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GUILD EDITION

Woodsmith.com Vol. 37 / No. 221

HEIRLOOM
WINE
CABINET
Traditional
Icebox Design
Classic Joinery
& Techniques
Elegant Period
Hardware

INSIDE:
Taming Tricky
Table Saw Cuts
A Better Way
to Build Cabinets
Tips & Tricks for
Routing Smooth Proles
A Publication of August Home Publishing

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PUBLISHER Donald B. Peschke

EDITORIAL MEDIA DIRECTOR Bryan Nelson


MANAGING EDITOR Vincent Ancona
SENIOR EDITORS Wyatt Myers,
Phil Huber, Randall A. Maxey
ASSISTANT EDITOR Robert Kemp

EXECUTIVE ART DIRECTOR Todd Lambirth


SENIOR ILLUSTRATORS Harlan V. Clark,
from the editor
Sawdust
Dirk Ver Steeg, Peter J. Larson
SENIOR GRAPHIC DESIGNER Bob Zimmerman
GRAPHIC DESIGNER Becky Kralicek

CREATIVE DIRECTOR Ted Kralicek


ASSISTANT DESIGN DIRECTOR Chris Fitch I honestly dont know when I first became interested in building
PROJECT DESIGNER/BUILDER John Doyle
things. It seems like it was always in my blood. My grandfather and father were
CAD SPECIALIST Steve Johnson
SHOP CRAFTSMAN Dana Myers both civil engineers, building bridges the entire time I was growing up. Early
on, I had the privilege of going to construction sites to watch how things went
SENIOR PHOTOGRAPHERS Crayola England,
Dennis Kennedy together. (Yes, it was a different time then.) Later, I worked for my dad, having
ASSOCIATE STYLE DIRECTOR Rebecca Cunningham a hand in building bridges during my summer breaks from college.
SENIOR ELECTRONIC IMAGE SPECIALIST Allan Ruhnke
PRODUCTION ASSISTANT Minniette Johnson
So its not unusual for me to stop and take a close look at any type of construc-
VIDEO EDITOR/DIRECTOR Mark Hayes tion, whether its a house, a bridge, or a skyscraper. Im sure thats true for many
woodworkers. What was it that really piqued your interest in making things?
Woodsmith (ISSN 0164-4114) is published bimonthly by For many, Id hazard a guess that it was an Erector Set, a can of Tinker Toys, or
August Home Publishing Company, 2200 Grand Ave, Des Moines, IA 50312.
Woodsmith is a registered trademark of August Home Publishing. even a box of Lego bricks. If youre like me, you had them all when you were
Copyright 2015 August Home Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Subscriptions: Single copy: $6.95. growing up, spending countless hours constructing anything you could dream
Canadian Subscriptions: Canada Post Agreement No. 40038201. Send change of
address information to PO Box 881, Station Main, Markham, ON L3P 8M6. up. But the one I most closely associate with woodworking is a set of Lincoln Logs,
Canada BN 84597 5473 RT
Periodicals Postage Paid at Des Moines, IA, and at additional offices.
or American Logs, one of its competitors. The cabin shown above was built from
Postmaster: Send change of address to Woodsmith, Box 37106,
Boone, IA 50037-0106.
an American Logs set made over 70 years ago. Its a timeless toy that has been
handed down through the family of Dirk Ver Steeg, one of our senior illustrators.
You can still buy all these products, but we thought wed create our own set
WoodsmithCustomerService.com of building logs. If you turn to page 18, youll see the final result, Linkin Logs.
Instead of the small scale of past designs, we enlarged everything overall, making
ONLINE SUBSCRIBER SERVICES
VIEW your account information them easier to handle. Since most of the parts are identical and require similar
RENEW your subscription cuts, we developed a couple of jigs to help ensure accurately sized and spaced
CHECK on a subscription payment
PAY your bill notches. Plus, you can add to the set by making more parts any time you wish.
CHANGE your mailing or e-mail address This way, everything fits together just right when youre playing with them I
VIEW/RENEW your gift subscriptions
TELL US if youve missed an issue mean when your kids or grandkids are playing with them.
All in all, it was a fun project to design, make, and quite honestly, play with.
CUSTOMER SERVICE Phone: 800-333-5075 weekdays
And if thats not enough to get you back into the shop, check out the rest of the
SUBSCRIPTIONS EDITORIAL
Customer Service Woodsmith Magazine issue for a lot of other great projects and articles.
P.O. Box 842 2200 Grand Avenue
Des Moines, IA 50304-9961 Des Moines, IA 50312
subscriptions@augusthome.com woodsmith@woodsmith.com

Printed in U.S.A.

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contents No. 221 October/November 2015

28

18

Projects
gift project
Linkin Logs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Check out this update to a classic childrens
toy thats perfect for young and old alike. All of
the pieces are larger, making the parts easier to
handle. And simple jigs speed up the process of
42
making a complete set of identical parts.

shop project
Drill Press Depth Stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Upgrade your drill press in a weekend. Then you can quickly
drill holes to an accurate depth more precisely. This add-on also
makes setting a sanding drum to a specific position a snap.

designer project
Classic Cherry Step Stool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Every home has an item or two out of reach. Build this elegant
step stool and youll never have to worry about safe and stylish
access to a high shelf, sink, or countertop.

shop project
Sliding Cutoff Grinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Get more from your angle grinder by turning it into a metal-
working station. The sliding feature of this benchtop unit makes
any grinder not only more useful but also more accurate.

heirloom project
Icebox Wine Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Theres not much call for an icebox these days, but the need for
a storage and serving center exists in many homes. This cabinet
provides a much-needed solution in a timeless icebox design.
34
Woodsmith.com 3

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10
16

Departments

from our readers


Tips & Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
all about
Top Shop Supply: Sandpaper . . . . 10
router workshop
Bullnose Tips & Tricks . . . . . . . . . 12

54 great gear
Hands-Free Magnifiers . . . . . . . . 14
woodworking technique
Top-Notch Reinforced Rabbets . . 16
working with tools
Using Paring Chisels. . . . . . . . . . . 54

in the shop
A Better Way to Build: 32mm . . . 56
woodworking essentials
Dadoes, Grooves & Rabbets . . . . 60
mastering the table saw
Taming Angles & Tapers . . . . . . . 62
tips from our shop
Shop Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

62 questions & answers


Finishes for Toys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
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o m o u r
fr
readers

Tips &
Techniques
I-Beam Drill Press Table
I do a lot of metalworking in my shop.
This often leaves my drill press table
oily and covered in metal shavings. To
use my drill press for woodworking,
I wanted a quick-change option that
would give me a clean worksurface
without going to the trouble of building
a large auxiliary table.
What I came up with is this I-beam
#8 x 1!/2"
accessory that clamps to the drill press !/4" roundover Fh woodscrew
on outside edges FLANGE
table. With this assembly fas-
tened to the table, I can clamp a. NOTE: V-grooves
#/8 90 !/4 are centered in
workpieces to the upper both directions
flange of the I-beam. !/4
Flange FILLER NOTE: Upper and
The I-beam is made
Filler SIDE lower flanges are
entirely of plywood and is Side 4!/2 mirror images
3 &/8 3#/8
glued and screwed together.
11#/4
Its I shape provides sup- 4!/2
port for the workpiece on 11#/4
SIDE
the upper flange. The lower SIDE VIEW
flange allows the assembly
FILLER
to be clamped to the drill
!/4" roundover on
press table. For extra control, I routed outside edges %/8"-rad.
V-grooves in the upper and lower flanges NOTE: V-grooves cut 2 FLANGE
to help hold round stock. in upper and lower
flanges so I-beam 11#/4 11#/4 NOTE: All parts
Jason Adams can be used in either are made from
orientation #/4" plywood
McKinney, Texas

Win This Kreg K5 Jig


Simply send us your favorite shop
tips. If your tip or technique is selected The Winner!
as the featured readers tip, youll win Congratulations to
a Kreg K5 Jig just like the one shown DeLayne Peck, the winner
here. To submit your tip or technique, of this Kreg K5 Jig. To find
just go online to Woodsmith.com and
out how you can win this
jig, check out the
click on the link, SUBMIT A TIP. There
information at left.
you can submit your tip and upload
your photos for consideration.

Woodsmith.com 5

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Vise Face Replacements
I use a 6" clamp-on bench vise in my shop
for many jobs. When it was new, I installed
some simple wood jaw faces in the vise to
make it easier to use for woodworking. But
over time, these wood faces had become
nicked, scarred, and encrusted with glue.
Needing some new faces, I decided it would
be useful to make a few different styles for
various tasks. I also wanted to make them
so they would be easy to switch out. What I
decided on is the design you see at left.
CLEVER SOLUTION. My interchangable jaw faces
are easy to make. After cutting the new jaw
faces to size from plywood, I routed T-slots
in the back face of each replacement jaw. A
T-slot cutting bit in the router table makes
quick work of the task. The slots line up with
the mounting holes on the face of the vise
jaws. Insert a couple of hex head bolts in
NOTE: Jaws can be
#/4 sized to accommodate a. SIDE SECTION VIEW
the vise and thread them in just enough
different vises
6#/8 #/16 so that the wood jaws slip in place.
#/16
Jaw I made one regular set of jaws, one set
with cork faces for delicate parts, and
90 V-GROOVE JAW !/4
one set with V-grooves for round stock.
1
Bill Huber
%/16" Haslet, Texas
rad. 2%/8
3 2!/2
Size bolt
to fit vise b.
TOP VIEW #/16

3!/8 Vise
&/8 4#/8
NOTE: Jaws are made NOTE: Space T-slots to
from #/4" plywood match spacing on vise

QUICK TIPS

Double-sided
tape

Workbench Power. Willie Elizardo of Zeeland, Michigan, Angled Parts. Bill Wells of Olympia, Washington, came up
was having problems with the power strip on his bench with a clever solution for gluing an angled piece to a flat
always getting knocked around. He found the perfect surface without using fasteners. He simply uses the angled
solution while putting up the Christmas lights: An outdoor cutoff piece as a clamp block and some double-sided tape
power bank with a stake that fits the dog holes of his bench. between the parts. A bar clamp holds everything together.

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!/2
Adhesive-backed 2
sandpaper 45

NOTE: Upper base and FENCE


lower base are made
from !/4" hardboard.
Fence and cleat are
made from #/4"-thick
hardwood
UPPER BASE

!/16" deep !/8


6
groove

1&/8
LOWER BASE
13

CLEAT

10
1!/4

Small Parts Miter Trimmer


Cutting miters by hand using my miter both ends. The key to getting perfect
box gets me close to the final length on miters with this trimmer is installing
small workpieces. But it doesnt quite the fence so it sits at a precise 45 angle
get me the perfect fit Im looking for. with the base. (Note: A combination
To produce tight-fitting miter joints square is a good tool to use to position
on small parts, I made the small parts the fence.) Also, its equally important
miter trimmer shown above. This handy
jig makes it easy to hold a piece at a 45
that the ends of the fence line up flush
with the edge of the upper base. DIGITAL WOODSMITH
angle while shaving the mitered end The last part of the small parts trim-
with a block plane (inset photo). mer is a 34"-thick hardwood cleat. It fits SUBMIT TIPS ONLINE
LINE
EASY BUILD. The construction of this against the edge of the bench, holding If you have an original shop
op
small parts trimmer is pretty simple. It the whole assembly in place during use. tip, we would like to hearr
consists of a two-piece hardboard base, a After the pieces are glued together, from you and consider
90 fence, and a bottom cleat. The upper attach sandpaper to the fence to keep publishing your tip in one
base aligns the plane as it trims, and workpieces from slipping. Then, its just or more of our publications.
ns.
the lower base has grooves for keeping a matter of trimming the mitered ends of Jump online and go to:
chips out of the path of the plane. the parts so they fit tight.
Woodsmith.com
m
The fence is built from two pieces of Allan Smith
3 and click on the link,
k,
4"-thick hardwood with 45 miters on San Diego, California
SUBMIT A TIP

Youll be able to tell us all about
your tip and upload your photos
hotos and
Button Box Feet drawings. You can also maill your tips
To finish off a small box, sometimes to Woodsmith Tips at the editorial
all I need is a simple means to slightly address shown on page 2. We will pay
up to $200 if we publish your tip.
raise the box. Ive found that small
button plugs work perfect for the job.
To install, you only need to drill
RECEIVE FREE ETIPS
shallow holes in the bottom of the BY EMAIL
box for the plugs to slip into. The Now you can have the best time-saving
secrets, solutions, and techniques sent
plugs are then glued in place. And if
directly to your email inbox. Just go to:
the box doesnt sit
a. flat, simply run the
SECTION VIEW Woodsmith.com
plugs over a piece
Plug and click on,
tenon of sandpaper on a
Woodsmith Tips
flat surface to level
things out. Youll receive one of our favorite tips
Edward Stiles by email each and every week.
Lawton, Oklahoma

Woodsmith.com 7

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Outrigger Miter Saw Clamps
Using your hand to hold a workpiece
against the fence of a miter saw can be a
dangerous proposition. Especially if the
workpiece is small or needs to be held at
an angle (like the crown molding shown
at left). To assist in situations like these,
I designed this dual outrigger clamping
system to use on my miter saw.
TWO COMPONENTS. This clamping system
consists of two main components. The
riser assemblies raise the clamps up to
the level of the miter saw table. Theyre
attached to the workbench with screws.
The other parts consist of clamp assem-
blies that hold the workpiece against the
fence. Each one has a tall fence on one
side with a strip of adhesive-backed
sandpaper on its face. The two slots
allow for different clamp placements
(photo below). A threaded rod and knob
secures the clamp to the riser assembly.
CUSTOMIZABLE DESIGN. This clamping sys-
tem can be configured to fit other miter
saws. For instance, the riser assemblies
can be made taller or shorter by chang-
ing the dimension of the uprights. Or,
the risers may work better to the side of
the saw base, rather than in front.
%/16"-18 Adhesive-backed NOTE: Left and right
HANDLE knob Gerald Welf
sandpaper placed on clamp and riser
face of fence and clamp assemblies are Fridley, Minnesota
mirror images
!/4" roundover
%/16"
fender
!/4" washer
FENCE
chamfer !/4"- %/16"-18 x 5!/4"
rad. threaded rod

CLAMP
11!/2 BASE
#/4

%/8"- rad.
NOTE: Handle is made
%/8"- rad. from 1!/2"-dia. dowel.
All other parts are
RISER made from #/4" plywood
CAP 5!/4
45+ UPRIGHT

NOTE: Drill hole for a. 1!/2 { For blade clearance, position the clamp
threaded rod after 3%/8 base with the threaded rod through the
assembling cap, Fence
uprights, and
Handle
45 slot when making angled cuts.
base with glue 2#/8 2!/4
1
UPRIGHT 2
2#/4 !/2 b. Fence 45

Riser cap 2 2
Clamp 3&/8 2#/4
#8 x 1!/4" base
Fh woodscrew #/4

NOTE: Use #/8 #/8


Upright 9 1!/2
epoxy to hold Clamp
RISER threaded rod in %/8 1!/2
NOTE: !/4" radius BASE base
on corners of riser assembly Riser base
riser cap and base !/2
1!/2 2
SIDE SECTION VIEW TOP VIEW
3%/8
3

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QUICK TIPS

Pencil Lubricant. R.B. Himes of Vienna, Ohio, seldom


has a can of dry lubricant handy. But he always has a
pencil in his apron pocket. If he notices the miter gauge
in his table saw sticking a little, he blows out the saw-
dust and scribbles on the sides and bottom of the miter
gauge slot. The graphite keeps things sliding freely.
Simple Saddle Square
There are many commercial saddle squares available that
allow you to mark three adjacent faces of a workpiece with-
out moving the square, but theyre rather expensive. What I
wanted was a three-sided saddle square that wouldnt break
the bank. What I came up with is the simple square you see
above and in the drawing below.
PLYWOOD PARTS. This saddle square is made from four ply-
wood parts and some common hardware items. The fixed
jaw has two guides glued in notches at the top corners. I
cut the notches at the band saw. The rear, sliding jaw gets a
threaded insert installed as shown below. A cap screw and
small spring hold the sliding jaw in position. Depending on
the springs tension, this square will adjust to accommodate PVC Supports. To support a workpiece while gluing or
workpieces from 14" to 114" thick. finishing, Dave Youngren of Clovis, California, uses 34"
DeLayne Peck PVC pipe with a tee fitting on the ends to keep the pipe
3 Lincoln, Nebraska from rolling. The supports are inexpensive to make and
1
can be easily cleaned off when they get too messy.
GUIDE
GUIDE

NOTE: All parts


are made from
#/4" plywood

!/4"-20
threaded
insert

SLIDING JAW #/4


#/8 !/4" I.D. x
1"-long spring

%/16"-dia.
hole Non-Stick Clamps. Jack Kreinbring of La Crosse, Wis-
2!/4 consin, got tired of glue getting all over his handscrew
FIXED JAW clamps and leaving a sticky mess. To stop this problem
he used contact adhesive to glue some small pieces of
3
!/4"-20 x 2!/2" laminate to the jaw faces. They make cleanup a breeze.
cap screw

Woodsmith.com 9

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all
about

premium Sandpaper
} Available in a range of grits, premium When it comes to buying a new tool for As you can see in the drawing at the top
sandpaper lasts longer and cuts faster the shop, many of us will spend hours of the next page, sandpaper is comprised
than conventional sandpaper. comparing specs and reviews before of three main elements a backing, the
making a purchase. Yet for everyday abrasive material (grit), and an adhesive
items, we tend to just grab whatever layer that anchors the abrasive to the
80-grit is least expensive. But often there are backing. Although there are some slight
differences in quality for even the most differences among the manufacturers,
basic of shop supplies. premium sandpapers generally have
Take sandpaper, for example. The high-quality materials in all three areas.
150-grit top abrasive manufacturers all offer at BACKING. Lets start with the back-
least one line of premium sandpaper. ing. Low-priced sandpaper often uses
Nortons line is called ProSand. 3M has ordinary kraft paper as a backing. This
SandBlaster and Fre-Cut Gold. And Mirkas material is inexpensive, but its not very
premium paper is known as GoldFlex. durable. When hand sanding, its easy
These all cost a bit more than ordinary to catch the sandpaper on the edge or
180-grit sandpaper, but there are several ben- corner of a project and have the sheet rip
efits. Premium sandpaper lasts longer, or tear, decreasing its useful life.
doesnt tear as easily, and doesnt load Premium sandpapers use a stronger
up as quickly in use. To understand why, backing material, typically reinforced
it helps to take a closer look at how pre- with fiber and latex. This achieves two
mium sandpapers are manufactured and objectives. It makes the paper more flex-
what makes them different. ible so that you can fold it or bend it to

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conform to different shapes when sanding
profiles. And it also makes the sandpaper
more resistant to rips and tears. Stearate (soap) helps
prevent dust loading
In addition to being reinforced, the Grit
backing material used in some of 3Ms
premium sandpapers also has a special Sizing seals grit
no-slip coating. The rubbery texture of Adhesive into place
this backing allows you to fold the sand- Grit
paper in half or quarters without having
it slip while sanding. Backing
ABRASIVE MATERIAL. The second element
that goes into the making of sandpaper
is the abrasive. There are three main
types of abrasives used in the manufac- alumina molecules to fuse together.
ture of sandpaper aluminum oxide, The treatment makes the material
silicon carbide, and zirconia alumina. harder to break down and the
For hand sanding of wood, aluminum result is longer-lasting sandpaper.
oxide is generally considered the best The abrasive stays sharp longer,
choice. Aluminum oxide grains are giving you faster results.
sharp and hard, but also friable. This ADHESIVE LAYER. The third compo-
simply means the grains will fracture nent of sandpaper is the bond that
during use, exposing new, sharp edges. holds the grains of abrasive to the
However, not all aluminum oxide is backing. This is actually applied { The rigid adhesives used in some inexpensive
equal. There are differences in the qual- in two stages. First, a base layer of sandpapers (left) tend to crack and flake off
ity of aluminum oxide abrasive. The adhesive, known as a make coat, when the paper is folded, as shown above.
less expensive sandpapers usually use is applied to the backing. After the
brown aluminum oxide, which is cheaper abrasive material is applied to the paper, papers use animal glues. The problem
to produce but also breaks down faster. a second coat of adhesive is applied with this type of bonding material is that
The premium sandpapers use a higher- to anchor the abrasive in place. This is as you use the sandpaper, the heat gener-
quality abrasive. For example, Norton know as the size coat. ated from the friction tends to soften the
uses a white aluminum oxide. This abra- There are several different types of adhesive, and the sandpaper will start to
sive material is heat-treated, causing the adhesives that can be used. The cheapest shed the abrasive material.
But with the premium sandpapers, the
bond is a resin mixture that combines
strength, flexibility, and the ability to
withstand temperature changes. Manu-
facturers tend to keep the exact formulas
of the adhesives used on their premium
sandpapers a secret. But you can see the
difference in the photo above.
Ordinary sandpaper STEARATE COATING. The final element of
(80-grit)
premium paper is one that you probably
wont find at all on cheaper sandpaper.
This is a stearate coating that is applied
to the surface of the paper. The stearate
is a type of surfactant (soap) that serves
Norton ProSand
(80-grit) to lubricate the sandpaper and prevent
it from clogging up as quickly in use.
This is especially helpful when sanding
between coats of finish.
Premium sandpaper can cost two to
three times more than regular sandpaper.
But when you consider that it works
faster (photo at left) and lasts several
times longer, the difference in price isnt
{ After 50 strokes with both premium and ordinary sandpapers, you can see the difference really all that difficult to justify. For more
in the amount of material that is removed. The higher-quality abrasives in the premium on where to find premium sandpapers,
sandpaper stay sharp longer. This means they cut faster and dont break down as quickly. refer to Sources on page 67. W

