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Battle of Ambos Nogales

(Vanessa Zambrano) Sources for Project

Primary Sources:
Admin. "Admin." Border Eco. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017. Talks about diversionary on tactics
near U.S. soil and just background information and about the battles all along the border from El
Paso to San Diego organized by German agents after the Zimmerman note was discovered.

"Fielding, Romaine." Health Sciences Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.This source talks
about Fielding's stay in Nogales

"La Frontera: The Border." La Frontera The Border. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.Talks about
what happened throughout the war.

"35th Infantry Regiment at Nogales." 35th Infantry Regiment at Nogales. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr.
2017. This is a picture that was taken in 1917 on how ambos nogales looked before the battle
"Nogales, Arizona: The Border Patrol's War Without End." NACLA. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr.
2017.
This source talks about nogales twin across the boundary and mexican as a whole

"| arizona 100 on WordPress.com." Arizona 100. N.p., 19 Sept. 2011. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
This picture is representing the camp that the US army established just outside Nogales in 1910
and stationed troops there until 1931.

"Buffalo Soldier Regiment." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this book it talks about the whole battle and almost every detail about how it ended, how it
started and who was involved

McGuire, Randall. "Modern Material Culture and Ruins in Ambos Nogales (Arizona and
Sonora)." In Explorations in Behavioral Archaeology. Ed. by W.H. Walker and J. M. Skibo, pp.
187-20, University of Utah Press, Provo. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
This source talks about the making of the u.s border .

Mcdonald, Chris.
"Https://www.dropbox.com/s/bwxhwldvyta6i3x/CSEIT_2015_Proceedings_Paper_18.pdf?dl=0."
6th Annual International Conference on Computer Science Education: Innovation & Technology
(CSEIT 2015) (2014): n. pag. Web.
This source is on a book talking about how the mexican revolution threatened to split across
the border.
Secondary Sources:
"Huachuca Illustrated, volume 2, 1996: The Battle of Ambos Nogales." Huachuca Illustrated,
volume 2, 1996: The Battle of Ambos Nogales. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
A shooting incident that the commander at Nogales, rushed reinforcements to the international
line. This source talks about how the mexican troops got ready for the war.

Thomson, George. "The Battle of Ambos Nogales protects us from border violence today."
Borderzine. N.p., 02 Sept. 2011. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
Talks about how the citizens agreed to the wiping out of the imaginary international line uniting
two nogales into general nogales.

Binelli, Mark. Guernica. N.p., 06 Feb. 2017. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.


This source talks about how it became a battle and it has background information on how the
battle started.

White, R. W. "August 27." This Day in U.S. Military History. N.p., 25 Aug. 2014. Web. 08 Apr.
2017.This source talks about how U.S. and Mexico agreed to divide the two border communities
with a chain-link border fence

Hermit, The Tactical. "Posts about Battle of Ambos Nogales on Short Stories & Novelettes for
the Discerning Martial Citizen." Short Stories & Novelettes for the Discerning Martial Citizen.
N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017. This website talks about how the city split down the middle so Half
of the town was in Mexican territory, and the other half was in US territory

Norman, L.m., H. Huth, L. Levick, I. Shea Burns, D. Phillip Guertin, F. Lara-Valencia, and D.
Semmens. "Flood hazard awareness and hydrologic modelling at Ambos Nogales, United
States-Mexico border." Journal of Flood Risk Management 3.2 (2010): 151-65. Web.This source
talks about both the U.S and the Mexican casualties.

Center, Western Geographic Science. "Western Geographic Science Center." WR Geography.


N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.This source talks about the division of the border

"WW1: The Zimmermann Telegram." RallyPoint. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.This source talks
about the US and Mexico agreed to divide the two border communities with a chain-link border
fence because of the zimmerman telegram
"Battle of Ambos Nogales." Battle of Ambos Nogales. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
This source talks about how many of the U.S and mexican troops and civilians died

Jose Llanos Hermosillo, Cantante, Bailarn, Actor y Compositor at Llanos Mc Follow. "Centro
bachillerato tecnolgico industrial y de servicios 64." LinkedIn SlideShare. N.p., 29 Nov. 2013.
Web. 08 Apr. 2017. In this source it talks about how the mexican forces were commanded by Lt.
Col. Frederick J. Herma

""History of the Buffalo Soldiers"." Houston Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017. This source
talks about how the Buffalo soldiers were engaged in military conflicts during the battle

"Buffalo Soldiers." The Arizona Experience - landscapes, people, culture and events. N.p., 28
Apr. 2014. Web. 08 Apr. 2017. This source talks about how the Germans were planning an
attacking on Nogales using Mexican force

"FORT HUACHUCA, CAVALRY STABLES HABS AZ-210 ... - cdn.loc.gov." N.p., n.d. Web. 8
Apr. 2017. In this source it talks about one of the problems that mexicans had which was the
smuggling of weapons and ammunition into Mexico

