You are on page 1of 25

Pilots Environment

On an End-of-Lesson Test, and in accordance with the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM);
FAA-H-8083-15, Instrument Flying Handbook; FAA-H-8083-25, Pilots Handbook of Aeronautical
Knowledge; and ATC and TCAS System Overview, you will identify:

1. Characteristics and uses of aircraft instrumentation.

2. Physiological factors affecting flight.

PITOT-STATIC SYSTEM
SOURCES OF STATIC PRESSURE
VERTICAL AIR
ALTIMETER SPEED SPEED PITOT LINE

IMPACT
STATIC PRESSURE
VENTS CHAMBER
HEATING
WIND
STATIC LINE
PRESSURE
CHAMBER
DRAIN PITOT-HEAD
OPENING ELEMENT

The pitot-static system provides the source of air pressure for the operation of the following
instruments:

Altimeter
Vertical speed indicator
Airspeed indicator

There are two major parts of the pitot-static system:

The impact pressure chamber, and lines.


The static pressure chamber, and lines.

PITOT TUBE

PITOT
TUBE

The pitot tube is the source of impact pressure.


It is usually mounted on the leading edge of the wing, on the nose section, or on the vertical
stabilizer. The pitot tube is connected to the airspeed indicator. Some aircraft have two pitot
systems. Blockage of the pitot tube will adversely affect the airspeed readout
STATIC AIR VENTS

STATIC AIR
VENT

A static air vent is a small hole or holes connecting outside air to the pitot-static instruments
Static air vents are normally mounted:

Flush on the side of the fuselage, or

Behind the pitot tube

All three pitot-static system instruments are vented to the outside air pressure through static vent
openings. Blockage of static air vents will create erroneous readings by all three pitot-static
system instruments.

ALTIMETER
1,000 FEET
10,000 FEET
0 ANEROID
9 1 WAFER
100 FEET
8 ALT 2
1015 29.92

7 3
6 4
5

ALTITUDE
SET KNOB
ATB22-6

The altimeter measures the height of aircraft above a given level. A change in pressure is sensed
by the altimeter. An aneroid wafer expands and contracts with atmospheric pressure
changes. An altimeter indicates height above sea level when set to the correct altimeter
setting.

Altimeter settings are measured in inches of mercury. Standard setting is 29.92 inches of mercury
is always used for flight above 18,000 feet (FL180). Updates recalibrate the altimeter for
nonstandard pressure. Current altimeter settings are required for all flights below 18,000 feet
and for those descending from FL180 and above (Class A Airspace).
ALTIMETER NOT ADJUSTED TO CURRENT ALTIMETER SETTING

Altimeter NOT Adjusted to Current Altimeter


Setting
High Pressure Low Pressure
Altimeter set
TOO LOW

Aircraft will be
flying HIGHER
than the altimeter
indicates
Aircraft will be flying LOWER
than the altimeter indicates
Altimeter set
TOO HIGH

The nonstandard pressure effects on unadjusted altimeters are as follows:


When pressure is lower than standard
If the pilot does not maintain the correct setting on the altimeter when flying from a
high pressure area to a low pressure area, the altimeter will read a higher altitude than
the aircraft is flying.
When pressure is higher than standard
The reverse is true when flying from a low pressure area to a high pressure area
without resetting the altimeter, and the altimeter will read a lower altitude than the
aircraft is flying.
TYPES OF ALTITUDE
PRESSURE INDICATED ABSOLUTE
ALTITUDE ALTITUDE ALTITUDE

TERRAIN

SEA LEVEL

STANDARD DATUM PLANE

The types of altitudes include:

Absolute altitude - altitude of aircraft above the terrain

Indicated altitude altitude above sea level, read from the altimeter, when it is set to the
current local altimeter setting

Pressure altitude - altitude read when altimeter is set at 29.92


True altitude - true vertical distance above sea level (used to depict airport, terrain, and
obstacle elevations)

Density altitude - pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard temperature variations


VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR

10
5
15

UP VSI
0 20
DN 100 FEET
PER MIN

5 15
10

The vertical speed indicator measures the rate of climb or descent in hundreds of feet per minute.

