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Conditionals; Other

9 Ways to Express
Unreality

Experiences of an
International Traveler

Focus on Grammar 5
Part IX, Unit 23
By Ruth Luman, Gabriele Steiner, and BJ Wells
Copyright 2006. Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Tired Traveler

I wish I If only I had


could brush found a taxi.
my teeth
right now.

If the airport
hadnt lost my
luggage, I
If I had more
wouldnt have
money, I
been delayed.
would stay at
better hotels.
Real Conditionals
Real conditionals are sentences that describe
situations that occur regularly or are likely or possible in
the future.

If we dont get to the station on


If I dont put
time, the train will leave without us.
InInpresent-time
future-time sunscreen on,
situations, use the I get a bad
simple present in sunburn.
the
bothif clause
clausesand
to
the
describe
futurehabitual
with will
or or
beregularly
going to in
occurring
the result actions.
clause.
Unreal Conditionals
Unreal conditionals are sentences that describe
situations that are untrue, unlikely, or impossible in the
present or the past.

She doesnt have enough


In present-time money and she wont
situations, use the visit Paris.
simple past in the
if clause and
would, could, or
might plus the
base form of the If I had enough
verb in the result money, I would
clause. visit Paris.
Present Unreal Conditionals
Use the simple past in the if clause. If the verb is be,
use were for all persons. Use could, might, or would
+ base form in the result clause.

Wheres my wallet?
If I were a better planner I
wouldnt travel without a map.

If he were more careful, he


would He
notice
didnt that
travelhis
withwallet
a
was missing.
map, so he got lost.
Past Unreal Conditionals
Use the past unreal conditional for past unreal, untrue, imagined, or
impossible conditions and their unreal results. Use the past perfect in the
if clause. Use could, might, or would + have + past participle in the
result clause.

Wheres my wallet?
If I had looked at a map, I
wouldnt have gotten lost.

If he had been more careful,


he might have
He didnt noticed
look at a map,his
walletsowas missing.
he got lost.
Look at the chart and complete
Practice 1 the conditionals with your own
ideas.

Real Unreal Past Unreal

If + past perfect
If + simple past
If + simple present If + simple present AND
AND
AND AND would/could/might
would/could/might
simple present will + base form verb + have
+ base form verb
+ past participle verb

1. If I visit Europe,
Examples:
If2. , enough
I had I might not have
money, I gotten sick. to Asia.
would travel
If3. If weenough
I have took an money,
airplane,

I will travel to Asia.
If4. If wehad
I had hada made reservations,
lot of money,I wouldhave traveled to Asia.
5. , I would learn Russian.
Wish 1
Use wish + could / would + base form to
express a wish about the future.

I wish that baby


would stop crying.

This is what he wants, but


he is not sure if the baby
will change his behavior.
Wish 2
Use wish + the simple past to express a
wish about the present.

I wish I
caught an
earlier flight. I wish I had
more leg
room.
Wish 3

Use wish + the past perfect to express a


wish about the past.

The man ate the


airplane food.

I wish I hadnt
eaten that
airplane food.
Hope and Wish

Dont confuse hope and wish.

I hope I get I wish (that) I


to the plane didnt have so
on time. much luggage.

Use hope to
express a desire Use wish to express
about events that regrets about things
are possible or that are unlikely or
probable. impossible to change.
If Only

If only can also be used to express wishes.

If only they wouldnt


leave me here for
the rest of my life.

Present
Future

If only they
could see me.
Use the pictures to make

Practice 2 statements using wish and if


only. Make statements about the
present, future, and past.

Example: I wish I could take


the bus.

If only Id make
my flight.

1. 2. 3.
References

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education and


its licensors. All rights reserved.