"Battle of Ambos Nogales explained." Battle of Ambos Nogales explained. N.p., n.d. Web. 08
Apr. 2017. In this source it talks about the death of Mayor Pealoza and a cease-fire

Gutenberg, Project. "| Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks online." |
Project Gutenberg Self-Publishing - eBooks | Read eBooks online. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr.
2017.This picture represent the leaders of the battle from left to right is Generals lvaro
Obregn, Pancho Villa and John J. Pershing, behind Pershing is Lt. George S. Patton
"Wiki Visually.com." Wiki Visually. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017. This picture is representing the
buffalo soldiers who were taken for prisoners

FD Chief. "Battles that Changed History; Columbus, 1916." Battles that Changed History;
Columbus, 1916. N.p., 31 Mar. 2011. Web. 08 Apr. 2017. This source talks about how Pancho
Villa was convinced that the deadly searchlights had been located north of the Border

"Http://ljournal.ru/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/d-2016-154.pdf." (2016): n. pag. Web. In this


picture it represents the first african american sergeant in the battle
(Wendy Arzate) Sources for Project

Primary Sources:
1.
"The Washington Informer: Headline News." The Washington Informer: Headline News.
N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this source there is a guy who talks about his experience in the battle and the difficult
times that he had.

2.
"Is the U.S. Falling Behind Mexico? News from Ambos Nogales." The Berkeley Blog. N.p.,
04 Aug. 2014. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this source there is a guy who talks to a lady and her name is Alma and she lives in ambos
nogales when the battle was going on.

3.
Maurowhiteman.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this source there is a lady and man that talk about the things everyone else was doing.

4.
Admin. "Admin." Border Eco. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this site there is man who explains what happened that day and what he was doing. He also
talks about what everyone else did when they heard the gunshots.

5.
"La Frontera: The Border." La Frontera The Border. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this site there is a lady who talks about her experience during the battle.

6. Primary source:
Https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkcs91lWKTM. N.d.
I this video it has a lot of pictures from the war.

7. Primary source:

8. Primary source:

9. Primary source:

Secondary sources:
1.
Sussle.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
This battle was mainly a significant confrontation between US and Mexican forces during the
border war. All this occurred after the Zimmerman telegram during World War l. In this source also
talk about the different leaders at the time and what they did in the battle and all the different plans
that they had.

2.
"Battle of Ambos Nogales - Background - U.S.-Mexico Relations in Ambos Nogales During
The Mexican Revolution." Battle of Ambos Nogales - Background - U.S.-Mexico Relations in
Ambos Nogales During The Mexican Revolution | US-Mexico Relations Ambos Nogales
Mexican Revolution. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this source it talks more about the relationship that the US had with Mexico and the different
people that were in the war and the thing that they went through. Some other things that it talks
about is the different ways that the battle started and many facts about what happened throughout
the battle.

3.
"Battle of Ambos Nogales." Battle_of_Ambos_Nogales - TerritorioScuola Enhanced Wiki
Alfa - Enhanced Search with WikiPedia Using Robots to display related resources from the
web to all WikiPedia words (Video/Audio, .doc, ,pdf, .ppt, maps, edu, .html). N.p., n.d. Web.
08 Apr. 2017.
In this source it talks more about the border and the different things that happened in the border
and the conflicts that they had with different people. There is also more pictures.

4.
Wirth, Jennifer. "The First Fence Between The U.S. And Mexico Was Built Due To This
Forgotten WWI Battle." All Day. N.p., 10 Jan. 2017. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this source it has pictures and right under the pictures it gives you a description of the picture
and some of the background information about it.

5.
Azborderlands.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this source it has pictures and some more information about the battle. It also has a map of the
Battle of Ambos Nogales.

6.
"Excerpt." Excerpt. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this passage it talks about what the people were doing before the battle even happened and the
more information about certain events that were happening and why they wanted to go into war with
the U.S.
7.
"Buffalo Soldiers." Buffalo Soldiers. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
I this passage it talks about the soldiers and a lot of more information about what they were doing
throughout the war and there is a picture of some of the guys that were in the war.

8.
The Daily Dose. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this source it talks about what happened in the battle and some other information.

9.
"Andrew Explains it All: Battle of Ambos Nogales - Watch." Creative Tucson. N.p., n.d. Web.
08 Apr. 2017.
This is a video and there is a guy that talks about the battle and how it impacted everyone.

10.
"Nogales (Arizona)." Nogales (Arizona) - DavisHunter.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this source there is man who went to visit Nogales and he talks about the battle and the
different places you can visit and they are areas where the battle took place.

11.
Siadak, Austin. "Arizona : Borderlands." Arizona : Borderlands. N.p., 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 08
Apr. 2017.
In this source some guy who took a lot of pictures and he writes a little description about each one
underneath it.

12.
"Posts from November 2012 on Frontera List." Frontera List. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
In this site it talks more about the impact that the battle had on the troops who fought in the battle
and how bad it has been for them.