Gives immediate indication of direction (up or down).


Utilizes static pressure only.
AIRSPEED INDICATOR

0
200 40

180 AIRSPEED 60

160 80

140 100
120

The airspeed indicator measures indicated airspeed (difference between pitot and static
pressures) in MPH, or knots, or both, depending on the instrument.

Connected to both the pitot tube and the static vent.


Only instrument that uses pitot tube for information.
Types of airspeed:

Indicated Airspeed (IAS) is read directly from instruments without correction.

Calibrated Airspeed (CAS) is indicated airspeed corrected for installation and instrument
errors.

True Airspeed (TAS) is calibrated airspeed corrected for temperature and pressure.

The actual speed of an aircraft through a mass of air.


Flight plans are filed using TAS.
NOTE: Arcs are color-coded for certain speeds and speed ranges.
Effects of altitude:

IAS varies with altitude.

The density of air decreases greatly with altitude, hence less air is available to
actuate the airspeed indicator at higher altitudes, which causes the reading to be lower than true
airspeed

QUESTION: Using the graphic shown below, identify the following


altimeter readings.

ALTIMETER READINGS
0 0 0
9 1 9 1 9 1
ALT
8 2 8 2 8 2
1015 29.92 1015 29.92 1015 29.92

7 3 7 3 7 3

6 4 6 4 6 4
5 5 5

0 0 0
9 1 9 1 9 1
ALT
8 2 8 2 8 2
1015 29.92 1015 29.92 1015 29.92

7 3 7 3 7 3

6 4 6 4 6 4
5 5 5

QUESTION: What instruments are affected by the pitot-static system?

MAGNETIC COMPASS

W 24 21
The magnetic compass is used to tell the pilot the aircrafts heading in relation to magnetic north.

The magnetic compass is the only self-contained direction-seeking instrument in the aircraft.

The compass contains two steel magnetized needles fastened to a float around which is
mounted a compass card.
The needles are parallel, with their north-seeking ends pointed in the same direction.
The compass card has letters for cardinal headings and each 30-degree interval is
represented by a number, the last zero of which is omitted.

For example: 30 degrees would appear as a 3 and 300 degrees would appear as 30.
Between these numbers, the card is graduated for each 5 degrees.

The float assembly is housed in a bowl filled with acid-free white kerosene.

The purpose of the liquid is to dampen out excessive oscillation of the compass card.
A line (called the lubber line) is mounted behind the glass of the instrument that can be
used for a reference line when aligning the headings on the compass card.

Although the magnetic field of the Earth lies roughly north and south, the Earths magnetic poles
do not coincide with its geographic poles, (which are used in the construction of aeronautical
charts).

At most places on the Earths surface, the direction-sensitive steel needles which seek the
Earths magnetic field will not point to true north, but to magnetic north.

Local magnetic fields from mineral deposits and other conditions may distort the Earths
magnetic field and cause an additional error in the position of the compass north-seeking
magnetized needles with reference to true north.

The angular difference between true north and the direction indicated by the magnetic
compass is called variation.

Variation is different for different points on the Earths surface and is shown on the
aeronautical charts as broken lines connecting points of equal variation.

These lines are isogonic lines. The line where the magnetic variation is zero is called an
agonic line.

A compass is very rarely influenced solely by the Earths magnetic lines of force.

Magnetic disturbances from magnetic fields produced by metals and electrical accessories
in an aircraft disturb the compass needles and produce an additional error.

Note: The difference between the direction indicated by a magnetic compass not installed
in an aircraft, and one installed in an aircraft, is called deviation.

Types of Gyroscopic Flight Instruments


Several flight instruments utilize the properties of a gyroscope for their operation.

The most common instruments containing gyroscopes are the turn coordinator, heading
indicator (directional gyro), and the attitude indicator.
To understand how these instruments operate requires a knowledge of the instruments
systems, gyroscopic principles, and the operating principles of each instrument.

In some aircraft, the gyros are vacuum, pressure, or electrically operated.

In most small aircraft, the failure of the vacuum pump would render the heading indicator and
attitude indicator inoperative.

