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ANSI/ASAE S300.

4 FEB2008 (ISO 3918:2007)


Milking machine installations Vocabulary

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ANSI/ASAE S300.4 FEB2008 (ISO 3918:2007)
Approved September 2009 as an American National Standard

Milking machine installationsVocabulary

These materials are subject to copyright claims of ISO, ANSI and NOTE Milk is discharged when required from the recorder jar (6.8)
ASABE. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, either into a milk receiver (6.10) by a milk transfer line (6.9) or into
including an electronic retrieval system, without the prior written a collecting vessel.
permission of ASABE. All requests pertaining to the ANSI/ASAE S300.4 Other acceptable terms for recorder milking machines are weigh jars
FEB2008 (ISO 3918:2007) Standard should be submitted to ASABE. or weigh vessels
Proposed by the ASAE Milk Handling Committee; approved by the See Figure 3.
Electric Power and Processing Division Technical Committee; adopted by 0.5.3 Modified Section 4, Vacuum System
ASAE as a Recommendation June 1966; reconfirmed December 1970,
December 1975; revised and reclassified as a Standard December 1977; 4.2.1 capacity-controlled vacuum pump: vacuum pump (4.2), the
reconfirmed December 1982, December 1987; revised December 1988; output of which is varied in order to maintain a stable vacuum (2.7) in
reaffirmed December 1994; revised July 1996 and supersedes S254.4 the system (variable frequency drive(VFD))
DEC94, Uniform Terminology for Bulk Milk Handling; reaffirmed Add 4.3.1 mechanical regulator: device that controls the vacuum
December 2001, February 2003; reaffirmation extended two years level by allowing air to enter the system to maintain stable vacuum
December 2007; adoption with modification of ISO 3918:2007 February Add 4.3.2 variable frequency regulator (capacity control regula-
2008; approved by ANSI September 2009. tor): device that controls the vacuum level by varying the speed of the
motor driving the vacuum pump to maintain stable vacuum
Keywords: Dairy, Milking, Terminology 4.5 main air line: the airline(s) between the vacuum pump(s) and the
sanitary trap(s) or distribution tank, if provided
0 Forward Add 4.5.1 trap air line: on systems with a distribution tank, the line(s)
0.1 This ASABE document, Milking machines installationsVocabulary, from the distribution tank to the trap
is equivalent to ISO 3918:2007, Milking machines installations 0.5.4 Modified Section 8, Cleaning and milk-cooling equipment
Vocabulary, except for technical deviations noted in the following Forward
sections. These deviations pertain to those provisions where 8.1 air injector: device that allows the controlled, cyclic admission of
harmonization could not be achieved between ASABE and the air during cleaning and sanitizing to produce slug flow conditions
International Standard. 8.2 air injector line: washline on which an air injector is mounted to
0.2 This International Standard defines terms to use in research work, provide periodic air admission to the milkline(s)
official regulations, design, manufacture, installation and use of milking 8.3 automatic wash system: assembly of control devices, piping,
machines for cows, water buffaloes, sheep, goats or other mammals valves, and chemical reservoirs needed for cleaning and/or sanitizing
used for milk production. This scope is identical to the scope of ISO the internal surfaces of a CIP milking system through a predetermined
3918:2007 except for: sequence of wash cycles
0.2.1 The term cow in this document generally is referring to female 8.4 backflush system: a procedure for rinsing and/or sanitizing the
dairy cattle; however, for simplicity in not needing to list all female dairy milking clusters between cows
animals (doe, ewe, etc.) it is sometimes used to refer to female dairy Clean-in-place (CIP): the capability to clean and disinfect the milk
animals in general. contact components of a milking system by circulating appropriate
0.3 There are no Normative References listed in ISO 3918:2007, Milking solutions through them without disassembly
machines installationsVocabulary. 8.5 cleaning: the process intended to remove soil from milk contact
0.4 This standard had been submitted as an American National standard surfaces and reduce bacterial build-up
to ANSI (American National Standard Institute). The original content of 8.6 jetter assembly: assembly comprising a connection from the
ISO 3918 was based on ASAE S300. washline or the milking vacuum line to a manifold, together with cups
0.5 This standard deviates from ISO 3918:2007 as follows: or plugs to which the teatcups are attached during cleaning
0.5.1 Modified Section 2, Terms and definitions 8.7 jetter hose: hose or tube connecting the jetter assembly to the
2.13 milk types, abnormalities of milk: The following types of lacteal jetter line
secretions are not suitable for sale for Grade A purposes. 8.8 jetter line: washline(s) to which the jetter assemblies are
2.13.1 abnormal milk: milk that is visibly changed in color, odor connected
and/or texture 8.9 rinsing: part of cleaning, flushing with water only
2.13.2 undesirable milk: milk that, prior to the milking of the animal, 8.10 sanitizer: chemical solution used to kill bacteria on the product
is expected to be unsuitable for sale, such as milk containing colostrum contact surfaces
2.13.3 contaminated milk: milk that is un-saleable or unfit for human 8.11 suction line: washline that draws wash solutions from the wash
consumption following treatment of the animal with veterinary products, sink, vat, or tank and connects to the jetter line
i.e. antibiotics, which have withhold requirements, or treatment with
medicines or insecticides not approved for use on dairy animals by 8.12 washline: line that, during the cleaning process, carries cleaning
FDA or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and sanitizing solutions from the wash sink, vat, or tank to the milking
units, milkline, or milking vacuum line
0.5.2 Modified Section 3, Types of milking machine
8.13 wash vat (tank or sink): vessel designed to hold cleaning
3.6 recorder milking machine: milking machine (3.1) in which milk solutions for use in cleaning the milking system
flows from the cluster (7.2) into a recorder jar (6.8) supplied by vacuum
(2.7) from a milking vacuum line (4.9) and is kept in the recorder jar 0.5.5 Add Section 9, Milk cooling, milk storage and bulk milk handling on
during milking (2.14) of each animal farms

