Milestone
Milestone plan
Milestone schedule

Milestone

Mission statement
Mitigation
Mobilization

Modern Project Management (MPM)

Monitoring And Controlling

Monitoring

Monte carol simulation

MPM
Multi Project

Multi Project analysis

Multi Project management


Multi Project scheduling
Multiple Business Unit Project
Near Critical Activity
Negative total float

Negotiated contract cost

Negotiating

Negotiation

Net Present Value (npv)

Net present value

Network Analysis

Network Diagram
Network interface
Network Logic
Network Path

Network

Node

Nodes
Non Recurring costs

Non Splittable activity

Note: a budget should provide the information necessary to

Note: see also revenue cost.

Operations

Order Of Magnitude

Organizational Planning

Parametric Estimating
Pareto Diagram

Payback Period

Performance Reporting

Planned Value (pv)

Planning

Post Mortem Analysis

Post Project Review

Precedence Diagramming Method (pdm)

Predecessor

Preliminary Investigation

Prevention

Prevention Costs

Preventive Action

Probability

Procurement Planning

Product Description

Product Verification

Program

Program Evaluation And Review Technique (pert)

Progress Reports

Project

Project Based Organization


Project Champion

Project Charter

Project Closure
Project Description

Project Execution

Project Justification

Project Life Cycle


Project Management
Project Management Institute (pmi)

Project Management Knowledge Areas

Project Management Office (pmo)

Project Manager

Project Performance Indicators

Project Plan

Project Review

Project Schedule
Project Selection
Proof Of Concept

Qualitative Risk Analysis

Quality Control

Quality Management Plan

Quality Planning

Quantitative Risk Analysis


Quantitatively Based Durations

RACI Chart

Rebaselining

Report Performance

Request For Proposal (rfp)


Requirement

Resource Planning

Resource Pool Description

Resource Requirements

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (ram)

Revision
Rework
Risk
Risk Analysis
Risk Identification
Risk List

Risk Management Plan

Risk Monitoring And Control

Risk Planning

Risk Response Planning

Risk Trigger

Run Chart

Schedule Baseline
Schedule Control

Schedule Development

Schedule Performance Index (spi)

Schedule Update
Schedule Variance (sv)

Scope

Scope Control

Scope Creep

Scope Definition

Scope Management Plan

Scope Planning

Scope Statement

Scope Verification

Scoring Model

Sequencing

Slack Time

Sole Source

Solicitation

Sponsor

Staff Acquisition

Staffing Management Plan

Stakeholder

Start
Start
Start To Finish
Start To Start
Starvation
Statement Of Work (sow)

Status Date
Success Criteria
Successor

Team Building

Team Development

Technical Requirements

Time And Materials Contract

To Complete Performance Index (tcpi)

Top Down Estimating

Trend Analysis

Triple Constraint

Unit price contracts

Variance Analysis

Work Breakdown Structure (wbs)

Work Breakdown Structure (wbs) Dictionary

Work Effort

Work Package

No earlier than
No later than
Objectives
OBS
On
Operation phase
Opportunity
Order of magnitude estimate

Organizational breakdown structure (OBS)

Organization designs
Organizational Planning

Original budget

Original duration

Other direct costs (ODC)

Out

Output format
Outsourcing
Overall change control
Overlap

Overhead

Overrun

Parallel activities

Parametric Estimating

Parent activity
Pareto Diagram
Parties (to a contract)

Path

Path Convergence

Path Float
PC
PDM
Pending

Percent Complete (PC)

Performance measurement techniques

Performance Reporting
Performance specification

Performing
Performing Organization
PERT
PERT Chart
PF

Phase (of a project)

Physical percent complete


Pilot

Plan

Planned activity
Planned cost
Planned Finish Date (PF)
Planned Start Date (PS)

Planned Value (PV)

Planner

Planning
Planning stage
PM
PMBOK
PMP

Portfolio

Portfolio management

Positive float

Post implementation review

Post project appraisal

Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)


Precedence network

Precedence Relationship

Preceding event
Pre Commissioning
Predecessor

Predecessor Activity

Prime or lead contractor


Probabilistic network
Probability
Process
Procurement
Procurement Planning

Product breakdown structure

Product description

Product flow diagram

Program

Program benefits review

Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)

Program director
Program directorate

Program evaluation and review technique (PERT)

Program management
Program management Office
Program manager
Program support office
Progress

Progress payments

Progress report

Project

Project appraisal
Project base date
Project board

Project brief

Project calendar

Project Change Control

Project Change Control Board (PCCB)

Project Communications Management

Project coordination

Project coordination procedure


Project champion
Project closure

Project Cost Management

Project culture

Project definition

Project director

Project environment

Project evaluation

Project file
Project Human Resource Management

Project initiation

Project initiation document

Project Integration Management

Project issue report

Project life cycle

Project life cycle cost


Project log
Project logic
Project logic drawing

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)

Project Management Plan

Project Management Office

Project Management Professional (PMP)


Project Management Software

Project Management Team

Project Manager (PM)

Project Management (PM)

Project matrix
Project monitoring
Project network

Project Network Diagram

Project network techniques

Project organization
Project Phase

Project Plan

Project Plan Development


Project Plan Execution
Project Planning
Project Portfolio

Project Portfolio Management (PPM

Project procedures manual

project procurement management

Project progress report

Project Quality Management

Project Procurement Management

Project review calendar

Project Risk Management

Project Schedule

Project Scope Management

Project sponsor

Project Start Up

Project Status Indicators

Project status report


Project strategy
Project success/failure criteria

Project support office


Project team

Project Team Members

Project technical plan

Project Time Management

Projectized Organization

PS
Public relations
QA
QC
Qualitative risk analysis
Quality

Quality Assurance (QA)

Quality assurance plan

Quality audit

Quality Control (QC)

Quality criteria

Quality guide

Quality plan (for a project)


Quality Planning
Quality review
RAM
RDU

Recurring costs

Relationship
Remaining Duration (RDU)

Re

Request for change

Request for Proposal (RFP)

Request for Quotation (RFQ)


Requirements
Requirements definition

Reserve

Resource

Resource aggregation

Resource allocation

Resource analysis

Resource assignment
Resource availability

Resource breakdown structure

Resource calendar
Resource constraint

Resource accumulation

Resource driven task durations

Resource histogram

Resource level

Resource Leveling

Resource

Resource optimization

Resource plan

Resource Planning
Resource requirement

Resource scheduling

Resource smoothing

Responsibility matrix
Responsible organization

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

Responsibility Chart
Responsibility Matrix

Retainage

Retention

Revenue cost
RFP
RFQ
Risk

Risk analysis

Risk assessment

Risk avoidance
Risk Evaluation
Risk Event
Risk Identification

Risk management

Risk management plan


Risk matrix

Risk prioritizing

Risk Quantification
Risk Ranking
Risk Reduction

Risk Register

Risk response

Risk Response Control


Risk Response Development
Risk, secondary
Risk sharing
Risk transfer

Risk treatment

Safety plan

Schedule
Schedule control
Schedule dates

Schedule performance index (SPI)

Schedule variance (cost)


Scheduled finish
Scheduled start

Scheduling

Scope
Scope change
Scope change control
Scope verification
Scope of work
Secondary risk

S Curve

Schedule

Schedule Analysis
Schedule Compression
Schedule Control
Schedule Development

Schedule performance index (SPI)

Schedule Variance (SV)

Scheduled Finish Date (SF)

Scheduled Start Date (SS)

Scope
Scope Baseline
Scope Change
Scope Change Control
Scope Definition
Scope Planning
Scope Verification
Sequence
SF

Should

Slack

Slip chart
Slippage
Soft project
Soft skills
Solicitation
Solicitation Planning
Source Selection
SOW
SPI
Splittable Activity

Sponsor

SS
Staff Acquisition
Stage
Stage payment

Stakeholder

Start Date
Start event of a project
Start To Finish
Start To Start

Start To start lag

Starting activity
Statement of Work (SOW)

Status
Status Report

Steering Committee

Steering group

Subcontract

Subcontractor
Subnet or Subnetwork
Subproject
Success criteria
Success factors
Successor

Successor Activity

Sunk costs

Super

Supplier
SV
System

Systems and procedures

Systems management
Target Completion Date (TC)
Target finish Date
Target Schedule
Target start date
Task
TC
Team Development
Team Members
TF

Time

Target Completion Date

Target Date

Target Finish Date (TF)


Target Start Date (TS)
Target start date
Task

Team
Team building
Team development
Team leader
Technical assurance
Technical guide
Technical products

Tender

Termination

Terms of reference
Tied activities

Time analysis

Time based network

Time limited scheduling

Time

Time now

Time recording

Time

Time
Time sheet

Top down cost estimating

Total Float (TF)

Total Quality Management (TQM)


TQM
Transit time
Total Quality Management (TQM)
TS

Turnaround Report
Unlimited schedule
Users
Value

Value management

Value engineering

Value planning

Variance
Variance at completion
Variation
Variation orders
WBS
What

What

Work
Work breakdown code

Workaround

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Work Item
Workload

Work Package

Work Units

Zero Float
Definition
Imaginary resource introduced so its availability and activity requirement gives an extra means of con
jobs not being worked upon simultaneously in order to obviate an accident hazard)
The decision to tolerate the defects that are found as a result of the quality testing. This i
response planning.
The process and the criteria that will be used to determine whether the deliverables are acceptable an
Performance requirements and essential conditions that have to be achieved before project deliverabl
Formal, pre defined test conducted to determine the compliance of the deliverable item(s) with the ac
The formal process of accepting delivery of a product or a deliverable.
See responsibility assignment matrix.
See responsibility assignment matrix.
Earmarked for the project and for which payment is due, but has not been made.
Determining the most appropriate means of procuring the component parts or services of a project
Something agreed to be done by a person as a result of a discussion at a meeting and usually recorde
of the meeting.
Project status describing an approved initiative or project with applied resource and management acti
A unique code identifying each activity in a project.
On arrow networ k arrow diagram, network in which the arrows symbolize the activities.
On node network precedence diagram, a network in which the nodes symbolize the activities.
On Arrow (AOA) See arrow diagramming method.
On Node (AON) See precedence diagramming method.
Identifying the activities of the project that need to be performed to produce the product or service of
Identifying the specific activities to be performed in order to produce the various project deliverables.
Identifying the specific activities that must be performed in order to produce the various project delive
A short phrase or label used in a project network diagram. The activity description normally describes
the activity.
A short phrase or label used in a project network diagram. The activity description normally describes
the activity.
Assessing the number of work periods needed to complete the project activities. Work periods are usu
or days. Large projects might express duration in weeks or months.
Estimating the number of work periods which will be needed to complete individual activities
Estimating the number of work periods which will be needed to complete individual activities.
Specifies the length of time (hours, days, weeks, months) that it takes to complete an activity.
A file containing all data related to the definition of activities on a particular project.
A list of all the activities required to complete the work of the project that also includes an identifier co
its associated with. Activities are broken down from the work package level of the WBS.
Sequencing activities in logical order and determining whether dependencies exist among the activitie
The state of completion of an activity. A planned activity has not yet started. A started activity is in pro
activity is complete.
Task, job, operation or process consuming time and possibly other resources. (The smallest self contai
to define the logic of a project. In general, activities share the following characteristics: a definite dura
to other activities in a project, use resources such as people, materials or facilities, and have an assoc
be defined in terms of start and end dates and the person or organization responsible for their comple

An element of work performed during the course of a project. An activity normally has an expected du
cost, and expected resource requirements. Activities are often subdivided into tasks.
The cost to complete a component of work in a given time period. Actual costs include direct and indir
Incurred costs charged to the project budget for which payment has been made or accrued for payme
Analysis.
Total costs incurred (direct and indirect) in accomplishing work during a given time period. See also ea
Total costs incurred (direct and indirect) in accomplishing work during a given time period. See also ea
Actual dates are entered as the project progresses. These are the dates that activities really started an
to planned or projected dates.
Costs specifically identified with a contract or project. See also direct costs.
The point in time that work actually ended on an activity. (Note: in some application areas, the activity
finished when work is substantially complete.)
The point in time that work actually ended on an activity. (Note: in some application areas, the activity
finished when work is substantially complete.)
The point in time that work actually started on an activity.
The point in time that work actually started on an activity.
Actual Cost of Work Performed
Activity Description
A type of project ending that occurs when projects evolve into ongoing operations.
The last stage of team building where the team disbands
Arrow Diagramming Method
A process that involves gathering and disseminating information to formalize project closure. The com
phase requires Administrative Closure also. The primary purpose of this process is to gather lessons le
the notice of acceptance.
Generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize project completion.
Generating, gathering, and disseminating information to formalize project completion.
A document used by organizations to initiate the purchase of long lead time or time critical materials
of a design.
Actual Finish date
An estimating technique that uses the actual duration of a similar, completed activity to determine th
current activity. This is also called top down estimating .
Logical relationship between two or more activities that converge on or diverge from an event. Note: t
indicates that every one of the activities has to be undertaken.
Activity On Arrow
Activity On Node
Application Programming Interface
A category of projects that have common elements not present in all projects. Application areas are us
of either the product of the project (i.e., by similar technologies or industry sectors) or the type of cus
external, government vs. commercial). Application areas often overlap.
Costs of quality that cover the activities that keep the product defects from reaching the client, includ
and formal quality audits.
Approval given to the project at initiation or prior to the beginning of the next stage.
The term used when an individual accepts a deliverable as fit for purpose so that the project can cont
Project status describing Governance or Steering Committee approval prior to the start of project activ
One of two conventions used to represent an activity in a project. Also known as activity on arrow.
See activity on arrow network.
A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows. The tail of the arrow
and the head represents the finish of the activity (the length of the arrow does not represent the expe
activity). Activities are connected at points called nodes (usually drawn as small circles) to illustrate th
the activities are expected to be performed. See also precedence diagramming method.