In others, vacuum or pressure systems provide the power for the heading and attitude
indicators, while the electrical system provides the power for the turn coordinator.
VACUUM OR PRESSURE SYSTEM

VACUUM OR PRESSURE SYSTEM


N
33 3

30

6
IN

E
24

12
OUT
21 15
S

HEADING INDICATOR

AIR FILTER

VACUUM
PUMP

REGULATOR ATTITUDE INDICATOR

4
2

6
IN HG
U N
S

C T I O

VACUUM GAUGE

ATB22-13

The vacuum or pressure system spins the gyro by drawing a stream of air against the rotor vanes
to spin the rotor at high speeds, essentially the same as a water wheel or turbine operates

One source of vacuum for the gyros installed in light aircraft is the vane-type engine-driven
pump which is mounted on the engine.

Pump capacity varies in different aircraft, depending on the number of gyros to be


operated.

A typical vacuum system consists of an engine-driven vacuum pump, regulator, air filter,
gauge, tubing, and the manifolds necessary to complete the connections.

The gauge is mounted in the aircrafts instrument panel and indicates the amount
of pressure in the system.
Gyroscopic Principles
Any spinning object exhibits gyroscopic properties; however, a wheel designed and mounted
to utilize these properties is called a gyroscope.

There are two fundamental properties of gyroscopic action: Rigidity in space and precession.

Rigidity in space can best be explained by applying Newtons First Law of Motion which
states, A body at rest will remain at rest; or if in motion in a straight line, it will continue in a
straight line unless acted upon by an outside force.
When the wheel is spinning, it exhibits the ability to remain in its original plane of rotation
regardless of how the base is moved.
The flight instruments using the gyroscopic property of rigidity for their operation
are the attitude indicator and the heading indicator
Precession, the second property of a gyroscope, is the deflection of a spinning wheel when a
force is applied.

When a force is applied to the rim of a rotating wheel, the resultant force is 90 degrees
ahead in the direction of rotation and in the direction of the applied force.

The force with which the wheel precesses is the same as the force applied.
TURN COORDINATOR

TURN COORDINATOR

RATE OF TURN
INDICATOR

TURN COORDINATOR

2 MIN

INCLINOMETER

ATB22-14

The turn coordinator shows the yaw and roll of the aircraft around the vertical and longitudinal
axes.
Composed of a rate-of-turn indicator and an inclinometer.
When rolling in or out of a turn, the miniature airplane banks in the direction of the turn.
The miniature airplane does not indicate the angle of bank, but indicates the rate of turn.
When aligned with the turn index in a coordinated turn (ball centered), the inclinometer
represents a standard rate of turn of 3 degrees per second and the aircraft should complete a
360-degree turn in 2 minutes.

RATE OF TURN
RATE OF TURN

TU RN COORD IN ATOR TU RN COORD IN ATOR TURN COORD IN ATOR

2 MIN 2 MIN 2 MIN

Coordinated Turn Skid Slip

ATB22-15

The inclinometer of the turn coordinator indicates the coordination of aileron and rudder.

The ball indicates whether the airplane is in coordinated flight or is in a slip or skid.
HEADING INDICATOR/DIRECTIONAL GYRO
0

27

9
PUSH 18 HDG

The heading indicator (or directional gyro) is a mechanical instrument designed to facilitate
the use of the magnetic compass.

Errors in the magnetic compass are numerous, making straight flight and precision turns to
headings difficult to accomplish, particularly in turbulent air.

A heading indicator, however, is not affected by the forces that make the magnetic compass
difficult to interpret.

The operation of the heading indicator depends upon the principle of rigidity in space.

The rotor turns in a vertical plane, and fixed to the rotor is a compass card.

Since the rotor remains rigid in space, the points of the card hold the same position in
space relative to the vertical plane.

As the instrument case and the airplane revolve around the vertical axis, the card
provides clear and accurate heading information.
It is important for the pilot to check the indications frequently and reset the heading indicator to
align it with the magnetic compass when required.

Because of precession, caused chiefly by friction, the heading indicator will creep or drift
from a heading to which it is set.