ASABE STANDARDS 2009 ANSIASAE S300.4 FEB2008 ISO 3918:2007 1


9.1 blend temperature: temperature of commingled milk in the bulk 9.23 cooling capacity: rate of heat removal in units of energy per unit
milk tank as warm milk is added to cold milk during milking time
9.2 bulk milk: commingled milk of a group of animals 9.24 direct expansion cooling: single-wall heat exchange method of
9.3 bulk milk tank: an insulated, sanitary container used to store bulk cooling milk by a direct transfer of heat from the milk to the refrigerant
milk; usually cylindrical, rectangular, or oval contained in the evaporator section
9.4 cooling tank: refrigerated bulk milk tank used to cool milk 9.25 every-day and every-other-day pickup (Abbreviated ED and
EOD): terms denoting the frequency of collection of milk from the farm
9.5 storage tank: non-refrigerated bulk milk tank milk storage or cooling tank
9.6 vacuum bulk milk tank: bulk milk tank designed to withstand 9.26 farm milk cooling and storage system: a system used to cool
milking vacuum for direct filling from the milk line, or from a receiver and store milk that is made up of a milk cooling or storage tank and an
9.7 bulk milk tank components in-line heat exchanger(s). This system shall begin at the inlet to the
9.7.1 agitator: mechanical or pneumatic means, provided with the first in-line heat exchanger and end with the milk storage vessel from
milk tank, for stirring the milk to facilitate cooling and to provide a which the raw milk is removed from the dairy farm
uniform product mixture for sampling without damaging the milk 9.27 heat exchanger: device providing thermal exchange between
9.7.2 breast: portion of the metal used to join the inside lining to the two fluids
outside shell. The breast is considered to be a milk contact surface 9.28 hose port: opening in the exterior milkhouse wall that has a
9.7.3 bridge: the part of the milk tank that extends from one side of self-closing door and is used for the transfer hose and electric motor
the tank to the other across the top of open-type tanks. It is usually cord during milk transfer
placed in the center, or one end, of the tank, and also is used to 9.29 ice bank cooling: a system of heat exchange whereby ice is
provide support for the agitator, gauge rod, and covers on open-top formed around the evaporator submerged in a water bath thus forming
tanks an ice bank. Water is then circulated around the ice and through the
9.8 gauge bracket: substantial, rigid element, permanently affixed to heat exchanger
the milk tank, designed for supporting and positioning the gauge rod or 9.30 in-level: known and reproducible position of the milk tank that is
surface gauge in the normal, specified operating position
9.9 gauge rod (calibration rod) (dip stick): graduated measuring 9.31 in-line-heat exchanger: a cooling device that is placed in the
device designed to be immersed in the product to establish the liquid milk delivery line between the milk receiver and milk tank and is used
level to transfer heat from milk to a cooling medium, usually water. The milk
9.10 gauge tube: vertical glass or plastic tube adjacent to a may be partially or totally cooled by this method
graduated measuring scale, externally mounted on the milk tank, for 9.32 plate heat exchanger: in-line heat exchanger that uses plates to
the purpose of reading the level of milk within the tank separate milk and coolant, which flow through alternate spaces
9.11 gauge tube scale: metal plate or bar, with graduations, mounted between the series of plates
adjacent to the gauge tube 9.33 tube heat exchanger: (concentric tube, multiple tube, shell
9.12 level-indicating means: reference points, levels, marks, or and tube): type of in-line heat exchanger, either concentric or not, that
appurtenances on the milk tank used to reestablish the calibration axis utilizes one or more tubes arranged within the larger tube or jacket
(examples: two-way or circular levels, plumb bobs, and scribe or punch 9.34 interval (intermittent) agitation: operation of the agitator for
marks) short periods as controlled by a timer between milking, irrespective of
9.13 lining (inside lining): surface used to contain the product, milk temperature
including the ends, sides, top, and bottom; part of which may be a heat 9.35 meniscus: the curved upper surface along the edge of a liquid.
exchanger (evaporator) It is important to understand when reading the gauge rod or tube of a
9.14 outer shell: material covering the exterior of the insulation on bulk milk tank.
milk tanks 9.36 milk sample (universal sample): representative portion of the
9.15 outlet: opening in the lining and the passage for the milk to the product
exterior of the tank 9.37 bulk milk pickup tanker: vehicle, including the truck, tank, and
9.16 outlet valve: device that is attached to the outlet and is used to those appurtenances necessary for its use, used by a bulk milk hauler
stop or control flow of product when emptying the tank to transport bulk raw milk
9.17 tank support: system of legs, saddles, or other structural means 9.38 pre-cooling: cooling of milk in an in-line heat exchanger before
designed to support the tank and keep it in-level the milk enters the bulk milk tank
9.18 vent: opening into a cooling or holding tank for maintaining 9.39 milk contact surfaces: all surfaces that are exposed to the milk
atmospheric pressure during filling, emptying, and cleaning and surfaces from which liquids may drain, drop, or be drawn into the
milk
9.19 calibration: precise, traceable, measurements of the volumetric
or mass equivalent to the graduations on the gauge rod or surface 9.40 refrigeration: process of moving heat from one location to
gauge another by use of refrigerant in a closed loop cycle
9.20 calibration chart: chart prepared for each tank from information 9.41 condensing unit: unit containing the compressor, condenser,
derived by calibration for the purpose of correlating a volumetric or and associated electrical and refrigeration equipment
mass equivalent for graduations on the gauge rod or surface gauge 9.42 remote condensing unit: refrigerant condenser unit not affixed
9.21 chiller: refrigeration heat exchanger to lower the temperature of to the milk cooling tank
the coolant 9.43 compressor: part of a refrigeration unit in which the vapor from
9.22 coolant (cooling media): recirculated cold fluid that is used in the evaporator is compressed and delivered to the condenser
heat exchangers, including those systems in which an approved non- 9.44 condenser: that part of a refrigeration unit in which the
toxic freezing-point depressant from a safe source is used, and refrigerant changes from a vapor to a liquid. The condenser may be air
protected from contamination cooled or liquid cooled.