The graphic presentation of an activity. See also arrow diagramming method. A connecting line betwe
network.
Of Date See data date.
An activity for which the early start date is set as late as possible without delaying the early dates of a
An activity for which the early start date is set to be as soon as possible. This is the default activity typ
management systems.
Actual Start date
Actual Start date
That part of a project cost that is of a revenue nature and therefore charged as incurred to the profit a
associated revenue differs from the capital element of the project in that the capital element is taken
balance sheet and depreciated over future accounting periods.
An event or action believed to be true for planning purposes. Project assumptions should always be do
Factors, for planning purposes, considered to be true, real, or certain. Assumptions generally involve a
Assumptions are factors that, for planning purposes, are considered to be true, real, or certain. Assum
involve a degree of risk.
Systematic retrospective examination of the whole, or part, of a project or function to measure confor
predetermined standards. Note: audit is usually qualified, for example financial audit, quality audit, de
audit, health and safety audit.
The decision that triggers the allocation of funding needed to carry on the project
Priced work any scope change for which authorization to proceed has been given, but for which the e
yet settled.
The effort which has been defined, plus that work for which authorization has been given, but for whic
costs have not been agreed upon.
Decision event where the decision depends only on the outcome of the preceding activities and that c
made automatic.
A conflict resolution technique that occurs when one party refuses to talk anymore about the issue an
This is an example of a lose_lose conflict resolution technique. This technique is also known as withdra
Budget At Completion
The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all network act
working backwards through the network logic from the projects end date. The end date may be calcu
or set by the customer or sponsor. See also network analysis.

Calculating late start and late finish dates by starting at the end of a network diagram and working ba
until reaching the start of the network diagram. This is part of critical path method (CPM), which is a m
to develop the project schedule.

The calculation of late finish dates and late start dates for the uncompleted portions of all network act
working backwards through the network logic from the projects end date. The end date may be calcu
or set by the customer or sponsor. See also network analysis.
An organizational matrix where functions and projects have the same priority.
A graphic display of schedule related information. In the typical bar chart, activities or other project el
the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date pla
Also called a Gantt chart.

A graphic display of schedule related information. In the typical bar chart, activities or other project el
the left side of the chart, dates are shown across the top, and activity durations are shown as date pla
Also called a Gantt chart.
The amount of money an activity was intended to cost when the schedule was baselined.
Original planned start and finish dates for an activity. Used to compare with current planned dates to d
Also used to calculate budgeted cost of work scheduled for earned valued analysis.
See scheduled finish date.
See scheduled finish date.
A customer review conducted to determine that a contractor is continuing to use the previously accep
system and is properly implementing a baseline on the contract or option under review.

The baseline schedule is a fixed project schedule. It is the standard by which project performance is m
schedule is copied into the baseline schedule which remains frozen until it is reset. Resetting the base
scope of the project has been changed significantly, for example after a negotiated change. At that po
current baseline becomes invalid and should not be compared with the current schedule.
See scheduled start date.
See scheduled start date.
The original plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved changes. Usua
(e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline).
The original plan (for a project, a work package, or an activity), plus or minus approved changes. Usua
(e.g., cost baseline, schedule baseline, performance measurement baseline).
Budgeted Cost of Work Performed
Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled
Compares previous similar activities to the current project activities to provide a standard to measure
Its often used to derive ideas for quality improvements for the project.
A type of decision model that compares the benefits obtained from a variety of new project requests b
using the same criteria and comparing the results.
An outline of the expected benefits of the project or program, the business operations affected and cu
performance measures.
Specifies who is responsible for achieving the benefits set out in the benefit profiles and how achievem
to be measured, managed and monitored.
Combined with project or program management, Benefits Management is the process for planning, m
measuring the project or program benefits.
The enhanced efficiency, economy and effectiveness of future business or other operations to be deliv
program.
An analysis of bids or tenders.
A tender, quotation or any offer to enter into a contract
A meeting held by the buyer with potential vendors during the procurement process to allow vendors
get clarification on the project.
This is the method of making estimates for every activity in the work breakdown structure and summa
a total project cost estimate.
Individually estimating each work package, all of which are then rolled up, or added together, to come
estimate. This is a very accurate means of estimating, provided the estimates at the work package lev
The unstructured generation of ideas by a group of people.
A hierarchical structure by which project elements are broken down, or decomposed. See also product
(PBS), organizational breakdown structure (OBS) and work breakdown structure (WBS).
The total amount of the project budget for a work package, control account, or schedule activity, or fo
The sum total of the time phased budgets. The estimated total cost of the project when done.
The cost anticipated at the start of a project.
Budget elements are the same as resources the people, materials, or other entities needed to do the
can be validated against a resource breakdown structure (RBS). They are typically assigned to a work
be defined at the cost account level.
See estimate.
An approximate estimate prepared in the early stages of a project to establish financial viability or sec
The budget unit is the base unit for the calculation. For example, the engineer budget element might
hours. Since budget units are user defined, they can be any appropriate unit of measure. For example
be hours, pounds sterling, linear meters, or tons.

Quantification of resources needed to achieve a task by a set time, within which the task owners are r
a budget consists of a financial and/or quantitative statement, prepared and approved prior to a defin
purpose of attaining a given objective for that period. (The planned cost for an activity or project.)
System of creating budgets, monitoring progress and taking appropriate action to achieve budgeted p
The sum of the budget for work completed plus apportioned work in progress to be completed during
BCWP can also be calculated by taking the percentage of work completed times the baseline cost of th
x Planned Cost for each activity).

The sum of the budgets for work scheduled to be accomplished during a relevant time period. See als
analysis. The planned cost of work that should have been achieved according to the project baseline d
baseline cost to date.
Time phased financial requirements.
Overhead expenses distributed over appropriate direct labor and/or material base.
The person in charge of understanding the business units needs when assessing a project request. Th
might be assigned directly from the business unit itself or may be part of the IT organization.
Formally documents components of the project assessment, including a description of the analysis me
Information necessary to enable approval, authorization and policy making bodies to assess a project
reasoned decision
Applying changes to an IT system and putting those elements into place based on a project request an
examination of the workflow: how people handle their work relative to the request.
The requirements that describe how the business objectives of the project will be met.
The smallest unit of time used in scheduling the project. Calendar units are generally in hours, days, o
be in shifts or even in minutes. Used primarily in relation to project management software.

A project calendar lists time intervals in which activities or resources can or cannot be scheduled. A pr
default calendar for the normal workweek (for example Monday to Friday), but may have other calend
calendar can be customized with its own holidays and extra work days. Resources and activities can b
the calendars that are defined.
Project status given to a cancelled project.
The carrying cost in a balance sheet of acquiring an asset and bringing it to the condition where it is c
its intended function over a future series of periods.
Amount of investment in an organization or project, normally the sum of fixed and current assets, less
particular date.
Bar chart on which the vertical order of activities is such that each activity is dependent only on activi
Cash receipts and payments in a specified period.
Difference between cash received and payments made during a specific period.
A Quality Control technique that shows the relationship between the effects of problems and their cau
as an Ishikawa diagram and a fishbone diagram .
Change Control Board
An end user representative often seconded into a project team. Someone who acts as an advocate for
A board responsible for reviewing and approving, denying, or delaying change requests. The change c
made up of stakeholders, managers, project team members, and others who might have an interest in
A formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for approving or rejecting changes to the pro
Process that ensures potential changes to the deliverables of a project or the sequence of work in a pr
evaluated, authorized, and managed.
See scope change.
A record of all project changes, proposed, authorized, or rejected.
The formal process where changes to the project are introduced and approved.
A request submitted to obtain formal approval for project changes (see Project Change Control). Chan
through changes in the business or because of issues in the project. Change requests should be docum
analyzed, and approved before a change to the project can be made.

Any numbering system used to monitor project costs by category (e.g., labor, supplies, materials). The
accounts is usually based upon the corporate chart of accounts of the primary performing organization
accounts.
See project charter.
Subordinate task belonging to a parent task existing at a higher level in the work breakdown structu
The party to a contract who commissions the work and pays for it on completion. The client or custom
representative for the users and is a project stakeholder.
The completion of work on a project.
A process that concerns completing and settling the terms of the contract and documenting its accept
A process that documents the final delivery and acceptance of the project and is where hand
The formal end point of a project, either because it has been completed or because it has been termin
Capability Maturity Model
Any numbering system used to uniquely identify each element of the work breakdown structure. See
When team members work together at the same physical location.
Describes a software application that is purchased from a reseller, vendor, or manufacturer.
Advancement of an installation from the stage of static completion to full working order and achievem
operational requirements.
A binding financial obligation, typically in the form of a purchase order or contract.
Costs legally committed even if delivery has not taken place with invoices neither raised nor paid.
Variances that come about as a result of circumstances that are common to the process youre perform
controlled at the operational level. The three types of common cause variances are random, known or
variances that are always present in the process.
The transmission of information so that the recipient understands clearly what the sender intends.
Documents the types of information needs the stakeholders have, when the information should be dis
information will be delivered.
Determines the communication needs of the stakeholders, when and how the information will be rece
receive the information.
Determining project stakeholders communication and information needs.
Project status describing work that has moved through the full project lifecycle and has been accepted
customer or client.
The date calculated by which the project could finish following careful estimating.
A risk made up of a number of inter related risks.
Integrates all planning data into one document that the project manager can use as a guidebook to ov
during the Executing and Controlling phases.
A conflict resolution technique where each party involved gives up something to reach a resolution. Th
permanent solution.
The phase that triggers and captures new ideas or opportunities and identifies potential candidates fo
in the feasibility phase
An approach to project staffing that, in its most general form, calls for implementers to be involved in
Sometimes confused with fast tracking.
Identifies uniquely all items within the configuration.
A part of configuration that has a set function and is designated for configuration management. It iden
items within the configuration.
Describes the characteristics of the product of the project and ensures the description is accurate and
changes to the characteristics of an item and tracks the changes made or requested and their status.
the change control process in most organizations, or it may serve as the change control system.
Technical and administrative activities concerned with the creation, maintenance and controlled chang
throughout the life of the product.
Records and reports the current status and history of all changes to the configuration. Provides a comp
happened to the configuration to date
Functional and physical characteristics of a product as defined in technical documents and achieved in
project this should contain all items that can be identified as being relevant to the project and that sho
after authorization by the relevant manager (This includes documentation).

A check to ensure that all deliverable items on a project conform with one another and to the current
that relevant quality assurance procedures have been implemented and that there is consistency thro
documentation.
A system through which changes may be made to configuration items.
The ability to manage conflict creatively and effectively.
A conflict resolution technique that is also known as problem solving . This is the best way to resolve c
fact finding to bear out the solution. This is a win_win conflict resolution technique.
Decision models that use complex principles of statistics and other mathematical concepts to assess a
Anything that either restricts the actions of the project team or dictates the actions of the project team
Applicable restriction affecting the performance of the project. Any factor affecting when an activity ca
A type of resource that only remains available until consumed (for example, a material).
See reserve and contingency planning.
See reserve.
Alternative course(s) of action devised to cope with project risks. Note: See risk plan.
The development of a management plan using alternative strategies to minimize or negate the adver
should it occur.
An amount of money or time set aside and dedicated to the project to be used to cover unforeseen co
identified as part of the planning process.

A separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which may be planned for only in par
known unknowns). For example, rework is certain, the amount of rework is not. Contingency reserve
schedule, or both. Contingency reserves are intended to reduce the impact of missing cost or schedul
Contingency reserves are normally included in the projects cost and schedule baselines.
A contingency is the planned allotment of time and cost or other resources for unforeseeable element
A legally binding document that describes the work that will be performed, how the work will be comp
penalties for noncompliance.
The process of monitoring vendor performance and ensuring all the requirements of the contract are m
Managing the relationship with the seller.
The negotiated contract cost value plus the estimated value of authorized but unpriced work.
Out Completion and settlement of the contract, including resolution of all outstanding items.
The process of completing and settling the terms of the contract and determining whether the work d
was completed accurately and satisfactorily.
The negotiated costs for the original defined contract and all contractual changes that have been agre
excluding the estimated cost of any authorized, unpriced changes. The contract target cost equals the
completion plus management or contingency reserve.
The negotiated estimated costs plus profit or fee.
A contract is a mutually binding agreement which obligates the seller to provide the specified product
buyer to pay for it. Contracts generally fall into one of three broad categories:
A person, company, or firm who holds a contract for carrying out the works and/or the supply of goods
connection with the project
A graph of the variance of several samples of the same process over time based on a mean, an upper
lower control limit.
Control charts are a graphic display of the results, over time and against established control limits, of
used to determine if the process is in control or in need of adjustment.
The process of comparing actual performance with planned performance, analyzing variances, evalua
alternatives, and taking appropriate corrective action as needed.
An organizational structure where the project leader reports to the functional manager and doesnt ha
members from other departments.
The act of ensuring that work carried out by different organizations and in different places fits togethe
technical matters, time, content, and cost in order to achieve the project objectives effectively.
Changes made to bring expected future performance of the project into line with the plan.
A type of change request that typically occurs during the Monitoring and Controlling processes. Correc
work of the project back into alignment with the project plan.
A member of a functional organization responsible for cost account performance, and for the managem
accomplish such tasks.
Defines what work is to be performed who will perform it and who is to pay for it. Cost accounts are th
integration of scope, cost, and schedule. Another term for cost account is control account.
The total approved, expected cost of the project created in the planning process. Its used as a compa
expenses throughout the remainder of the project.
A commonly used benefit measurement method that calculates the cost of producing the product, ser
project and compares this to the financial gain the project is expected to generate.