13.
"The Full Wiki." Arizona - The Full Wiki. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
This site gives a lot of information about the problems they had and how the battle impacted the
people in a very bad way.

14.
PBS. Public Broadcasting Service, n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2017.
This page talks about who was the president during the fight and he was the president of Ambos
Nogales during that time.

15. Secondary source:


16. Secondary source:

17. Secondary source:

18. Secondary source:

(Kobe King) Sources for Project


Primary Sources:
Woodrow Wilson, War Messages, 65th Cong., 1st Sess. Senate Doc. No. 5, Serial No. 7264,
Washington, D.C., 1917; pp. 3-8, passim.
1)http://www.animatedatlas.com/ww1/warmessage.html
World War 1 President WIlsons message to Congress on April 2, 1917 and it states how he
wanted to declare a war against Germany. Four days later, Congress had passed the War
Resolution which forced the United States into the great war/ WW1.

2)http://arizonaexperience.org/remember/featured-exhibit-buffalo-soldiers
This site demonstrates the outlook amongst Buffalo Soldiers and it gives more details on how
Germany and U.S entered the war during World War 1

3)http://www.gwpda.org/comment/huachuca/HI2-06.htm
From this site, I can include how the war ceased fire and how a permanent border wall
established in Ambos Nogales.

4)http://www.gwpda.org/comment/huachuca/HI2-06.htm
This talks about how the battle of Nogales came to an end. After a meeting with the Mexican
official party regarding the situation, the hostilities were resolved.

5)http://net.lib.byu.edu/estu/wwi/comment/huachuca/HI2-06.htm
This is based off of a book which shows the impact of the battle in an American perspective.
The impact is that the American military was victorious and a Binational cease-fire arranged.

6)https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Battle%20of%20Ambos%20Nogales
From this site, I can clarify how it occurred during WW1 when the international border between
the two Nogales was a wide-open boulevard named International Street. Several previous fatal
incidents had occurred in this area, which helped increase international tensions and led to
armed conflict.

7) https://www.revolvy.com/topic/Battle%20of%20Ambos%20Nogales
This is an engagement fought between Mexican forces and the U.S army troops. This is an
important confrontation between U.S and Mexican forces during the Border War.

8)https://sussle.org/t/Battle_of_Ambos_Nogales
This indicates exactly when the battles occurred after the Zimmermann telegram during WW1.
As a result, the U.S and Mexico agreed to divide the two border communities with a chain-link
fence.

9)http://visarts.ucsd.edu/news/battle-ambos-nogales-protects-us-border-violence-today
This illustrates the results that ended in which the United States became triumphant and it
changed todays society. It also made sure that the army will not be attacked anymore and will
not be involved in violence.

Secondary Sources:

1)This image represents the living conditions many soldiers faced during the war in the
trenches. This also displays/reveals why journalists were threatened in the wars.

2)http://www.awb.com/dailydose/?p=419
This is a brief article that describes the horrific battle between Mexican forces and elements of
the U.S army troops. From this source, I can clarify how vicious and competitive the war was
and talk about how it is similar to WW1.
3)The image reveals the battles along the border which took place in 1918.

4)I can clarify how the U.S got involved in this war with the Mexican army of the 35th infantry.

5)This image represents how United States entered the war.

6)http://www.awb.com/dailydose/?p=419
From this site, I can infer how the Battle of Ambos Nogales brung the fence to the border. The
U.S. border authorities panicked World War I was being fought in Europe and the Germans
had been urging the Mexicans to abandon their neutrality.

7)https://www.jstor.org/stable/41697262?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
This is an article that explains the conflicts that was fought. U.S and Mexico tested the strength
of these bonds and forever transformed Ambos Nogales and the borderlands.
8)This image shows the pathway and how the battle escalated.

9)https://www.jstor.org/stable/41697262?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
This is a brief article which describes the military leaders and the impact of the battle.

10)It is a map that reveals the permanent border wall that was established in Mexico.

11)https://sussle.org/t/Battle_of_Ambos_Nogales
This site also includes the casualties among the United States Army and The Mexican army

12)https://www.jstor.org/stable/41697262?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
This is a article that shows the ending of the war that occurred in Europe. It describes the
certain effects of these conflicts.

13)ttp://visarts.ucsd.edu/news/battle-ambos-nogales
This site includes how the border protects us from violence today.

14)This image shows the memories and the citizens who fell to fulfil their patriotic jobs.
:

15)https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Nogales
This site reveals the International Street between the United States of America and the United
Mexican States.

16)This picture demonstrates and differentiate the battle between Nogales, Arizona and
Nogales, Sonora. I can use this because it shows the rivalry and the militia forces.

17) http://www.counterpunch.org/2016/10/24/humanizing-our-militarized-border/
This is a lengthy article which shows the militarized border and the immigration problems that
United States and Mexico faced.

18)This source is an explanation of the historical events that took place in Nogales Arizona and
it evaluates the conflict between U.S and Mexico which occurred on August 28th, 1918.