2 ANSIASAE S300.4 FEB2008 ISO 3918:2007 ASABE STANDARDS 2009


9.45 evaporator: that part of the refrigeration system in which the NOTE Preferred sites for specifying a nominal vacuum (2.7.1) for a
refrigerant absorbs heat milking machine (3.1) are the following:
9.46 heat recovery unit: that part of the refrigeration system that the air line near the vacuum regulator (4.3) for bucket
allows recovery of heat from the refrigeration process for a useful milking machines (3.3) and direct-to-can milking machines
purpose (3.4);
9.47 refrigerant: The substance used in a refrigeration process that the receiver (6.10) for pipeline (3.5) and automatic (3.2)
transfers heat from the evaporator to the condenser, creating a cooling milking machines;
effect. These fluids generally exhibit a phase change during this the milking vacuum line (4.9) for recorder milking machines
process. (3.6).
9.48 sampling dipper: device for retrieving a sample of milk in a 2.7.2 average vacuum: arithmetic average of all values of vacuum
sanitary fashion (2.7) registered by automatic data acquisition at a selected measuring
9.49 sampling container: vial, or bag, or bottle that is approved for point
containing a sample of milk for transport to a laboratory 2.7.3 working vacuum: average vacuum (2.7.2), measured over a
9.50 surface gauge: depth-measuring device consisting of a period of 5 s for specified test conditions
stationary element, and a movable, graduated element designed to be 2.7.4 vacuum drop: difference in average vacuum (2.7.2), between a
moved into contact with the liquid surface from above downstream (2.6) and an upstream (2.5) point in a system, or at any
9.51 transfer hose: flexible plastic hose that is used to convey the one point in a system before and after an increase in airflow into the
milk from the milk tank to the pump of the milk tanker system other than through the vacuum regulator (4.3)
9.52 volumetric standard (measuring can, standard measure, 2.7.4.1 transient vacuum drop: momentary difference in vacuum (2.7)
standard can, prover): a container that is used to calibrate the bulk between a downstream (2.6) and an upstream (2.5) point in a system,
milk tank and other volumetric measuring devices. The containers are or at any one point in a system during a sudden increase in air flow into
usually checked and approved by Weights and Measures agencies to the system other than through the vacuum regulator (4.3)
deliver an accurate volume of liquid. 2.7.4.2 vacuum undershoot: maximum transient vacuum drop
(2.7.4.1), caused by sudden opening of an air inlet, below the average
1 Scope vacuum (2.7.2) with the air inlet open
This International Standard defines terms to use in research work, official 2.7.4.3 vacuum overshoot: maximum increase in momentary vacuum
regulations, design, manufacture, installation and use of milking (2.7), caused by a sudden closure of an air inlet, above the average
machines for cows, water buffaloes, sheep, goats or other mammals vacuum (2.7.2) with the air inlet closed
used for milk production. 2.8 free air: air at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure
2.9 expanded air: air at ambient atmospheric temperature at a given
2 Terms and definitions vacuum (2.7)
2.1 line: rigid pipeline (for example steel, glass or rigid plastic) that is a 2.10 average milk flow: milk yield divided by the duration of the milk
fixed part of the installation flow
NOTE The terms tube and line are qualified by their use and 2.11 peak milk flow: highest average milk yield during a specified time
emplacement in accordance with the Note in 2.2.
NOTE For cows this time is a period of 30 s.
2.2 tube: flexible hose or tube (for example rubber or non-rigid plastic,
although it may include a piece of rigid pipeline) 2.12 tests
NOTE The terms tube and line are qualified by their use and 2.12.1 dry test: test made on a milking machine (3.1) without any
emplacement as follows. liquid
2.12.2 wet test: test made on a milking machine (3.1) with simulated
a) Air: qualifies any line (2.1) used during milking (2.14) exclusively for milking (2.14)
air usually, but not necessarily, below atmospheric pressure [for 2.12.3 milking-time test: test made on a milking machine (3.1) during
example main air line (4.5), pulsator air line (5.3)]. milking (2.14) of live animals
b) Pulse: qualifies any line (2.1) or tube used exclusively for transmitting 2.12.4 cleaning-time test: test made on a milking machine (3.1)
cyclic pressure changes [for example, long pulse tube (5.4), short during cleaning
pulse tube (5.5)].
c) Milk: qualifies any line (2.1) or tube used during milking (2.14) for 2.13 milk types
milk [for example milk transfer line (6.9)] or for both air and milk [for 2.13.1 abnormal milk: milk which is visibly changed in homogeneity or
example, milkline (6.2), long milk tube (6.3)]. coloured by blood or as defined by local, regional or national legislation
d) Milking: describes the function of a vacuum system (4.1) or line 2.13.2 undesirable milk: milk which, prior to the milking (2.14) of the
(2.1) [for example milking vacuum line (4.9)]. animal, is expected to be unsuitable for dairy processing
2.3 air vent: calibrated aperture which allows admission of air EXAMPLE Colostrum or milk with high content of somatic cells.
2.4 ancillary equipment: equipment powered by the same vacuum 2.13.3 withheld milk: milk which, prior to the milking (2.14) of the
(2.7) source as for the extraction of milk, but not directly used for milk animal, is known to be unfit for human consumption
extraction from an animal
EXAMPLE Milk expected to contain residues of antibiotics or other
2.5 upstream: direction opposite to the flow pharmaceutical products and with a milk withhold requirement.
2.6 downstream: direction of the flow 2.13.4 foremilk: first squirts of milk from a teat
2.7 vacuum: any pressure below atmospheric pressure, specified as the 2.14 milking: withdrawal of a measurable amount of milk yield from the
reduction below ambient atmospheric pressure udder of an animal
EXAMPLE 50 kPa vacuum at an ambient atmospheric pressure of 103 2.14.1 successful milking: milking (2.14) of an animal to an expected
kPa means an absolute pressure of 53 kPa. level for each udder quarter intended to be milked
2.7.1 nominal vacuum: vacuum (2.7) specified as the intended 2.15 ratio of attached teatcups: number of attached teatcups (7.3)
vacuum at a stated site of the milking machine (3.1) divided by the number of teats intended to be attached