An analysis of the relationship between the costs of undertaking a task or project, initial and recurrent
to arise from the changed situation, initially and recurrently. Note: the hard, tangible, readily measura
sometimes be accompanied by soft benefits which may be real but difficult to isolate, measure and va
comparison of the returns from alternative forms of investment.)
Hierarchical breakdown of a project into cost elements.
Assigning cost estimates to activities and creating the cost baseline, which measures the performance
throughout the projects life.
Allocating cost estimates to individual project components.
Location, person, activity or project in respect of which costs may be ascertained and related to cost u
Unique identitier for a specified element of work. (Code assigned to activities that allow costs to be co
the elements of a code structure.)
A process that measures the project spending to date, determines whether changes have occurred to
takes action to deal with the changes. This process monitors the budget and manages changes to the
The point within a program at which costs are entered and controlled. Frequently, the cost control poin
the cost account or the work package.
Any system of keeping costs within the bounds of budgets or standards based upon work actually per
Controlling changes to the project budget.
A graph plotted against a horizontal time scale and cumulative cost vertical scale.
A unit of costs to perform a task or to acquire an item. The cost estimated may be a single value or a
Developing an estimation of the cost of resources needed for each project activity.
Estimating the cost of the resources needed to complete project activities.
Costs identified through the use of the accrued method of accounting or costs actually paid. Costs inc
materials, and all allowable indirect costs.
The effective financial control of the project through evaluating, estimating, budgeting, monitoring, an
and reporting the cost information.
The cost of all of the work required to assure the project meets the quality standards. The three costs
cost of quality are prevention costs, appraisal costs, and failure costs.
The costs incurred to ensure quality. The cost of quality includes quality planning, quality control, qual
rework.
The amount by which a contractor exceeds or expects to exceed the estimated costs, and/or the final
of a contract.
Measures the value of the work completed at the measurement date against actual cost. This is the m
measurements. The formula is CPI = EV / AC.

The ratio of budgeted costs to actual costs (BCWP/ACWP). CPI is often used to predict the magnitude o
overrun using the following formula: original cost estimate/CPI = projected cost at completion. See als
cost efficiency ratio of earned value to actual costs. CPI is often used to predict the magnitude of a po
also earned value.
A regular cost report to reflect cost and schedule status information for management.
A budget which shows the amounts and expected dates of incurring costs on the project or on a contr
A type of contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the sellers allowable costs (allowable cos
contract) plus a fixed amount of profit (fee).
A type of contract where the buyer reimburses the seller for the sellers allowable costs (allowable cos
contract), and the seller earns its profit if it meets defined performance criteria.
Provides the seller with payment for all costs incurred to deliver or produce the product or service req

This category of contract involves payment (reimbursement) to the contractor for its actual costs. Cos
as direct costs (costs incurred directly by the project, such as wages for members of the project team)
(costs allocated to the project by the performing organization as a cost of doing business, such as sala
executives). Indirect costs are usually calculated as a percentage of direct costs. Cost reimbursable co
incentives for meeting or exceeding selected project objectives such as schedule targets or total cost.

A category of contracts based on payments to a contractor for allowable estimated costs, normally req
efforts performance standard from the contractor. Risk for all growth over the estimated value rests w
A document that describes each major element in the work breakdown structure, including a stateme
describing the work content, resources required, the time frame of the work element and a cost estim
The difference between a tasks value at the measurement date and its actual cost. The formula is CV
Any difference between the estimated cost of an activity and the actual cost of that activity. In earned
ACWP.
Cost Plus Fixed Fee
Cost Performance Index
Cost Plus Incentive Fee
Critical Path Method
This is a schedule compression technique that adds resources to the project to reduce the time it take
project.
A specific type of project schedule compression technique performed by taking action to decrease the
duration after analyzing a number of alternatives to determine how to get the maximum schedule dur
the least cost. Typical approaches for crashing a schedule include reducing schedule activity durations
assignment of resources on schedule activities.Credited resource created by an activity or event and c
project.

Any activity on a critical path with zero or negative float. Most commonly determined by using the crit
Although some activities are critical in the dictionary sense without being on the critical path, this m
in the project context.
The longest path through the project. Activities with zero float are considered critical path tasks.
Procedure for calculating the critical path and floats in a network.
A schedule development method that determines a single early and late start date, early and late fini
for each activity on the project.

A network analysis technique used to predict project duration by analyzing which sequence of activitie
least amount of scheduling flexibility (the least amount of float). Early dates are calculated by means
a specified start date. Late dates are calculated by means of a backward pass starting from a specified
(usually the forward passs calculated project early finish date).

In a project network diagram, the series of activities which determines the earliest completion of the p
will generally change from time to time as activities are completed ahead of or behind schedule. Altho
calculated for the entire project, the critical path can also be determined for a milestone or subproject
usually defined as those activities with float less than or equal to a specified value, often zero. See cri
A critical factor against which aspects of project performance may be assessed
Elements that must be completed in order for the project to be considered complete. Critical success
satisfactory can lead to project failure.
A factor considered to be most conducive to the achievement of a successful project
Used in risk analysis, the criticality index represents the percentage of simulation trails that resulted i
placed on the critical path.
The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will be completed.
The current estimate of the point in time when an activity will begin.
The recipient of the product or service created by the project. In some organizations this stakeholder m
as the client .
Any person who defines needs or wants, justifies or pays for part or the entire project, or evaluates or
be the project promoter, client, owner or employer
The ending date of a reporting period.
Cost Variance
An activity or network which has either no predecessors or no successors. If neither, it is referred to as
The point in time that separates actual (historical) data from future (scheduled) data. Also called as of
Data Date
State in the progress of a project when a decision is required before the start of any succeeding activi
determines which of a number of alternative paths is to be followed.
A formal method of project selection that helps managers make the best use of limited budgets and h
Includes benefit measurement methods and constrained optimization models.
The removal of uncertainty with respect to a course of action.
The process of breaking project deliverables down into smaller, manageable components of work so th
be planned and estimated.
A type of change request that typically comes about during the Monitoring and Controlling process gro
either correct or replace components that are substandard or are malfunctioning.
An estimating technique that assigns a cost estimate to each work package in the project WBS. This is
the cost estimating techniques, which typically falls within 5 percent and +10 percent of the actual b
See estimate.
In resource scheduling, inadequate availability of one or more resources may require that the complet
delayed beyond the date on which it could otherwise be completed. The delaying resource is the first
that causes the activity to be delayed.
The practice of effectively getting others to perform work which one chooses not to do oneself. The pr
authority and responsibility is distributed from project manager to subordinates.
Decision event where the decision is made as a result of the outcomes of the preceding activities and
information. A deliberate decision event cannot be made automatically
An output or result that must be completed in order to consider the project complete or to move forwa
the project. Deliverables are tangible and can be measured and easily proved.
End products of a project or the measurable results of intermediate activities within the project organi
deliverables may be in the form of hardware, software, services, processes, documents, or any combin
A process where a consensus view is reached by consultation with experts. Often used as an estimatin
Project status describing proposed project work that will not be considered.
The relationship between project activities.
A link arrow used in an activity on a node network to represent the interrelationships of activities in a
The type of dependency between two activities and the specific relationship between the activities.
Precedence relationship. Restriction that one activity has to precede, either in part or in total, another
(Dependencies are relationships between products or tasks. For example, one product may be made u
dependent products or a task may not begin until a dependent task is complete.) See logical relatio
Phase The time period in which facility and production processes are developed and designed.
The person or organization with overall design responsibility for the products of the project
Contains paths, all of which have to be followed and whose durations are fixed. Note: deterministic ne
distinguish traditional networking from probabilistic networking.
Costs specifically attributable to an activity or group of activities without apportionment. (Direct costs
with indirect costs that cannot be identified to a specific project.)
Compares the value of the future cash flows of the project to todays dollars.
Concept of relating future cash inflows and outflows over the life of a project or operation to a commo
allowing more validity to comparison of projects with different durations and rates of cash flow.
A milestone that has a definite scheduled occurrence in time. Logical link that may require time but no
A type of dependency that the project manager and project team choose to impose on the project sch
of an established corporate practice.
Defines how revisions are made, the version numbering system, and the placement of the version num
Duration
An activity representing no actual work to be done but required for reasons of logic or nomenclature. N
uses for a dummy activity in activity on arrow network: logic, time delay, and Uniqueness.
An activity of zero duration used to show a logical relationship in the arrow diagramming method. Dum
when logical relationships cannot be completely or correctly described with regular activity arrows. Du
graphically as a dashed line headed by an arrow.

The number of work periods (not including holidays or other non working periods) required to complet
project element. Usually expressed as workdays or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with e
effort.
The use of techniques such as fast
Shortening the project schedule without reducing the project scope. Duration compression is not alwa
requires an increase in project cost.
Estimate At Completion
The earliest date on which the activity could be scheduled to start based on the scheduled dates of al
in the absence of any resource constraints on the activity itself. This date is calculated by resource sch
Calculated in the forward pass of time analysis, early dates are the earliest dates on which an activity
The earliest date an activity may finish as logically constrained by the network diagram.
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a
project) can finish based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early finish dates can cha
progresses and changes are made to the project plan.
The earliest date an activity may start as logically constrained by the network diagram.
In the critical path method, the earliest possible point in time on which the uncompleted portions of a
project) can start, based on the network logic and any schedule constraints. Early start dates can chan
progresses and changes are made to the project plan.
The time in standard hours credited as a result of the completion of a given task or a group of tasks.
The value of the work completed to date as it compares to the budgeted amount for the work compon
A measure of the value of completed work. Earned value uses original estimates and progress to date
actual costs incurred are on budget and whether the tasks are ahead or behind the baseline schedule
Analysis of project progress where the actual money, hours (or other measure) budgeted and spent is
of the work achieved.
The quantification of the overall progress of a project in financial terms so as to provide a realistic yard
compare the actual cost to date.
EVM is a tool and technique of the Cost Control process that compares what youre received or produc
measurement date to what youve spent. The three measurements needed to perform earned value m
planned value (PV), actual cost (AC), and earned value (EV).
A type of benefit measurement method. It is a series of financial calculations that provide data on the
project and is generally used as a project selection technique.
Early Finish date
An activity whose duration is governed by resource usage and availability. The resource requiring the
complete the specified amount of work on the activity will determine its duration.
The estimate of effort remaining to complete an activity.
The number of labor units necessary to complete the work. Effort is usually expressed in staff hours, s
and should not be confused with duration.
Elapsed time is the total number of calendar days (excluding non work days such as weekends or holi
complete an activity. It gives a realistic view of how long an activity is scheduled to take for completio
An activity with no logical successors.
Event with proceeding, but no succeeding activities. Note: there may be more than one end event.
A project that will be used by users throughout the enterprise.
Use of data relating to an external factor (such as the weather) to modify or bias the value of paramet
(a) Resources such as servers, specialized test equipment, or additional PCs that are required for a pro
categories of project resources. It includes test tools, servers, PCs, or other related items required to c
Activity that is equivalent, in the probabilistic sense, to any combination of series and parallel activitie
Early Start date
A forecast of the total cost of the project based on both current project performance and the remainin
EAC = AC + ETC.
A value expressed in either money and/or hours, to represent the projected final costs of work when c
calculated as ETC + ACWP.
The cost estimate for the remaining project work. This estimate is provided by the project team memb
The value expressed in either money or hours developed to represent the cost of the work required to
An assessment of the likely quantitative result. Usually applied to project costs and durations and sho
some indication of accuracy (e.g., x percent). Usually used with a modifier (e.g., preliminary, concep
application areas have specific modifiers that imply particular accuracy ranges (e.g., order of magnitu
estimate, and definitive estimate in engineering and construction projects).