Woodsmith.com 11

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router
p
worksho

routing
Bullnose Profiles
Full-radius
bullnose On most woodworking projects, a of a piece, rather than a full half-circle
decorative profile or molding even (middle photo, left).
a simple one is preferable to a sharp, Both of these types of bullnoses can be
flat edge on parts like shelves and table- varied in other ways, too. As an example,
tops. And though its about as easy as for a different look you can form a bull-
it gets, one that I find myself turning to nose that doesnt cover the full thickness
Partial-radius time and again is the bullnose. of the workpiece and has a shoulder on
bullnose
At its essence, a bullnose is a pretty one or both edges (lower photo).
basic concept: It refers to a profile in MAKING BULLNOSE PROFILES. I usually make
which both the top and bottom edges bullnoses by using a standard round-
are rounded. But from this simple idea, over bit, either in a router table or with
you can create a lot of different looks for the router hand-held. The approach I
your projects. take typically depends on the size of the
TYPES OF BULLNOSES. Though all bull- workpiece. For example, if I want to add
Stepped
noses have two rounded edges, there a bullnose to a tabletop after its assem-
bullnose are several approaches to making the bled, Ill use the hand-held router. But if
profile. Probably the easiest bullnose to Im routing the edge of a small shelf, the
understand is known as a full-radius router table is a great method that offers
bullnose. As the name implies, its a a bit more control.
workpiece that features a full radius, FULL-RADIUS BULLNOSE. Probably the easiest
or a half-circle, on the edge (refer to the bullnose profile to rout is the full-radius
{ The simple bullnose offers up a lot of upper photo at left). bullnose without a step. For this opera-
different options when it comes to edge A partial-radius bullnose is a flatter, tion, you simply choose a roundover bit
profiles for your projects. more gradual bullnose profile. It usually thats half the thickness of the workpiece
features an oval shape along the edge (for example, a 38" roundover bit for

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3 Here, Ill often use a 12" roundoverr bit
4"-thick stock). Then set the roundover
bit to cut a full roundover, and pass both to do a partial roundover on 34"-thickhick
edges of the workpiece over the bit. pieces. Then you set the bit so the top
If you want to add a step to one or both edge of the carbide cutter is centered ered
edges, youll simply choose a smaller on the thickness of the workpiece, and
roundover bit. For example, you could rout both edges (lower left drawing). g).
use a 14" roundover bit to create a full- The only drawback to this technique que
radius bullnose with a 18" step on each is that it often leaves a small ridge on
n the
edge of a 34"-thick workpiece (upper edge of the workpiece, particularly whenhen
drawing below). using a hand-held router (photo below).ow).
PARTIAL-RADIUS BULLNOSE. To create a However, this is usually easy to remove
move
partial-radius bullnose profile, I use with a little hand sanding. One unique que
a roundover bit thats larger than solution for routing a bullnose profileofile
half the thickness of the workpiece. without creating this ridge is shown n in { Bits are readily available to cut partial-
the box at the bottom of the page. radius or full-radius bullnose profiles on a
BULLNOSE ROUTER BITS. Another approach to variety of different thicknesses.
Stepped making bullnose profiles that overcomes
Fence
bullnose some of the limitations of roundover bits are often sold as either full-radius or sim-
is to purchase bits that rout the full bull- ply bullnose router bits. Partial-radius
nose profile in one pass. As you can see bits are sold under a variety of names,
in the photos on the upper right, these are including convex edge, oval edge, half
available with both full-radius and par- bull-nose, and fingernail bits. (Refer to
tial-radius profiles. The full-radius bits Sources on page 67.)
The bits come in a variety of bead
lengths to match common workpiece
!/4" roundover bit
thicknesses (12", 34", 1"). And since youll
rout the bullnose in one continuous pass,
Fence Partial-radius the bits eliminate the center ridge that
bullnose often appears when using a roundover
bit. Since they have no bearing, these bits
should be used in a router table.
BETTER PROJECTS WITH BULLNOSES. You can
rout bullnoses with your standard
roundover bits or purchase dedicated
bits to simplify the process. Regardless
{ Cutting a bullnose in two passes with a of your choice, its tough to beat a bull-
!/2" roundover bit roundover bit can produce a ridge in the nose profile for adding a comfortable,
middle, but its easy to sand away. pleasing edge to your project parts. W

Smoother Profiles: RADIUSED BEARING ROUNDOVER BIT


One of the problems with making bull- creates at the edge of the workpiece. But Make first pass with
nose profiles using two passes with a Ultra-Glide roundover bits from Amana bearing removed
roundover bit is the ridge or flat that it solve that problem. They feature a radi- Fence
used bearing that matches the contour
of the first cut to allow you to make a
smooth second pass.
pa As you can see in
the drawings at right,
r the first pass is
made with the bearing
be removed using
the fence to guide the workpiece. (You Fence Replace bearing
can also use a mamatching roundover bit for second pass
with a standard b bearing, or simply add
a standard bearing
bearin to this bit.) Ultra-
{ Amanas Ultra-Glide roundover bit Glide bits are available
ava to cut 38", 12",
follows the contour of the first roundover 3 ", or 1" roundov
4 roundovers.
to create a smooth second pass.

Woodsmith.com 13

WS221_012.indd 13 8/4/2015 4:04:56 PM


great
gear

hands-free
} A wide array of bench-mounted and
head-mounted magnifiers are available
Magnifiers
to give a clearer vision of Its no secret that as we age, many of require two hands to perform them
detailed work. us could benefit from a little assis- safely. So a magnifier that you dont
tance in the vision department. need to hold is essential.
And sometimes, even the healthiest Fortunately, there are many styles
eyes have trouble focusing on the of hands-free magnifiers available.
finer points associated with certain They can be broken down into two
The bench-mounted tasks. Having a magnifier on hand main categories: Head-mounted and
magnifier features a is a great option to help you see the bench-mounted magnifiers.
fluorescent light
and sun shade smallest details. HEAD-MOUNTED OPTIONS. The two head-
But not just any old magnifying mounted versions shown below are
glass will do the job. When it comes typical of this style of magnifier.
to woodworking, many operations They generally have an adjustable

The Carson MagniVisor The Donegan OptiVisor


This flexible goose- comes with an LED light has a quick-adjusting
neck magnifier is and a full sett of lenses ratchet
ra headband
here
easy to place where
you need it

14 Woodsmith / No. 221

WS221_014.indd 14 8/5/2015 10:20:16 AM


{ Head-mounted magnifiers, like the Carson Pro MagniVisor, are perfect for tasks { This benchtop magnifier features an acrylic lens and a flexible
where youll be continually shifting your focus. This is a time-saving advantage gooseneck that is easy to adjust. The weighted base keeps the
when working on different areas of a sizable project. magnifier from tipping over when moved around.

headband and a flip-down visor that areas of a project. This is beneficial when the edge of a workbench. The arm
holds the magnifying lenses. And some, performing tasks such as sharpening a allows it to be positioned quickly and
like the Carson Pro MagniVisor, have an long handsaw, or doing carving work, as easily for working on projects where
LED light incorporated into the design. shown in the left photo above. there will be a single point of focus. A
In addition, most of the head-mounted BENCH-MOUNTED OPTIONS. If most of your good example of this is the fine inlay
magnifiers come with several differ- detail work is confined to a small area, work shown in the main photo.
ent lenses, all with differing levels of or you find a head-mounted magnifier Another bench-mounted option is the
magnification. (For more discussion on uncomfortable to wear, then a bench- flexible gooseneck magnifier shown in the
magnification levels, see the box below.) mounted design may be right for you. upper right photo. While this style does
The lenses on the Carson MagniVisor sim- While this type of magnifier typically not have a light, its small design makes it
ply pop in and out of the frame, while the only has a single magnification level, easy to move around the shop for quick
lenses on the Donegan OptiVisor are held there are several different styles to setup and use. The weighted base pre-
in with a couple of small screws. choose from. Two examples are shown vents it from tipping over when adjusted.
The main advantage of a head-mounted at the bottom of the previous page. ACRYLIC OR GLASS. Another consideration
magnifier is the ability to quickly shift The lighted magnifier with the articu- to keep in mind when choosing a mag-
your focus while working on different lating arm is perfect for clamping onto nifier is whether to buy one with acrylic
or glass lenses. The majority of magni-

Understanding MAGNIFICATION LEVELS fiers on the market today use acrylic


material. However, glass lenses are still
favored by some people.
While bench-mounted magnifiers particular task is determined by how Acrylic is lightweight and shatter-
only have one level of magnification, far away from your eyes the workpiece resistant. But, in a shop environment,
the head-mounted options usually will be. The chart below gives you a care needs to be taken with acrylic
have several different lenses avail- pretty good idea which lens you should because its susceptible to scratching.
able. Which level you choose for any try based on the working distance. On the other hand, glass is durable and
difficult to scratch. Glass lenses also allow
for high light transmission. This provides
Lens Magnification
a very clear, precise image. But as you
would imagine, glass is easier to break
1.5 1.75 2 2.5 2.75 3.5 and somewhat more expensive.
The Carson Pro MagniVisor and the flex-
neck magnifier both have acrylic lenses.
20" 14" 10" 8" 6" 4" The Donegan OptiVisor and the lighted
bench lamp use glass lenses. (Refer to
Focal Length in Inches Sources on page 67.) The type you decide
(approximate distance from object) to buy should ultimately come down to
the type of work you do the most. Which-
ever option you choose will certainly be a
welcome relief to tired eyes. W

Woodsmith.com 15

WS221_014.indd 15 8/5/2015 10:20:40 AM


w orking
wood ique
techn

simple
solutions for
Reinforcing
Rabbets
A rabbet joint or two usually find
their way into just about any project
I build. And for good reason: The
joint is straightforward to create; it
increases glue surface; and it helps
register parts to ease assembly.
In most applications, a basic rabbet strengthening the joint stand out as a
joint fits the bill. For example, a rabbet cut decorative element to enhance the overall
along the grain of a workpiece provides look of the project.
a solid, dependable glue joint. CHOOSE A DIRECTION. One of the first things
On the other hand, some rabbet joints to consider is the direction of the fas-
benefit from a little reinforcement. Rab- tener. You can either drive a fastener
bet joints used in drawers and cases are into the piece that has the rabbet or the
good candidates. Thats because one of piece thats captured by the rabbet. The
the glue surfaces is end grain, which two orientations are shown in the lower
doesnt contribute much to a strong joint. left drawing. Both options will create
Fortunately, you have some fastener a strong joint. The driving forces are
options that can help beef up a rabbet appearance and function.
joint. Whats more, you can take the For example, in a plywood case, I may { Drill shank and pilot holes to prevent
opportunity to make the method of not want screws that are visible from the splitting. Clamps keep project parts
sides. So Ill cut a deep rabbet in aligned while you drive screws.
Two-thirds of the screw should extend the case sides and drive screws
into the anchoring piece through the top and bottom of I want to talk about three options here:
the case (photo at right). screws, dowels, and nails.
!/3 If you dont mind seeing the SCREWS. One of the most common and
!/3
fasteners, you can install the simplest methods to reinforce a rabbet
hardware through the rabbeted joint is to use screws. Thats especially
@/3 workpiece. Here, the rabbet can true for building plywood cases.
@/3 be fairly shallow since it only The advantage of using screws to rein-
needs to keep the parts aligned. force a rabbet joint is that they speed up
The next choice you need to the assembly process. The screws act as
make is the type of reinforce- permanent clamps that draw the two parts
ment to provide for the joint. of the joint together while the glue dries.

16 Woodsmith / No. 221

WS221_016.indd 16 8/4/2015 4:11:14 PM


That doesnt mean your clamps stay on Dowel diameter
the sidelines, though. I still use clamps should be no more
than half the width
to get the parts in position, but once the of the rabbet
screws are in, you can remove the clamps
and move on to the next stage.
There are some keys for choosing
and using screws. Driving a screw into
the edge grain of plywood is similar to
driving a screw into the end grain of Rabbet width
hardwood. It just doesnt have the same
holding power as installing screws in face
Two-thirds of dowel
grain. To increase the strength, use a lon- length should enter
ger screw rather than a larger diameter the anchor piece

screw. The drawing on the previous page


shows the general guideline I start with. { Wait until after the glue dries before
Since the screws are driven into the drilling holes for dowels. This prevents the
edge of plywood pieces, it pays to drill parts from shifting out of alignment.
an accurately sized pilot and shank hole
before you install the screw. This prevents dowels that match the primary wood on wouldnt leave enough material on either
the workpiece from splitting as the screw the drawer front (cherry). It provides a side of the hole to support the joint.
is driven into place. good contrast with the maple drawer The type of nail that you use can make
DOWELS. A second option for beefing sides. The result is an eye-catching detail a big difference visually. Air-driven brads
up a rabbet joint is to use dowels. In my when the drawer is pulled out of the case. or pins create a good mechanical con-
opinion, hardwood dowels provide a Adding dowels isnt complicated. But nection. The hole created in the surface
nicer look compared to screws. And the there are some points to keep in mind. I is barely noticeable and easily concealed
joint is still plenty strong. like to glue up the drawer first. Then I with filler. Old-style cut and wrought
Drawers are a good place to put dow- drill and insert the dowels once the glue nails pack a dramatic punch and give a
els to work, as shown in the main photo is dry. This way, I can concentrate on one project a country or rustic flair.
and inset on the previous page. I used task at a time. Its a good idea to cut the You can increase the holding power of
dowel pieces a little long. After the glue nails by angling them as you drive them
dries, you can trim them flush. The upper home. The two drawings below show
right drawing offers tips on sizing dowels what I mean. Angle the nails like dove-
for the strongest joint. tails to resist pulling out (left drawing).
Ive found that dowel stock varies in Or nails can be angled to lock the joint
size. And since the joint depends on a tight, as in the right drawing.
snug fit in the hole, it pays to be choosy. As with dowels, I find that adding the
I take the bit and a pair of calipers along nails after the glue is dry makes the pro-
to the store to find dowels that match the cess easier. The exception to this is with
drill bit Ill be using. air-driven nails. Here you can apply glue
NAILS. The final reinforcing option isnt and clamp the parts together. Then drive
one thats often associated with fine fur- the nails to complete the job.
{ Driving nails near the end of a workpiece niture nails. But the reality is nails While cutting a rabbet may be one of
may cause a split. So drilling a pilot hole offer surprising holding power and they the first joints you learned as a wood-
after assembly is a must. come in a variety of finish options. worker, that doesnt mean you outgrow
Nails can reinforce rabbets in small the technique. Instead, it is an essential
boxes and drawers that have thin parts. part of creating strong, long-lasting proj-
Drilling for screws or dowels here ects you can be proud of. W

For better hold,


drive nails at
alternating angles

{ In order to prevent the short grain section Drive nails at a slight angle
when seating a part into
from splitting out, clamp across the joint to the corner of the rabbet
support the end of the workpiece.

Woodsmith.com 17

WS221_016.indd 17 8/4/2015 4:11:38 PM


Gift
Project

creating fun with


Linkin Logs
Weve taken a traditional childrens toy and upsized it to create a fun
building set thats sure to spark creativity in young and old alike.
One of my favorite memories as a child easier for small hands to pick up and But you can make as many parts as you
is building log cabins with Lincoln Logs. put in place. Plus, they offer the ability wish to create more building options.
This classic toy is great for developing to add doors and windows. These are The real trick is making so many iden-
hand and eye coordination not to men- made from plywood and fit into grooves tical parts quickly and consistently. The
tion inspiring fun for kids of all ages. in the top and bottom edges of the logs. logs start with long blanks. Then you
Our Linkin Logs are the perfect gift ASSEMBLY LINE MANUFACTURING. As you use simple jigs to cut the angled notches.
for any woodworker to make in Santas might expect, there are a lot of pieces Before cutting each of the logs to length
workshop. The process of making the to make. Its a bit of a departure from with a handy cutoff jig, Ill show you
logs and accessories is pretty easy using building furniture youre really just how to create the rounded profiles.
tools you already have. making a bunch of parts. And the more Once you get started, you wont be
UPSIZE IT. The set of logs you see here is parts you have, the more creative you able to stop. But thats okay. I bet youll
made from inexpensive poplar. Theyre can get. Ive given you a good starting be building log cabins on your benchtop
larger than usual, which makes them point with the materials list on page 25. long before you apply the finish.

18 Woodsmith / No. 221

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CONSTRUCTION Overview
Chimney made from
glued-up stock

Roof slats are


notched to fit
over gables

Pegs hold roof


slats in place

Two gable sizes create


more roofing options Connector pieces fill
gaps and add strength
to the structure

Doors and windows


cut from plywood
on scroll saw

NOTE: Child-safe
water-based finish
gives parts a classic look

Starter logs are cut


from completed logs
NOTE: Logs cut to three
Door hinges on different lengths for
brads through frame creative building options
Groove in logs accept
NOTE: Simple jigs make doors and windows
it easy to build as many
parts as you want in a
short amount of time

{ Doors and windows are made from { Windows and doors fit into grooves { The starter slat for the roof fits
1 "
4plywood. The door hinges are cut into the logs. The window over short dowels in the gables to
made from small brads. openings are cut on a scroll saw. support the remainder of the roof.

Woodsmith.com 19

WS221_018.indd 19 8/10/2015 12:01:42 PM


Blank for making the long,
medium, and short logs a. 5 1%/16
!!/32 #/4

Long, medium, and short


60" rough connector log blank
blank length
15

SIDE VIEW

Blank for making the small NOTE: Log blanks are made
connector logs from 1!/2"-thick hardwood

1!/4

Notching the b.
SIDE VIEW
#/4
2!#/16
1%/16
#/4 1!/2
Waste

LOG BLANKS 15 !!/32

The first order of business in making the


logs is to round up some 8/4 stock and 3!/8" for the connector logs
plane it down to 112" thick. I chose poplar Waste
because its inexpensive, doesnt have a
pronounced grain pattern, and is easy DEFINING THE NOTCHES. Notches in the and long logs. Other than the spacing of
to work. Any other close-grained wood, logs allow them to interlock with one the notches, the process of creating all of
like maple, would also be a good choice. another. As you can see above, there the logs is the same.
Youll just want to be sure to avoid spe- are a lot of notches to cut. The ends of The box below shows how an auxiliary
cies that splinter easily. the notches are angled to better fit the miter fence and a key ensure consistent
All of the logs and small connector rounded profile of the finished logs. spacing for cutting one side of all the
pieces are made from strips ripped to Note that some of the blanks are used notches. If youve used a box joint jig
114" wide. I started with blanks that were to create short connector logs, while the before, the process is pretty similar and
roughly 60" long. rest are used to make the short, medium, is even easier to set up.

How To: MAKE ANGLED CUTS FOR NOTCH SIDES


1 2 First kerf
set over key. a. NOTE: Remove stop
Repeat process block and glue key
30"-long across part in miter fence kerf
miter fence
Key flush
Stop with back and
block bottom of fence
Tilt blade Log blank
15 Make cuts on
NOTE: Make cut Hardwood key
through blank top and bottom (!/8" x %/16" - 2!/2")
and miter fence edges of blank
NOTE: Center
miter fence a. END VIEW b.
on blade
Aux. fence END VIEW
Aux. fence
Stop Log blank
block 1!/4 Log
blank Key 6%/16

!!/32 !!/32

First Cuts. Use a stop block on the auxiliary miter Cut & Repeat. Remove the auxiliary fence, insert a key, then
gauge fence to locate the edge of the first notch on reposition the fence as shown in detail b. Note that this distance is
both edges of each blank. 318" for the short connector logs (detail b, main drawing).