The heading indicator is not direction-seeking, as is the magnetic compass.

Adjusting the heading indicator to the magnetic compass heading should be done only when
the airplane is in wings-level un-accelerated flight; otherwise, erroneous magnetic compass
readings may be obtained.

The bank and pitch limits of the heading indicator vary with the particular design and make of
the instrument.

On some heading indicators found in light airplanes, the limits are approximately 55 degrees
of pitch and 55 degrees of bank.

When either of these attitude limits is exceeded, the instrument tumbles or spills and no
longer gives the correct indication until reset.

After spilling, it may be reset with the caging knob.

Many of the modern instruments used are designed so that they will not tumble.
Headings are read by adding zero:

Examples: 3 = 30 degrees
27 = 270 degrees

ATTITUDE INDICATOR

LEVEL FLIGHT 30-DEGREE LEFT TURN CLIMB

The attitude indicator (artificial or gyro horizon), with its miniature aircraft and horizon bar,
displays a picture of the attitude of the airplane.
The relationship of the miniature aircraft to the horizon bar is the same as the relationship
of the real aircraft to the actual horizon.
The instrument gives an instantaneous indication of even the smallest changes in attitude.

The gyro in the attitude indicator is mounted on a horizontal plane and depends upon rigidity
in space for its operation.

The horizon bar represents the true horizon.


This bar is fixed to the gyro and remains in a horizontal plane as the airplane is pitched or
banked about its lateral or longitudinal axis, indicating the attitude of the airplane relative
to the true horizon.

An adjustment knob is provided so that the pilot may move the miniature aircraft up or down
to align with the horizon bar to suit the pilots line of vision.

The pitch and bank limits depend upon the make and model.
Normal bank limits are 100 to 110 degrees.
Normal pitch limits are 60 to 70 degrees.
When these limits are exceeded, the instrument tumbles or spills.
After spilling, it may be reset with the caging knob.
The scale at the top of the instrument indicates the degree of bank.

Each line usually represents 10 degrees of bank.

Some instruments have a horizontal row of lines that usually indicate each 5 degrees of
pitch.

The attitude indicator is reliable and the most realistic flight instrument on the instrument
panel.
RESPONSE ITEM

What may be obtained from the attitude indicator?

A. Rate of turn
B. Degrees of bank
C. Height above sea level

NAVIGATION INSTRUMENTS
The following navigational instruments are used by the pilot to determine position, course,
and distance traveled:

Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)


VOR instrument
Instrument Landing System (ILS) Receiver
Instrument Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI)
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI)
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)
Global Positioning System (GPS)
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
N
W

S
HDG

The Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) is used to navigate using Nondirectional Radio Beacons
(NDBs).
The ADF equipment consists of a tuner and the navigational display.

The navigational display consists of a dial upon which the azimuth is printed, and a needle
which rotates around the dial and points to the station to which the receiver is tuned,
indicating the bearing to the station.

Some of the ADF dials can be rotated so as to align the azimuth with the aircraft heading,
others are fixed with 0 degrees representing the nose of the aircraft and 180 degrees
representing the tail.
VOR INSTRUMENT
COURSE
DEVIATION 0
NEEDLE VOR
STATION

TO

27

9
FR

18
OBS
OMNI-
BEARING TO-FROM
SELECTOR INDICATOR

The VOR instrument is used to navigate to and from a VOR station.

The instrument consists of a/an:

Omnibearing Selector (OBS), sometimes referred to as course selector.

Course deviation indicator needle (left-right needle)

TO-FROM indicator

When the course selector is rotated, it moves the course deviation needle to indicate the
position of the radial relative to the aircraft.

If the course selector is rotated until the deviation needle is centered, the pilot can
determine:

The radial (magnetic course from the station), or

Its reciprocal (magnetic course to the station)

The course deviation needle will also move to the left or right if the aircraft is flown or drifts
away from the radial which is set in the course selector.
After centering the needle by turning the omnibearing selector, the TO-FROM indicator will
indicate either TO the station or FROM the station.

If the selector displays TO, the course shown on the course selector must be flown to the
station.