The act of combining the results of post project reviews, metrics, consultation and informed assessme
resource requirements for an activity.
Estimate (or Estimated) To Complete (or Completion)
Earned Value
A network diagramming technique in which events are represented by boxes (or nodes) connected by
sequence in which the events are to occur. Used in the original Program Evaluation and Review Techni
State in the progress of a project after the completion of all preceding activities, but before the start o
activity. (A defined point that is the beginning or end of an activity)
Focused report drawing attention to instances where planned and actual results are expected to be, o
significantly different. Note: an exception report is usually triggered when actual values are expected
predetermined threshold that is set with reference to the project plan. The actual values may be trend
than plan.
Occurrences causing deviation from a plan, such as issues, change requests and risks. Exceptions can
where the cost variance and schedule variance exceed predefined thresholds.
Logical relationship indicating that only one of the possible activities can be undertaken.
This project process group is where the work of the project is performed.
The phase of a project in which work towards direct achievement of the projects objectives and the p
projects deliverables occurs. Sometimes called the implementation phase
The product of an events probability of occurrence and the gain or loss that will result. For example, i
probability that it will rain, and rain will result in a $100 loss, the expected monetary value of the rain
$100).
A charge against available funds, evidenced by a voucher, claim, or other documents. Expenditures re
payment of funds.
A technique used in project selection, determining estimates, and determining other related project in
the knowledge of those with expertise on the requested subject matter. Expert judgment can come fro
departments, consultants, team members, vendors, or industry groups.
A constraint from outside the project network.
A type of dependency where a relationship between a project task and a factor outside the project, su
conditions, drives the scheduling of that task.
This is a type of project ending that occurs when the project is completed and accepted by the stakeh
The cost if the product fails, including downtime, user support, rework, and scrapping the project.
A plan for an alternative course of action that can be adopted to overcome the consequences of a risk
(including carrying out any advance activities that may be required to render the plan practical).
A schedule compression technique where two activities that were previously scheduled to start seque
time. Fast tracking reduces schedule duration.
Reducing the duration of a project usually by overlapping phases or activities originally planned to be
(The process of reducing the number of sequential relationships and replacing them typically with par
usually to achieve shorter overall durations but often with increased risk).
The project phase that demonstrates that the clients requirement can be achieved, this phase identifi
options to determine the one preferred solution.
Undertaken to determine whether the project is a viable project, the probability of project success, an
product of the project.
Analysis to determine if a course of action is possible within the terms of reference of the project.
Any schedule capable of implementation within the externally determined constraints of time and/or r
Free Float or Finish to Finish
Firm Fixed Price
Post implementation report. Normally a retrospective report that formally closes the project having ha
deliverables for operational use. Note: the report should draw attention to experiences that may be of
projects and may form part of the accountability of the project team
To startthe from activity must finish before the to activity can start.
To finishthe from activity must finish before the to activity can finish.
The actual or estimated time associated with an activitys completion.
A project task relationship in which the finish of the successor task is dependent on the finish of the p
See logical relationship.
The finish to finish lag is the minimum amount of time that must pass between the finish of one activi
successor(s).
A project task relationship in which the successor task cannot begin until the predecessor task has com
See logical relationship.
the finish to start lag is the minimum amount of time that must pass between the finish of one activity
successor(s). The default finish to start lag is zero.
A finishing activity is the last activity that must be completed before a project can be considered finish
a predecessor to any other activity it has no successors.
A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract) regardles
Duration scheduling a scheduling method in which, regardless of the number of resources assigned t
remains the same.
Price contracts a generic category of contracts based on the establishment of firm legal commitment
required work. A performing contractor is legally obligated to finish the job, no matter how much it cos
of all cost growth rest on the performing contractor.
A calendar date (associated with a plan) that cannot be moved or changed during the schedule.
See imposed finish.
A contract that states a fixed fee for the work that the vendor will perform.
A type of contract where the buyer pays the seller a set amount (as defined by the contract), and the
additional amount if it meets defined performance criteria.
This category of contract involves a fixed total price for a well
See imposed start.
The amount of time the early start of a task may be delayed without delaying the finish date of the pr
slack time.
The amount of time an activity may be delayed from its early start without delaying the project finish
mathematical calculation and can change as the project progresses and changes are made to the proj
slack, total float, and path float. See also free float.
A diagram that shows the logical steps that must be performed in order to accomplish an objective. It
individual elements of a system interrelate.
This is a conflict resolution technique where one party forces their solution on the others. This is an ex
conflict resolution technique.
Scheduled cost for a task.
See estimate at completion.
Planned communications such as project kickoff meetings, team status meetings, written status repor
sessions.
The process of working from the left to the right of a network diagram in order to calculate early start
for each activity.
The calculation of the early start and early finish dates for the uncompleted portions of all network ac
network analysis and backward pass.
Fixed Price Incentive Fee
See subnet.
The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start of any immediately fol
also float.
Finish to Start
A manager responsible for activities in a specialized department or functional group (e.g., engineering
marketing).
An organization type where the project has a team leader in each functional department and the prod
one team to the next.
A form of organizational structure. Functional organizations are traditional organizations with hierarch
structures.
Management structure where specific functions of an organization are grouped into specialist departm
dedicated services. Examples of functional organization are finance, marketing and design departmen
These define what the product of the project will do by focusing on how the end user will interact with
A document specifying in some detail the functions that is required of a system and the constraints th
An estimate of funding requirements over time.

Particular type of bar chart showing planned activity against time. Note: Gantt chart, although name
of bar chart, is in current usage as a name for bar charts in general. (A Gantt chart is a timephased gr
durations. Activities are listed with other tabular information on the left side with time intervals over t
durations are shown in the form of horizontal bars.)
Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique
A one sentence definition of specifically what will be accomplished, while incorporating an event signi
A category or rank used to distinguish items that have the same functional use (e.g., hammer) but d
requirements for quality (e.g., different hammers may need to withstand different amounts of force).
A network analysis technique that allows for conditional and probabilistic treatment of logical relations
activities may not be performed).

Joining two specified points, that span two or more activities. (Note: its duration is initially unspecified
by the durations of the specified activities. Hammocks are usually used to collect time dependent info
overheads. A group of activities, milestones, or other hammocks aggregated together for analysis or r
Sometimes used to describe an activity such as management support that has no duration of its own
the time difference between the two points to which it is connected.)

An aggregate or summary activity (a group of related activities is shown as one and reported at a sum
hammock may or may not have an internal sequence. See also subproject and subnet.
The formal process of transferring responsibility for and ownership of the products of a project to the o
An unintended break in a network path. Hangers are usually caused by missing activities or missing lo
A coding system that can be represented as a multi level tree structure in which every code except th
tree has a parent code.
Range of networks at different levels of detail, from summary down to working levels, showing the rel
those networks.
These explain the major characteristics of the product and describe the relationship between the busi
product requested. This is also referred to as a product description .
A graphic display of planned and or actual resource usage over a period of time. It is in the form of a v
height of each bar representing the quantity of resource usage in a given time unit. Bars may be singl
stacked resources.
An otherwise valid working day that has been designated as exempt from work.
Organization providing the administrative and logistical support for the project.
The people with the background and skills to complete the tasks on the project schedule.
Defining team member roles and responsibilities, establishing an appropriate structure for team repor
team members, and bringing them on the project as needed for the appropriate length of time.
Activities on the critical path with negative float.
Invitation For Bid
The consequences imposed if a risk event occurs on the project.
Assessing the merits of pursuing a particular course of action.
The assessment of the adverse effects of an occurring risk.
The project phase that develops the chosen solution into a completed deliverable. (Note: realization is
accepted and preferred term for implementation).
Point in time determined by circumstances outside the network. Note: a symbol is inserted immediate
concerned on activity on arrow networks or adjacent and connected to the appropriate corner of the n
networks.
A finished date imposed on an activity by external constraints.
A start date imposed on an activity by external constraints.
A project commissioned and carried out entirely within a single organization
An activity that has been started, but not yet completed.
Logical relationship indicating that at least one but not necessarily all of the activities have to be unde
Sum of actual and committed costs, whether invoiced/paid or not, at a specified time.
Costs associated with a project that cannot be directly attributed to an activity or group of activities. (
which are not directly identified to any specific contract, project, product or service, such as overhead
administration).
Unplanned or ad hoc communications, including phone calls, emails, conversations in the hallway, or
Providing stakeholders with information regarding the project in a timely manner via status reports, pr
meetings, email, and so on. The communications management plan is put into action during this proc
Making needed information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner.
The first process in a project life cycle and the first of the five project process groups. This is the forma
the project should begin. The primary result of this process is the project charter.
Committing the organization to begin a project or phase.
A quality control technique that includes examining, measuring, or testing work results.
A process that influences the factors that cause change, determines that a change is needed or has h
and monitors change. All other change control processes are integrated with this process.
See earned value.
Disciplined approach to activities necessary to a) cause support considerations to be integrated into p
develop support arrangements that are consistently related to design and to each other, and c) provid
support at the beginning and during customer use at optimum cost.
A type of project ending where the resources of the project are reassigned or redeployed to other proj
within the organization.
The process of bringing people, activities and other things together to perform effectively.
The discount rate when the present value of the cash inflows equals the original investment. Projects
are generally considered better than projects with lower IRR values. Assumes that cash inflows are rei
value.
Discount rate at which the net present value of a future cash flow is zero. Note: IRR is a special case o
flow procedures.
A project oriented organization structure that employs permanent specialists to support projects.
Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal. However, in some application areas it may h
specific meaning.
A Quality Control technique that shows the relationship between the effects of problems and their cau
as a cause and effect diagram and fishbone diagram .
An immediate problem requiring resolution. If a risk (see Risk) does occur, it may turn into an issue or
managed as an issue.
Any process that is repeated more than once. The five process groups are repeated throughout the pr
change requests, responses to change, corrective action, and so on.
See master schedule.
An immediate problem requiring resolution. If a risk (see Risk) does occur, it may turn into an issue or
managed as an issue.
Help you determine whether the project is on track and progressing as planned by monitoring the pro
predetermined criteria.
Measurable indicators used to report progress chosen to reflect the critical success factors of the proje
Difference between planned labor rates and actual labor rates.
Device for representing a set of overlapping activities in a network diagram. Note: The start and finish
activity are linked only to the start and finish of the preceding activity by lead and lag activities, which
A) In a network diagram, the minimum necessary lapse of time between the finish of one activity and
overlapping activity or b) delay incurred between two specified activities. For example, in a finish to st
10 day lag, the successor activity cannot start until 10 days after the predecessor has finished. See al
Calculated in the backward pass of time analysis, late dates are the latest dates by which an activity c
or finish.
Calculated from backward pass, it is the latest date an event can occur.
The latest date an activity can complete without impacting the project end date.
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may be completed withou
milestone (usually the project finish date).
The latest date an activity can start without impacting the project end date.
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that an activity may begin without delayin
(usually the project finish date).
Latest time by which an event has to occur within the logical and imposed constraints of the network,
total project duration.
The latest possible time by which an activity has to finish within the logical activity and imposed cons
without affecting the total project duration.
Latest possible time by which an activity has to start within the logical and imposed constraints of the
affecting the total project duration.
The contractor who has responsibility for overall project management and quality assurance
In a network diagram, the minimum necessary lapse of time between the start of one activity and the
activity. For example, in a finish to start dependency with a 10 day lead, the successor activity can sta
predecessor has finished. See also lag.
Getting others to follow.
Information gathered throughout the project (and again at the end of a project phase or the end of the
documents the successes and failures of the project. This information is used to benefit the current pr
projects.
A letter indicating intent to sign a contract, usually so that work can commence prior to signing that c
Support type activity (e.g., vendor or customer liaison) that does not readily lend itself to measureme
accomplishment. It is generally characterized by a uniform rate of activity over a specific period of tim
See resource leveling.
Late Finish date
Cycle Costing The concept of including acquisition, operating, and disposal costs when evaluating va
A sequence of defined stages over the full duration of a project.
Assessment of the probability that a risk will occur.
The manager of any group that actually makes a product or performs a service. A functional manager.
A mathematical formula that determines the number of lines of communication between participants
formula is n (n minus 1) divided by 2, where n represents the number of participants.
See logical relationship.
A bar chart that shows the dependency links between activities
A rate used for cost estimating of human resources that includes a percentage of the salary to cover e
as medical, disability, or pension plans.
Level Of Effort
A diagram that displays the logical relationships between project activities. See project network diagra
See network logic.
A dependency between two project activities, or between a project activity and a milestone. See also
relationship. The four possible types of logical relationships are:
The dependency relationships that may exist between tasks. Finish to start is the most common logica
A network path that passes the same node twice. Loops cannot be analyzed using traditional network
and are treated as errors.LS Late Start date
Determines the cost effectiveness of producing goods or services in house vs. procuring them from ou
A term used to describe normal management processes that are being project managed.
All aspects of staff planning, recruitment, development, training and assessment.
A separately planned quantity used to allow for future situations which are impossible to predict (som
unknowns). Management reserves may involve cost or schedule. Management reserves are intended
missing cost or schedule objectives. Use of management reserve requires a change to the projects co
An amount of money set aside by upper management to cover future expenses that cant be predicte
planning.
A document that defines the goals and constraints of a project and functions as a working agreement
the client and the project manager.
A type of dependency where the relationship between two tasks is created by the type of work the pro
Network showing the complete project, from which more detailed networks are derived
A summary level schedule which identifies the major activities and key milestones. See also milestone
Property which may be incorporated into or attached to an end item to be delivered under a contract,
consumed or expended in the performance of a contract. It includes, but is not limited to, raw and pro
components, assemblies, fuels and lubricants, and small tools and supplies which may be consumed i
performance of a contract.

A catchall category of project resources that includes software, utility requirements such as electricity
needed for the project, or other consumable goods.
Calculating theoretical early and late start and finish dates for all project activities.
See network analysis.
An organizational structure where employees report to one functional manager and at least one projec
managers assign employees to projects and carry out administrative duties, while project managers a
with the project to team members and execute the project.

Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional ma
priorities and for directing the work of individuals assigned to the project.
A documented process for management of projects containing the process, definitions, and roles and
organization may have multiple methodologies for various types of activities, initiatives, or projects.
A standard of measurement that specifically defines how something will be measured.
Stage assessment an assessment in the middle of a project that can be held for several reasons: 1) A
project board, 2) to authorize work on the next stage before current one is completed, 3) to allow for a
middle of a long project, or 4) to review exception plans.
A major deliverable or key event in the project used to measure project progress.
A plan containing only milestones which highlight key points of the project.
A schedule that identifies the major milestones. See also master schedule.
A key event. An event selected for its importance in the project. Note: milestones are commonly used
(A milestone is often chosen to represent the start of a new phase or the completion of a major delive
monitor progress at summary level. Milestones are activities of zero duration).
Brief summary, approximately one or two sentences, that sums up the background, purposes and ben
Working to reduce risk by lowering its chances of occurring or by reducing its effect if it occurs.
The bringing together of project personnel and securing equipment and facilities. carried out during p
A term used to distinguish the current broad range of project management (scope, cost, time, quality,
narrower, traditional use that focused on cost and time.
This project process group is where activities are performed to monitor the progress of the project and
there are variances from the project plan. Corrective actions are taken during this process to get the p
The capture, analysis, and reporting of project performance, usually as compared to plan.
A schedule risk assessment technique used to estimate the likely range of outcomes from a complex p
the process under randomly selected conditions a large number of times.
Modern Project Management
A project consisting of multiple sub projects.
Multi project analysis is used to analyze the impact and interaction of activities and resources whose p
progress of a group of projects or for projects with shared resources or both. Multi project analysis can
composite reporting on projects having no dependencies or resources in common.
Managing multiple projects that are interconnected either logically or by shared resources.
Use of the techniques of resource allocation to schedule more than one project concurrently.
A project that is initiated by multiple business units.
An activity that has low total float.
Time by which the duration of an activity or path has to be reduced in order to permit a limiting impos
achieved.
The estimated cost negotiated in a cost plus fixed fee contract or the negotiated contract target cost i
incentive contract or a cost plus incentive fee contract. See also contract target cost.
Negotiating is a leadership technique and a conflict resolution technique. Negotiating is the act of two
explaining their needs and coming to a mutual agreement on a resolution.
The art of satisfying needs by reaching agreement or compromise with other parties.
Evaluation of the cash inflows using the discounted cash flow technique, which is applied to each peri
expected. The total present value of the cash flows is deducted from the initial investment; this assum
are reinvested at the cost of capital. It is similar to discounted cash flows.
Aggregate of future net cash flows discounted back to a common base date, usually the present.
The process of identifying early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project
Critical Path Method, Program Evaluation and Review Technique, and Graphical Evaluation and Review
A depiction of project activities and the interrelationships between these activities.
Activity or event common to two or more network diagrams.
The collection of activity dependencies making up a project network diagram.
Any continuous series of connected activities in a project network diagram.
A pictorial presentation of project data in which the project logic is the main determinant of the placem
in the drawing. Frequently called a flowchart, PERT chart, logic drawing, or logic diagram. See project
One of the defining points of a network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency
diagramming method and precedence diagramming method.
Points in a network at which arrows start and finish.
Expenditures against specific tasks that are expected to occur only once on a given project.
An activity that, once started, has to be completed to plan without interruption. Note: resources shoul
a non Splittable activity to another activity.
Making bodies to assess a project proposal and reach a rational decision.
The carrying cost in a balance sheet of acquiring an asset and bringing it to the condition where it is c
its intended function over a future series of periods.
Operations typically involve ongoing functions that support the production of goods or services. They
or an end.
A high level estimate of the time and cost of a project based on the actual cost and duration of a simil
The process of addressing factors that may impact how to manage a project team, defining roles and
project team members, identifying how the project team will be organized, and documenting a staffin
A quantitatively based estimating technique that is typically calculated by multiplying rate times quan
A Quality Control technique used to rank importance of a problem based on its frequency of occurrenc
diagram is based on the Pareto principle, more commonly referred to as the 80/20 rule , which says th
defects are caused by a small set of problems.
The length of time it takes a company to recover the initial cost of producing the product or service of
Collecting information regarding project progress and project accomplishments and reporting it to the
team members, management team, and other interested parties. It also makes predictions regarding
performance.
The cost of work thats been budgeted for an activity during a certain time period.
The process group where the project plans are developed that will be used throughout the project to d
control work results. The primary result of this process is the project plan.
Performed when a project is canceled or ends prematurely. It describes the reasons for cancellation or
the deliverables that were completed.
Conducted at the end of the project to document lessons learned.
A network diagramming method that places activities on nodes, which connect to dependent activitie
known as activity on node .
A task on the network diagram that occurs before another task.
An investigation at project request time to determine the costs and benefits of the project, as well as e
the proposed solution in order to determine the feasibility of carrying out the project.
A Quality Control tool and technique that keeps errors from reaching the customer. Prevention is less e
to fix problems after theyve occurred.
The cost of activities performed to avoid quality problems, including quality planning, training, and an
testing.
A type of change request that usually occur during the Monitoring and Controlling process group. Prev
implemented to help reduce the probability of a negative risk event.
The likelihood a risk event will occur. Probability is expressed as a number between 0.0 and 1.0.
The process of identifying what goods or services will be purchased from outside the organization. It u
analysis to determine whether goods or services should be purchased outside the organization or prod
Explains the major characteristics of the product and describes the relationship between the business
This is also referred to as high
Occurs in the Close Procurements process and determines whether the work of the contract is accepta
A grouping of related projects that are managed together to capitalize on benefits that couldnt be ach
were managed separately.
Calculates the expected value, or weighted average, of critical path tasks to determine project duratio
estimates: most likely, pessimistic, and optimistic. The PERT calculation is (optimistic + pessimistic +
Reports from project team members listing the tasks each team member is working on, the current pr
and the work remaining.
Temporary in nature, with a definite start and end date; creates a unique product, service, or result. It
goals and objectives of the project have been met and signed off on by the stakeholders.
An organizational structure focused on projects. Project managers generally have ultimate authority o
sometimes supporting departments such as human resources and accounting might report to the proj
managers are responsible for making project decisions and acquiring and assigning resources.
The person who fully understands, believes in, and espouses the benefits of the project to the organiz
cheerleader for the project.
An official, written acknowledgment and recognition that a project exists. Its signed by the project spo
project manager authority to assign organizational resources to the work of the project.
The formal acceptance of a project and the activities required to formally end the project work.
Documents the key characteristics of the product or service that will be created by the project.
Carrying out the project plan. Activities are clarified, the work is authorized to begin, resources are com
to activities, and the product or service of the project is created. The largest portion of the project bud
during this process.
Documentation in the project charter that includes the reason the project is being undertaken and the
project will address.
The grouping of project phases in a sequential order from the beginning of the project to the close.
Applying skills, knowledge, and project management tools and techniques to fulfill the project requirem
The worlds leading professional project management association.
The nine project management groupings, or Knowledge Areas, that bring together common or related
Integration, Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Human Resource, Communications, Risk, and Procurement.
Established by organizations to create and maintain procedures and standards for project managemen
used throughout the organization.
The person responsible for applying the skills, knowledge, and project management tools and techniq
activities to successfully complete the project objectives.
Measures that the project manager uses to determine whether the project is on track, such as any dev
baseline schedule or the baseline budget.

A document, or assortment of documents, that constitutes what the project is, what the project will de
processes will be managed. Used as the guideline throughout the project Executing and Controlling ph
measure project performance and to make future project decisions. Also used as a communication and
stakeholders, team members, and management.

A formal presentation by the project manager or project team members to the sponsor, the client, and
stakeholders.
Determines the start and finish dates for project activities and assigns resources to the activities.
Used to determine which proposed projects are approved to move forward.
A project that undertakes to prove that a specific activity can be done or an idea can be accomplished
Determining the impact of identified risks on the project and the probability theyll occur. Aligns risks
according to their effect on the project objectives.
Monitoring work results to see whether they fulfill the quality standards set out in the quality manage
whether the end product conforms to the requirements and product description defined during the pla
Describes how the project management team will enact the quality policy and documents the resourc
the quality plan. It describes the responsibilities of the project team in implementing quality and outlin
and procedures the project team and organization will use to satisfy quality requirements.
Identifying the quality standards applicable for the project and how theyll be fulfilled.
A complex analysis technique that uses a mathematical approach to numerically analyze the probabil
events.
A duration estimate obtained by applying a productivity rate of the resource performing the task.
A type of responsibility assignment matrix that describes the resources needed for the task and their
the following descriptors: responsible, accountable, consult, or inform.
Setting a new project baseline because of substantial changes to the schedule or the budget.
This process is where the project manager gathers and documents the collection of baseline data for t
data includes cost, schedule, scope, and quality data. Performance report information is delivered to t
project status meetings and steering committee meetings.
A document that is sent out to potential vendors requesting them to provide a proposal on a product o
The specifications and characteristics of the goal or deliverable.
A process that defines and documents all the resources needed and the quantity of resources needed
activities, including human, material, and equipment resources.
A listing of all the job titles within a company or department with a brief description of the job. It may
number of people currently employed in each job title.
A document containing a description of the resources needed from all three resource types for work p
WBS.
A resource chart that defines the WBS Identifier, the resource type needed for the WBS element, and t
resources needed for the task. A WBS is displayed in chart form.
An update to the approved start or end date of the schedule baseline, typically a result of approved sc
An action that is taken as a result of quality activities to correct a defect.
A potential future event that can have either negative or positive consequences.
The process used to identify and focus on those risks that are the most critical to the success of your p
Identifying the potential project risks and documenting their characteristics.
A numbered list of risks that are produced during the risk identification process and that are documen
register.
Details how risk management processes will be implemented, monitored, and controlled throughout th
does not define responses to individual risks.
The process that involves implementing the risk response plan, tracking and monitoring identified risk
responding to new risks as they occur.
Identifying, analyzing, and determining how risk events will be managed for a project.
A process that describes how to reduce threats and take advantage of opportunities, documents the p
positive risk events, and assigns owners to each risk.
An event that warns a risk is imminent and a response plan should be implemented.
A Quality Control tool and technique that shows variation in the process over time or shows trends suc
the lack of improvements in the process.
The final, approved project schedule that is used during project execution to monitor project progress.
The process of documenting and managing changes to the project schedule.
Calculating and preparing the schedule of project activities, which becomes the schedule baseline. It d
start and finish dates, finalizes activity sequences and durations, and determines activity duration est
Measures the progress to date against the progress that was planned. The SPI indicator acts as an effi
result is greater than one, Performance is better than expected, and youre ahead of schedule. If its le
performance is less than expected, and youre behind schedule. The formula is SPI = EV / PV.
Any change that is made to the project schedule as part of the ongoing work involved with managing
The difference between a tasks progress as compared to its estimated progress represented in terms
SV = EV minus PV.
The description of the work involved to complete the project. It defines both what is included in the pr
excluded from the project.
The process of documenting and managing changes to project scope. Any modification to the agreed
a scope change. Changes in product scope will require changes to project scope, and scope changes a
changes.
The minor changes or small additions that are made to the project outside of a formal scope change p
project scope to grow and change.
Per the PMBOK Guide , the process of breaking down the major deliverables from the scope statement
purposes of the CompTIA Objectives and exam, scope definition is used in a much broader sense to co
planning elements, including the scope statement and the scope management plan.

Defines the process for preparing the scope statement and the WBS. This also documents the process
scope and changes to project scope.
The process of defining the scope management plan, the scope statement, and the WBS and WBS dic
Documents the product description, key deliverables, success and acceptance criteria, key performan
exclusions, assumptions, and constraints. The scope statement is used as a baseline for future project
A process that concerns formally accepting the deliverables of the project and obtaining sign
One of the benefit measurement methods used for project selection. It contains a predefined list of cri
each project is ranked. Each criterion has a scoring range and a weighting factor. A scoring model can
to select from among competing vendors.
Putting the project activities in the order in which they will take place.
The amount of time allowed to delay the early start of a task without delaying the finish date of the pr
known as float time.
A requirement that a product or service must be obtained from a single vendor in government work; a
justification.
Obtaining bids and proposals from vendors in response to RFPs and similar procurement documents p
solicitation planning process.
An executive in the organization with authority to allocate funds, assign resources, and enforce decisio
project.
Obtaining human resources and assigning them to the project. Human resources may come from insid
organization.
Documents when and how human resources will be added to and released from the project team and
working on while they are part of the team.
A person or an organization that has something to gain or lose as a result of the project. Most stakeho
interest in the outcomes of the project.
To startthe from activity must start before the to activity can start.
To finishthe from activity must start before the to activity can finish.
A task relationship where the finish of the successor task is dependent on the start of its predecessor.
A project task relationship where the start of the successor task depends on the start of the predecess
A type of project ending where resources are cut off from the project.
Contains the details of a procurement item in clear, concise terms and includes the project objectives,
work of the project, and concise specifications of the product or services required.
The date when the project manager measures how much has been spent on a specific task.
See acceptance criteria .
A task on the network diagram that occurs after another task.
A way to get diverse groups of people to work together efficiently and effectively. This is the responsib
manager. It can involve activities performed together as a group or individually designed to improve t
Creating an open, encouraging environment for stakeholders to contribute, as well as developing the
effective, functioning, coordinated group.
Also known as nonfunctional requirements , the product characteristics needed for the product to perf
requirements. Technical requirements typically refer to information technology related projects. They a
elements and functions that happen behind the scenes of a program to meet the clients request.

A type of contract where the buyer and the seller agree on a unit rate, such as the hourly rate for a pr
cost is unknown and will depend on the amount of time spent to produce the product.
The projected performance level that must be achieved in the remaining work of the project in order t
schedule goals. The formula is TCPI = (BAC minus EV) / (BAC minus AC).
An estimating technique that uses actual durations from similar activities on a previous project. This is
analogous estimating .
A mathematical technique that can be used to predict future defects based on historical results.
According to CompTIA, time, cost, and quality. Other sources site scope rather than quality in their defi
constraints.
The contractor is paid a preset amount per unit of service (e.g., $70 per hour for professional services
of earth removed) and the total value of the contract is a function of the quantities needed to complet
The comparison of planned project results with actual project results. The formula is VAC = BAC minus
A deliverables oriented hierarchy that defines the total work of the project. Each level has more detail
previous level.
A document that describes the deliverables and their components, the code of accounts identifier, est
criteria for acceptance, and any other information that helps clarify the deliverables.
The total time it takes for a person to complete a task if they did nothing else from the time they start
complete.
The lowest level in a WBS. Team assignments, time estimates, and cost estimates can be made at this
projects, this level is handed off to subproject managers who develop their own WBS to fulfill the requ
package deliverable.