20 Woodsmith / No. 221

WS221_020.indd 20 8/10/2015 12:02:45 PM


I started by making a key the same How-To: REMOVE WASTE TO COMPLETE NOTCH
thickness as the saw blade. Set up a stop
block on the fence about 114" from the 3 Miter fence b. SECOND: Rotate fence
blade to position the first cut on each with key end-for-end, and
glue a new key into
blank. This provides a little waste for kerf as before
cutting each log to length later.
After you make the first cut, rotate
FOURTH: Place workpiece
the blank and cut a kerf on the opposite over key and make
edge (Figure 1). Remove the fence and opposite angle cut.
Repeat as before
glue the key into the saw kerf. Reposition c.
THIRD: Space key away from
the fence so that the key is spaced from a. FIRST: Cut kerf in blade as shown and attach
!!/32 center of new fence fence to miter gauge
the blade as shown in Figure 2b. This dis-
tance is less for the short connector logs END
VIEW Key
(detail b, top of the previous page). 1%/16
Now, place the first saw kerf you cut Keep blade !!/32
over the key, then make a pass over the at 15
blade. This defines the end of the second
notch. Repeat the process, stepping the Defining the Notches. To create the opposite end of each notch, youll use a
blank along the edge. Rotate the blank fence with a key angled in the opposite direction. Use the dimensions shown in
once again to cut kerfs along the opposite detail c to position the fence and key before cutting all of the kerfs.
edge. Be sure to make these cuts on all of
the log blanks before moving on. 4 Rear fence Rear fence
The box at right illustrates cutting the
attached to
opposite end of the notches. For this, you Transfer guide miter gauge
can make a new fence thats a mirror 1!/2 lines from cut

image of the first one. Set your starting Front fence Base
point from the blade, then complete all
of the cuts along the blank, as in Figure 3.
9
REMOVING THE WASTE. With the edges of a. 30
#/4
the notches defined, all thats left to do is Front #/4" dado
fence blade
remove the waste in between. For that, !!/32 NOTE: Sled is made
I made a simple sled that attaches to from #/4" plywood
the miter gauge (Figures 4 and 5). The Base
sled consists of a front and rear fence
attached to a plywood base.
Youll notice that the workpiece is held Build a Simple Sled. A sled attached to the miter gauge helps position the
against the front fence instead of the rear workpiece over a dado blade to remove the waste from the notches. Layout lines
fence. Because there are so many notches on the sleds fence and base help you position the workpiece for each cut.
to cut, I found it easier to align the notches
over the blade using this method. 5 Align inside edge
I marked the centerline on the sled and
of kerf with guide
centered it over a 34" dado blade before line on sled
to make first pass
attaching it to the miter gauge, as in
Back fence
Figure 4. Cutting partway into the sled
provides a visual cue for positioning the
workpiece in the sled.
Lines on the fence and base of the sled a. b.
help align the notch over the blade, as Slide blank
Align over to align
illustrated in Figure 5. These lines extend #/4" dado other inside
with inside
from the cut lines or kerf created by the edge of kerf blade edge to make
Back Back second pass
dado blade. Now, its just a matter of fence fence
aligning the kerfs on the logs blanks with
the layout lines on the sled and remov- OPERATOR VIEW OPERATOR VIEW
ing the waste. Repeat the process on both
edges of the blank. Two Passes. Align the inside edge of the kerf with one of the layout lines then
Since there are a lot of repetetive cuts to make a pass over the blade. Move the workpiece over so the opposite kerf is
make, its easy to become complacent. To aligned with the second layout line and make a second pass.
be safe, stay focused on the task.

Woodsmith.com 21

WS221_020.indd 21 8/10/2015 12:03:07 PM


CONNECTORS
D
a.
D
#/4 #/4
2!#/16
C 1!/2
Starter 5
log
!!/16
C Starter log
B

9!/8
C SIDE VIEW
SHORT LOGS B Starter log

MEDIUM LOGS A
B A Starter log

15&/16
Starter b. Groove does not extend
log past end notches
%/16
A LONG SIDE SECTION VIEW
LOGS

Starter log c. %/8 d. Starter log


ripped from
NOTE: Logs are made 21#/4 1"- completed log
from 1!/2"-thick poplar. Starter rad. !/4
logs are ripped down to !!/16"
thick from completed full logs

From blanks to LOGS END SECTION VIEW END SECTION VIEW

Once youve cut all of the notches in the ROUNDED LOGS. The drawings above show edge is at the centerline of the blank. Its
long blanks, there are a few other steps how the sides of the logs are rounded, a good idea to use a couple of feather-
to complete the logs. First, youll create much like youd find on a real log cabin. boards to hold the long blank tight to the
their rounded shape. Then you can cut Detail c above and Figure 1 on the next fence and table throughout the cut. Id
the logs to length before routing grooves page illustrate how to create this profile also advise using a push stick to safely
along the top and bottom edges to house on the router table. A 1" roundover bit guide the tail end of the blank past the
windows and doors. is set up so that the top of the cutting featherboards and bit. Make four passes
to complete the profile on both sides.

Shop Tip: CUTOFF JIG CONSISTENT LENGTHS. At last you can cut
the long blanks into manageable lengths
to create the three log sizes and small
20 connectors. To do this with repeatable
2
accuracy, I used a cutoff jig attached to
Key the miter gauge, as shown at left. The jig
registers the blank by positioning each
Fence
notch over a beveled key.
4 As you can see, the jig is a cinch to
make. Just make sure the key is thin
enough so that the blank sits flat on the
Base base when a notch is positioned over the
2 key. The most important dimension for
the key is its width. You want the notch of
the blank to fit snug over the key without
#8 x 1!/2" Fh a. Fence
woodscrew
1%/16
shifting side to side.
#/4 Detail a at left and Figure 2 on the
75 next page give you the details for the
FRONT setup at the table saw. The basic idea is
VIEW %/16
NOTE: Cut-off sled base and to position the sled on the miter gauge
fence are #/4" plywood. Key Key
is made from hardwood Base to cut the blank, leaving 34" beyond the
notch, as shown in Figure 2a.

22 Woodsmith / No. 221

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CONNECTORS. Cutting the short connector
How-To: COMPLETE LOG CUTTING & ROUTING
logs to length follows a similar process,
as in Figure 3. I found it easier to make 1 2
the first cut, then place the next notch
1"
over the key and make a second cut. roundover
Repeat this process for all of the notches. bit
Youre left with a bunch of small pieces
with one end extra long. You can then go Log Blank for short,
back and trim the opposite end of each blank medium, and
Featherboards long logs
piece (Figure 3a). Set log end
ROUTING GROOVES. Its time to step over a. notch over a.
END key on sled
VIEW END VIEW
to the router table for the next task. And
thats to rout a 14"-wide groove along the End
top and bottom edge of each log. Theres #/4 notch
one thing I need to point out about these Waste
grooves: They start and stop at the notch
at each end of the blank.
Routing the grooves is a matter of Rounded Logs. Using the setup Cutting to Length. The cut-off jig makes
using the technique shown in Figures 4 shown above, make four passes to it quick and easy to cut all of the logs to
and 5 at right. Set up a 14"-dia. straight bit create the rounded sides. consistent lengths safely and accurately.
and fence so that the groove is centered
on the blank. You can use scrap pieces to 3 4
get the setup right.
FIRST: Move connector
To rout these stopped grooves, care- blank over next notch !/4"
fully position the log with the end notch straight
bit
over the bit. Rout the groove until the
bit cuts into the last notch. Then simply Direction Slide log over
pivot the log away from the bit, as illus- D
of rout bit at end notch
trated in Figure 5.
STARTER LOGS. If you stopped right here, a. END VIEW a. END
!/4 SECTION
you could build structures using the Connector blank #/4 VIEW
logs. But since they overlap at the cor- (at notch)
ners, there will always be a gap at the SECOND: Rotate D
connector to
bottom on two sides of your building. cut to final size %/16
So I created a set of starter logs. Theyre (detail 'a')

simply some of the logs ripped down


the middle, as illustrated in Figure 6. Making Connectors. Creating each Routing Stopped Grooves. Use a
As you might imagine, ripping a of the small connector pieces is easy to straight bit to rout a groove along the
rounded workpiece can be a little tricky. do in two passes with the cut-off jig. top and bottom of each log.
But if you use the setup shown here, you
wont have any problems. The important
thing to keep in mind is to register the
5 6 Aux. rip
fence
Pivot log
flat edge of the workpiece against the rip away from Rip log at
fence. To help hold the workpiece in this fence when centerline
bit reaches
position, I like to use a couple of feather- opposite
end notch Featherboards
boards (Figure 6). They apply consistent
pressure to keep the workpiece tight
against the rip fence and table. a. SIDE SECTION VIEW a. END VIEW
Starter
Another thing to keep in mind is to logs
make sure the blade is centered on the NOTE: Groove
log. This way, youll create two starter depth is !/32" less
than notch depth
logs with each log you cut.
SANDING. These logs will see a lot of use
with little hands, so its a good idea to
spend some extra time sanding them A Stopping Point. When routing Starter Logs. Ripping each log in
smooth. Take care to soften all the sharp the groove, stop at the notch on the half at the centerline creates a pair
edges and remove any splinters. I used opposite end before removing the log. of starter logs.
150-grit sandpaper for final sanding.

Woodsmith.com 23

WS221_022.indd 23 8/10/2015 2:36:51 PM


NOTE: Roof planks made NOTE: Chimneys made
from !/2"-thick hardwood. from two layers of LONG ROOF
1"-thick hardwood G
Gables are made from PLANKS
1"-thick hardwood CHIMNEY
I b.
I %/16"-dia. hole centered 2
on notch on bottom
NOTE: Notching and hole 2!/2 of starter plank I
locations on short roof 23#/4
planks is identical
to long planks 3!/4

17&/16

G !/4 G 1%/8
G
H
1&/8
E 9&/8 H E E F
LARGE 5#/16 SHORT ROOF
GABLE 1!/16 END VIEW
!/4 PLANKS !/4"-dia. x %/8"
1%/8 wood dowel
glued into hole
17!/8
c. END SECTION VIEW
(through gable)

Dowel Roof
starter
a. SMALL GABLE
E
plank
F

6%/8
3(/16 #/4 G
!!/32 Log
1%/16 15 #/8
Dowel holds
1%/16 Log starter plank
11!/2 in place
NOTE: Notch and hole dimensions identical Log
to large gable. Notch end spacing differs

Adding the ROOF, WINDOWS & DOOR


Now that all the logs are complete, youll There are two sizes of gables, as shown ROOF PLANKS. The roof planks are proba-
want to add a few more components. For above. There were only a few notches bly the easiest parts youll make. I ripped
even more fun, a roof, windows, and a to make here, so I cut them at the band them from a wide blank. Like the gables,
door supply the finishing touches to com- saw (left drawing below). After cutting there are two sizes. So youll need to cut
plete your play-time structures. the gables to shape, use a hand plane or them to their respective lengths.
CALL IN THE ROOFERS. Before you can make sander to smooth the edges. A notch near each end of the planks
and add the roof planks, youll need to Short dowels at the ends of the gables fits over the gable. I used a dado blade to
make some gables. These fit over the support the first roof plank to keep it cut these. The rip fence acts as a stop, as
logs at the ends of your structure and from sliding off. Drill the holes and glue illustrated in the middle drawing below.
provide a platform for adding the roof. in the dowels before moving on. Make the first pass at each end of all of

How-To: BUILD THE ROOF COMPONENTS


Stop
Aux. miter block
fence
Rip fence
acts as
stop
G H Tilt blade 30 Aux. miter fence
#/4" dado blade
a. END VIEW a. END VIEW
E F 3!/4
Stop
Lay out notches 1&/16 1!/16 block
and cut on band Chimney half
saw, then sand !/4
smooth Waste

Gable Ends. A band saw makes Notched Planks. To cut the dadoes in Two-Part Chimney. Cut the end of the
quick work of shaping the gables the roof blanks, use a dado blade. The chimney blanks at an angle before gluing
and cutting the notches. rip fence acts as a stop. them together to form a V-notch.

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L E
DOOR & FRAME
3&/16
1!/8" -long 3&/16
%/8 brad used as
the blanks to establish one edge of the hinge pin %/8
1#/16 #/8
notch. Then move the rip fence to estab-
lish the final width of the notch before 2%/8
making a second pass. #/8
3!%/16
A PAIR OF CHIMNEYS. No log cabin roof
would be complete without a chimney 1%/32 !/4"-dia. x %/8"-
or two. I made mine from two layers of long dowel 7#/16
#/8
1" stock. A V-notch at the bottom of the
5&/8
chimney fits over the roof planks. I cre-
SMALL
ated the V-notch by beveling the end of WINDOW L

each half. I started with extra-long stock. #/8


Tilt the saw blade 30 and then cut the 2#/4
angle to create a pair of blanks, as shown
3&/16
in the lower right drawing on the pre-
vious page. Glue up the two halves, %/8

making sure to keep the pieces aligned


1%/32 Hinge
as the glue dries. pin
#/8
WINDOWS & DOORS #/8
While youre adding some interesting 1#!/32
details to your buildings, you might as 5(/16
well include some windows and doors. a. TOP SECTION VIEW
Theyre made from 14" plywood. I used Door centered in frame
!/2
Baltic birch plywood since its stronger
than standard cabinet-grade plywood
and doesnt break as easily in the hands LARGE K
of rambunctious young ones. WINDOW Door frame snug !/4
against log end
The dimensions for the two window
sizes and door are shown at right. All of
the parts are cut using a scroll saw, as you door to swing like a real door, I made FINISHING. To finish all of the parts. I
can see in the drawing below. If you dont hinges by drilling pilot holes and tapping used a water-based dye diluted about
have a scroll saw, you can use a coping brads through the frame into the door 25% with water. Turn to Sources on page
saw. Just remember that youll need to while they were clamped in a vise. 67 to find out where to purchase the dye.
drill a starter hole for the blade. The final touch to add is a doorknob. Brush it on and allow it to dry thor-
The door is cut out from a blank that Its made from a short length of dowel oughly before setting out to build your
also forms a frame to surround the door glued into a hole in the door. log cabin structures. W
on all sides. I drilled a small starter hole
at one corner of the door. To allow the Materials, Supplies & Cutting Diagram
A Long Logs (24) 112 x 114 - 2134 H Short Roof Planks (12) 12 x 158 - 17716
How-To: MAKE CUTS B
C
Medium Logs (24)
Short Logs (24)
112 x 114 - 15716
112 x 114 - 918
I
J
Chimneys (2) 2 x 212 - 314
Small Windows (4) 4 ply. x 3716 - 31516
1

D Connectors (120) 1 2 x 114 - 21316


1 K Large Windows (4) 14 ply. x 3716 - 59 16
E Large Gables (2) 1 x 53 16 - 1718 L Door & Frame (1) 14 ply. x 3716 - 73 16
F Small Gables (2) 1 x 39 16 - 1112 (2) #17 x 118" Brads
Starter G Long Roof Planks (12) 1 2 x 158 - 233 4 (9) 14"-dia. x 58" Dowels
holes
1!/2"x 7!/2" - 60" Poplar (6 Boards @ 6.3 Bd. Ft. Each)
A, B, C, D
tt

1"x 6" - 60" Poplar (3..1 Bd. Ft.)


E E F F
Waste
!/2"x 7"- 72" Poplar (3.5 Sq. Ft.) I

G G G

Window Panes. A scroll saw allows !/2"x 7" - 60" Poplar (2.9 Sq. Ft.)
you to make the fine cuts necessary H H H ALSO NEEDED: One - 12" x 24"
to create the window cutouts. sheet !/4" Baltic birch plywood

Woodsmith.com 25

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Shop
Project

drill press
Depth
Stop
With a few pieces of
simple hardware, you
can build this add-on
to make drilling holes
at a consistent depth
faster and easier.
The depth stop on some drill presses A wood collar fits around the quills The big advantage of the push-button
seems like an afterthought. Setting it can metal collar. Attached to the wood collar nuts is that they can quickly be reposi-
be a fussy operation. Thats where the is a threaded rod that passes through the tioned. Simply depress the button on the
upgrade you see here really shines. Plus, bracket for adjusting the quill position. side, slide the nut into place, then release
it adds the ability to lock the quill at any Push-button nuts act as stops on the rod. the button. For fine-tuning the position,
height. (Ill talk more about this later.) EASY-TO-FIND HARDWARE. As you can see you can spin the nut as usual.
HOW IT WORKS. The photos and draw- below, most of the parts you need to Ive included two nuts: The top one
ings provide an overview of how the make the depth stop can be found at sets the length of travel of the quill. Push
depth stop works. First, a steel bracket a hardware store. The only exception the bottom nut up against the bracket
mounts to the side of the drill press. might be the push-button nuts. and it locks the quill in its vertical posi-
tion. This comes in handy when using
> The depth stop is made %/16"-18 x 4" hex
bolts w/washers sanding drums, for example.
from easy-to-find hardware. METALWORKING. I started by creating the
metal bracket. Its made from a piece of
%/16"-18 hex nuts Collar steel angle, as illustrated in the box on
w/washers
the next page. To locate the bracket on
the side of the drill press, find a spot in
Bracket made
from !/4" x 2" line with the quill and close to the bot-
steel angle tom edge of the casting. For my bracket,
!/2"-13 push-button nuts
!/2"-13 I had to create a notch to clear the set
threaded rod screw and nut that holds the spindle in
place (detail c). Drill countersunk holes
for #10 machine screws and the 58"-dia.
!/2"-13 hex nuts hole for the threaded rod.
w/washers
After cutting the bracket to length,
#10-24 x %/8" Fh grind the corners round and file all of the
machine screws edges smooth. Use the bracket to locate

26 Woodsmith / No. 221

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a. TOP VIEW NOTE: Length NOTE: Lightly chamfer b. FRONT VIEW
NOTE: Align hole of threaded rod %/16"-dia. hole with
with hole in bracket varies with drill countersink bit
3%/8 press model before assembly
!/4

!/4"- Bracket
!/4"- rad.
1#/8
rad.
Drill and tap
!/2"- (/16 !/4"x 2" x 2" for #10-24
dia. steel angle threads
!/4"-
rad. #10-24 x %/8" Fh
5#/4 &/8 machine screw NOTE: Wood collar
fits around
3#/8 metal stop collar
#/8
4!/2

!/2 !/2"-13
2!/4 push-button
1%/16"- Collar
nut
Drill to fit rad.
quill diameter (/16
2!/4 #/8 1

!/2"-13 %/16"-18 x 4" c. SIDE VIEW


threaded hex bolt Push-button
the tapped holes in the drill press casting. rod w/washer nut Threaded
Drill the holes through the casting then rod
tap them for #10-24 threads. !/2
Now attach the bracket to the drill !/2"-13
hex nut !/2
press. Youll use it to help locate the w/washer
hole in the collar for the threaded rod. %/16"-dia. 1!/4
!/2
To figure out the length of rod you need,
extend the quill all the way, measure from
Bracket
the top of the drill chuck to the bottom of Collar
the horizontal flange on the bracket, then
add 3". Cut the rod to length and install Collar
a push-button nut. Slide the rod through %/16"-18 !/2"-13 hex nut
hex nut w/washer
the bracket and fasten the other push- w/washer
button nut. This holds the rod in place
while you work on the collar. Start by laying out the centerpoint of Using hex bolts, washers, and nuts,
QUILL COLLAR. The collar starts out as the hole for the metal stop collars diam- mount the collar on the quill temporarily
a rectangular blank. I cut the blank to eter. Lay out the two parts on the blank to locate the hole for the threaded rod.
width, as shown in detail a above. and then drill the hole to fit the quill, as After drilling the hole, finish shaping the
Then I drilled through the edge of the in the lower right drawing. Then cut the collar. Finally, you can assemble all of the
blank for the long hex bolts. blank to separate the two parts. parts for your new depth stop. W

How-To: SHAPE THE PARTS


%/8"-dia.
drill bit
Wing cutter

Bracket Waste

Waste
!/4" x 2" x 2"
steel angle
Waste Collar
1 #/4 blank

Drilling. Start with an extra-long piece Creating a Notch. If the bracket Drill to Fit. Drill a hole sized to fit
of steel angle. Drill the mounting holes interferes with any hardware on the drill around the metal stop collar before
and hole for the threaded rod. press, create a notch for clearance. separating the two pieces of the collar.

Woodsmith.com 27

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e sign e r
D
Project

Classic Cherry Step Stool


With its solid construction and practical design, this project is sure to be
the most useful piece of furniture in the house.
No matter what your height, we all could are splayed at the bottom. If youve ever stool is designed so that most of the cuts
use a little assistance when it comes stepped too close to the edge on a step can be made at the table saw with just a
to reaching high objects around the stool that has straight sides, then the couple of simple jigs.
house. However, climbing onto a poorly advantage of having a wide footprint This includes the loose tenons that
designed step stool often comes with its is obvious. This is especially true if the hold the four rails to the sides. The bene-
own perils. Some stools can be tippy and stool is placed on an uneven surface. This fit of using loose tenons here is two-fold;
unstable, which just begs for an accident small detail gives our step stool a big they avoid the need to cut angled shoul-
to happen. But thats not a problem with advantage over straight-sided designs ders on a traditional tenon, and they give
the step stool shown above. by providing a rock-solid foundation. the step stool a unique look. So turn the
The first thing youll probably notice All of these angles and tapers may page and get started on your own ver-
about this stool is the tapered sides that appear intimidating. However, this step sion of this soon-to-be classic project.

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Construction Overview / OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 16 "W x 16"H x 15 "D 3
8
1
4

The solid wood


treads are attached
to the rails with Slots for loose tenons
screws from underneath are created at the table
saw using a beveled
auxiliary miter fence

The four slotted


rails bring the side
panels together

Through loose tenon


joinery gives the step
stool plenty of strength
and a unique look

Gentle tapers on
front and back
edges are made
with a simple jig
at the table saw

Arcs at the bottom


of the side panels
add a decorative touch

NOTE: Refer to page 67


for finishing information

{ The splayed sides of the step stool provide a safe and


stable foundation, making it appropriate to use in
any room of the house.