If FROM is displayed and the course shown is followed, the aircraft is flying away from
the station.

Course deviation information is reversed if the pilot is flying with a FROM reading, but is
headed toward the station, or is flying with a TO reading while headed away from the
station.

This could occur if the pilot misreads the course indicator on the VOR, and tries to fly a
heading which is 180 degrees opposite of the desired course.
ILS RECEIVING EQUIPMENT
N
LOCALIZER
INDICATOR

TO

E
5-DOT
FR
DEFLECTIONS

GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR
S
OBS

Instrument Landing System (ILS) receiving equipment is used to make an ILS approach.

When the localizer needle also includes a glideslope indicator, the instrument is often called a
crosspointer indicator.

When the crossed horizontal (glideslope) and vertical (localizer) needles are free to move
through standard 5-dot deflections, they indicate the position on the localizer course and
glidepath.

The localizer needle indicates, by deflection, whether the aircraft is right or left of the localizer
centerline, regardless of the position or heading of the aircraft.

Rotation of the course selector has no effect on the operation of the localizer needle.

When the aircraft is inbound on the front course or outbound on the back course, the
needle will deflect toward the on course.

The pilot would turn the aircraft in the direction of the needle to correct the course.

When the aircraft is outbound on the front course or inbound on the back course, the
needle would deflect away from the on course.

The pilot would turn the aircraft away from the needle to correct the course.

Deflection of the glideslope needle indicates the position of the aircraft with respect to the
glide path.

When the aircraft is above the glideslope, the needle is deflected down.

When the aircraft is below the glideslope, the needle is deflected up.

When the aircraft is on the glideslope, the needle is horizontal.

The red localizer and glideslope warning flags will appear when insufficient voltage is received
to actuate the needles.

The flags will also appear when an unstable signal or receiver malfunction occurs.
RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR (RMI)

ROTATING
27 COMPASS
CARD
SINGLE-
BARRED
BEARING
INDICATOR

18

0
V V DOUBLE-
O O
BARRED
R R
9 BEARING
INDICATOR
ADF

The Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI) is designed to receive both VOR and NDB signals.

RMI can be set up to indicate either bearing to a waypoint or to a VORTAC used to


establish the waypoint.

The RMI consists of:

A rotating compass card, a double-barred bearing indicator, and a single-barred bearing


indicator.

The compass card, actuated by the aircrafts compass system, rotates as the aircraft turns.

The heading of the aircraft is always directly under the index at the top of the
instrument.

The bearing indicators display ADF or VOR magnetic bearings to the selected station.

The double-barred bearing indicator gives the magnetic bearing to the VOR or
VORTAC to which the receiver is tuned.

The tail of the double-barred indicator tells the pilot the radial.

The single-barred bearing indicator is an ADF needle which gives the magnetic
bearing to the selected low frequency facility.
HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI)
LUBBER LINE
COURSE
INDICATING
ARROW (HEAD) COURSE DEVIATION
BAR
TO-FROM
INDICATOR

AIRCRAFT SYMBOL
GLIDESLOPE
INDICATOR

HEADING
GLIDESLOPE INDICATOR (TAIL)
WARNING FLAG
DG COURSE SET
HEADING SET KNOB
KNOB

The Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) is a combination of three instruments:

Heading indicator

The aircraft heading is under the upper lubber line.

VOR/LOC indicator

The course indicating arrow shows the course selected


The course deviation bar operates with a VOR/LOC navigation receiver to indicate left
or right deviation from the course selected with the course indicating arrow.

The TO-FROM indicator is a triangular-shaped pointer.

When the indicator points to the head of the course arrow, it indicates that the
course selected will take the aircraft to the selected facility.

Glideslope indicator

The glideslope deviation pointer indicates the relation of the aircraft to the
glideslope
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT
NAVIGATIONAL
DISTANCE FACILITY

RMT FREQ GS/T DME


R1
R2
NM MHZ

OFF

The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is used in conjunction with the VOR system to
show the pilot the exact distance from that VOR.