A restriction on an activity that indicates that it may not start or end earlier than a specified date.
A restriction on an activity that indicates that it may not start or end later than a specified date.
Predetermined results towards which effort is directed.
Organization(al) Breakdown Structure
Hold Status describing a change from Active (see Active) to being held, generally due to other work d
Period when the completed deliverable is used and maintained in service for its intended purpose.
The opposite of a risk. The chance to enhance the project benefits.
An estimate carried out to give very approximate indication of likely out turn costs. See estimate.
Hierarchical way in which the organization may be divided into management levels and groups, for pla
purposes and to relate work packages to organizational units.
The design of the most appropriate organizational design for a project.
Identifying, documenting, and assigning project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships.
The initial budget established at or near the time a contract was signed or a project authorized, based
contract cost or managements authorization.
The duration of activities or groups of activities as recorded in the baseline schedule.
A group of accounting elements which can be isolated to specific tasks, other than labor and material.
such items as travel, computer time, and services.
Of sequence progress progress that has been reported even though activities that have been deeme
project logic have not been completed.
Information that governs the final appearance of a report or drawing. (Usually refers to computergen
Contracting out, buying in facilities or work (as opposed to using in house resources).
Coordinating and controlling changes across an entire project.
See lead.
Costs incurred in the operation of a business that cannot be directly related to the individual products
produced. See also indirect cost.
Costs incurred in excess of the contract target costs on an incentive type contract or the estimated co
contract. An overrun is that value of costs which are needed to complete a project, over that value ori
management.
Parallel activities are two or more activities than can be done at the same time. This allows a project t
than if the activities were arranged serially.
An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variable
in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an estimate.
Task within the work breakdown structure that embodies several subordinate child tasks.
A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by ea
The persons or companies who sign a contract with one another.
A set of sequentially connected activities in a project network diagram. (Refer to critical path method
critical and non critical paths).
In mathematical analysis, the tendency of parallel paths of approximately equal duration to delay the
milestone where they meet.
See float.
Percent Complete
Precedence Diagramming Method
Status describing project work submitted for review but not yet discussed.
An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work which has been completed on an activity
May be aggregated to sections of a project or the whole project.
Performance measurement techniques are the methods used to estimate earned value. Different meth
different work packages, either due to the nature of the work or to the planned duration of the work p
Collecting and disseminating information about project performance to help ensure project progress.
Statement of the totality of needs expressed by the benefits, features, characteristics, process conditi
constraints that together define the expected performance of a deliverable. Note: a performance spec
for innovation and alternative solutions, by not defining or unduly constraining the technical attributes
deliverable.
A team building stage where the emphasis is on the work currently being performed.
The enterprise whose employees are most directly involved in doing the work of the project.
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
A specific type of project network diagram. See Program Evaluation and Review Technique.
Planned Finish date
That part of a project during which a set of related and interlinked activities are performed. Note: a pr
series of phases that together constitute the whole project life cycle. See project phase.
The percentage of the work content of an activity that has been achieved.
A form of testing a new development and its implementation prior to committing to its full release.
An intended future course of action. It is owned by the project manager, it is the basis of the project c
what, how, when, and who.
An activity not yet started.
Estimated cost of achieving a specified objective.
See scheduled finish date.
See scheduled start date.
The sum of the budgets for all planned work scheduled to be accomplished within a given time period
Budgeted Costs of Work Scheduled (BCWS).
A member of a project team or project support office with the responsibility for planning, scheduling a
They are often primarily concerned with schedule, progress and manpower resources.
The process of identifying the means, resources and actions necessary to accomplish an objective.
The stage prior to the implementation stage when product activity, resource and quality plans are pro
Project Management or Project Manager
Project Management Body of Knowledge
Project Management Professional
A grouping of projects and programs for management convenience. They may or may not have a com
often related only by the use of common resources, funding, or by company departments.
The management of a number of projects that do not share a common objective
Positive float is defined as the amount of time that an activitys start can be delayed without affecting
date. An activity with positive float is not on the critical path and is called a non critical activity. The di
and late dates (start or finish) determines the amount of float.
A review between 6 12 months after a system in a project has met its objectives to verify that it contin
requirements.
An evaluation that provides feedback in order to learn for the future.
A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by boxes (or nodes) and the rela
by arrows. Activities are linked by precedence relationships to show the sequence in which the activiti
A multiple dependency network. An activity on node network in which a sequence arrow represents on
precedence relationship, depending on the positioning of the head and the tail of the sequence arrow.
1. Start of activity depends on finish of preceding activity, either immediately or after a lapse of time
depends on finish of preceding activity, either immediately or after a lapse of time / 3. Start of activity
preceding activity, either immediately or after a lapse of time / 4. Finish of activity depends on start o
either immediately or after a lapse of time.

The term used in the precedence diagramming method for a logical relationship. In current usage, how
relationship, logical relationship, and dependency are widely used interchangeably regardless of the d
use.
In an activity on arrow network, an event at the beginning of an activity
That work which is carried out prior to commissioning in order to demonstrate that commissioning ma
An activity that must be completed (or be partially completed) before a specified activity can begin.
In the arrow diagramming method, the activity which logically precedes the current activity and enter
precedence diagramming method, the from activity.
A main supplier who has a contract for much or all of the work on a contract
Network containing alternative paths with which probabilities are associated
Likelihood of a risk occurring.
Set of interrelated resources and activities which transform inputs into outputs
The securing of goods or services
Determining what to procure and when.
A hierarchy of deliverable products which are required to be produced on the project. It forms the base
the execution strategy and product based work breakdown structure may be derived. It provides a gu
control documentation.
The description of the purpose form and components of a product. It should always be used as a basis
product by the customer.
Represents how the products are produced by identifying their derivation and the dependencies betwe
A portfolio of projects selected, planned, and managed in a coordinated way to achieve a set of define
large or very complex project with phases managed as separate projects; or a set of otherwise unrelat
by a business cycle.
A review to assess if targets have been reached and to measure the performance levels in the resultin
An event oriented network analysis technique used to estimate project duration when there is a high d
with the individual activity duration estimates. PERT applies the critical path method to a weighted av
estimate. Also given as Program Evaluation and Review Technique.
The senior manager with the responsibility for the overall success of the program.
A committee that directs the program when circumstances arise where there is no individual to direct
PERT is a project management technique for determining how much time a project needs before it is c
activity is assigned a best, worst, and most probable completion time estimate. These estimates are u
average completion time. The average times are used to calculate the critical path and the standard d
times for the entire project.

The effective management of several individual but related projects or functional activities in order to
system that works effectively.
The office responsible for the business and technical management of a specific contract or program.
Individual or body with responsibility for managing a group of projects.
A group that gives administrative support to the program manager and the program executive.
The partial completion of a project, or a measure of the same.
Payments made to a contractor during the life of a fixed price type contract, on the basis of some agre
example, budget cost of work performed or simply costs incurred.
A regular report to senior personnel, sponsors or stakeholders summarizing the progress of a project i
milestones, costs and other issues.
The application of resources to a unique set of coordinated activities, with a defined start and finish, u
specific objectives within defined cost and performance parameters.
The discipline of calculating the viability of a project.
Reference date used as a basis for the start of a project calendar.
A project board is the body to which the project manager is accountable for achieving the project obje
Statement that describes the purpose, cost, time and performance requirements/constraints for a pro
reference terms for a project. A written statement of the clients goals and requirements in relation to
A calendar that defines global project working and non working periods.
The process ensuring potential changes to a project including scope, cost, resources, time (schedule),
methods, costs, or any other planned aspects of a project are recorded, evaluated, authorized, and ma
A formally constituted group of stakeholders responsible for approving or rejecting project change req
the project Steering Committee may serve as the PCCB. Project Charter. A document issued by senior
provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure proper collection and
project information. It consists of communications planning, information distribution, performance rep
administrative closure.
Communication linking various areas of a project to ensure the transfer of information or hardware at
appropriate times and identification of any further necessary resources.
Defines the parties relevant to the project and the approved means of communicating between them.
Person within the parent organization who promotes and defends a project.
Formal termination of a project at any point during its life.
A subset of project management including resource planning, cost estimating, cost control and cost bu
complete the project within its approved budget.
The general attitude toward projects within the business.
A report defining a project, i.e. Why it is required? What will be done? How when and where it will be d
organization and resources required the standards and procedures to be followed.
The manager of a very large project that demands senior level responsibility or the person at the boar
organization who has the overall responsibility for the management of projects.
The project environment is the context within which the project is formulated, assessed and realized.
external factors that have an impact on the project.
A documented review of the projects performance, produced at project closure. It ensures that the ex
is recorded for the benefit of others.
A file containing the overall plans of a project and any other important documents.
A subset of project management that includes the processes required to make the most effective use
with the project. It consists of organizational planning, staff acquisition, and team development.
The beginning of a project at which point certain management activities are required to ensure that th
with clear reference terms and adequate management structure.
A document approved by the project board at project initiation that defines the terms of reference for
A subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure that the various elem
properly coordinated. It consists of project plan development, project plan execution, and overall chan
A report that raises either technical or managerial issues in a project.
All phases or stages between a projects conception and its termination. Note: the project life cycle m
operation and disposal of project deliverables. This is usually known as an extended life cycle.
Cumulative cost of a project over its whole life cycle
A project diary. A chronological record of significant occurrences throughout the project
The relationships between the various activities in a project.
A representation of the logical relationships of a project.

An inclusive term describing the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. As w
such as law, medicine, and accounting, the body of knowledge rests with the practitioners and academ
advance it. The PMBOK includes proven, traditional practices which are widely applied as well as innov
ones which have seen more limited use.
A plan for carrying out a project, to meet specific objectives, that is prepared by or for the project man
The office or department responsible for establishing, maintaining and enforcing project delivery and
processes, procedures, and standards. It provides services, support, and training for project managers
An individual certified as such by the Project Management Institute.
A class of computer applications specifically designed to aid with planning and controlling project cost
The members of the project team who are directly involved in project management activities. On som
project management team may include virtually all of the project team members.
The person responsible for all elements of planning, managing, executing, and controlling the project
for bringing the project in on time, cost, to specifications, and to a given quality with agreed upon reso
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exce
and expectations from a project.
An organization matrix that is project based, in which the functional structures are duplicated in each
Comparison of current project status with what was planned to be done to identify and report any dev
Representation of activities and/or events with their inter relationships and dependencies.
Any schematic display of the logical relationships of project activities. Always drawn from left to right
chronology. Often incorrectly referred to as a PERT chart.

Group of techniques that, for the description, analysis, planning, and control of projects, considers the
relationships of all project activities The group includes techniques concerned with time, resources, co
influencing factors, e.g. uncertainty. Note: the terms program evaluation and review technique (PERT
(CPA), critical path method (CPM) and precedence method refer to particular techniques and should
synonyms for project network.