Woodsmith.com 29

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Tapers and slots are a. b.
1#/4 cut before side pieces FRONT
are glued together SECTION VIEW A

1 Do not 3
round Slot
over opening
1!/2
these
#/8 4!/4 edges
A
A B FRONT SECTION VIEW
(at joint line)

TALL SIDE
c. A B
A

15!/4

1 Radius is
centered on
joint line 5"-rad.
B

1!/2 2
SIDE VIEW
4!/4

SHORT SIDE !/8" roundover


tall and short sections together right
7#/4 B on outside away, most of the joinery cuts and
edges
shaping work is done before the panels
7!/4
are joined. Start by cutting the tall and
NOTE: All parts are made
short side pieces to the finished width
Waste material is
removed after side pieces from #/4"-thick hardwood shown at left, but leave the pieces a
are glued together
7!/2 little long for the bevel cuts on the top
and bottom. At this point, its also a
good idea to label the four parts to keep
Shaping the SIDES everything clear going forward.
CUT SIDES TO LENGTH. The drawings below
At the heart of the step stool are the two along the bottom reduce the overall show the process for cutting the side
side panels. The panels are mirror images weight of the stool while also providing pieces to length. Ill just mention a cou-
of one another with bevels on the top and more stability and a nice look. ple of details. First, all of the bevel cuts
bottom edges and slight tapers along the SIDE SECTIONS. Each side of the step are made at the table saw using the miter
front and back edges. Slots cut on the top stool is constructed from two glued gauge equipped with a long auxiliary
edges hold the loose tenons. The arches up boards. But instead of gluing these fence and the table saw blade tilted 5.

How-To: MAKE THE BEVEL CUTS


1 Aux. miter
fence
2 3

B Stop Aux.miter
block fence A
B
Stop
Auxiliary block
Tilt blade 5 miter fence
a. END VIEW a. END VIEW a. END VIEW
Bevel
bottom 7!/4 15!/4
edge of
workpiece

First Bevel Cut. Make a bevel Second Bevel Cut. Use a stop block Cut Tall Sides to Length. Reposition the stop
cut on one end of each short clamped to the auxiliary miter fence to block on the miter fence and make the second
and tall side piece. cut both short sections to final length. bevel cut on the end of each tall side section.

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And second, its important to keep the How-To: SLOTS, TAPERS & SHAPING
workpieces oriented correctly to main-
tain the left and right mirror images. 1 Aux. miter
Glue edge
Inside face
2
Inside face
fence of workpiece of workpiece Glue
COMPLETE THE SIDES A
edge
With the side pieces cut to size, you can Miter
fence face 4!/4 B
turn your attention to the rest of the beveled 5 Beveled aux.
operations that will complete each side miter fence
#/8" dado
panel. The first order of business is to blade
cut the angled slots along the top edge of a. SIDE VIEW b. END VIEW a. END VIEW
each piece. These house the rail-mounted A Beveled
loose tenons later on. fence 1
#/8
ANGLED SLOTS. Since the top and bottom
4!/4
edges of the side panels are beveled to 1!/2
give the step stool its splayed stance, the 85
bottoms of the slots need to be cut at the
same angle, as well. This may seem like Cutting Angled Slots. Clamp the Making a Second Pass. Reposition
a complicated cut, but its actually quite workpiece to the beveled miter fence. the workpiece against the miter fence
simple. Start by bevel ripping the face of Use a dado blade to cut the first slot. and make the second slot.
an auxiliary miter fence to 5 and attach
Rip
it to the miter gauge (Figure 1a at right). 3 fence B
4 Back
edge
Mark the locations of the slots near the
A
top edge of each workpiece. (Be sure to Tape
mark the inside face of each piece.) Now Hardboard sled

position one side piece against the aux- a. Front


edge Tape
iliary miter fence and clamp it in place. TOP VIEW
Pass the workpiece over a 38"-wide !/2 a. END VIEW Hardboard
dado blade to make the first slot. Its Waste #/4 sled
then just a matter of sliding the board Waste
along the auxiliary miter gauge fence,
clamping it in position, and making the
second cut (Figure 2).
TAPER THE EDGES. The last operation that Short Tapers. Align the cut line with Cutting Tall Tapers. Using the same
needs to be done to the individual side the edge of the sled. Use double-sided process, line up and attach the tall side
pieces before they can be glued together tape to secure the workpiece. sections to the hardboard sled.
is to cut a slight taper on the outside
edges. If you already have a taper jig, 5 6
thats great. If not, Figures 3 and 4 at
B
right show the method I used to make
these cuts at the table saw using a piece Waste
A
of hardboard as a simple sled. B
Clamp
Start by laying out the taper position on Waxed block Cut to waste
paper side of
each workpiece. (Note that the amount A
layout line
Riser blocks
of taper is slightly different between the
short and tall pieces.) Then, one at a time, Straightedge
use double-sided tape to secure each keeps side pieces
flush at bottom
piece to the sled. The rip fence guides
the hardboard sled while making the cut. Bring it Together. A long, straight Cut the Arcs. Cut on the waste side
BRING THE SIDES TOGETHER. Gluing up the board and a couple clamp blocks aid of the layout line. Clean up the band
side pieces to complete each panel is in the glueup process. saw marks with a sanding drum.
pretty straightforward. However, I did
use a couple tricks to ensure a perfect
fit. Figure 5 at right shows what I mean. Just be sure to slip a piece of waxed cut (Figure 6). The saw marks can be
First, I used a long, straight board to paper under the scraps to prevent them cleaned up with a sanding drum. Finally,
align the bottom edges of the pieces. from sticking to the panels. all thats left to complete the side panels
The other handy hint is to place a couple ARCS & ROUNDOVERS. Now, lay out and is to round over the outside edges at the
clamp blocks on either side of the panel. cut the arcs at the bottom of each piece. router table. Leave the top edges and the
This helps to keep the joint line flush. The band saw makes quick work of this front edge of the tall side piece square.

Woodsmith.com 31

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15 8
NOTE: All parts are made a. #/8
from #/4"-thick hardwood. UPPER TREAD
Loose tenons are planed 2#/16 D
down to #/8" thick NOTE: Rout F
bullnose profile E 1!/2
on edges of treads 85
1!/2 C

95
LOOSE TENON
D
1
C

C
D
UPPER RAIL b. F
#/16"-dia.
C
11#/8 7!/2
16#/8 Leave back
edge of lower Tall
#/4 side
tread square SIDE
SECT.
LOWER TREAD VIEW D
#8 x 1!/4" G #/8"-dia.
C
Fh woodscrew
NOTE: Loose tenons c. SIDE SECTION VIEW
are glued into rails
before assembly E
G
C
Tread
butts E
C against Short
front side
edge of
12#/4 tall side
C NOTE: Rout !/8"
roundovers on lower
edges of rails and
LOWER RAILL
LOWER RAI
R E outside ends of tenons d. F
End of
rail

Completing the STEP STOOL


C D

FRONT
SECTION
VIEW
Go ahead and take a deep breath. With a bullnose profile. But first, I made the (through Tall 1!/2
center of rail) side
the completion of the side panels, the loose tenons so they would be on hand
hardest part of this step stool is behind to test the fit in the rail slots.
you. Theres more work to be done, for LOOSE TENONS. Start by planing a piece of UPPER & LOWER RAILS. The four rails are
sure. But the bulk of these remaining stock down to match the notches already up next. Cut them to their final lengths
steps are a breeze in comparison. cut in the sides. Cut the eight loose ten- shown above, but leave the ends of the
The four rails that bring the side panels ons slightly longer than needed. Figure 1 rails square for now. This makes cutting
together have open slots on the ends for below shows how I used the miter gauge the slots in the ends much easier.
the loose tenons and are mitered to match set at 85 to trim the loose tenons to final As shown in Figure 2 below, I used a
the angle of the sides. The treads are con- length. Then round over the mitered simple push sled and tall auxiliary rip
structed from solid stock and routed with ends of each tenon at the router table. fence to support each rail as I passed it

How-To: LOOSE TENONS & RAIL SLOTS


1 2 3
Aux. Push
miter sled Aux. miter
fence fence
Tall NOTE: Turn to
aux. page 65 for
fence D E information Stop
Stop block about the block
C push sled
a. #/8
a. Fence
Fence !/4" dado a.
NOTE: Set miter blade
C
gauge at 85 85 END 85
1
TOP VIEW TOP
VIEW VIEW
2#/16 NOTE: Set miter
gauge at 85

Miter the Tenons. Use a stop block Slots in Rails. Make one pass, flip the Miter the Ends. After mitering one
and auxiliary fence to miter cut one end workpiece edge for edge and make end, set a stop block for the other end
of all the loose tenons. another pass to center the slots. to ensure consistent rail lengths.

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over a dado blade in the table saw. For How-To: COMPLETE THE ASSEMBLY
more on how to make this sled, turn to
Shop Notes on page 65. 1 FIRST: 2 C

To ensure the slots are perfectly cen- Drill a #/8"


counterbore NOTE: Mitered
tered on the ends of the rails, youll use a in bottom ends of rail and
1
4"-wide dado blade and make one pass. edge tenon run in
opposite
Flip the piece around and make another a. #/16" drill directions
bit
pass. This will allow you to sneak up on E
C D
the final width of the slot. Use one of the D E
loose tenons to check the fit. #/4
Bar
Now, all thats left is to miter the ends clamps
of each rail. Since youll only be removing SECOND: Drill a
a sliver of material from each end, use a #/16"-dia. through
hole (inset) Stop
sharp marking knife to carefully lay out block SECTION VIEW
these cut lines. Remove just enough mate-
rial to bring the rails to their final length. Drill Mounting Holes. Use a stop Add the Loose Tenons. Using bar
After cutting one end, I used a stop block block clamped to the drill press fence to clamps, glue the loose tenons into
to ensure the upper rails were the same accurately drill the mounting holes. the slots in the rails.
length (Figure 3, previous page). I then
did the same thing for the lower rails. 3 4
FINISHING TOUCHES F G
By now you probably have a pretty good
idea of the remaining steps needed to !/2"
complete this stool. The four boxes at right roundover
bit
show the main operations that are left. a. END VIEW
Sand smooth
FINISH THE RAILS. The first of those is to NOTE: Leave after routing
back edge of
move to the drill press and drill all of Clamps lower tread
placed square
the counterbored holes used for secur- across sides
ing the treads in the bottom edge of each inside of
tenons
rail. Figure 1a above gives the dimen-
sions. I used a stop block clamped to Glue Up Sides & Rails. On a flat Tread Profiles. Make two passes at
the fence for quick placement. Then surface, glue the four rails in place the router table to form the bullnose
round over the bottom edge of each rail between the two side panels. profile on the edges of the treads.
at the router table.
ADD THE TENONS. With all of the loose
parts involved, it would be difficult to ASSEMBLY TIME. With the tenons and rails bottom edge of each side panel main-
assemble the stool in one step. Instead, I glued up, its time to join the sides and tains contact with the floor.
opted to glue the loose tenons into the rail rails together. While this isnt a com- TREADS. The last pieces to this step stool
slots first. Bar clamps work great to hold plicated glueup, make sure to have all puzzle are the two treads. Start by cut-
everything in place (Figure 2). Just be of the clamps youll need ready to go. ting them to size. Youll then rout a
sure that the mitered ends of the rails and Since the step stool needs to be per- bullnose profile on all four edges, with
the loose tenons are running in opposite fectly stable, I set the assembly on a flat the exception of the rear edge of the
directions. Details a and d at the top of surface as I added the clamps (Figure lower tread. Leave this edge square. Fig-
the previous page show what I mean. 3, above). This helps to ensure that the ure 4 above shows the setup.
Now, position the treads as shown in
Materials, Supplies & Cutting Diagram details b and c on the previous page
A Tall Sides (2) 3 x 73 - 151
4 4 4 F Upper Tread (1) 3 x 8 - 15
4
and mark the screw locations in the
B Short Sides (2) 3 x 71 - 71 G Lower Tread (1) 3 x 712 - 163 8 underside of each tread with an awl. Drill
4 2 4 4
3 x 11 - 23 pilot holes in the bottom of the treads and
C Loose Tenons (8) 8 2 16
3 x 11 - 113
attach them using screws.
D Upper Rails (2) 4 2 8 (8) #8 x 114" Fh Woodscrews
3 x 11 - 123
All thats left before putting this step
E Lower Rails (2) 4 2 4
stool to work is to pick out the right fin-
#/4" x 8!/4" - 96" Cherry (5.5 Bd. Ft.) ish to match its new home. To see the
D C
A A B B G
process I used, turn to Sources on page
F E C
67 for more information. When the fin-
NOTE: Parts 'C' planed to #/8" thick ish fully cures, this stool will be ready
for many years of service. W

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Shop
Project

Sliding
Cutoff Grinder
This unique shop-made project transforms an ordinary angle grinder into
a benchtop tool for cutting metal parts accurately and easily.
I use metal parts from time to time in my and a little work, I essentially turned it turn is connected to a sturdy support
projects, especially ones for the shop. But into a small, sliding cutoff saw for accu- arm thats bolted to the base.
other than using a hacksaw and a whole rately cutting thin metal parts. And about that base: As you can see in
lot of elbow grease, I didnt really have PROJECT OVERVIEW. What makes this proj- the drawings on the opposite page, its
a good method for cutting these metal ect work are the clever carriage and han- built up from three layers of plywood
parts cleanly and accurately. dle assembles. These hold the grinder to be rock-solid. It also has a wide metal
NEW ANGLE FOR GRINDERS. I do, however, and allow it to slide back and forth, as channel at the center for added safety, and
own an angle grinder. And that served well as rotate up and down. The assem- a two-position fence for greater versatility.
as the inspiration for the unique project blies slide along the hardwood rail that All in all, its sure to add some precision to
that you see here. With a few basic parts you see in the photo above, which in your metal-cutting operations.

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Construction Overview / OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 23"W x 15"H x 22 13 "D
16

Large carriage bolts


lock support arm
to base

NOTE: Cutting capacity


of grinder is nearly 16"

Support arm mounts


to base and accepts
the carriage and
handle assemblies Resin slides allow
carriage assembly to
move smoothly back and
forth along their length

{ The fence can be mounted in two positions


for cutting wide or narrow metal stock.
Spring returns
grinder to
neutral
Rail mounts to position Handle is
support arm and shaped and
has grooves to rounded
accept resin slides for comfort
For a full-size
pattern of the
handle, go to
Woodsmith.com

Carriage assembly
moves back
Steel pins and forth on rail
act as stops
for carriage
assembly
Metal fence
can be repositioned Concentric disc
for cutting wide or and ring allow the
narrow metal pieces grinder to pivot
up and down

Mounting blocks
NOTE: Refer to cut to match
page 67 for shape of angle grinder
hardware sources
and finishing information

Aluminum strap
Cuts made with secures angle grinder
abrasive grinding to handle assembly
wheel

Steel inserts
and U-channel
protect the base
from sparks
when cutting Threaded inserts
accept bolts for
mounting fence
Sturdy base in two positions
built up from { Resin slides mounted in the rail accept the
three layers
of plywood carriage and handle assembly, allowing the
grinder to slide back and forth.

Woodsmith.com 35

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!/2"-13 x 8" NOTE: Do not
a. SIDE SECTION VIEW carriage bolt glue support arm
c. TOP VIEW
1 assembly to base 6
!/8"- !/4"-rad.
rad. C 1!/2 B 1#/4
1!/4 MAIN 4
SUPPORT ARM
B
!/4"-rad. SMALL
!/2"- SUPPORT ARM
rad. D 2#/32 C 1"-rad.
1
#/16 D
A
6 14 !/4"-20
1&/16 2 threaded
insert
10 1"-rad.
4
b. FRONT 6
11!/2
SECTION 1
2!/4
VIEW
A
5 1
4 BASE
!/2" NOTE: Join
5
hole main and small 3%/8 #/8"-dia. hole,
support arm D 1" deep
before SUPPORT
drilling holes BLOCK 1 !/8"
3
roundover
23
%/8 NOTE: All parts are
#/4" plywood. Base 21
is three layers and main
1!/8 support arm is two layers
!/2"-13 lock !/2" fender
nut washer

The BASE & This way, you can glue them face to
face without worrying about the edges
holes near the back left corner let you
bolt down the support arm later on

SUPPORT ARM being perfectly aligned. After that, it just


requires a few table saw cuts to trim the
base to final overall size.
(details a and b). And two rows of
smaller holes accept threaded inserts
for the fence. Youll drill these holes and
The cutoff grinders base is a good place SHAPING. A notch on the back edge of the install threaded inserts as shown above.
to start on this project. Its built up from base forms a tab for mounting a support The center channel and fence get added
several layers to make it sturdy, stable, arm. These cuts, as well as the radiused later as youre putting the final touches
and unlikely to shift as youre making corners, are quick work at the band saw on your project.
cuts. It has softened edges and holes for (lower left drawing). Then use a round- SUPPORT ARM. The next part of the project
mounting a support arm and fence. over bit to soften the top edge. is a support arm that connects the base to
SIZE THE BASE. To make the base easier to HOLES. There are some holes to drill in the assembly that holds the angle grinder.
assemble, I started with oversize panels. the base, as well. Two large counterbored It consists of several built-up plywood

How-To: SHAPE THE BASE & SUPPORT ARM !/2"


spade
bit

Main
Waste support arm
Support
!/4" band arm
saw blade assembly
Base

1" sanding
drum

Cut Notch. The wide notch at the back Smooth the Shapes. I relied on a Holes. Use a spade bit to bore holes
of the base requires simple band saw sanding drum in the drill press to through the arm for carriage bolts. You
cuts. Then sand the notch smooth. smooth the radii of the support arms. may need to raise the table mid-hole.

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Resin
slide !/8" b. TOP SECTION VIEW
roundovers
!/2
2!/4
Support 21 3
arm

21
RAIL 6
E #/4

Rail
#8 x 1#/4" Fh Support
NOTE: Rail is woodscrew arm
1"-thick hardwood.
Slides are !/4" resin Base
2!/2
a. FRONT Rail Resin
SECTION slide
VIEW Resin
slide
%/16
NOTE: Do not !/4"-dia. x 1"
secure pins in steel pin !/4 !%/16 6
slide rail yet
Resin
slide Support !/4 Pin
arm
%/8
!/2
parts, as well as a hardwood rail that the
angle grinder assembly slides along. Resin
slide
MAKING THE SUPPORT ARM. As shown on the
previous page, the support arm is a five-
layer plywood sandwich. Two pieces of cut the small support arm and support mounting it to the base. I used a drill
plywood form the main support arm, blocks to overall size, as well. Next, use press equipped with a spade bit for this
and then a small support arm is added a band saw to cut the main support arm (lower right drawing, previous page).
to the side to give the structure even and small support arm to shape (detail A fence and stop block help align the
more rigidity. The two small support a, opposite page). After a little sanding assembly as you drill the holes. Then its
blocks widen the base of the support (lower middle drawing, opposite page), time to glue on the support blocks and
arm for additional stability. youre ready to glue the small support bolt the support arm to the base.
You can get started by gluing two pieces arm to the main support arm. They align
of plywood together for the main support along the bottom and back edges. MAKING THE RAIL
arm, and then cutting the arm to final size Youll need to drill two long holes The rail comes next. Its a piece of hard-
when the glue is dry. While youre at it, through the support arm assembly for wood with grooves in the edges to accept
resin slides. After cutting the rail to size,

How-To: COMPLETE THE RAIL form the grooves in the edges (far left
drawing). Have the slides on hand to
check their fit in the grooves.
NOTE: Countersunk holes in the face of the rail
Flip rail end for accept screws. And larger holes near the
end between cuts
to center ends hold steel pins that will serve as stops
groove Resin
slide
for the carriage assembly. After drilling the
holes, round the ends and edges of the rail.
a. END
VIEW SLIDES. The resin stock I used for the
E slides was rough, so after ripping the
!/4 E strips and trimming them to length, I
%/16 Block dressed the edges with a block plane
plane
(near left drawing) before epoxying
them in the grooves. Then it was just a
matter of securing the rail on the sup-
Centered Grooves. Use a rip blade Smooth Slides. To create smooth port arm with woodscrews. Cut the
and flip the rail between passes to cut a slides, make a few quick swipes steel pins to size now, but you wont
centered groove sized to fit the slides. along the edges with a block plane. insert them until later, after adding the
carriage assembly onto the rail.