ASABE STANDARDS 2009 ANSIASAE S300.4 FEB2008 ISO 3918:2007 3


NOTE This can be calculated for each animal, teatcup (7.3) or AMM 3.5 pipeline milking machine: milking machine (3.1) in which milk
(3.2). flows from the cluster (7.2) into a milkline (6.2)
2.16 milking process times See Figure 2.
2.16.1 milking process time: duration from the instant when the 3.6 recorder milking machine: milking machine (3.1) in which milk
identified animal within the milking box of an automatic milking flows from the cluster (7.2) into a recorder jar (6.8) supplied by vacuum
machine (3.2) has been accepted for milking (2.14) until the instant for (2.7) from a milking vacuum line (4.9) and is kept in the recorder jar
release of the animal from the same milking box during milking (2.14) of each animal
2.16.2 total machine-on time: duration from attachment of the first NOTE Milk is discharged when required from the recorder jar (6.8)
teatcup (7.3) until the removal of the last teatcup for an individual animal either into a milk receiver (6.10) by a milk transfer line (6.9) or into
a collecting vessel.
2.16.3 teatcup-on time: duration from successful attachment to
detachment of an individual teatcup (7.3) See Figure 3.
3.7 independent air and milk transport milking machine: milking
2.16.4 pre-milking time: duration interval between animal identification
machine (3.1) in which air and milk are separated in or near the cluster
and start of attachment of the first teatcup (7.3) for an individual animal
(7.2) and then transported separately
2.16.5 teat cleaning time: duration of the process of cleaning teats for
See Figure 4.
an individual animal
4 Vacuum system
NOTE The time can be measured on a quarter or udder level. The
4.1 vacuum system: part of the milking machine (3.1) which is under
cleaning time can include pre-stripping of quarters.
vacuum (2.7) and not intended to come in contact with milk
2.16.6 attachment lag time: duration from the start of a physical
stimulus such as teat cleaning to the first successful attachment of a
teatcup (7.3) for an individual animal
2.16.7 teatcup attachment time: duration from initiation of attachment
until the end of a successful attachment of a teatcup (7.3) for an
individual animal
2.16.8 cluster attachment time: duration from initiation of attachment of
the first teatcup (7.3) until the end of a successful attachment of the last
teatcup (7.3) for an individual animal
2.16.9 post-milking time: duration from detachment of the last teatcup
(7.3) to release of the animal from the milking box
2.16.10 non-milking occupation time: duration from the instant when
the identified animal occupying the milking box has been refused from
milking (2.14) until the instant for release of the animal from the same
milking box

3 Types of milking machine


3.1 milking machine: complete machine installation for milking (2.14),
usually comprising vacuum system (4.1), pulsation system (5.1), milk
system (6.1), one or more milking units (7.1), and other components
Figure 1 Example of bucket or direct-to-can milking machine.
3.2 automatic milking machine (AMM): milking machine (3.1) for
unattended milking (2.14) of identified animals
NOTE To make unattended milking of identified animals possible, the
AMM includes:
hardware and software for running and monitoring;
selection system for eligibility for milking (2.14);
device for attachment and removal of teatcups (7.3);
device for cleaning the teats;
system for cleaning and sanitation of the milking machine
(3.1) and teat cleaning device;
alarm systems concerning the processes of milking (2.14),
cooling, cleaning and sanitation.
3.2.1 automatic milking installation (AMI): automatic milking ma-
chine (3.2) and milk-cooling and -storage system
3.3 bucket milking machine: milking machine (3.1) in which milk
flows from one or two clusters (7.2) into a portable milk-receiving bucket,
connected to the vacuum system (4.1)
See Figure 1.
3.4 direct-to-can milking machine: machine similar to a bucket
milking machine (3.3), but which may have more than two clusters
(7.2), and which has a portable transport can or milk tank that allows
collection and retention of the milk from several animals
See Figure 1. Figure 2 Example of pipeline milking machine.