Structure that is created or evolves to serve the project and its participants. (A term which refers to th
responsibilities of the project team and its interfaces to the outside world.)
A collection of logically related project activities, usually culminating in the completion of a major deli
A formal, approved document used to guide both project execution and project control. The primary u
are to document planning assumptions and decisions, to facilitate communication among stakeholder
approved scope, cost, and schedule baselines. A project plan may be summary or detailed.
Taking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document
Carrying out the project plan by performing the activities included therein.
The development and maintenance of the project plan.
The constituent projects within a program.
The organization of projects and programs into a single portfolio to allow prioritization based on factor
with corporate strategy, ROI, risk, applied resource levels, and technology focus. Used wisely, it will in
value by exposing redundant or risky projects, while revealing how to shift funds from low value inves
strategic ones. The process also allows the corporate strategy to be communicated throughout the org
equipping it to choose and execute those projects and initiatives that support the strategy, while elim
not.
A collected set of the management and administrative procedures needed for the project.
A subset of project management that includes procurement planning, source selection, enquiry, tende
placement of purchase orders and contracts for goods and services, contract and purchase order adm
out in an effort to obtain goods and services from outside organizations.
Formal statement that compares the project progress, achievements and expectations with the projec
A subset of project management including the processes required to ensure that the project will satisf
was undertaken. It consists of quality planning, quality assurance, and quality control.
A subset of project management that includes the processes required to acquire goods and services fr
performing organization. It consists of procurement planning, solicitation planning, solicitation, source
administration, and contract closeout.
Calendar of project review dates, meetings and issues of reports set against project week numbers or
A subset of project management including the processes concerned with identifying, analyzing, and re
risk. It consists of risk identification, risk quantification, risk response development, and risk response
The planned dates for performing activities and meeting milestones.
A subset of project management including the processes required to ensure that the project includes a
and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It consists of initiation, scope plannin
scope verification, and scope change control.
The individual or body for whom the project is undertaken, the primary risk taker; The individual repre
body and to whom the project manager reports; or A person or organization providing funds for the pr
The creation of the project team.
Green = On Track / Yellow = Caution, at risk, behind schedule, over budget, action needed by project m
steering committee / Red = Alert, project in serious trouble and almost certain to miss the target date
objectives. Immediate action needs to be taken and senior management needs to be involved to save
A report on the status of accomplishments and any variances to spending and schedule plans.
A comprehensive definition of how a project will be developed and managed.
The criteria by which the success or failure of a project may be judged.
The central location of planning and project support functions. Often provides personnel and facilities
planning, cost management, estimating, documentation control and sometimes procurement to a num
Set of individuals, groups and/or organizations that are responsible to the project manager for underta
includes all contractors and consultants).
The people who report either directly or indirectly to the project manager.
A plan produced at the beginning of a project that addresses technical issues and strategic issues rela
and configuration management.
A subset of project management including the processes required to ensure timely completion of the p
activity definition, activity sequencing, activity duration estimating, schedule development, and sched
Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities and to
individuals assigned to the project.
Planned Start date
An activity meant to improve the project organizations environment in order to improve project perfo
Quality Assurance
Quality Control
A generic term for subjective methods of assessing risks.
A trait or characteristic used to measure the degree of excellence of a product or service. Meeting cus
(1) The process of evaluating overall project performance on a regular basis to provide confidence tha
the relevant quality standards. (2) The organizational unit that is assigned responsibility for quality as
A plan that guarantees a quality approach and conformance to all customer requirements for all activi
An official examination to determine whether practices conform to specified standards or a critical ana
deliverable meets quality criteria
(1) The process of monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality
identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance. (2) The organizational unit that is
for quality control.
The characteristics of a product that determines whether it meets certain requirements.
The quality guide describes quality and configuration management procedures and is aimed at people
quality reviews, configuration management and technical exceptions.
The part of the project plan that concerns quality management and quality assurance strategies.
Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to apply them.
A review of a product against an established set of quality criteria.
Responsibility Assignment Matrix
Remaining Duration
Expenditures against specific tasks that would occur on a repetitive basis. Examples are hire of compu
maintenance, etc.
A logical connection between two activities.
The time needed to complete an activity or project.
Planning actions performed for any remaining effort within project scope. Often the cost and/or sched
zeroed out at this time for history items.
A proposal by the project manager for a change to the project as a result of a project issue report.
A type of bid document used to solicit proposals from prospective sellers of products or services. In so
may have a narrower or more specific meaning.
Generally, this term is equivalent to request for proposal, but with more specific application areas.
A negotiated set of measurable customer wants and needs.
Statement of the needs that a project has to satisfy.
A provision in the project plan to mitigate cost and/or schedule risk. Often used with a modifier (e.g., m
contingency reserve) to provide further detail on what types of risk are meant to be mitigated. The sp
modified term varies by application area.
Any personnel, material or equipment required for the performance of an activity.
Summation of the requirements for each resource, and for each time period. Note: where the earliest
is used alone, it is often termed an early start aggregation. Similarly a late start aggregation uses th
Scheduling of activities and the resources required by those activities, so that predetermined constrai
availability and/or project time are not exceeded.
The process of analyzing and optimizing the use of resources on a project. Often uses resource levelin
smoothing techniques.
The work on an activity related to a specific resource.
The level of availability of a resource, which may vary over time.
A hierarchical structure of resources that enables scheduling at the detailed requirements level, and r
requirements and availabilities to a higher level.
A calendar that defines the working and non working patterns for specific resources.
Limitation due to the availability of a resource.
Process of accumulating the requirements for each resource to give the total required to date at all tim
project.
Task durations that are driven by the need for scarce resources.
A view of project data in which resource requirements, usage, and availability are shown using vertica
horizontal time scale.
A specified level of resource units required by an activity per time unit.
Any form of network analysis in which scheduling decisions (start and finish dates) are driven by resou
concerns (e.g., limited resource availability or difficult to manage changes in resource levels).
Limited Schedule A project schedule whose start and finish dates reflect expected resource availabili
resource levels are never exceeded. The final project schedule should always be resource limited. Not
minimum overall or specified project duration to be exceeded
A term for resource leveling and resource smoothing.
Part of the definition statement stating how the program will be resource loaded and what supporting
and third party services are required.
Determining what resources (people, equipment, materials) are needed in what quantities to perform
The requirement for a particular resource by a particular activity.
The process of determining dates on which activities should be performed in order to smooth the dem
avoid exceeding stated constraints on these restraints.
Scheduling of activities, within the limits of their float, so that fluctuations in individual resource requi
(In smoothing, as opposed to resource leveling, the project completion date may not be delayed)
A document correlating the work required by a work breakdown structure element to the functional or
for accomplishing the assigned tasks.
A defined unit within the organization structure which is assigned responsibility for accomplishing spe
accounts.
A structure which relates the project organization structure to the work breakdown structure to help e
element of the projects scope of work is assigned to a responsible individual.
See responsibility assignment matrix.
See responsibility assignment matrix.
A portion of a contract payment that is held until contract completion in order to ensure full performan
terms.
A part of payment withheld until the project is completed in order to ensure satisfactory performance
contract terms.
Expenditure charged to the profit and loss account as incurred or accrued due.
Request For Proposal
Request For Quotation
The likelihood of the occurrence of an event expressed in terms of probability, impact, and a triggering
Systematic use of available information to determine how often specified events may occur and the m
consequences. (A technique designed to quantify the impact of uncertainty)
The process of identifying potential risks, quantifying their likelihood of occurrence and assessing thei
project
Planning activities to avoid risks that have been identified.
Process used to determine risk management priorities.
A discrete occurrence that may affect the project for better or worse.
Determining which risk events are likely to affect the project.
Systematic application of policies, procedures, methods and practices to the tasks of identifying, analy
treating and monitoring risk. (The process whereby decisions are made to accept known or assessed r
implementation of actions to reduce the consequences or probability of occurrence.)
A document defining how project risk analysis and management is to be implemented in the context o
A matrix with risks located in rows and with impact and likelihood in columns.
Ordering of risks according first to their risk value, and then by which risks need to be considered for r
avoidance, and risk transfer.
Evaluating the probability of risk event occurrence and effect.
Allocating a classification to the impact and likelihood of a risk.
Action taken to reduce the likelihood and impact of a risk.
Formal record of identified risks (a body of information listing all the risks identified for the project, ex
each risk and recording information relevant to its assessment and management).
Contingency plans to manage a risk should it materialize (action to reduce the probability of the risk a
significance of its detrimental impact if it does arise).
Responding to changes in risk over the course of the project.
Defining enhancement steps for opportunities and mitigation steps for threats.
Risk that can occur as a result of treating a risk.
Diminution of a risk by sharing it with others, usually for some consideration.
A contractual arrangement between two parties for delivery and acceptance of a product where the lia
risk is transferred from one party to the other.
Selection and implementation of appropriate options for dealing with risk.
The standards and methods which minimize to an acceptable level the likelihood of accident or damag
equipment
The timetable for a project. It shows how project tasks and milestones are planned out over a period o
Controlling schedule changes.
Start and finish dates calculated with regard to resource or external constraints as well as project logic
Ratio of work accomplished versus work planned, for a specified time period. The SPI is an efficiency r
accomplishment, comparing work accomplished to what should have been accomplished.
The difference between the budgeted cost of work performed and the budgeted cost of work schedule
The earliest date on which an activity can finish, having regard to resource or external constraints as w
The earliest date on which an activity can start, having regard to resource or external constraints as w
Scheduling is the process of determining when project activities will take place depending on defined
precedent activities. Schedule constraints specify when an activity should start or end based on durat
external predecessor relationships, resource availability, or target dates.
The scope is the sum of work content of a project.
Any change in a project scope that requires a change in the projects cost or schedule.
Controlling changes to the scope.
Ensuring all identified project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily.
A description of the work to be accomplished or resources to be supplied.
The risk that may occur as a result of invoking a risk response or fall back plan.
Graphic display of cumulative costs, labor hours, or other quantities, plotted against time. The name d
shape of the curve (flatter at the beginning and end, steeper in the middle) produced on a project tha
accelerates, and then tails off.
A time sequence of activities and events representing an operating timetable for performing activities
milestones. See project schedule.
See network analysis.
See duration compression.
Controlling changes to the project schedule.
Analyzing activity sequences, activity durations, and resource requirements to create the project sche
Ratio of work accomplished versus work planned (BCWP/BCWS), for a specified time period. The SPI is
work accomplishment, comparing work accomplished to what should have been accomplished. See ea
(1) Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion of that
value, BCWP less BCWS.
The point in time work was scheduled to finish on an activity. The scheduled finish date is normally wi
delimited by the early finish date and the late finish date.
The point in time work was scheduled to start on an activity. The scheduled start date is normally with
delimited by the early start date and the late start date.
The sum of the products and services to be provided as a project.
See baseline.
Any change to the project scope. A scope change almost always requires an adjustment to the project
Controlling changes to project scope.
Decomposing the major deliverables into smaller, more manageable components to provide better co
Developing a written scope statement that includes the project justification, the major deliverables, an
objectives.
Ensuring that all identified project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily.
Sequence is the order in which activities will occur with respect to one another.
Scheduled Finish date or Start to Finish
Cost Estimates An estimate of the cost of a product or service used to provide an assessment of the
prospective contractors proposed cost.
Calculated time span during which an event has to occur within the logical and imposed constraints o
affecting the total project duration. Note 1: it may be made negative by an imposed date. Note 2. the
referring only to an event. See PERT.
A pictorial representation of the predicted completion dates of milestones (also referred to as trend ch
The amount of slack or float time used up by the current activity due to a delayed start or increased d
A project that is intended to bring about change and does not have a physical end product.
Soft skills include team building, conflict management and negotiation.
Obtaining quotations, bids, offers, or proposals as appropriate.
Documenting product requirements and identifying potential sources.
Choosing from among potential contractors.
Statement Of Work
Schedule Performance Index
Activity that can be interrupted in order to allow its resources to be transferred temporarily to another
The executive responsible for the overall project delivery including management, monitoring, and fun
position to solve problems at a higher level when necessary for a project manager.
Scheduled Start date or Start to Start
Getting the human resources needed assigned to and working on the project.
A natural high level subsection of a project that has its own organizational structure, lifespan and man
Payment part way through a project at some predetermined milestone.
Individuals and organizations involved in or affected by project activities. Project managers, sponsors,
are all stakeholders.
The date project work is officially scheduled to begin.
Event with succeeding, but no preceding activities. Note: there may be more than one start event.
See logical relationship.
See logical relationship.
Start to Start Lag is the minimum amount of time that must pass between the start of one activity and
successor(s). This may be expressed in terms of duration or percentage.
A starting activity has no predecessors. It does not have to wait for any other activity to start.
A narrative description of products or services to be supplied under contract.
The comparison of actual against planned progress to determine variance and corrective action. Possi
Approved, Cancelled, Completed, On hold, and Pending.
A report completed and distributed to all stakeholders describing the project status. Status reports sho
the project and to keep management informed of project status.
A group of High Level stakeholders responsible for providing guidance on overall strategic direction an
of the customer/client.
A body established to monitor the project and give guidance to the project sponsor or project manage
A contractual document which legally transfers the responsibility and effort of providing goods, servic
hardware, from one firm to another.
An organization that supplies goods or services to a supplier.
A division of a project network diagram representing a subproject.
A group of activities represented as a single activity within a higher level of the overall project.
Criteria to be used for judging if the project is successful.
Critical factors that will ensure achievement of success criteria.
A successor is an activity whose start or finish depends on the start or finish of a predecessor activity.
(1) In the arrow diagramming method, the activity which departs a node. (2) In the precedence diagra
to activity.
Unavoidable costs (even if the project were to be terminated)
Critical activity an activity that is behind schedule is considered to be super critical. If it has been de
its float is calculated to be a negative value.
Includes contractors, consultants and any organization that supplies services or goods to the custome
Schedule Variance
The complete technical output of the project including technical products.
Systems and procedure detail the standard methods, practices, and procedures of handling frequently
within the project.
Management that includes the prime activities of systems analysis, systems design and engineering a
development.
An imposed date which constrains or otherwise modifies the network analysis.
The date planned to finish work on a project, initiative, or activity.
See baseline.
The planned date for start of work on a project, initiative, or activity.
See activity.
Target Completion date
Developing individual and group skills to enhance project performance.
See project team members.
Total Float or Target Finish date
Scaled Network Diagram Any project network diagram drawn in such a way that thepositioning and l
represents its duration. Essentially, it is a bar chart that includes network logic.
A date which contractors strive towards for completion of the activity.
Date imposed on an activity or project by the user. There are two types of target dates; target start da
dates.
The date work is planned (targeted) to finish on an activity.
The date work is planned (targeted) to start on an activity.
The date planned to start work on an activity.
The smallest indivisible part of an activity when it is broken down to a level best understood and perfo
person or organization.
A team is made up of two or more people working interdependently towards a common goal and a sha
The ability to gather the right people to join a project team and get them working together for the ben
Developing skills, as a group and individually, that enhance project performance.
Person responsible for leading a team.
The monitoring of the technical integrity of products.
A document that guides managers, team leaders and technical assurance coordinators on planning th
products.
Products produced by a project for an end user.
A document proposing to meet a specification in a certain way and at a stated price (or on a particula
offer of price and conditions under which the tenderer is willing to undertake work for the client.
Completion of the project, either upon formal acceptance of its deliverables by the client and/or the d
deliverables at the end of their life
A specification of a team members responsibilities and authorities within the project.
Activities that have to be performed sequentially or within a predetermined time of each other
The process of calculating the early and late dates for each activity on a project, based on the duratio
the logical relations between them.
A linked bar chart, a bar chart that shows the logical and time relationships between activities.
Scheduling of activities, so that the specified project duration, or any imposed dates, are not exceede
the envisaged resource levels to be exceeded.
Limited resource scheduling the production of scheduled dates in which resource constraints may be
avoid any delay in project completion.
Specified date from which the forward analysis is deemed to commence (The date to which current pr
Sometimes referred to as the status date because all progress information entered for a project should
date)
The recording of effort expended on each activity in order to update a project plan.
Scaled logic drawing a drawing that displays the logical connection between activities in the context
each horizontal position represents a point in time.
Scaled network diagram a project network diagram drawn so that the positioning of the activity repre
A means of recording the actual effort expended against project and non project activities.
The total project cost is estimated based on historical costs and other project variables and then subd
individual activities.
Time by which an activity may be delayed or extended without affecting the total project duration (or
date). See float
A strategic, integrated management systems for customer satisfaction that guides all employees in ev
work.
Total Quality Management
Dependency link that requires time and no other resources. It may be a negative time
A common approach to implementing a quality improvement program within an organization.
Target Start date
A report created specially for the various responsible managers to enter their progress status against
are scheduled to be in progress during a particular time window.
Infinite schedule, schedule produced without resource constraint.
The group of people who are intended to benefit from the project.
A standard, principle, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable.
A structured means of improving business effectiveness that includes the use of management techniq
engineering and value analysis.
A technique for analyzing qualitative and quantitative costs and benefits of component parts of a prop
A technique for assessing, before significant investment is made, the desirability of a proposal based
accrue to the organization from that proposal.
A discrepancy between the actual and planned performance on a project, either in terms of schedule o
The difference between budget at completion and estimate at completion.
A change in scope or timing of work which a supplier is obliged to do under a contract.
The document authorizing an approved technical change or variation.
Work Breakdown Structure
If analysis: the process of evaluating alternative strategies.
If simulation: changing the value of the parameters of the project network to study its behavior under
its operation.
The total number of hours, people or effort required to complete a task.
A code that represents the family tree of an element in a work breakdown structure.
A response to a negative risk event. Distinguished from contingency plan in that a workaround is not p
the occurrence of the risk event.
A deliverable oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total work scope o
descending level represents an increasingly detailed definition of the project work.
See activity.
Workload is the amount of work units assigned to a resource over a period of time.