Woodsmith.com 37

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.438" O.D. x !/4"-dia.
3#/4"-long spring screw eye
NOTE: Plate and stop are
#/4" plywood, disc is !/4" plywood, 5 CARRIAGE
and guides are 1"-thick hardwood PLATE
H 1 8#/4 F STOP
!/2
3!#/16 G
!/2

#/8"-16 x 2" !/8"


carriage roundover
bolt 2

4#/4 #8 x 1!/4" Fh
DISC woodscrew
H (3"-dia.)
GUIDE I

a. TOP SECTION VIEW b. SIDE VIEW #/4 c. &/16 FRONT


!/4 SECTION
Plate H
VIEW
Resin !/2 !/2
slide F 1!/4 !/8 %/16 G
2#/8 !/4
H G
#/8 I
45
F
!/2 !/2 #/16
#/4
G #/8"
hole 4#/8
I
4 !/4 I
!/2 45 F
H

Adding the carriage & DISC. The disc is the next order of busi-
ness. Its made from thin plywood, so
HANDLE ASSEMBLIES its a perfect task for a drill press circle
cutter (Figure 3). The key here is to drill
A carriage assembly is the next compo- against the pins on the slide rail. Make at a slow speed, and have the plywood
nent of the sliding cutoff grinder. This the slots as shown in Figure 1 below. blank attached securely to a backer as
assembly moves along the resin slides STOP & GUIDES. At this point, you can cut you cut. When youre done, enlarge the
on two guides. On the outer face of the the plywood stop and hardwood guides center hole to 38". Now you can assem-
assembly is a plywood disc. The disc to size. These parts (and the plate) all ble the entire carriage assembly with
mates with a ring on the handle assem- receive 45 cuts along some of the corners glue and screws, as shown above.
bly to let the grinder pivot up and down. (Figure 2). The plate has a counterbored
A stop limits the travel of the grinder. hole to attach the disc, and a hole on the HANDLE ASSEMBLY
CARRIAGE PLATE. I started on the carriage top edge for a screw eye. The guides have The handle assembly goes on next. On
plate. After cutting it to size, youll grooves along the edges to fit over the the inner face of the assembly, it has
form stopped slots at each end that butt resin slides in the rail (detail c). a ring that mates with the disc on the

How-To: MAKE THE CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY


1 !/2"
straight bit
2 Miter gauge
tilted 45 3
Aux.
fence Stop
F
block

Stop
block Disc
Waste F

Circle cutter
NOTE: Rout (set to 3"-dia.)
slots in Backer
multiple passes

Stopped Slots. Set a stop block on the Bevels. Rotate the miter gauge 45 in Cut the Disc. Cut the disc from a larger
router table fence and make a series of order to cut the beveled corners on the plywood blank using a circle cutter
passes to rout the slots in the plate. plate, stop, and guides. running at low speed on the drill press.

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!/4"-dia. NOTE: Ring is NOTE: Shape
screw eye NOTE: Use
!/4" plywood. mounting block pattern (below)
4#/4 Other parts are cutouts to to size and
#/4" plywood match grinder body shape handle
(Figure 3 below)
!/2 #/8"-16 lock nut
3%/16 w/fender washer
3 1#/8
K
4&/16 HANDLE
!/8"
5%/8 3!/8 roundovers
#8 x 1!/4" Fh
3!/8 woodscrew
RING 4!/2
N #/4
#8 x 1!/2" Fh
woodscrew M
1!/4
MOUNTING #8 x 1!/4" Fh
a. FRONT J BLOCKS woodscrew
K SECTION PIVOT PLATE L
VIEW
SPACER BLOCK
PATTERN (One square = !/2")
%/16
N
1!/4
b.
N #/4"-rad.
1%/8
J M TOP 1"-rad.
SECTION
L VIEW
1#/8"-dia.
K J
!/16 M M
1"-rad.
#/4"-rad.

carriage assembly to allow the pivoting you can use as a guide to cut the handle
action. On the outer face, two mount- to shape at the band saw. Then its a
ing blocks hold the grinder in place. A matter of cutting the hand-hold (Figure
spring running from the carriage assem- 2) and softening the handle edges. ASSEMBLY. The handle assembly can now
bly to the handle assembly returns the BLOCKS. The mounting blocks require a be glued and screwed together. Next fit
grinder to a neutral position. little work to get just right. The cutouts the ring over the disc and secure the car-
RING. The ring is made similarly to the need to match the shape of the grinder riage assembly to the handle assembly
disc. The difference is youll make two body and hold the grinding wheel paral- with a bolt, washer, and lock nut. Snug up
cuts (Figure 1 below). lel with the handle. For my grinder, this the lock nut so that the handle still pivots
PLATE, SPACER & HANDLE. The pivot plate required a different cutout on each block. freely on the carriage assembly. Then
and spacer block are pretty basic (draw- To get it right, lay out and cut the cut- add the screw eyes and spring between
ing above). These parts are cut to size, outs on your blocks, then put the grinder the carriage and handle assemblies.
drilled, and rounded on the edges. The on the blocks on a worksurface. When Finally, slide the guides over the resin
handle is a little more involved. Theres the grinder wheel is parallel with the slides of the slide rail, and insert the steel
a full-size pattern at Woodsmith.com that worksurface, your job is done (Figure 3). pins to complete the assembly.

How-To: ADD THE HANDLE ASSEMBLY


1 Jig saw
2 Continue shaping the
mounting blocks
Framing
square 3
until grinding wheel
is parallel with
worksurface
1#/8"-dia.
hole Blocks cut to
width of leg
Handle of square

Ring

Circle cutter
(set to 4&/16"-dia.) Backer

Cut the Ring. Cut the inner circle Hand-Hold. Drill two holes in the handle Blocks. Test the fit of the mounting blocks
first, then the outer circle to form with a Forstner bit, then connect them to ensure that they hold the grinder wheel
the ring for the handle assembly. with a jig saw to form the hand-hold. parallel with a worksurface.

Woodsmith.com 39

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a. TOP VIEW

Plate
Handle Strap

THIRD: Drill pilot


holes and secure
NOTE: Grinder wheel is strap around grinder
parallel with handle with screws

b. SIDE VIEW
!/4"
washer
Position strap
to not interfere
with grinder
switch
#10 x 1!/4" Rh
woodscrew

FIRST: Use body of


grinder as form for Angle
bending strap to shape grinder

SECOND: Bend ends Strap


of strap at 90 in vise, (!/2" x 9" - !/16" aluminum)
and trim strap to final length

Finishing touches for the mounting blocks by driving screws


through the holes in the strap and into

THE CUTOFF GRINDER the handle and spacer block.


CENTER CHANNEL. The base of the cutoff
grinder has a steel channel. This prevents
Your sliding cutoff grinder is nearing the drawings above and then use the sparks from directly hitting the plywood
completion. A few more additions will grinder body as a form for bending the base. I waited until now to form the chan-
leave you with the precision metal-cutting strap to match. After determining where nel, so I could determine precisely where
tool youve been waiting for. That starts the strap will meet the handle and spacer the grinder wheel would come in contact
with adding the grinder to the assembly. block, bend the strap at 90 in a vise at with the base. The steel parts used for the
STRAP. The angle grinder is held in place those locations. Then trim off the excess channel are cut to length with a hack saw.
on the mounting blocks with a strap aluminum from the ends of the strap. To locate the center channel, lower the
formed from thin aluminum. After cut- Finally, position the grinder and strap grinder, and run it along the base to form
ting the strap extra-long, place it around on the handle assembly and drill pilot the centerline for the channel youll be
the body of the grinder as shown in holes for screws. Secure the grinder to cutting (Figure 1, next page).

Materials, Supplies & Cutting Diagram


A Base (1) 214 ply. - 21 x 23 (8) 14"-20 Threaded Inserts (2) #10 x 114" Rh Woodscrews
B Main Support Arm (1) 112 ply. - 6 x 14 (2) 12"-13 x 8" Carriage Bolts (6) 14" Washers
C Small Support Arm (1) 3 (2) 12" Fender Washers (1) 12" x 1" - 17" Steel U-Channel
4 ply. - 6 x 10
3
D Support Blocks (2) 4 ply. - 214 x 35 8 (2) 12"-13 Lock Nuts (2) 18" x 4" - 17 Steel Inserts
E Rail (1) 1 x 212 - 21 (6) #8 x 13 4" Fh Woodscrews (16) #8 x 112" Fh Woodscrews
F Carriage Plate (1) 3 4 ply. - 43 4 x 834 (2) 14" x 3 4" - 21" Resin Strips (2) 18" x 1" - 12" Steel Angles
G Stop (1) 3 4 ply. - 2 x 313 16 (2) 14"-dia. x 1" Steel Pins (4) 14"-20 x 12" Hex Bolts
H Guides (2) 1x1-5 (9) #8 x 114" Fh Woodscrews
I Disc (1) 1 ply. x 3"-dia. (2) 14"-dia. Screw Eyes
4
ALSO NEEDED:
J Pivot Plate (1) 3 ply. - 43 x 55 (1) 3 8"-16 x 2" Carriage Bolt
4 4 8 One 60" x 60" sheet of 34" Baltic birch plywood
K Handle (1) 34 ply. - 8 rgh. x 10 rgh. (1) 3 8" Fender Washer One 24" x 24" piece of 1 4" Baltic birch plywood
3 ply. - 11 x 31 0.8 bd. ft. of 1"-thick maple (parts E and H)
L Spacer Block (1) 4 4 8 (1) 3 8"-16 Lock Nut
M Mounting Blocks (2) 4 ply. - 13 8 x 412
3 (1) .438" O.D. x 33 4"-long Spring
N Ring (1) 1 ply. x 47 "-dia. (1) 116" x 114" - 9" Aluminum Bar
4 16

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a. FRONT SECTION VIEW NOTE: Position fence right
in front of threaded inserts
in order to transfer hole
45 !/4 45 locations from base to fence
2!/2 3%/8

!/8 %/8

b. SIDE SECTION VIEW


!/4"-20 x !/2" Fence
hex bolt Steel angle Steel bar
w/washer (!/8" thick)
1

11&/8
U-channel
10!/2
17

Steel FENCE. The last addition to the cutoff


inserts #8 x 1!/2" Fh
(!/8" thick) woodscrew grinder is the two-part fence. Its made
4 #8 x 1!/4" Fh
from steel angle that I cut to length. I also
woodscrew formed a notch on the left fence using a
17 hack saw, so it wouldnt interfere with
the body of the grinder. Then I beveled
the edge of the right fence. (Youll find
!/2" x 1" steel
tips for cutting these parts on page 65.)
U-channel Position the fence parts on the base,
just in front of the row of threaded inserts,
NOTE: Use grinding wheel and mark hole locations that match up
to mark dado locations as
shown in Figure 1 below with the inserts. Then drill the holes, do
a little filing and sanding, and the fence is
FORM THE CHANNEL. Now remove the sup- dado blade and make a series of passes to ready to be installed with bolts and wash-
port arm from the base and set up a form rabbets for these inserts (Figure 3). ers, as shown in the drawings above.
dado blade in your table saw. Using the Next, cut a piece of steel U-channel with PRECISION METAL-CUTTING. Reinstall the sup-
rip fence as your guide, cut a groove a hack saw to fit the center groove in the port arm on the base with the carriage
centered under the grinder wheel to base. File and sand the ends smooth, drill bolts, do a little painting and finishing,
accept the U-channel (Figure 2). countersunk pilot holes, and attach the and your sliding cutoff grinder is ready
I also placed some wider steel inserts channel in the groove with long screws for for action. Its sure to bring a much-
on either side of the U-channel (and over- a secure connection. Repeat the process for needed measure of accuracy to all your
lapping it slightly) as added insurance the steel inserts, as well. I filed a chamfer cuts in metal, and that will ultimately
against sparks. Youll want to lower the on the ends of the inserts to soften them. lead to better shop projects. W

How-To: COMPLETE THE BASE


1 2 a. END VIEW 3 a. END VIEW
Base Base
1 Waste 3%/8 !/8
Base %/8 Base
Dado Waste
centerline

Grinding
wheel #/4" dado
#/4" dado
blade blade

Score a Line. Run the grinder wheel Deep Dado. Set up a dado blade in the Shallow Dado. Lower the blade, and
along the base to score a line. This is table saw, and pass the base over it to make a series of passes to create two
the centerline for the U-channel. form the groove for the steel U-channel. shallow rabbets for the steel inserts.

Woodsmith.com 41

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Heirloom
Project

icebox
Wine Cabinet
This vintage-looking cabinet stands ready to supply cold drinks for your
next get-together. Timeless construction makes it a pleasure to build.
Long after my grandmother had an elec- but it has a new job as a serving station. lid feature stub tenon and groove as well
tric refrigerator, she still called it the Inside are four storage compartments for as mortise and tenon joinery. Getting
icebox. In her day, a large block of ice storing beverages, glasses, and supplies. the period-style profiles and raised door
kept perishable food cold inside a well- A flip-up lid conceals an ice bucket and panels right requires some clever router
insulated wood case. laminate-covered serving area. work. Even the finish is meant to evoke
While the original function of an icebox Youll find plenty of enjoyment in a well-used antique.
may be obsolete, one look at the photo building this icebox, too. Like the styling, Once its complete, youll have earned
above shows that the look is still fresh. the construction is all traditional. I used a cold, refreshing drink. Then you can sit
This cabinet is based on an older design, red oak throughout. The case, doors, and back and enjoy the result of your efforts.

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Construction Overview / OVERALL DIMENSIONS: 34"W x 46 "H x 17 "D 5
8
1
2

Flip-up lid covers serving area and Plastic laminate applied


gives the top of the project a finished look to top and shelves
for moisture protection

Steam pan serves


as ice bucket to
keep drinks chilled Quadrant stay hinges
support lid when it's open
Solid-wood doors
are built with mortise
and tenon joinery Stemware holders
keep glasses within
easy reach

Two-step table saw


and router table
technique is used
to make raised panels

NOTE: For hardware sources


and finishing information,
turn to page 67

Cabinet sides, back,


Add this solid-wood case and middle divider
to hold wine bottles and more are assembled with
(lower right photo) stub tenon and
groove joinery

Hardware matches the


look of traditional iceboxes

Molding, toe kick,


and plinth blocks
have classic profiles

{ Lift the lid of the icebox to reveal { Solid brass icebox latches and { A slip-in case holds up to 12 bottles
a laminate-covered serving area hinges mount to the surface to of wine and contains a drawer for
with a built-in ice bucket. complete the vintage look. storing odds and ends.

Woodsmith.com 43

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C
E
2!/2 SIDE RAIL
1#/4
CENTER
Frame & panel C
STILE C

ASSEMBLIES
D
D
A
D C

C A
Building the wine cabinet starts right C D
where youd expect, with the case. And
D
the method of construction sets the tone E C 2!/4
D
for the classic look of the iceboxes of yes- C #/4
D
teryear. There are actually five individual
assemblies to make: two sides, a center
C #/4
D
#/4 C
section, the back, and the face frame.
D A #/4
With the exception of the face frame, all 45 C D
are frame and panel construction.
ALL AT ONCE. A quick look at the draw- C
D
40 3#/4
ings on this page and the next shows 2!/2
C
that theres a lot of identical joinery to D
C 3#/4
cut. So I took some time at the front to
cut all the stiles and rails for the sides, C D
A 5#/4
center, and back so that once the table SIDE
8#/4 13#/4
saw was set up for cutting the joints, I STILE D
could knock it all out in a short time.
It pays to label your parts carefully to C
B
avoid mix-ups. For example, all the top 7!/2
B
11#/4
and bottom rails have grooves cut along BOTTOM D
RAIL 11#/4 SIDE PANEL
just one edge, while interior rails (and
stiles) have grooves along both edges.
NOTE: Stiles and
STUB TENON & GROOVE JOINERY. Considering rails are made from a. !/4"-dia. shelf TOP SECTION
all the stiles, rails, and panels that need #/4"-thick hardwood. pin hole VIEW
Panels are !/4" plywood
to be joined, stub tenon and groove join- #/8
Panel
ery offers a perfect solution. This joint the rails to fit. For the best glue joint, the
is easy to cut at the table saw. Using grooves need to be sized for a snug match #/8
!/4" ply. Stile
plywood for the panels means you can to the thickness of the plywood panels.
glue them in place to increase the overall The box below shows the table saw setups
strength of each assembly. for the grooves and mating tenons. Use determine the final size of the plywood
Actually, the plywood serves as the test pieces to sneak up on the size of the panels. From here, you can glue up the
gauge for creating the joinery. Heres joints until youre satisfied with the fit. side and center assemblies. When the
what I mean by that. I like to cut the PANELS & ASSEMBLY. With the joinery clamps come off, its a good time to lay
grooves first, then size the stub tenons on wrapped up, dry assemble the frames to out and drill the shelf pin holes.

How-To: STUB TENON & GROOVE


1 a. Block 2 a. END VIEW
Push
block !/4"
ply.
Aux. #/8
rip
Standard END fence Rail
VIEW Rail
blade !/4" ply.

#/8 Aux. miter


Cut grooves gauge fence
on each edge
of interior rails Dado blade

Grooves Come First. After making one pass, flip the piece Stub Tenons. The other half of the joint is a stub tenon thats
end for end to center the groove. Take care to size the groove cut on the ends of the rails along with the upper and lower
to match the plywood youll use for the panels. back stiles. Use test pieces to zero in on a good fit.

44 Woodsmith / No. 221

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Cut notch before
UPPER BACK STILE H gluing up back
28
G
F
UPPER a.
J BACK 2!/2
PANEL
Front
!/2 !/4 stile
Rout !/4"
L 12!/2 roundover
on outer #/4
FRONT 1!/4" fine
RAIL edges after thread
N 13!/4
assembly J TOP pocket
UPPER Side screw
stile VIEW
L FRONT
2!/2 STILE
13!/4
b. !/4 FRONT
%/8 VIEW
NOTE: Face frame G
F is joined with
FRONT LOWER 1 Upper
45 pocket screws BACK 45
STILE 20 back
STILE 2!/2 rail
I
O #/8
LOWER 13!/4
FRONT
STILE K
Middle
LOWER 2!/2 back
BACK rail
3!/2 20#/4 PANEL F
Groove along both edges
M
K
LOWER
NOTE: Stiles and FRONT Lower
rails are #/4"-thick RAIL 2!/2 back
hardwood. Panels rail
are !/4" plywood #/8
F
c. Upper/lower
!/4 ply.
BACK
back stiles STILE d.
28#/4
G
#/8 E TOP BACK RAIL
Back SECTION
panel 3
VIEW
NOTE: Fill grooves in back stiles
after assembling the back frame Back
assembly
BACK & FACE FRAME Following the glueup, I cut small
The back, on the other hand isnt quite pieces to fill the grooves at the bottom of Size filler to
match groove
ready for assembly. First, you need to cut the stiles for a cleaner appearance, as you
a notch at each end of the upper rail (detail can see in detail d at right. #/8" chamfer

b). This creates a pocket for the lid hinges. FACE FRAME. In contrast to the sides and
The stiles have a rabbet along the edge, as back, making the face frame will go
shown in the drawing below. This rabbet much more quickly. Thats because the the drawing above and detail a. Your
(and a similar one in the face frame) regis- parts are simply cut to size and joined goal here is to make sure that the overall
ter the sides and ease assembly. with pocket screws, as you can see in size of the face frame matches the size of
the back assembly, so you end up with a

How-To: RABBETING THE RAILS square case. (Dont forget to cut a rabbet
on the face frame stiles.)
ASSEMBLY. Its time to see the project take

1 a.
shape. The sides fit nicely into the rab-
END VIEW bets in the face frame and back. Getting
#/4 the center section aligned may cause
Back stile
Aux.
some headaches. To solve this problem, I
rip fence marked the center on the back and face
!/2 frame at the top and bottom edges. A
centerline on the center assembly lets you
#/4" dado align the components (detail c).
blade
Take things one step at a time. Glue the
sides into the back frame. When the glue
Rabbet Simplifies Assembly. Cut a rabbet in the back and front stiles before dries, add the center. The face frame goes
gluing up the back and face frame so theyre easier to handle. The width of the in place last. Wrap things up by softening
rabbet matches the thickness of the side stiles. the corners with a roundover on the front
and back edges, as in detail a.

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NOTE: Shelves are made
15#/8 from #/4" plywood.
CLEAT Cleats are #/4"-thick hardwood.
Q Edging is cut and planed a. #/4
from 1"-thick hardwood
#8 x 1!/4"
Fh wood- #/4
Laminate isn't screw SIDE
needed on VIEW
upper shelf
Cleat
15#/8
14!/2 Upper shelf flush
with bottom
P edge of front rail
SHELF
b. Plastic SIDE
laminate VIEW

P
Shelf

Install cleat so
P shelf is flush #/4
with top edge
of front rail
Shelf #/4
pin 14!/2
15#/8
c. Plastic
laminate
NOTE: Apply oversize !/4
P piece of laminate to shelf,
then trim flush
Adj. shelf Front
stile
P
Apply laminate to
adjustable shelf before SIDE Shelf
adding edging Edging
VIEW pin
R
ADJUSTABLE
SHELF
d. Install middle stemware holder centered on
opening, then attach holders on either side

14

15!/4 S
EDGING

Dividing the CABINET


Stemware FRONT VIEW
holder

As it stands, the only thing missing from secure the shelves. To solve this problem, shelf pins. This allows you to position it
the case is some method to divide and I turned to a system of cleats. (More on to suit your needs, as in detail c. If you
organize the inside. That job is handled these in a bit.) Once thats done, you turn dont plan on building the wine bottle
by a series of plywood shelves. Most of your attention to dressing up the wine storage rack shown on page 50, you may
these are fixed in place. Since the case is cabinet to create its distinct look. want to make a second adjustable shelf
already assembled, you need a way to VERSATILE SHELVES. Theres a little more for the other side of the wine cabinet.
going on with the shelves than simply A second issue related to making the
cutting them to size. Since most of them shelves is moisture. A wine and beverage
are fixed, I didnt want to worry about cabinet is bound to see a few spills. To
wood movement. So the shelves are cut keep liquids from damaging the finish
from oak plywood to match the cabinet. or plywood, I covered the four fixed and
Altogether, you need six shelves, as adjustable shelves with plastic laminate.
shown in the drawing above. But they (The stemware shelf doesnt need it.)
arent all the same. The laminate is applied to the plywood
Four are used for the floors of the com- with contact cement. After cutting the ply-
partments in the cabinets. One is attached wood to final size, cut a piece of laminate
as the ceiling for the upper right com- thats a little larger than the shelf. The next
partment and serves as a mounting step is to apply contact cement to both
surface for some stemware holders, as mating surfaces. When its dry to the
{ Slide the bases of glasses into the you can see in the left photo. touch, bring the two together and roll the
stemware holders to keep them The last shelf is slightly smaller laminate for a strong bond. You can use a
organized and at the ready. than the others. It rests on adjustable router to trim the laminate flush.