4 ANSIASAE S300.4 FEB2008 ISO 3918:2007 ASABE STANDARDS 2009


4.6 interceptor: vessel in the main air line (4.5), to prevent liquid or
solid matter from gaining access to the pump
4.7 distribution tank: air vessel or chamber, acting as a manifold for
pipelines, upstream (2.5) of the vacuum pump(s) (4.2) [or
interceptor(s) (4.6)]
4.8 sanitary trap: vessel between the milk system (6.1) and the
vacuum system (4.1) to limit movement of liquids and other
contaminants between the two systems
4.9 milking vacuum line: line (2.1) between a sanitary trap (4.8) and
the milking units (7.1) in recorder milking machines (3.6) or
independent air and milk transport machines (3.7)
NOTE This line (2.1) provides vacuum (2.7) to the milking units
(7.1) for milking (2.14) and may also form part of the cleaning circuit.
4.10 vacuum tube: connecting tube (2.2) between a bucket or transport
can and the air line
4.11 vacuum tap: valve to permit connection of milking units (7.1), or
other vacuum (2.7) operated devices, to the vacuum system (4.1)
4.12 stall tap: valve used to permit routine connection and disconnec-
tion of a pulsator (5.2) to the pulsator air line (5.3)
4.13 receiver air line: line (2.1) between the sanitary trap (4.8) and the
receiver (6.10)
4.14 vacuum pump capacity: air-moving capacity of the vacuum
Figure 3 Example of recorder milking machine. pump (4.2), when it has attained working temperature, at a specified
speed and vacuum (2.7) at the inlet
NOTE Vacuum pump capacity is expressed in volume of free air (2.8)
per minute.
See Figure 5.
4.15 effective reserve: airflow that can be admitted at connection point
A1 to decrease the vacuum (2.7) by 2 kPa at the measuring point Vm
with all units connected and operating with the teatcups (7.3) plugged
See Figures 1, 2 and 3.
NOTE This is an indication of the reserve airflow capacity actually
available to maintain the vacuum (2.7) within 2 kPa when air is
accidentally admitted during milking (2.14). It is assumed that a
vacuum drop (2.7.4) of 2 kPa has little or no effect on milking
performance. See Figure 5.
4.16 manual reserve: airflow measured at the same position and
conditions as for effective reserve (4.15) except that the vacuum (2.7)
is not controlled by the vacuum regulator (4.3)
NOTE When the airflow through regulator valve(s) is stopped,
capacity-controlled vacuum pump(s) (4.2) run at maximum speed
during milking (2.14). See Figure 5.
4.17 regulator leakage: airflow through the regulator when the vacuum
(2.7) at the regulator sensing point is decreased by 2 kPa by an air inlet
Figure 4 Example of independent air and milk transport milking machine. in the milking machine (3.1)
NOTE The regulator is assumed to be nominally closed under these
4.2 vacuum pump: air pump that discharges air from the system and conditions.
thus produces vacuum (2.7) 4.18 regulation loss: difference between manual reserve (4.16) and
4.2.1 capacity-controlled vacuum pump: vacuum pump (4.2), the effective reserve (4.15)
output of which is varied in order to maintain a stable vacuum (2.7) in See Figure 5.
the system 4.19 regulation sensitivity: difference in working vacuum (2.7.3) with
4.3 vacuum regulator: automatic device designed to control vacuum no milking unit (7.1) operating, and one with all units connected and
(2.7) in milk (6.1) and vacuum (4.1) systems operating with the teatcups (7.3) plugged
NOTE The vacuum pump (4.2) and vacuum regulator (4.3) form a See Figure 5.
unit to maintain a constant vacuum (2.7) within specified limits. The
regulator may control the capacity of the pump or, when the pump has
a constant capacity, it lets in air to the vacuum system (4.1) or the 5 Pulsation system
combination of these. 5.1 pulsation system: equipment that provides liner (7.3.2) movement
4.4 vacuum gauge: instrument to indicate the vacuum (2.7) in the in the teatcup (7.3)
milking machine (3.1), relative to atmospheric pressure 5.2 pulsator: device that cyclically switches a connected vessel, usually
4.5 main air line: air line(s) between the vacuum pump(s) (4.2) and the the pulsation chamber (5.6), between vacuum (2.7) and (atmospheric)
sanitary trap(s) (4.8) pressure