A group of related tasks that are defined at the same level within a work breakdown structure. (In trad
systems, the criteria for defining work packages is as follows: 1. Each work package is clearly distingu
work packages / 2. Each work package has a scheduled start and finish date / 3. Each work package h
that is time-phased over the duration of the work package / 4. Each work package either has a relative
can be divided into a series of milestones whose status can be objectively measured / 5. Each work pa
that is integrated with higher Level schedules.

Work units provide the measurement units for resources. For example, people as a resource can be m
of hours they work.
Zero float is a condition where there is no excess time between activities. An activity with zero float is
activity. If the duration of any critical activity is increased (the activity slips), the project finish date wi
Activity -
A component of work performed
Actuals -
The true cost or date,
Assumption -
Factors that for planning purposes
Authority -
The right to apply project
Baseline -
An approved plan for a
Budget -
The approved estimate for the
Business Case -
Provides the necessary information from
Change Control -
Identifying, documenting, approving or rejecting,
Change Request -
Requests to expand or reduce
Close Phase
The process of finalizing all
Constraint (input) -
The state, quality, or sense
Contingency Reserve
The amount of funds, budget,
Control
Comparing actual performance with planned
Critical Path -
Generally, but not always, the
Deliverable (output/input) -
Any unique and verifiable product,
Dependency -
See Logical Relationship.
Duration -
The total number of work
Effort -
The number of labor units
Engagement Manager-
The role of the UITS
Estimate (output/input) -
A quantitative assessment of the
Estimate to Complete (ETC) (output/input)
The expected cost needed to
Estimate at Completion (EAC) (output/input)
The expected total cost of
Execute -
Directing, managing, performing, and accomplishing
Fiscal Manager -
The Fiscal Manager, under the
Functional Manager -
Someone with management authority over
Functional Group -
An organizational unit. Performs a
Incremental Delivery -
A project life cycle strategy
In-house Projects -
Projects performed primarily by performers
Initiating Processes [Process Group] -
Those processes performed to define
Kick-Off Meeting -
A meeting at the beginning
Late Start Date (LS) -
In the critical path method,
Link -
A relationship between two or
Logical Relationship -
A dependency between two project
Matrix Organization -
Any organization structure in which
Metrics -
Quantitative measures such as the
Milestone -
A significant point or event
Objective -
Something toward which work is
Project Phase -
A collection of logically related
Lesson Learned -
The learning gained from the
Precedence Relationship
The term used in the
Predecessor Activity -
The schedule activity that determines
Product -
An artifact that is produced,
Product Life Cycle -
A collection of generally sequential,
Product Owner (Agile)
The product owner in the
Program -
A group of related projects
Project -
A temporary endeavor undertaken to
Project Charter
See Project Definition
Project Definition
A document issued by the
Project Life Cycle -
A collection of generally sequential
Project Management -
The application of knowledge, skills,
Project Manager (PM) -
The person assigned by the
Request for Proposal (RFP) -
Requirements -
A condition or capability that
Resource -
Skilled human resources (specific disciplines
Risk -
An uncertain event or condition
Risk Management Plan (output/input) -
The document describing how project
Schedule
See Project Schedule.
Scope -
The sum of the products,
Scope Change -
Any change in the definition
Scope Creep -
Adding features and functionality (project
Scope Definition -
Breaking down the project's major
Scope Planning -
Development of a statement of
Scope Verification -
The process of formalizing acceptance
Scrum Master -
The Scrum Master is the
Specifications -
Detailed statements of project deliverables
Stakeholder -
Person or organization that is
Statement of Work (SOW) -
A narrative description of products
Sub-contractor -
A group/individual providing products or
Subject Matter Expert (SME) -
An expert in some aspect
Task -
A term for work whose
Task Dependency -
A relationship in which a
Variance -
The difference between estimated cost,
Vendor -
An organization or individuals providing
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) -
A hierarchical task list created
during the course of a project.

not a forecast or estimate.

are considered to be true, real,

resources, expend funds, make decisions, or

project, plus or minus approved changes.

project or any work breakdown structure

a business standpoint to determine whether

and controlling changes to the project

the project scope, modify policies, processes,

activities across all of the Project

of being restricted to a given

or time needed above the estimate

performance, analyzing variances, assessing trends to

sequence of schedule activities that determines

result, or capability to perform a

periods (not including holidays or other

required to complete a schedule activity

Quality Management Engagement Manager is to

likely amount or outcome. Usually applied

complete all the remaining work for

a schedule activity, a work breakdown

the project work, providing the deliverables,

direction of the designated Special Assistant

an organizational unit within a functional

specialized business function (e.g., design, Human

used to reduce risk of project

who are part of the same

a new project or a new

of the project or at the

the latest possible point in time

more tasks. See Logical Relationship.

schedule activities, or between a project

the project manager shares responsibility with

number of on-time projects. Used in

in the project. (PMBOK)

to be directed, a strategic position

project activities, usually culminating in the

process of performing the project. Lessons

precedence diagramming method for a logical

when the logical successor activity can


is quantifiable, and can be either

non-overlapping product phases whose name and

Scrum process represents the customer. The

managed in a coordinated way to

create a unique product, service or

project initiator or sponsor that formally

project phases whose name and number

tools, and techniques to project activities

performing organization to achieve the project


A type of procurement document used

must be met or possessed by

either individually or in crews or

that, if it occurs, positively or

risk management will be structured and

services, and results provided for the

of the project scope. A scope

scope) without addressing the effects on

deliverables into small, more manageable components

the principle deliverables of a project


of the completed project deliverables.

facilitator of the Agile Scrum Process

resulting from requirements definition and design.

actively involved in the project, or

services or results supplied.

services to the project. Sub-contractors can

of the project's content expected to

meaning and placement within a structured

task or milestone relies on other

duration or effort and the actual

products or services under contract to

by decomposing the project based on


(PMBOK)

or certain without proof or demonstration.

give approvals. (PMBOK)

It is compared to actual performance

component or any scheduled activity. See

or not the project is worth

baselines. (PMBOK)

plans, or procedures, modify costs or

Management Process Groups to formally complete

course of action or inaction. An

to reduce risk of overruns of

effect process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives,

the duration of the project. It

service that must be produced to

nonworking periods) required to complete a

or work breakdown structure component. Usually

consistently reach out to the University

to project costs, resources, effort, and


a schedule activity, work breakdown structure

structure component, or the project when

and providing work performance information. (PMBOK)

to the Vice Provost, is responsible

organization. The manager of any group

Resource management, etc.) and may provide

failure by dividing projects into more

organization as the client. For example,

phase of an existing project by

beginning of a major phase of

that a schedule activity may begin

schedule activity and a schedule milestone.

the functional managers for assigning priorities

improvement programs to determine if improvement

to be attained, or a purpose

completion of a major deliverable. Project

learned may be identified at any

relationship. In current usage, however, precedence

begin or end. (PMBOK)


an end item in itself or

number are determined by the manufacturing

product owner has a vision of

obtain benefits and control not available

result.(PMBOK)

authorizes the existence of a project,

are determined by the control needs

to meet the project requirements. (PMBOK)

objectives. (PMBOK)
to request proposals form prospective sellers

a system, product, service, result, or

teams), equipment, services, supplies, commodities, material,

negatively affects a projects objectives. (PMBOK)

performed on the project. It is

project. (PMBOK)

change almost always requires an adjustment

time, costs, and resources, or without

making verification, development and project control

along with the project's justification (business


and works to assist both the

Specifications describe the deliverables in terms

who is positively or negatively affected

also be vendors. However there is

provide input to the project team

plan for project work varies by

tasks to be performed (completely or

result of performance. In addition, can

the client or to the project

the breakdown of the product into


(PMBOK)

to determine if performance is within

Estimate. (PMBOK)

the required investment. (PMBOK)

budgets, or revise schedules. (PMBOK)

the project or phase. (PMBOK)

applicable restriction or limitation, either internal

project objectives to a level acceptable

and recommending appropriate corrective action as

is the longest path through the

complete a process, phase, or project.

schedule activity or work breakdown structure

expressed as staff hours, staff days,

community, to understand their technology service

durations and is usually preceded by


component, or the project. (PMBOK)

the defined scope of work will

for all fiscal activity.

that actually makes a product or

staff, products or services to a

manageable pieces. The resulting sub-projects deliver

a product developed by a manufacturing

obtaining authorization to start the project

the project to align peoples' understanding

based upon the schedule network logic,

The four possible types of logical

and for directing the work of

happened or to determine the result

to be achieved, a result to

phases are mainly sequential, but can

period. Also considered a project record,

relationship, and dependency are widely used


a component item. Additional words for

and control needs of the organization.

what the customer wishes to build

from managing them individually. Programs may

and provides the project manager with

of the organization or organizations involved

of products or services. In some

component to satisfy a contract, standard,

budgets or funds. (PMBOK)

contained in or is in a

to the project cost or schedule.

customer approval. (PMBOK)

easier. This may be part of

case) and objectives. Part of requirements


team and product owner.

of appearance, operational constraints and quality

by execution or completion of the

a growing understanding that any internal

regarding business, scientific, engineering or other

the application area, industry, and brand

partially) before it is performed. Also

be the difference between the initial

performance group. Also called outside contractors

components and the breakdown of the


acceptable variance thresholds. Generally refers

or external to a project,

to the organization. (PMBOK)

needed. (PMBOK)

project. PMBOK)

Often used more narrowly in

component. Usually expressed as workdays

or staff weeks. Contrast with

needs, and to then communicate

a modifier (i.e., preliminary, conceptual,


be completed. The EAC may

performs a service. Sometimes called

project.

parts of the full product,

company's own Engineering Department is

or phase. (PMBOK)

of project objectives, procedures and

the project completion date, and

relationships are: Finish-to-Start; Finish-to-Finish; Start

persons assigned to the project.

of goals and objectives.

be obtained, a product to

overlap in some project situations.

to be included in the

interchangeably, regardless of the diagramming


products are material and goods,

The last product life cycle

and is able to convey

include elements of related work

the authority to apply organizational

in the project. A life

application areas, it may have

specification, or other formally imposed

subsidiary plan of the project

See Project Scope. (PMBOK)

requirements definition and/or design.

definition.
attributes. Specifications are the basis

project. A stakeholder may also

group that provides products or

subjects. Input may include requirements,

of project management software.

referred to as a logical

or baseline product scope and

or sub-contractors.

project process into increasingly detailed


to the current baseline, but may

which will affect the performance of

reference to an external deliverable, which

or workweeks. Sometimes incorrectly equated with

Duration. (PMBOK)

at a high level in both

feasibility, order-of-magnitude, definitive). It should always


be calculated based on performance to

a line manager. (PMBOK)

or product versions. Sub-projects enhance to

an in-house project. Externally sourced is

plans, and to begin the team-building

any constraints assigned to the schedule

to Start; Start-to Finish. See also

(PMBOK)

be produced, or a service to

A project phase is a component

lessons learned knowledge base. (PMBOK)

method used. (PMBOK)


contrast with result. See deliverable (PMBOK)

phase for a product is generally

that vision to the Scrum team.

outside of the scope of the

resources to project activities. (PMBOK)

cycle can be documented with a

a narrower or more specific meaning.

document. Requirements include the quantified and

management plan. (PMBOK)


for acceptance criteria used in scope

exert influence over the project and

services (e.g., an internal technical writing

planning, resolutions to issues and/or review

relationship.

the actual product delivered.

tasks. The WBS is a tree


refer to the original or some

the project or a process. For

is a deliverable that is subject

elapsed time. Contrast with effort. (PMBOK)

directions the requirements and who needs

include some indication of accuracy (e.g.,


date or estimated by the project

increase functionality or improve product quality

when an outside contractor develops the

and bonding process.

activities without violating a schedule constraint

precedence relationship. (PMBOK)

be performed. (PMBOK)

of a project life cycle. A


the products retirement. Generally, a project

The product owner has authority to

discrete projects in the programs. (PMBOK)

methodology. (PMBOK)

(PMBOK)

documented needs, wants, and expectations of


verification and quality control. In some

its deliverables.

department) is a sub-contractor to the

of project results.

diagram (or hierarchy chart) or a


other baseline. Usually used with a

example, a schedule constraint is any

to approval by the project sponsor

to be involved in the conversation

x percent). (PMBOK)
team based on other factors, in

in subsequent sub-projects.

same product. Vendors involve themselves in

or delaying the project completion date.

project phase is not a Project


life cycle is contained within one

make decisions regarding the priority of

the sponsor, customer, and other stakeholders.


organizations and industries, specifications may qualify

project manager. Of course, in this

list in outline form with detailed


modifier (e.g., cost performance baseline, schedule

limitation or restraint placed on the

or customer. (PMBOK)

and recommendations. The Engagement Manger ensures


which case it is often referred

in-house projects depending on the degree

The late start dates are determined

Management Process Group. (PMBOK)


or more product life cycles. (PMBOK)

features for the product.

(PMBOK)
as requirements specifications and design specifications.

broader usage, the agreement between the

items subordinated to higher-level items.


baseline, performance measurement baseline, technical baseline). (PMBOK)

project schedule that affects when a schedule

that clear expectations regarding response timelines and


to as the latest revised estimate. (PMBOK)

to which they are responsible.

during the backward pass calculation of the


See Requirements.

parties is not a legally binding contract,


activity can be scheduled and is usually in

approach are agreed upon and delivered. The Engagement


project schedule network. (PMBOK)
but it is a contract nonetheless.
the form of fixed imposed dates. (PMBOK)

Manager is to maintain a strong facilitation presence, establishing a trusted


relationship with colleagues and the community to manage expectations successfully,
ensure the highest quality of service delivery, and solicit and act upon positive and
negative feedback.