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The adjustable shelf requires one more
step. I applied a strip of hardwood edg- NOTE: Toe kick and molding are
made from #/4"-thick hardwood.
ing to the front of the shelf to conceal the Plinth blocks are 1"-thick hardwood
exposed plies, as seen in detail c. V

CLEATS. As I said earlier, a pair of cleats NOTE: Assemble toe kick


to plinth blocks with pocket
anchors each shelf to the case. These are screws before installing on case
attached to the back frame and face frame
28
with screws. Locate the cleats so that the
top of the shelf is flush with the top of
the rails on the surrounding assemblies T
(detail b). In a similar fashion, the stem- TOE KICK
ware shelf is positioned so its flush with 6!/4
U
the top of the opening, as in detail a. a. MOLDING

LOWER DETAILS Plinth


1
block
The trim details at the bottom of an old b.
FRONT V
icebox are more than decorative. As the Molding VIEW PLINTH BLOCK
block of ice melted, water collected in
Toe
a drip pan at the bottom of the icebox. Kick 4!/2 c. TOP SECTION VIEW
To empty the pan, many iceboxes had a Molding Toe Plinth
SIDE kick block
hinged, free-swinging toe kick for access. Plinth
#/4 VIEW Toe kick block
A strip of molding above the toe kick and !/4
1!/4" fine-thread
thick plinth blocks on either side complete !/2 pocket screw
1 2!/4
the effect of a solid, furniture-style base.
While this version of an icebox doesnt
require a swinging toe kick, I wanted the
same look, as shown in the upper right How-To: CREATING EDGE PROFILES
drawing. The main difference between
this version and a vintage icebox is that 1 Upper edge
of toe kick
2
here, everything is fixed in place.
The box at right highlights the steps to
making the various parts. I want to point Classical Extra-wide
out the roundover detail on the toe kick molding molding
bit blank
(detail a above and Figure 1). Originally, a. !/4" roundover bit
this kept the toe kick from binding as it a. 1
END
VIEW
was lifted to access the drip pan. Here it END VIEW Toe kick
!/2
creates a nice shadow line between the
molding strip above.
MOLDING. The molding strip has a dou-
ble roundover profile on its upper edge Toe Kick Profile. A small roundover Molding. Using an extra-wide blank
and a roundover on the lower edge on the upper edge mimics the look of offers more control and keeps your
to match the toe kick. Figure 2 shows traditional iceboxes. hands away from the bit.
how to create the upper profile on an
extra-wide blank for added safety. The 3 Backer 4 Backer
board
molding can then be ripped to width at
Plinth block
the table saw before routing the smaller
Plinth
roundover on the lower edge.
PLINTH BLOCKS. The final parts of the base a. END a. !/2"
VIEW roundover
are the plinth blocks, which run verti- !/2 Waste bit
cally. The top has an ogee profile thats
1"-dia.
made in two steps, as in Figures 3 and core box !/2
bit !/2
4. Since youre routing across end grain, Rout profile
in several
rout the profiles in several light passes passes
to avoid burning. Raise the bit slightly END
VIEW
between each pass until you reach the Cove. A core box Roundover.
final bit height. The toe kick is attached bit forms the cove of the ogee profile. Align the roundover bit to create a
to the plinth blocks with pocket screws. Remove the waste in several passes. smooth transition with the cove.
This assembly is glued to the case.

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NOTE: Top glued to case after Plane frame pieces to match Y
completing the lid and cutting thickness of plywood and laminate 14 #/4"-rad.
hinge mortises in top a. Cut notch in stile
and lid (refer to page 64) before assembling top
TOP BACK STILE !/4
X 29 W 1!/8
Steam pan TOP PANEL
1!/2" brass and lid
1!/8
quadrant
hinge 2!/2
2!/2 Top back stile
Z
29 TOP Top TOP VIEW
FRONT side
11!/2 34 STILE

Y
b.
TOP RAIL
1#/8
NOTE: Panel is made
from #/4" plywood. !/2"-rad. Use
Frame pieces are cut technique
from 1"-thick hardwood shown
TOP VIEW on page 65
8#/4 to create
1!/8 opening
after
11 assembly

Two-part TOP ASSEMBLY c. SIDE SECTION VIEW


From the outside, the top of the wine this project. You can see in the drawing 2!/2
cabinet looks like an ordinary cabinet above that it consists of a plywood panel Stile &/8
top a frame with two raised panels. wrapped with a hardwood frame. Steam pan
and lid
The difference is that theres another You make the panel just like a larger
top hiding below. A frame and panel version of the shelves, covered in plas-
assembly doesnt work well for serving tic laminate. However, the combined
beverages. So I turned it into a lid. thickness of the laminate and plywood in the case back, as in detail a. These
The surface below is flat and offers is thicker than 34". This means that the notches create mortises for the hinges
a few amenities that make it ideal for panel would extend below the frame and (lower left photo) that connect the lid.
entertaining. Like the shelves, the sur- interfere with a good fit on the cabinet. Next, the sides are added, followed
face is covered in plastic laminate. I also The answer is to use thicker stock for the by the front stile. The opening for the ice
incorporated an ice bucket to keep drinks frame and plane it to match the panel. bucket can be cut at this point (detail b).
chilled and ready. When the party is over, THE FRAME. The frame pieces are glued I softened the front corners with a
you can lower the lid and the icebox around the panel, starting with the back radius and routed a double bead detail
reverts to a mild-mannered cabinet. stile. Before gluing it in place, cut a notch on the front and sides (box below). Hold
A TOP FOR ENTERTAINING. The serving sur- at each end that lines up with the ones off on gluing the top in place for now.
face is a frame and panel assembly thats
that s
quite a bit different than the others in
How-To: ROUTED BEAD
1 a. END VIEW b. END VIEW

Top face up Top face down


Rout profile on
front and sides only

!/8"-rad. corner
beading bit

First Second
pass pass

D
Double Bead. The beads are cut with a standard beading bit. Your goal is to
{ Quadrant hinges have a built-in center
c the bead on the thickness of the top assembly. To do that, align the quirk
stay that holds the lid open without of
o the bit with the center of the top. For the second pass, flip the top over.
stressing the hinge knuckle.

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NOTE: Stiles and rails are #/4"-thick hardwood. Back edge
Panels are !/2"-thick hardwood left square Tongue on panel sized
AA to fit grooves in frame
a. !/4"
BB and create !/16" shadow roundover !/16" gap
13!/2
34 line on top face #/8
!/4

CC Stile Panel
BB
#/8
CC
LID PANEL 2!/2
AA !/8" SIDE
LID STILE BB roundover SECTION
LID RAIL 13&/8 12!/8 VIEW

NOTE: Apply glue to center


of panels to center them Mortise for
in the opening c. hinge stay
(refer to page 64)
2!/2
b. Groove on Groove on
2!/2
both edges inside edge
Rail Rail 1 Rail
#/8 TOP VIEW
1 #/8
Back stile SIDE
Front stile #/4"- SECTION
#/8 rad.
#/8 VIEW
Quadrant
34 hinge

THE LID
The formal lid echoes the look of the sides How-To: MORTISE & TENON
and the back with a couple of key differ-
ences. The main one is that it has 12"-thick, !/4"
1 Stiles/
2 Forstner
solid-wood panels instead of plywood, as rails bit
shown in the drawing above.
Lid stile
Since the lid is hinged, the joinery needs Shift rip fence
to be stout to keep it flat and rigid. Adding between passes
to widen groove
deeper mortises and tenons is the way to Align bit with
go. The box at right shows the process. groove in stile
MORTISES. I used the groove in the stile
(Figure 1) to align the drill bit for rough- a. a.
ing out the mortise in Figure 2. The walls END
!/4 !/4 VIEW
of the groove guide your chisel for par- FRONT
SECTION 1
ing the mortise flat and square. #/8 VIEW
TENONS. A dado blade in the table saw 1#/4
makes quick work of creating tenons, #/8
as shown in Figure 3. The tenons on the
end rails have an added detail. You need Groove. Adjust the rip fence to Mortise. Overlapping passes with the
to create a haunch on the outside edge to create a groove that matches the 14" Forstner bit remove most of the waste.
fill the groove for a finished look (detail Forstner bit used for the mortise. Use chisels to clean up sides and ends.
b above and Figure 4).
The solid-wood panels have a rabbet 3 a. SIDE VIEW
4
cut around all four edges. This forms a
tongue that fits the grooves in the frame. #/4" SIDE
dado VIEW
To give the panel room to expand, cut the Rip blade
panels a little narrower overall than the fence 1 %/8
distance between the grooves in the stiles, End Rail

as shown in detail a above. !/4 Rail


Aux. miter !/4 #/8
HINGE MORTISES. After assembling the gauge fence
lid and softening the edges, you can prevents chipout
create the hinge mortises. This process
is detailed in Shop Notes on page 64. Tenon Cheeks. Raise the dado blade flush Haunch. The outer shoulders
When youre done, glue the top assem- with the side of the groove to cut a tenon that of the end rails have a step
bly to the case and connect the lid to the fits snugly in the mortise. that fills the groove in the stile.
top with the hinges.

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NOTE: Fillers are #/4"-thick hardwood. a.
Drawer bottom is !/4" plywood. FRONT
14!/2 SECTION !/16"
DRAWER All other parts are gap
!/2"-thick hardwood VIEW
BACK
F F I I Divider
DRAWER
Filler is 2!/2 SIDE 3%/8
installed 10&/16 HH
in icebox with 11(/16
pocket screws !/4 3!/16
!/8
E E
11!/4
E E
CASE SIDE Divider
F F
14#/8 HH !/8 #8 x 1!/4" Fh
DD CASE 10&/16
19&/8 DIVIDER woodscrew
FILLER
11#/16
J J
b.
DRAWER BOTTOM
14!/2 DD F F 3
GG 1
TOP
d. DRAWER
FRONT Filler
VIEW rests 4
3!#/16
on shelf
c. 3"-rad. Drawer Shelf
!/8 side SIDE
VIEW
!/2 Drawer back
1!/4
!/16 Drawer 14!/2 parts of the project. The starting point for
3!/16
front
making the wine rack is preparing and
FRONT VIEW Drawer
front gluing up the 12"-thick panels.
The wine rack is centered in its com-
#/8
partment in the cabinet. To do that, add a

Add-on WINE RACK


pair of fillers inside of the cabinet. These
are installed flush with the inside edge of
the face frame. These are simply installed
The fixed and adjustable shelves on a small drawer for storing related acces- with pocket screws, as in the drawing
the inside of the cabinet work just fine sories, as shown in the drawing above. above and detail b.
for general storage. However, the large SOLID-WOOD CONSTRUCTION. Whats nice STRAIGHTFORWARD JOINERY. Rabbets and
compartments at the bottom present an about the case is that it just slips into the dadoes cut in the case sides are sized
opportunity for adding a specialized wine cabinet. So you can add it at any to hold the three dividers. This is illus-
storage option. I made a case designed to time. Its made from solid wood (except trated in Figure 1 in the box below. I
hold up to 12 bottles of wine. It includes for the drawer bottom) to match the other strengthened the joinery by driving
screws through the sides, as you can see

How-To: CASE JOINERY & GROOVES in detail a above.


A SMALL DRAWER. The joinery on the
drawer echoes the case. You can find the
1 2 dimensions in detail d and the right
drawing in the box at left.
I do want to note a couple of interest-
Aux. ing details. One problem with drawers
rip Case side Drawer is getting at items in the back. You run
fence side
the risk of pulling the drawer completely
!/8" blade out of the case, spilling the contents. This
drawer construction solves that problem
a. END VIEW a. END VIEW by installing the back a few inches in
!/2 !/4
from the back end of the sides.
#/4" !/4" ply.
dado
The other feature I want to highlight is
blade on the drawer front. Rather than take up
!/8 !/8 space with a pull, the front has a cutout.
A quick trip to the band saw and a little
Case Rabbet. Recessing a wide dado Drawer Bottom Groove. Cut the sanding is all it takes to make this detail.
blade into an auxiliary fence simplifies drawer bottom groove with a single Theres no back on the wine rack. So
the task of sizing the rabbet. blade in a couple passes. when the rack is installed, the drawer
stops against the back of the icebox.

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a.
SIDE SECTION VIEW
KK

Upright NOTE: All parts are


!/2"-thick hardwood
KK
1!/4 GUIDE
MM
Guide 2 L L

9
1!/4
1
L L

1!/4
Guide !/2 15!/4
12!/2
11%/16
#8 x 1!/4" Fh
woodscrew

3&/16 L L
CASE SHELF
KK
UPRIGHT
c.
TOP VIEW Case shelf

BOTTLE HOLDERS b. !/8 TOP VIEW


1
Creating a way to store bottles of wine
3&/16
is the next order of business. That task is Upright Guide !/2
handled by the interlocking grid assem-
bly you see in the drawing above. !/4
A set of notched uprights accept a pair find the specifics in details a and c. Fig-
of shelves to divide the lower portion of ure 1 in the box below shows one trick to
the wine rack case into 12 smaller cub- parts consistently. The second purpose do this for the uprights.
bies. Narrow guides that run between the is to create a rigid structure that sup- The other key is making sure the
uprights prevent a bottle from drifting into ports the weight of the bottles while still notches closely match the thickness of the
another cubby as you slide it into place. using relatively thin (12") parts. mating parts. They should slide together
INTERLOCKING NOTCHES. The notches in the There are two keys to keep in mind easily but without any play.
uprights and shelves serve two pur- when creating the notches. The notches Its a good idea to sand the uprights
poses. The first is to locate and space the need to be spaced accurately. You can and shelves before cutting the notches.
This way, you dont spoil the fit later.

How-To: CUT NOTCHES & TENONS Here again, test cuts and sample pieces
let you dial in the size of the dado blade.
GROOVES. The inside edge of the

1 2 uprights have grooves to accept stub


tenons on the ends of the guides. This
groove is a single kerf, as in detail b.
Uprights Cutting the stub tenons on the guides
Aux. rip Guide goes the same as in the frame and panel
fence
assemblies you made earlier just on a
!/2" dado smaller scale. Figure 2 in the box at left
blade
shows the setup I used.
a. END VIEW a. ASSEMBLY. Gluing up the bottle holder
END VIEW
3&/16 !/2 !/4 !/8 assembly involves a lot of parts. I used
Rip fence
used as !/2" dado #/16 a slow-setting glue to give me time to
an end 1 blade
stop
bring everything together. To avoid a lot
of difficult-to-remove squeezeout, just
use a drop of glue on each of the joints.
Notches. To save time and guarantee Small Stub Tenons. Size the stub Once everything is in place, slide it into
alignment, you can cut all the notches tenons for a snug fit with a tight joint the case to keep it square. Finally, drive a
in the uprights at the same time. line at the shoulder. few screws through the case bottom into
the uprights to lock it in place.

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UPPER DOOR PANEL
P P

OO UPPER a. 1
NN
DOOR
8%/8 STILE %/8
NN
Rail
2!/2 1!/2 2!/2
FRONT
8%/8 VIEW
Icebox latch 13
and catch
Stile
#/8

b. TOP SECTION
OO VIEW #/8
#/8
#/8
!/4 Panel Stile
OO
DOOR RAIL !/4"
8%/8 roundover
2!/2
8!/4

Icebox 20!/2 joinery of the lid is used here. Take a


hinge
look at details a and b for the dimen-
16!/8 sions. There are some things that set the
doors apart from the lid, however.
The doors are sized to overlap the
openings in the face frame, as you can
see in detail b. A rabbet cut on the back
NOTE: Stiles and side after assembly allows each door to
rails are #/4"-thick nestle into its opening.
hardwood. Door
panels are !/2"-thick QQ RAISED PANELS. I took a different approach
hardwood LOWER to make the raised panels for the doors.
OO DOOR
QQ Instead of a tight shadow line created by
STILE
10 a narrow, simple rabbet, the panels in
RR
LOWER DOOR PANEL the doors have a wider rabbet. The tran-
NOTE: Panels "float" sition to the raised field is softened with

Raised panel DOORS


in door frames a cove. Rather than use a stock, raised-
panel router bit, I used a two-step table
saw and router table technique to get
Youre in the home stretch. All thats left to hardware solid brass latches and offset the look I was after. The lower left box
complete the wine cabinet is to build the hinges that really draw your eye. shows you what to do.
doors. The overall construction contrib- FAMILIAR CONSTRUCTION. After building the The rabbet is cut with a dado blade so
utes to the appeal of the project. But the lid, youre pretty well set to make the that the resulting tongue is a tight fit in
icing on the cake is the distinctive icebox doors. The haunched mortise and tenon the groove in the door frame, as shown in
Figure 1. This way, once you sand away

How-To: MAKE RAISED PANELS blade marks, the fit will be right on. Take
your time when setting up the core box
bit to rout the radius. You want a seam-
1 a. 2 Rout across
ends of
less transition between the rabbet and
END panel first cove profile, as in Figure 2.
VIEW INSTALLING HARDWARE. From a construction
Tall
auxiliary Panel Panel
!/4 standpoint, the hardware has one big
rip fence
clamped benefit its surface-mounted. Basically
to saw
fence
a. END VIEW all you need to do is line it up and screw
1#/8 1%/8
it in place. I noticed one of the latches
!/2" core !/4 had a slight sideways lean when the
!/2" box bit
dado door was closed. Slight inconsistencies
blade
arent unusual in cast hardware. To rem-
Wide Rabbet. Hold the panel on edge Rout the Cove. Align the center edy this, I fine-tuned the catch (the part
to cut the rabbet in a single pass. A tall of the core box bit with the thats attached to the face frame) with a
auxiliary fence keeps it steady. shoulder of the rabbet. file. This gave the latch a little more room
to fit smoothly and hang vertically.