ASABE STANDARDS 2009 ANSIASAE S300.4 FEB2008 ISO 3918:2007 5


5.7.4 simultaneous pulsation: pulsation (5.7) where all liners (7.3.2)
in a cluster (7.2) move in phase
5.7.5 maximum pulsation chamber vacuum: highest average
vacuum (2.7.2) in the pulsation chamber (5.6) in a period of 10% of a
pulsation cycle (5.7.1)
5.8 pulsator rate: number of pulsator (5.2) cycles per minute
NOTE This is equal to the pulsation rate (5.7.2) for the same
pulsation system (5.1).
5.9 increasing vacuum phase-phase a: period when the vacuum (2.7)
in the pulsation chamber (5.6) is increasing from 4 kPa to the
maximum pulsation chamber vacuum (5.7.5) minus 4 kPa
See Figure 6.
5.10 maximum vacuum phase-phase b: period when the vacuum
(2.7) in the pulsation chamber (5.6) is above the maximum pulsation
chamber vacuum (5.7.5) minus 4 kPa
See Figure 6.
5.11 decreasing vacuum phase-phase c: period when the vacuum
(2.7) in the pulsation chamber (5.6) decreases from the maximum
pulsation chamber vacuum (5.7.5) minus 4 kPa to 4 kPa
See Figure 6.
5.12 minimum vacuum phase-phase d: period when the vacuum (2.7)
in the pulsation chamber (5.6) is below 4 kPa
See Figure 6.
5.13 pulsator ratio: sum of the durations of the increasing vacuum
phase (5.9) and the maximum vacuum phase (5.10) divided by the
duration of one pulsator (5.2) cycle or pulsation cycle (5.7.1)
See Figure 6.
NOTE The pulsator ratio is expressed as a percentage by the formula:

t at b
100
t at bt ct d

where
ta is the duration of the increasing vacuum phase (5.9);
Figure 5 Relationship between pump capacity, air used by components, tb is the duration of the maximum vacuum phase (5.10);
effective reserve, manual reserve and regulation characteristics. tc is the duration of the decreasing vacuum phase (5.11);
td is the duration of the minimum vacuum phase (5.12);
5.2.1 pulsator controller: device which provides signals to operate the duration of one pulsator (5.2) cycle is t a t b t c t d.
pulsator(s) (5.2) 5.14 limping: the unintentional difference between pulsator ratios
5.3 pulsator air line: line (2.1) connecting the main air line (4.5) to the (5.13) measured at different teatcups (7.3) of the same cluster (7.2),
pulsators (5.2) expressed in units of percentage
5.3.1 main pulsator air line: part of the pulsator air line (5.3) between
the main air line (4.5) and the first branch
NOTE If there is no branch, there is no main pulsator air line.
5.4 long pulse tube: connecting tube (2.2) between the pulsator (5.2)
and the cluster (7.2)
5.5 short pulse tube: connecting tube (2.2) between the pulsation
chamber (5.6) and the claw (7.4)
5.6 pulsation chamber: space in a teatcup (7.3) between the liner
(7.3.2) and the shell (7.3.1)
5.7 pulsation: cyclic opening and closing of a liner (7.3.2)
5.7.1 pulsation cycle: one complete liner (7.3.2) movement sequence
5.7.2 pulsation rate: number of pulsation cycles (5.7.1) per minute
5.7.3 alternate pulsation: pulsation (5.7) where the movement of two
liners (7.3.2) within a cluster (7.2) alternates with the movement of the
other two liners or, in a cluster with only two teatcups (7.3), for example
for sheep or goats, cyclic movement of one liner alternating with the
movement of the other liner
Figure 6 Pulsation chamber vacuum record.