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ANTIQUE FINISH. I wanted the finish for Then a glaze is applied to mellow out the Once it comes out of the shop, its time
this cabinet to match its vintage charm. color of the stain and tones in the wood. to stock it up with your favorite refresh-
I came up with a layered approach that Finally, a couple coats of clear finish give ments. Then invite some friends and
gives it the time-worn look of a cher- it party-proof protection. The specific col- family over to celebrate your efforts in
ished heirloom. It begins with a stain. ors I used are listed in sources on page 67. building this new old classic. W

Materials, Supplies & Cutting Diagram


A Side Stiles (4) 3 x 21 - 45 (3) Stemware Holders (4 prs.) 38" Offset Hinges w/Screws
4 4
B Bottom Rails (2) 3 x 71 - 113 (1) Steam Table Pan and Cover (2 ea.) Right and Left Latches and Catches
4 2 4
C Side Rails (16) 3 x 21 - 113
4 2 4 (1 pr.) 112" Quadrant hinges w/Screws
D Panels (15) 1 ply. - 113 x 53
4 4 4
E Center Stiles (2) 3 x 13 - 40
4 4
1"x 6"- 96" Red Oak (5.0 Bd. Ft.) S
Y Z V V
F Back/Front Stiles (4) 3 x 21 - 45
4 2 Y X
G Back Rails (3) 3 x 21 - 283
4 2 4
3 x 3 - 131 #/4"x 7!/2" - 96" Red Oak (5.0 Bd. Ft.)
H Upper Back Stile (1) 4 4
A A
I Lower Back Stile (1) 3 x 3 - 203 A A
4 4
G G G
J Upper Back Panels (2) 14 ply. - 1314 x 1314
K Lower Back Panels (2) 14 ply. - 1314 x 2034 #/4"x 6"- 96" Red Oak (4.0 Bd. Ft.)
C C C C C C C C
L Front Rails (2) 3 x 21 - 28
4 2 C C C C C C C C
M Lower Front Rail (1) 3 x 31 - 28
4 2
3 x 3 - 121 #/4"x 8" - 96" Red Oak (5.33 Bd. Ft.)
N Upper Front Stile (1) 4 2
E P
Q Q
O Lower Front Stile (1) 3 x 3 - 20
4 B B
H I N O
P Shelves (5) 3 ply. - 141 x 153
4 2 8
3 x 3 - 153 U
Q Cleats (10) 4 4 8 #/4"x 6"- 96" Red Oak (4.0 Bd. Ft.)
R Adjustable Shelf (1) 34 ply. - 14 x 1514 F F
F F
S Edging (1) 7 x 1 - 151
8 4 4
T Toe Kick (1) 3 x 41 - 28 #/4"x 6"- 96" Red Oak (4.0 Bd. Ft.)
4 2
U Molding (1) 3 x 1 - 28 AA L
4 T
AA LL
V Plinth Blocks (2) 1 x 214 - 614
W Top Panel (1) 3 ply. - 111 x 29
4 2 #/4"x 6"- 96" Red Oak (4.0 Bd. Ft.)
7 x 21 - 29 NN NN OO LLQQ BB BB LL
X Top Back Stile (1) 8 2 NN NN QQ BB MM MM
OO
Y Top Rails (2) 7 x 21 - 14
8 2
Z Top Front Stile (1) 7 x 21 - 34
8 2
#/4"x 8"- 96" Red Oak (5.3 Bd. Ft.)
3 x 21 - 34 DD DD OO OO OO QQ
AA Lid Stiles (2) 4 2 OO OO OO QQ
BB Lid Rails (3) 3 x 21 - 131 M
4 2 2
CC Lid Panels (2) 1 x 121 - 137
2 8 8 !/2"x 8" - 96" Red Oak (5.33 Sq. Ft.)
DD Fillers (2) 3 x 4 - 141
4 2
CC CC CC CC EE EE
EE Case Sides (2) 1 x 141 - 197
2 2 8
FF Case Dividers (3) 1 x 141 - 119
2 2 16
1 x 31 - 113
!/2"x 8" - 96" Red Oak (5.33 Sq. Ft.)
GG Drawer Front (1) 2 16 16
PP
HH Drawer Sides (2) 1 x 31 - 143 EE EE FF FF FF FF
2 16 8
II Drawer Back (1) 1 x 31 - 107
2 16 16
JJ Drawer Bottom (1) 14 ply. - 10716 x 1114 !/2"x 6" - 96" Red Oak (4.0 Sq. Ft.)
KK Uprights (4) 1 x 2 - 151 PP PP PP PP RR RR RR
2 4
LL Case Shelves (3) 1 2 x 11516 - 1212 MM
MM Guides (8) 1 x 1 - 9
2 !/2"x 6" - 84" Red Oak (3.5 Sq. Ft.)
3 x 21 - 13 GG HH HH II
NN Upper Door Stiles (4) 4 2 RR
KK KK KK KK
OO Door Rails (8) 3 x 21 - 10
4 2
PP Upper Door Panels (2) 1 x 85 - 85
2 8 8 !/2"x 8" - 60" Red Oak (2 Bds. @ 3.3 Sq. Ft. each)
QQ Lower Door Stiles (4) 3 x 21 - 201
4 2 2 FF LL LL LL

RR Lower Door Panels (2) 12 x 858 - 1618

ALSO NEEDED: One 48" x 48" Sheet of #/4"Red Oak Plywood


(32) #7 x 114" Washerhead Pocket Screws One 48" x 96" Sheet of !/4" Red Oak Plywood
(1) 30" x 96" Plastic Laminate
NOTE: Parts S, X, Y, and Z are planed to &/8"
(62) #8 x 114" Fh Woodscrews
(4) 14" Shelf Pins

Woodsmith.com 53

WS221_052.indd 53 8/10/2015 3:15:11 PM


g
workin ls
with too

working with
Paring
Chisels
No woodworking shop would be com- and smoothing. Theyre designed to be
plete without a set of bench chisels. pushed with your hands instead of being Longer, thinner
Paring Chisel blade with
Theyre the go-to tool for chipping away struck with a mallet. shallow bevel
waste and trimming joinery. But theres WHAT DEFINES A PARING CHISEL? A paring (15-20)
another style of chisel every woodworker chisel is most recognizable by its length.
should have a paring chisel. Most are around 14" long. Your typical
Shorter, thicker blade
Paring chisels were developed to bench chisel, on the other hand, is about Bench Chisel with steeper bevel
remove small shavings for final shaping 10" long. Western-style paring chis- (25-30)
els have a longer blade with a handle
} Western-style and Japanese paring chisels sized more like a bench chisels handle.
are both longer than bench chisels. The Japanese-style paring chisels are just the
longer length means finer control. opposite: A shorter blade is attached to Another characteristic unique to
a long wood handle. For both styles, the paring chisels is the bevel angle. The
Bench
chisel overall combined length is much longer average bevel on standard bench chisels
than a bench chisel. The photo below is between 25 and 30. A paring chisel
shows a comparision of all has a lower bevel in the 15 to 20 range.
three chisel types. This makes it easier to push through the
wood fibers, particularly on end grain.
Finally, the blades on paring chisels are
traditionally thinner than those on bench
Western-style chisels. However, some manufacturers
paring chisel
no longer hold to that tradition and make
Japanese their paring chisels with thicker blades.
paring chisel
Regardless of the blade thickness, its the
overall chisel length that counts.

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Paring chisel The longer paring chisel provides Use a paring chisel
more latitude for adjusting to access harder-to-reach
Bench chisel the cut angle than the areas and pare
shorter bench chisel the high spots
on a flat surface

ADVANTAGES your body as leverage. The length of a SHAPING CURVES. My usual technique
You can perform a lot of the same tasks paring chisel also gives you finer control for the final shaping of a convex curve
with your bench chisels that you would over the angle of the blade to the work- is to head to the disk sander. But there
with a paring chisel. But Ill show you piece. The upper left drawing illustrates are times when the workpiece cant be
why paring chisels are a better choice for that for a given change in the angle, the positioned properly on the sander. And
some of those tasks. handle of the paring chisel has to move frankly, a disk sander can sometimes be
ANGLE OF ATTACK. Paring chisels are longer a greater distance. Think of it as a giant overkill when shaping a curve.
for a couple of reasons. First, they pro- protractor. A small movement changes I prefer the finesse I can get with a par-
vide better control and allow you to use the angle only a fraction of a degree for ing chisel. As shown in the lower right
finer control over the cut. photo, its easy to make light cuts to bring
FLAT REFERENCE. You can also use the curve to the layout line. Then a little
a paring chisel like a plane to hand-sanding is all thats required for
create a flat surface. In the right final smoothing. I use this technique for
drawing above, the back of the final shaping of a workpiece after cutting
chisel rides the surface to pare it to rough shape at the band saw.
off the high spots. The same PRECISE CUTS. When it comes to making
technique is used to clean out fine cuts where appearance counts, a
and smooth the bottom of a paring chisel is ideal. Cutting chamfers
dado (lower left photo). on exposed tenons is a prime example,
USE YOUR BODY. When cutting as shown in the photo at left. Light cuts
with a paring chisel, use your with steady, consistent pressure while
body to help push the chisel using both hands for control yield
through the cut. Youll find results you can be proud of.
that the cutting action is more If youre looking to buy a paring chisel,
controlled and requires less Id start with a 1" or 114"-wide chisel.
effort than letting your hands These widths are great for paring mor-
and arms to do all of the work. tises and general shaping tasks. As you
{ A paring chisel excels at making fine cuts where You use your body to lean into discover how useful a paring chisel is,
appearance counts, such as a through tenon. Its easy the cut as you guide the chisel Im guessing youll end up with an entire
to control the cutting action for consistent results. with both hands (main photo). set before too long. W

{ The longer length of a paring chisel can work to your advantage. The lower { Making controlled cuts to bring a curve to final shape is
bevel angle and flat back work to push through high spots to create a flat best done with a paring chisel. Once you get the hang
dado of consistent depth as you lean into the cut with your body. of it, you can create thin curls for a smooth surface.

Woodsmith.com 55

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in the
shop

using the 32mm


Cabinet System
SIDE SECTION VIEW
You may be familar with the terms of evenly spaced holes in one operation.
Top rail
Mounting rail
European-style or frameless cabi- The spacing between each set of holes is
Drawer divider netry. Its a popular cabinet construction 32mm. And its this spacing that makes
style. And you can use it in your shop to the system so versatile.
create cabinets quickly and easily. As shown at left, rows of holes are
FAST & EFFICIENT. This system was born drilled in a flat panel that makes up the
Hole spacing out of necessity. After World War II, cabinet side. In traditional-style cabinetry,
in multiples there was a massive effort across Europe youd equate these with shelf pin holes
of 32mm
(varies with !/4" (8mm) slot to rebuild, with a heavy demand for cab- for adjustable shelves. But in the 32mm
drawer slides) for back panel
inetry. In order to support this effort in a system, these holes are much more func-
timely and cost-effective manner, facto- tional. Ill talk more about that in a bit.
ries sprang up to produce these cabinets. And speaking of holes, there are only
32mm Holes can also An efficient system of cabinet construc- two sizes to deal with. The holes used
be used for
adjustable tion was devised that came to be known for shelving, hinges, and drawer slides
shelves
as the 32mm system. are 5mm. Factory-made cabinets also
37mm The 32mm system was designed from use 8mm construction holes for cabinet
Cabinet the ground up to be produced in a factory assembly. Specialty fasteners, like Confir-
bottom
46.5mm environment using semi-skilled labor. mat screws or dowels, are used for quick
Cabinet side Drilling machines, called line borers, fea- assembly. The photo above and the draw-
ture multiple spindles that drilled a row ings show a typical cabinet assembly.

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Rails on jig determine
setback from edge of
cabinet side

Holes in drill
guides are spaced
32mm apart

Self-centering
drill bit
Jig can be adjusted to
accommodate panels of
various widths

{ Drilling jigs are available from a number of suppliers for locating and drilling all of the holes { To drill the first row of 5mm holes, a
for 32mm cabinet construction. The Pro Shelf Drilling Jig shown above is from Rockler. It uses drilling jig creates the proper setback from
a self-centering 5mm drill bit to accurately drill the holes at the proper spacing. the edge of the cabinet side.

STRICT GUIDELINES. In order for factories to The setback, or starting location for The standard offset from the bottom edge
mass-produce cabinets, standards were the first row of holes is 37mm from the of the cabinet side to the first 5mm hole
developed for the sizing of the cabinet front edge if youre using overlay doors is 46.5mm when using 19mm (34"-thick)
panels plus the location of the holes. and drawers. For inset doors, you add stock for the bottom.
This method of mass production means the thickness of the doors to this number. A LOT OF DRILLING. Ill admit thats a lot
that the parts are interchangeable. For On true 32mm system cabinets, the off- of holes to drill without expensive
example, a cabinet side can be used on set from the back edge of the cabinet side automated equipment. But, there are a
any cabinet in the set during installation. is also 37mm. But in reality, this depends number of jigs on the market to help, as
European-style cabinets using the on what drawer slides youre planning to shown in the photos above.
32mm system are designed without a use and whether the doors and drawers PANEL SIZING. There are also several
face frame. They usually feature overlay are inset or overlay. online resources for helping you get the
doors and drawers for ease of construc- The distance between the rows of holes most out of the 32mm system. One of
tion. Typical hole placement for this style in the cabinet sides is based on mul- my favorites is from the hardware man-
of kitchen base cabinet is shown in the tiples of 32mm. This makes installing ufacturer Blum. They provide a handy,
illustration on the previous page. drawer slides a snap, as youll soon see. downloadable document named Process
32 that gives you all of the dimensions
you need for sizing the cabinet parts and
laying out the hole spacing. You can find
Drawer dividers out where to download the document in
are centered
between holes Mounting rail Sources on page 67.
Rails join sides and can also used to fasten EASY CONSTRUCTION. As shown at left,
serve as drawer dividers cabinet to wall
making all of the parts and assembling
Rows of 5mm them couldnt be easier. Two rails at
holes spaced 8mm (!/4") the top connect the sides. These make
32mm apart back panel
it easy to fasten the countertop. If there
are drawers, rails are used as the divid-
ers to separate the drawers. After the
back is installed, a mounting rail along
Back fits into groove
the upper back edge serves as an anchor
in sides and bottom strip for fastening the cabinet to the wall.
The nice thing is, all of these rails can be
identical and cut from the same blank.
The back panel fits into grooves in the
cabinet sides and bottom. It fastens to the
back edge of the upper rail.
As youll soon see, the advantages
Simple Box. Butt joints for to this system are numerous, especially
the cabinet parts and a back panel when it comes time for cabinet assembly
that fits into a groove make for easy construction. and hardware installation.

Woodsmith.com 57

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ITS ALL ABOUT SPEED Ball-Bearing
Drawer Guide
The heart and soul of the 32mm cabinet
system is the ease and flexibility with
which you can assemble a cabinet and System
hole
install the hardware. As Ive mentioned,
jigs are available to help you accurately System holes are spaced in increments
lay out and drill all of the 5mm holes. of 32mm for ease of installation
Besides 5mm and 8mm drill bits, there
are a couple of other accessories you
should consider. System hole Roller Drawer Guide
LAYOUT TOOLS. Since the 32mm system is
based on the metric system of measure-
ment, youre not going to get very far
using your imperial tape measure with
feet and inches. Its simply not worth the Metric
time to convert back and forth. that align with holes in the cabinet sides Tape Measure
I found a couple of tape measures by drilled using the 32mm system.
FastCap that are handy for laying out hole This has a couple of big advantages.
patterns for 32mm-style cabinets. Theyre First, you know that when you install
shown at right. The great thing is, each the slides, theyre automatically going Diamond marks
every 32mm
of the metric scales has a little black dia- to be level. No fancy installation jigs are
mond to mark every increment of 32mm. required. Second, since the holes in the
This makes laying out hole spacing a cabinet are predrilled, its an easy task
simple process. to secure them with screws.
If youre only making one or two Hinge plates for European-style hinges
cabinets, you can save the expense of a work the same way. The spacing between
drilling jig by using Layout Tape, also by mounting holes is, by design, 32mm. Diamond
ia
amon
ondd marks
m
every
eve 32mm
FastCap (right photo). Its printed with a INSERTS & SYSTEM SCREWS. So how do you
hole pattern you fasten to the cabinet side fasten this hardware into the 5mm
and then simply drill at each crosshair. system holes? There are a few easy solu-
SYSTEM HOLES. Now that you have a basic tions worth considering, starting with
understanding of the 32mm system of nylon inserts. As shown at the bottom of
cabinet construction, let me elaborate the page, inexpensive nylon inserts are
on how to take advantage of it. You available that fit the 5mm system holes.
may not realize it, but manufacturers of Once these are installed, standard #5 or
cabinet hardware have been catering to #6 woodscrews can be used to attach the
the 32mm system for years. If you take drawer slide or hinge plate.
a look at the drawings above, youll see Special screws known as system
one common example. screws can also be used. These screws { A must-have item for 32mm cabinet construction
You may notice that some holes in are specifically designed to install cabinet is a metric tape measure (upper two photos).
drawer slides that are slightly larger hardware. Below, you can see a couple Layout tape (lower photo) makes laying out 5mm
than others. These are system holes of them in the hinge plate. The thread holes in cabinet sides quick and easy.

Phillips Hinge plate with


system screws
pre-installed Hinge plate with
nylon inserts and screws

Pozidriv

{ Pozidriv screws (lower) are stampedd with { Mounting drawer slides and hinges is easy. Purchase hardware with system screws already
an X. Phillips drivers (above) wont
t installed (left photo) or use nylon inserts with standard woodscrews (right photo). Similar
properly engage a Pozidriv screw. attachment methods can be used for the door portion of European-style hinges.

58 Woodsmith / No. 221

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diameter securely fits a 5mm hole. For Toe kick
the system screws used on drawer slides,
a shallower head on the screw means it
wont stand proud, so it wont interfere
with other moving parts.
You can purchase system screws in
bulk from hardware resellers. But theres
one thing you need to know. The heads
on system screws are Pozidriv. They look
similar to a Phillips head screw, but they
arent quite the same (photo, next page).
Pozidriv screws are marked with an { Special wedge-shaped brackets are { A pair of clips mounted to the toe kick
X stamp on the head. A standard Phil- fastened to a toe kick. A clip then slides snap onto a leveler leg for ease of
lips driver doesnt go deep enough into onto each of the brackets. installation and removal.
a Pozidriv screw to properly engage the
head. This results in cam-out that Some manufacturers supply hinges with You purchase the spacer height that
makes the screw almost impossible to the inserts and screws already installed. brings the drawer slide flush with the
tighten. So my recommendation is to All you need to do is press the hinge into inside edge of the face frame. As for
invest in an inexpensive Pozidriv hand the holes and youre done. hinges, there are a variety of European-
driver or driver bit. It will take a lot of WHAT ABOUT FACE FRAMES? Everything Ive style hinges that adapt to face frames.
the frustration out of installing hardware. talked about so far centers around the
HINGES. When it comes to mounting frameless, European cabinet style. What AN ADJUSTABLE BASE
the hinge plates, the same attachment you may not know is that the 32mm Now that you have a cabinet built, its
options apply. As for the door portion of system can also be applied to more tradi- just a box. What about a base? If you
the hinge, production cabinets use 8mm tional cabinetry that utilizes face frames. have a row of cabinets like youd find
mounting holes. As with 5mm inserts, The box below shows some spac- in a kitchen, a simple solution is to use
8mm inserts allow you to use stan- ers for mounting drawer slides in a 2x4 runners across the floor to mount the
dard woodscrews to mount the hinge. 32mm cabinet design with a face frame. cabinet boxes. But theres an easier, more
flexible option. The plastic legs you see

How-To: DRAWER SLIDE SPACERS above are designed specifically for ease
of mounting. Plus, they can be used on
any cabinet, not just frameless cabinets.
You can take advantage of the 32mm SPACERS. Instead of cutting wood These cabinet add-ons bring a num-
cabinet construction method and still spacers for drawer slides, the spacers ber of important benefits. The plastic
use face frames for a traditional look. shown below utilize the 32mm system legs are super strong. They not only
Hardware manufacturers have prod- holes. Several sizes are available to elevate the cabinet off the floor, but they
ucts specifically made for this hybrid accommodate face frames of different also act as levelers. The legs come in a
construction technique. One such widths (photo at left). kit that includes a couple of options for
product are the spacers shown here. Select the size that brings the drawer mounting them to the cabinet. You can
slide flush to the inside edge of the face also order larger feet as an accessory that
frame. Fasten the spacer into the 5mm snaps onto the bottom of the leg. This
holes in the cabinet sides and then provides a better grip to adjust the level
install the drawer slide as usual. of the cabinet once its in place.
A nice feature of this style of leg is
Three sizes to the plastic clips that allow you to install
accommodate
common face toe kicks. The legs come with mount-
frame widths ing plates to attach the toe kick. Once
the plates are installed, slide the clips in
place, then snap the toe kick onto the legs.
Its also easy to remove the toe kick to
gain access under the cabinet.
EASIER CONSTRUCTION. In spite of its histori-
ccal origins on the factory floor, you can
put the 32mm system to use in your
{ Spacers make it easy to shop. Now that you understand how
install drawer slides in the holes are layed out and utilized,
a face frame cabinet. youll soon find its a great way to make
quick and easy cabinetry. W

Woodsmith.com 59

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w ork ing
wood ntials
esse

the importance of
Dadoes,
{ A dado blade allows you to fine-tune the width of a dado or
groove for a perfect fit with a mating board. For a rabbet, you can
accomplish this by burying the blade in an auxiliary fence (inset).