6 ANSIASAE S300.4 FEB2008 ISO 3918:2007 ASABE STANDARDS 2009


6 Milk system 7.2 cluster: assembly to milk one mammal consisting of teatcups (7.3)
and may include a claw (7.4) or connectors between long (6.3) and
6.1 milk system: part of the milking machine (3.1) which is intended to
short (7.3.4) milk tubes and long (5.4) and short (5.5) pulse tubes
come in contact with milk
7.3 teatcup: assembly consisting of a shell (7.3.1), a liner (7.3.2) and
6.2 milkline: line (2.1) that carries milk and air during milking (2.14)
may include a short pulse tube (5.5), a separate short milk tube (7.3.4)
and has the dual function of providing milking vacuum (2.7) to the
and connector or sightglass
milking unit (7.1) and conveying milk to the receiver (6.10)
See Figure 7.
6.2.1 looped milkline: milkline (6.2) that forms an enclosed circuit with
two full-bore connections to the receiver (6.10) 7.3.1 shell: rigid cover to retain the liner (7.3.2)
6.2.2 dead-ended milkline: milkline (6.2) in which the distal end is 7.3.2 liner: flexible sleeve, having a mouthpiece (7.3.3) and a barrel,
closed with a cap or plug and the proximal end has a single full-bore which may have an integral short milk tube (7.3.4)
connection to the receiver (6.10) 7.3.3 mouthpiece
6.3 long milk tube: connecting tube(s) (2.2) carrying the milk away See Figure 7.
from the cluster (7.2) 7.3.4 short milk tube: connecting tube (2.2) between the claw (7.4)
6.4 milking vacuum tube: tube (2.2) between the claw (7.4) or and the liner (7.3.2) barrel, connector or sightglass
recorder jar (6.8) and the milking vacuum line (4.9) that provides 7.3.5 automatic teatcup valve: device in the milking unit (7.1), which
vacuum (2.7) to the claw or the recorder jar but does not transport milk opens for vacuum (2.7) to the liner (7.3.2) when the teatcup (7.3) is
See Figures 3 and 4. attached, and automatically shuts off the vacuum to the liner when the
6.5 milk inlet valve: self-sealing valve to permit routine connection and teatcup is detached or falls off
disconnection of milking units (7.1) and the milkline (6.2) 7.4 claw: manifold that spaces the teatcups (7.3) in a cluster (7.2) and
6.6 milk inlet: fixed inlet into a milkline (6.2), recorder jar (6.8), bucket, connects them to the long milk tube (6.3) and long pulse tube (5.4)
can or other equipment to permit connection of the long milk tube (6.3) 7.5 automatic shut-off valve: valve in the milking unit (7.1) which
6.7 milking system: combination of milking machine (3.1) immediately shuts off the vacuum (2.7), to the teatcup (7.3) or cluster
components, which together provide the dual function of supplying (7.2) when one or more teatcups fall or are kicked off
milking vacuum (2.7) to the cluster (7.2) and transporting milk away 7.6 teatcup plug: plug or stopper to simulate the animals teat and close
from the cluster off the mouthpiece (7.3.3) of a teatcup (7.3) for testing purposes
6.7.1 high-level milking system: milking system (6.7) in which the 7.7 milk meter: device used to measure all the milk from an individual
milk inlet valve (6.5) or milk inlet (6.6) to the milkline (6.2) or recorder animal or teat
jar (6.8) is more than 1,25 m above the animal standing level 7.8 milk flow indicator: device used to provide a visual indication of
6.7.2 mid-level milking system: milking system (6.7) in which the milk flow
milk inlet valve (6.5) or milk inlet (6.6) to the bucket (or transport can), 7.9 milk flow sensor: device used to signal milk flow or one or more
milkline (6.2) or recorder jar (6.8) is situated between 0 m and 1,25 m predetermined milk flows from an individual animal or teat
above the animal standing level
7.10 automatic teatcup attacher: device that without human
6.7.3 low-level milking system: milking system (6.7) in which the intervention attaches the teatcups (7.3) to an animal to be milked
milk inlet valve (6.5) or milk inlet (6.6) to the milkline (6.2) or recorder
jar (6.8) is below the animal standing level 7.11 automatic teatcup remover (ATR): device that without human
intervention removes a single teatcup (7.3) after shutting off the milking
6.8 recorder jar: mounted vessel that receives, holds and allows vacuum (2.7)
measurement of all the milk from an individual animal and allows transfer
of the milk to a receiver (6.10) or milk collecting vessel under vacuum 7.12 automatic cluster remover (ACR): device that without human
(2.7) intervention removes all teatcups (7.3) of the cluster (7.2) after shutting
off the milking vacuum (2.7) to all teatcups
6.9 milk transfer line: line (2.1) in which milk is conveyed from the
recorder jar (6.8) or long milk tubes (6.3) to a receiver (6.10) or milk 7.13 liner vacuum: vacuum (2.7) in the barrel below the teat for
collecting vessel under vacuum (2.7) specified conditions of liquid and air flow or during milking (2.14)
6.10 receiver: vessel that receives milk from one or more milked 7.14 mouthpiece vacuum: vacuum (2.7) measured in the mouthpiece
animals, separates milk from air and feeds the releaser (6.11), releaser (7.3.3) during milking (2.14) or testing
milk pump (6.12) or collecting vessel under vacuum (2.7) 7.15 effective length of liner
6.10.1 receiver milk inlet: inlet into a receiver (6.10) to permit See Figure 7.
connection of the milkline (6.2) or milk transfer line (6.9) to the receiver 7.16 Touch Point Pressure Difference (TPPD): pressure difference
6.11 releaser: device for removing milk from vacuum (2.7) and between the pulsation chamber (5.6) and the inside of the liner (7.3.2)
discharging it to atmospheric pressure barrel at which the opposing walls of the liner start to touch each other
6.12 releaser milk pump: pump for removing milk from vacuum (2.7) when it is mounted in its shell (7.3.1)
and discharging it to atmospheric pressure See Figure 7.
6.13 delivery line: line (2.1) in which milk flows from a releaser (6.11) 7.17 initial delay time: delay at the start of milking (2.14) to avoid
to a collecting or storage vessel automatic teatcup (7.3) or cluster (7.2) detachment or other pre-set
change in milking vacuum (2.7) or pulsation (5.7) characteristics
7 Milking unit 7.18 milk flow switch point: threshold milk flow at which a delay time
7.1 milking unit: assembly of components, necessary for milking (2.14) (7.19) starts or other equipment is activated
an individual animal and which can be replicated in a milking machine 7.19 delay time: elapsed time from the milk flow switch point (7.18) to
(3.1) so that more than one animal may be milked at one time teatcup (7.3) or cluster (7.2) removal or other pre-set change in the
NOTE The milking unit (7.1) may include, for example, a cluster function of the milking unit (7.1)
(7.2), long milk tube (6.3), long pulse tube (5.4) and a pulsator
(5.2) plus, perhaps, a bucket or recorder jar (6.8) or milk meter (7.7)
and other individual accessories.

ASABE STANDARDS 2009 ANSIASAE S300.4 FEB2008 ISO 3918:2007 7


Figure 7 Example of components of teatcup assembly.

8 Cleaning and milk-cooling equipment 8.6 jetter assembly: assembly to which the teatcups (7.3) are attached
during cleaning (8.2) to establish a connection from the washline (8.7)
8.1 bulk milk tank: sanitary storage vessel or vat, used to cool and/or
or milking vacuum line (4.9) to the teatcups
store milk
8.7 washline: line (2.1) that, during the cleaning (8.2) process, carries
8.2 cleaning: process intended to remove soil from milk contact
cleaning and disinfectant solutions from the wash trough or water heater
surfaces and reduce bacterial build-up
to the milking units (7.1), milkline (6.2) or milking vacuum line (4.9)
8.3 rinsing: part of cleaning (8.2) with water only
8.8 air use for cleaning: air that is admitted during the cleaning process
8.4 sanitation: part of cleaning (8.2) with disinfectant means to increase turbulence and velocity of cleaning solutions
8.5 clean-in-place (CIP): system for cleaning and disinfecting the milk
and/or cooling system without disassembly

Alphabetical index

A alternate pulsation 5.7.3


AMI 3.2.1
abnormal milk 2.13.1
ACR 7.12 AMM 3.2
air use for cleaning 8.8 ancillary equipment 2.4
air vent 2.3 ATR 7.11
attachment lag time 2.16.6

8 ANSIASAE S300.4 FEB2008 ISO 3918:2007 ASABE STANDARDS 2009


automatic cluster remover 7.12 low-level milking system 6.7.3
automatic milking installation 3.2.1
M
automatic milking machine 3.2
automatic shut-off valve 7.5 main air line 4.5
automatic teatcup attacher 7.10 main pulsator air line 5.3.1
automatic teatcup remover 7.11 manual reserve 4.16
automatic teatcup valve 7.3.5 maximum pulsation chamber vacuum 5.7.5
average milk flow 2.10 maximum vacuum phase 5.10
average vacuum 2.7.2 mid-level milking system 6.7.2
milk flow indicator 7.8
B milk flow sensor 7.9
bucket milking machine 3.3 milk flow switch point 7.18
bulk milk tank 8.1 milk inlet 6.6
milk inlet valve 6.5
C milk meter 7.7
capacity-controlled vacuum pump 4.2.1 milk system 6.1
CIP 8.5 milk transfer line 6.9
claw 7.4 milk types 2.13
cleaning 8.2 milking 2.14
cleaning-time test 2.12.4 milking machine 3.1
clean-in-place 8.5 milking process time 2.16.1
cluster 7.2 milking process times 2.16
cluster attachment time 2.16.8 milking system 6.7
milking unit 7.1
D milking vacuum line 4.9
milking vacuum tube 6.4
dead-ended milkline 6.2.2
decreasing vacuum phase 5.11 milking-time test 2.12.3
delay time 7.19 milkline 6.2
delivery line 6.13 minimum vacuum phase 5.12
direct-to-can milking machine 3.4 mouthpiece 7.3.3
distribution tank 4.7 mouthpiece vacuum 7.14
downstream 2.6 N
dry test 2.12.1
nominal vacuum 2.7.1
E non-milking occupation time 2.16.10

effective length of liner 7.15 P


effective reserve 4.15
peak milk flow 2.11
expanded air 2.9 pipeline milking machine 3.5
F post-milking time 2.16.9
pre-milking time 2.16.4
foremilk 2.13.4 pulsation 5.7
free air 2.8 pulsation chamber 5.6
pulsation cycle 5.7.1
H
high-level milking system 6.7.1 pulsation rate 5.7.2
pulsation system 5.1
I pulsator 5.2
pulsator air line 5.3
increasing vacuum phase 5.9
pulsator controller 5.2.1
independent air and milk transport milking machine 3.7
pulsator rate 5.8
initial delay time 7.17
pulsator ratio 5.13
interceptor 4.6
R
J
jetter assembly 8.6 ratio of attached teatcups 2.15
receiver 6.10
L receiver air line 4.13
receiver milk inlet 6.10.1
limping 5.14
line 2.1 recorder jar 6.8
liner 7.3.2 recorder milking machine 3.6
liner vacuum 7.13 regulation loss 4.18
long milk tube 6.3 regulation sensitivity 4.19
long pulse tube 5.4 regulator leakage 4.17
looped milkline 6.2.1 releaser 6.11

ASABE STANDARDS 2009 ANSIASAE S300.4 FEB2008 ISO 3918:2007 9


releaser milk pump 6.12 tube 2.2
rinsing 8.3
U
S
undesirable milk 2.13.2
sanitary trap 4.8 upstream 2.5
sanitation 8.4
V
shell 7.3.1
short milk tube 7.3.4 vacuum 2.7
short pulse tube 5.5 vacuum drop 2.7.4
simultaneous pulsation 5.7.4 vacuum gauge 4.4
stall tap 4.12 vacuum overshoot 2.7.4.3
successful milking 2.14.1 vacuum pump 4.2
vacuum pump capacity 4.14
T vacuum regulator 4.3
teat cleaning time 2.16.5 vacuum system 4.1
teatcup 7.3 vacuum tap 4.11
teatcup attachment time 2.16.7 vacuum tube 4.10
teatcup plug 7.6 vacuum undershoot 2.7.4.2
teatcup-on time 2.16.3
W
tests 2.12
total machine-on time 2.16.2 washline 8.7
Touch Point Pressure Difference 7.16 wet test 2.12.2
TPPD 7.16 withheld milk 2.13.3
transient vacuum drop 2.7.4.1 working vacuum 2.7.3

10 ANSIASAE S300.4 FEB2008 ISO 3918:2007 ASABE STANDARDS 2009