Grooves & Rabbets


Youve probably noticed that many of fine woodworking. Its possible to put Dadoes and grooves are both U-shaped
the projects shown in Woodsmith contain parts together without them, but once channels in wood that are sized to fit
parts joined with dadoes, grooves, or you add these fundamental techniques to a mating part. The difference is that
rabbets. These are some of the simplest your skill set, they truly take your projects dadoes are cut across the grain of a
woodworking joints around, but also the to the next level. The result is a measure of board, while grooves follow the direc-
most important, particularly for tasks like precision, accuracy, and strength for your tion of the grain (far left drawing).
putting case parts together. projects that wasnt there before. Rabbets are L-shaped channels cut in
I like to think of dadoes, grooves, THE BASICS. Dadoes, grooves, and rabbets the ends or edges of boards (near left
and rabbets as a great entry point into are all pretty easy joints to understand. drawing). They accept the mating end
or edge of another piece.
Dado runs Rabbet is cut WHY CUT THEM AT ALL? Oftentimes, the
across grain on the edge
or end of assemblies joined with dadoes, grooves,
workpiece
or rabbets are so simple that you might
think that basic butt joints would suffice.
However, there are several reasons why
dadoes, rabbets, and grooves are supe-
rior to butt joints. Let me explain.
For one, cutting these joints pro-
duces two or three mating glue surfaces
Groove runs between boards, rather than just one.
with grain

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< A clamp-on
straightedge
ensures precise
results when
routing dadoes.
Youll need to
account for the
offset between
the bit and the
straightedge.
{ A rabbeting bit has a bearing that rides
The increased glue surface makes the choice because you can use the right along the end or edge of a workpiece,
joints stronger. This is especially impor- combination of cutters and shims to guiding the bit as it cuts the rabbet.
tant for an end grain to edge grain perfectly match the size of the joint to
connection between pieces, which is not the part that will fit into it (refer to the
strong on its own without joinery. main photo on the opposite page). This
But perhaps more important, dadoes, is especially useful when joining ply-
grooves, and rabbets help to both regis- wood, which is typically thinner than
ter pieces and square assemblies as you its stated thickness.
begin to put them together. If youve ever Rabbets are a snap on the table saw, as
tried to build a case using only butt joints, well. The key is to bury the dado blade in
then youll understand what I mean. It an auxiliary fence (inset photo, opposite
often takes more time to try to align all page). To do this, you lower the dado
the parts as you apply the clamps. blade below the surface of the table, and
Usually, its a better idea to take the clamp a flat scrap piece to the rip fence
time before assembly to create these joints to serve as the auxiliary fence. Now set { Dadoes and rabbets simplify case
for aligning parts. The assembly process the fence over the blade, turn on the assembly, ensuring that parts are square
will go a lot more smoothly when every saw, and slowly raise the dado blade to and aligned as you add glue and clamps.
part has a place to lock into once the glue the desired height (or depth of rabbet),
and clamps are applied. And simply hav- cutting into the auxiliary fence in the of great techniques for doing so in the
ing a pocket for the mating workpiece to process. Then shut off the saw, and you box at the lower left.
rest in also helps to square your assembly, can adjust the fence to match the desired ROUTING JOINTS. Though I prefer a dado
so all the mating parts of the case will line width of the rabbet youd like to cut. blade at the table saw for cutting basic
up correctly (lower photo at right). SMOOTH JOINERY. If theres any draw- joinery, there are times that a work-
USING A DADO BLADE. When it comes to back to cutting these joints with a dado piece (such as a case side) is too large
making basic dadoes, grooves, and blade, its that the blade has a tendency or cumbersome to cut on the table
rabbets on workpieces, there are a to leave small ridges on the bottom of saw. In these situations, I often turn to
few ways to go about it. My preferred the joints. This usually isnt a big issue, a router equipped with a straight bit
method is to use a dado blade installed and you can easily clean them up if and guided by a straightedge to cut
in the table saw. Dado blades are a good theyll be visible. Youll find a couple dadoes or rabbets (upper left photo).
To do this accurately, you just need to

How-To: CLEAN UP THE CUT account for the offset between the edge
of the router base and the edge of the
bit when setting up the straightedge.
This way, you can rout the joint right
where you need it.
To cut rabbets with a router, I typi-
cally use a rabbeting bit. These bits have
a bearing that rides along the edge of
the piece, while the larger diameter cut-
ter creates the rabbet. You can see how
the bit works for cutting rabbets in the
upper right photo.
Dadoes, grooves, and rabbets arent
{ A few quick swipes with a shoulder { If you dont have a shoulder plane, attach difficult joints to cut. But spending a little
plane remove ridges and leave a smooth, self-adhesive sandpaper to the edge of a time mastering these basic techniques
flat-bottomed dado. scrap block to smooth the joint. can go a long way toward making better-
looking, more accurate assemblies. W

Woodsmith.com 61

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as te ring
m saw
the ta ble

cutting smooth & accurate


Angles & Tapers
Most table saw operations center around LONG TAPERS Keep sled Rip
two main tasks: cutting parts to size or An angled cut along the length of a tight against fence
rip fence
cutting joinery. But your saw can be used workpiece, a taper, is probably the most
for shaping parts, too. This can be as sim- common. A taper lightens the look of
ple as cutting an angle along the edges table legs. Its also used to add interest
or across the ends of a workpiece. Thats to case sides or add stability to a project, Start of
taper
what Im going to focus on here. like the step stool on page 28. Workpiece
SIMPLE SLED. While adjustable taper jigs secured with
double-sided Fence
} A glue line rip blade and a crosscut blade are available, I usually make a basic sled tape
give you smoother results when cutting dedicated to the task at hand, as shown Attach
tapers and angles at the table saw. in the photo above. The sled consists of a fence
and
wide plywood base, a fence, and a cleat cleat
(drawing at rright). with
screws
One edge of the base rides along the or brads
rip fence and the other is set against the
Steady
saw blade
blade. The position of the fence feed rate Cleat
and cle
cleat is determined by the cut
End of
you n need to make. taper
Begin
Be by marking the end-
points
po of the taper on one
edge
e and end of the work- with the edge of the base. Now attach the
piece.
p Set the workpiece on fence on the opposite side of the work-
the sled so that the two piece with brads or screws. A short cleat
layout marks are aligned at the end captures the workpiece and

62 Woodsmith / No. 221

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{ Lay out the starting and ending points of the angle directly on a { Hold the stock of the bevel gauge against the bar of the miter gauge.
workpiece. Then set the blade of a bevel gauge to line up with Then rotate the miter gauge fence until it aligns with the blade of the
the marks. Use this piece as a setup gauge. bevel gauge. This will ensure consistent cuts.

resists the cutting action of the blade. how the workpiece is guided. Instead of
I like to apply a strip of double-sided tape using a sled riding along the rip fence,
to keep the workpiece from shifting. reach for the miter gauge.
BLADE. You wont go wrong using a Setting up for the cut is a matter of
combination blade to make this cut. adjusting the angle on the miter gauge.
However, since its mostly a rip cut, a A protractor works great if you know the
glue line rip blade makes the cut more angle. Like a taper cut, I simply go by the
efficiently and leaves a smooth surface. layout lines. After marking the cut on the Angle miter
towards the blade
PUT IT INTO PRACTICE. In use, your main task workpiece, set a bevel gauge to match for more control
is keeping the sled firmly against the rip the angle (upper left photo). Now you and smoother
can use the bevel gauge to set the angle cutting with
fence as you push it past the blade. Rip-
downhill grain
ping is heavy work for a saw. So pay of the miter gauge, as you can see in the
attention to the sound of the blade and upper right photo.
its cutting action. Feeding the piece too AUXILIARY FENCE. Another part of set up of the blade. The fence should be tall
fast may cause the blade to vibrate and involves attaching an auxiliary fence to enough that once the miter gauge is set at
leave more marks. Going too slow can the miter gauge to maximize workpiece the correct angle, you can raise the blade
cause burning in some wood species. control. There are a few details on the and cut a reference kerf in the fence. This
fence that make cutting angles much makes aligning cuts a snap.
ANGLE CUTS easier and safer, as in the photo below. DIRECTION. Speaking of the angle, in most
Making a cut across the end of a work- I extend the fence beyond the blade cases, I prefer to set up the miter gauge
piece is another matter. But its not any on the waste side. The extra length here so it angles toward the blade (if possible),
more complicated. The main difference is allows you to direct the waste piece clear as in the drawing above. This orientation
provides better visibility, and I find that
the blade is cutting downhill to the
grain resulting in a cleaner edge.
MAKING THE CUT. In practice, youll find
that making angled cuts with a miter
Sandpaper applied gauge is pretty similar to making a 90
to the fence helps
keep the workpiece Kerf in fence crosscut. A dedicated crosscut blade
from shifting makes aligning
the workpiece
delivers a smooth surface (fewer blade
to the blade easy marks) and less tearing on the top and
bottom faces on the workpiece.
In order to prevent unwanted blade
marks, slide the workpiece away from
the blade after completing the cut. Then
retract the miter gauge.
Cutting angles and tapers shouldnt be
{ A long plywood auxiliary fence on the miter gauge provides a larger support surface to intimidating. With the right setup and a
guide a workpiece for a steady cut. The fence should extend beyond the blade on the waste little know-how, you can make smooth
side of the cut so that you can safely push the waste piece away from the back of the blade. crisp cuts no matter what angle it is. W

Woodsmith.com 63

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m
tips frop
our sho

Shop
Notes
Installing Quadrant Hinges
The hinges used on the lid of the wine ENDS FIRST. The rounded end of each leg Just as important, the bit establishes
cabinet (page 42) incorporate a built-in mortise is created with a Forstner bit in a flat, smooth bottom for the hinge to
stay to keep the lid propped open. This a hand-held drill. The depth of the hole rest in. A little cleanup with some chis-
feature, along with their L-shaped design, should match the thickness of the hinge els brings the mortise to its final size.
makes installing the hinges a little more leaf. Switch to a smaller bit to create a Check the fit with the actual hinge to
challenging than an ordinary butt hinge. deeper recess for the head of the stay in see if any adjustments are necessary to
LAYOUT. Accurate layout is the key. Once the lid, as in Figure 2. Complete the lay- obtain a snug fit without any gaps.
the top and lid are complete, youre able out by marking the edges of the mortise In order to support the weight of the
to lay out the hinge mortises on both using a square, as shown in the Figure 3. lid, the hinge screws need to have a solid
assemblies at the same time. I based ROUT & PARE. A palm router and a grip. So take care to size the pilot holes
the layout dimensions on the size of the small straight bit make quick work of accurately (especially those near the
hinge, centering it over the notch in the removing the bulk of the waste in the notch) and avoid stripping the screws as
top back rail, as shown in Figure 1. mortise, as you can see in Figure 4. theyre driven into place, as in Figure 6.

1 2 Drill recess
3 a.
1&/16 !/4
!/4 in lid Draw in
Lid edges of
mortise
on lid
Top #/4 Lid and top
1&/16 1

a. SIDE !/2"-dia. a.
VIEW Forstner bit Top
!/4"-dia. !/2 SIDE TOP
Thickness of Forstner bit VIEW Align square VIEW
hinge leaf with edge of hole

4 a. 5 Clean up
6 FIRST: Drive
steel screws
sides of recess to cut
SIDE threads in
VIEW wood

Clamp top Thickness of


and lid together hinge leaf SECOND:
Pare away waste Lubricate brass
back to layout lines screws with wax
Stay to waste !/8" straight bit
side of layout to ease driving
lines

64 Woodsmith / No. 221

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Creating Smooth Openings in a Panel
A stainless steel pan is used as an ice ROUGH OPENING. A jig saw works great for CLEANUP. Even with a good blade, the
bucket in the wine cabinet project on cutting (Figure 1). But I drilled out the edges of the cut will be somewhat
page 42. The pan rests in an opening cut corners of the opening to provide access ragged and uneven. To smooth and
in the top assembly. While a lip on the pan for the bit and to create a smooth radius straighten them out, I used a router
conceals the edge of the opening, I still in the corners. Then I drew layout lines with a pattern bit (Figure 2). The bear-
wanted a clean and smooth appearance that align with the outside edges of the ing of the bit follows along a series of
when the pan is removed. To achieve that, holes. Apply strips of masking tape on strips that are attached to the top with
the process breaks down into two main the surface to keep the saw from scratch- double-sided tape. Rout only along the
steps. First, you create a rough opening, ing the laminate and help prevent the edges without going into the corners to
then clean it up for a finished look. laminate from chipping. preserve the corner radius.

Cut to waste
side of
1 2 a.
layout line

Masking tape

a. Top Guide
Position guide strip
strips along
TOP layout lines
Risers create clearance VIEW with !/2"-dia.
for jigsaw blade 1"-dia. double-sided pattern
tape bit

a. 2 NOTE: Push sled is made Push Sled


from #/4" plywood The four rails for the step
Stop
stool on page 28 require
Tall aux. Sled stabilizes slots on both ends for the
rip fence tall workpiece
while pushing loose tenons. To support the
1!/2 across blade
#/8 narrow rails while cutting
the slots on the table saw, I
TOP 8
VIEW made this push sled.
6 Stop The push sled is simply
Base a plywood base and stop
screwed together to form a
Base cradle for the rail to rest in.
#8 x 1!/4" Fh Tall aux. The sled, along with a tall
Tall aux. fence woodscrew rip fence
mounted to auxiliary rip fence, stabi-
rip fence lizes the rail as its pushed
across the dado blade.

Steel Cutting Guides 1 Position 2


The cutoff grinder (page 34) is a great solu- hacksaw against
guide block as
tion for making precise cuts in metal. But you cut
the irony of the project is that you have to Use block with
45 end as guide for
make some accurate cuts in metal by hand cutting angled notch
first in order to build the project.
GUIDE BLOCKS. A few of those cuts are Guide
block Guide
required for the steel-angle fence, which block
is both cut to length and notched at 45 Fence Fence
blank blank
on one end. To do this accurately, I made
a guide block with a 90 and 45 end.
Then I clamped the block and steel angle
in a vise and cut along the block with a
hacksaw (Figures 1 and 2) . W

Woodsmith.com 65

WS221_064.indd 65 8/12/2015 7:07:42 AM


ue stions
q rs
& answe

choosing a
Finish
for
Toys
Im building some wood toys as gifts THE TRUTH ABOUT SAFETY. The reality when And though they sacrifice some dura-
for my grandchildren. Do you have any it comes to both oil-based and water- bility compared to other finishes, they
recommendations for a finish thats based products, though, is that all are often easier to reapply as needed.
safe and will hold up well over time? finishes sold today are safe once theyre READ THE LABEL. Even with these natu-
Anthony Downs fully cured. The general rule on a stain ral products, though, its important to
Chesterfield, Missouri or finish being cured is 30 days, but read the label carefully, so you know
its probably fully cured when its dry exactly what youre getting. Raw or
Its understandable that youd want to to the touch and theres no odor when pure linseed oil, for example, is differ-
choose the safest stain or finish possible you hold the project to your nose. This is ent from boiled linseed oil, which is
for a project that children will be using. why I felt comfortable choosing a water- often used as a base for other finishes
And there are plenty of excellent options based dye as the finish for the toy logs and contains solvents and metallic
available for creating a wood finish that in this issue (photo above). You can also drying agents. The same is true of tung
will look good, is safe, and will last a check the side of the container for more oil, so you should look for a product
long time. However, its also important information about any finishs VOC lev- that says pure tung oil on the label
to understand the truth about wood els and other safety information. to make sure youre getting the right
stains and finishes, as theres a lot of NATURAL OPTIONS. Once you know the thing. Mineral oil is sold as both min-
misinformation on the subject. truth about wood finishes, it should eral oil or butcher block oil, and either
Many people are concerned about the provide some assurances when it comes product gives you what you need.
safety of stains, as well as finishes like to the finish you choose for toys or other Finally, some of the finishes that are
varnish and lacquer. This is due to the projects. However, if you want to avoid labeled as food-safe or non-toxic
strong odors they emit while drying. undesirable ingredients entirely, there are not that much different from stan-
Also, many of these products contain are plenty of natural options. Natural dard varnish or lacquer. For example,
metallic drying agents that speed curing. oils such as raw linseed oil (often called some finishes sold as salad bowl fin-
WATER-BASED. To avoid these issues flaxseed oil), tung oil, and mineral oil, ish are nothing more than oil mixed
with oil-based products, some consider for example, are all good choices that with urethane and drying agents, just
water-based stains and finishes to be are non-toxic and provide a protective like ordinary wiping varnish.
a safer choice. And with less odor and finish to wood. Beeswax is another As mentioned previously, all wood
lower levels of VOCs (volatile organic option that is water repellant and can finishes are safe on any of your projects
compounds), water-based finishes are be used to protect wood products. once they have fully cured. But for true
safer to apply. However, most of these These natural products typically take peace of mind, youll need to check the
products still have solvents and metallic longer to cure than other wood finishes, label carefully if you want a natural oil
drying agents in them. but they provide a nice, oiled look. or wax finish for your project. W

66 Woodsmith / No. 221

WS221_066.indd 66 8/5/2015 10:46:55 AM


hardware & supplies
MAIL
Sources ORDER
SOURCES
Project supplies may
Most of the materials and supplies STEP STOOL (p.28) PARING CHISELS (p.54) be ordered from the
youll need to build the projects
following
The step stool was stained with a The paring chisels shown in the
companies:
are at hardware stores or home mixture of three parts Zar cherry article were purchased from The
Woodsmith Store
centers. For specific products or stain and one part Wood Kote Jeld Best Things, Traditional Wood- 800-444-7527
hard-to-find items, take a look stain (cherry). Then it was sprayed worker, and Lee Valley.
Rockler
at the sources listed here. Youll with two coats of lacquer. 800-279-4441
find each part number listed by 32mm CABINET SYSTEM (p.56) rockler.com
the company name. See the right SLIDING CUTOFF GRINDER (p.34) FastCap All Metals, Inc.
margin for contact information. McMaster-Carr Layout Tape . . . . . . LAYOUTTAPE 888-638-2517
1 allmetalsinc.com
4"-20 Inserts . . . . . . . . 90016A029 True32 Tape . . . . . PMMR-TRUE32
PREMIUM SANDPAPER (p.10) White Resin Bars . . . . . . .8739K86 Metric Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . PMS-12 Amana Tool
1 800-445-0077
Rockler 16" x 114" Alum. . . . . . 8975K198 Rockler amanatool.com
Norton ProSand . . . . . . . . . varies 1
4" Steel Rod . . . . . . . . . 8920K115 Shelf Drilling Jig. . . . . . . . . 31571
amazon.com
Homestead Finishing 334" Spring . . . . . . . . . . 9654K376 You can find a variety of 32mm
3M Fre-Cut Gold . . . . . . . . varies The metal parts below were pur- hardware and accessories wher- Big Tray
800-244-8729
Mirka Goldflex . . . . . . . . . . varies chased from All Metals, Inc.: ever cabinet supplies are sold. The bigtray.com
Lowes Steel Bar Channel . .1" x 12" x 18" x 24" drawer slide spacers were sup-
Blum
3M SandBlaster Pro . . . . . . varies Steel Hot Rolled Flat . . 18" x 4" x 24" plied by Woodworkers Hardware. 800-438-6788
Steel Leg Angle . . . . 1" x 1" x 18" x 24" To download the Process 32 docu- blum.com
BULLNOSE PROFILES (p.12) Most parts were painted with Kry- ment from Blum, go to: Dick Blick Art Materials
Bullnose profile router bits are lon Rust Protector Hammered Finish http://d1.blum.com/BEC003/ 800-828-4548
dickblick.com
available from a variety of the spray paint in Charcoal Gray. The process32_td_dok_
retailers listed at right, including slide rail was sprayed with lac- bus_$sus_$aof_$v1.pdf FastCap
888-443-3748
amazon.com, Rockler, MLCS, and quer. The fence was painted with fastcap.com
Lee Valley. You can visit Amana red spray paint. Get the all-new Woodsmith
Homestead Finishing
Tools website to find out where to Magazine Library DVD! This com- 216-631-5309
purchase the roundover bits with ICEBOX WINE CABINET (p.42) puter DVD contains every page homesteadfinishing
products.com
the Ultra-Glide radius bearing. Lee Valley of our first 216 issues. The DVD
Shelf Supports . . . . . . . 05H20.01 is fully searchable and printer- House of Antique
Hardware
MAGNIFIERS (p.14) Quadrant Hinges . . . . . . 01B05.04 friendly. Plus, you get online 888-223-2545
Lee Valley House of Antique Hardware access to every issue, as well. houseofantiquehardware.com
Magnifying Lamp. . . . . . 17J30.20 Offset Hinges . . R-08BM-1500-PB Learn more at Woodsmith.com! Lee Valley
Flex-Neck Magnifier. . . . 17J31.01 Left Latch . . . . . R-08BM-1506-PB Magazine Library DVD: ............... $99 800-871-8158
leevalley.com
Amazon Right Latch . . . . R-08BM-1505-PB
Carson Mag. . . . . . . B007CDJKM2 Big Tray Lowes
800-445-6937
Donegan Mag. . . . . . B0015IS6K2 Steam Table Pan . . . . ABC ST1206 lowes.com
Pan Cover . . . . . . . .ABC 607120C
McMaster-Carr
LINKIN LOGS (p.18) Rockler 630-833-0300
Dick Blick Art Materials Stemware Holder . . . . . . 1001876 mcmaster.com
Burnt Umber . . . . . . . 00315-8059 Amana Tool MLCS
Hansa Yellow Med.. . . 00315-4131 Classical Molding Bit . . . . . 54141 800-533-9298
mlcswoodworking.com
Red Oxide . . . . . . . . . . 00315-3091 The icebox was stained with
Sap Green . . . . . . . . . . 00315-7099 Golden Oak from Old Masters. The Best Things
800-884-1373
When the stain was dry, it was thebestthings.com
DRILL PRESS DEPTH STOP (p.26) glazed with a mixture of four
Traditional Woodworker
McMaster-Carr parts Burnt Umber and one part 800-509-0081
Push-Button Nuts . . . 98150A770 Van Dyke Brown using Glazed traditionalwoodworker.com
Effects by General Finishes. Finally, Woodworkers Hardware
it was sprayed with two coats of 800.383.0130
wwhardware.com
satin lacquer.

Woodsmith.com 67

WS221_066.indd 67 8/6/2015 2:35:58 PM


looking inside
Final Details

{ Step Stool. Tapered sides and through mortise and tenon


joints give this step stool a leg up on the competition. For
a small project, it packs a big woodworking punch. Learn
more about building it by turning to page 28.

{ Cutoff Grinder. Give your hacksaw a rest by building this


sliding cutoff grinder. It uses an inexpensive angle grinder and
an abrasive wheel to make quick work of cutting metal stock to
length. Youll find all the details on page 34.

{ Linkin Logs. These super-sized building logs will appeal to kids


of all ages. But the real fun is in making them. We provide you
with step-by-step instructions, starting on page 18.

> Icebox Wine Cabinet. With the doors and top closed, this
wine cabinet looks like an old-fashioned icebox. But just
open the lid and you have an instant serving center for your
favorite beverages. Complete plans start on page 42.

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