The DME transmits an interrogating signal which is received by the DME transponder antenna
at the ground facility. The:

Signal triggers ground receiver equipment and the pulse is generated and transmitted
through the DME transponder antenna back to the interrogating aircraft.
Airborne equipment measures the elapsed time between the interrogating and reply
pulses and converts the time measurement into a mileage, groundspeed, or time readout.

Mileage readout is the direct distance from the aircraft to the DME ground facility and is
commonly referred to as slant-range distance.

Difference between a measured distance on the surface and the DME slant-range
distance is known as slant-range error and is the smallest at low altitude and long range
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM


(GPS)

ATB22-25

The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides accurate position, speed, and precise time
information on a continuous global basis, reported in latitude and longitude.

There are two types of GPS equipment available: portable receivers and panel mounted
receivers.

Portable receivers are the most popular to general aviation because of their reasonable
cost.

Storage room for 100 or more waypoints.

Moving maps on portables generally display all of the alphanumeric information and
include a graphic display of airport information with a runway diagram and the location
of nearby facilities.

There are certain limitations for using a portable GPS in an aircraft.

Portable receivers need to be equipped with remote antennas.

A sharp maneuver of the aircraft may cause momentary shadowing of the signal
and loss of GPS information.

The electric power used by portable GPS receivers is normally in the form of a AA
battery pack.
(Portable receivers cannot be used for IFR.)

Panel mounted receivers function the same as portables. The only difference is that they are
mounted and permanently connected to the aircrafts electrical system and to a mounted
external antenna. Properly certified GPS equipment may be used as a supplemental
means of IFR navigation for domestic en route, terminal operations, and certain instrument
approach procedures.

The data bases used on panel mounted receivers are more extensive than those found
on portable receivers.

Most receivers will notify the pilot when he/she is getting close to the desired waypoint,
or in the vicinity of a piece of airspace in which he/she does not belong.

Panel receivers will display the bearing and distance to the nearest airport, VOR, NDB,
waypoint.

In an emergency, a GPS receiver can direct the pilot to the nearest nine or ten
airports.

RESPONSE ITEM

The VOR course deviation needle will indicate the aircrafts position in
relation to the selected

A. heading.
B. radial.
C. bearing.

RESPONSE ITEM

The range displayed on the DME indicator is called ________ range.

A. omni
B. straight
C. slant

RADIO EQUIPMENT
NAV/COM RADIO
COMMUNICATION STANDBY NAVAID STANDBY NAVAID
FREQUENCY IN USE FREQUENCY FREQUENCY IN USE FREQUENCY

USE STBY USE STBY

KX 155 T50 COMM NAV


PULL PULL
OFF TEST IDENT

USE STBY USE STBY

KX 155 T50 COMM NAV


PULL PULL
OFF TEST IDENT

The NAV/COM incorporates NAVigation and COMmunications radios in one unit.

Used to tune in air-to-ground and navigational frequencies used by the pilot.

The NAV is set to the navigation frequency. Navigation frequencies range between 108.0-
117.95 MHz.

Air-to-ground communications are accomplished on the transceiver (combined


transmitter/receiver).

Civilian transceivers operate in the Very High Frequency (VHF) range between 118.0
and 136.975 MHz and classified as 720 or 760.

The 720 and 760 uses .025 spacing (118.025, 118.050) with the 720 having a
frequency range up to 135.975 and the 760 going up to 136.975.

Most NAV/COMs may be set with two frequencies and the pilot can change frequencies by
pushing a button.

TRANSPONDER

ON 1 2 5 0
SBY ALT
OFF TEST IDENT

Used to set beacon code assigned by ATC.

The transponder is the airborne portion of the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System
(ATCRBS) often referred to as the secondary surveillance radar system. The secondary
surveillance radar system cannot display the secondary information unless an aircraft is
equipped with a transponder.

A transponder is also required to operate in certain controlled airspace


A transponder code consists of four numbers from zero to seven (4,096 possible codes).

There are some standard codes, or air traffic may issue a four-digit code to an aircraft.

When a controller requests a code or function on the transponder, he/she may use the
word squawk.

When set on ALT, the transponder provides altitude information to the controller.

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (FMS)


The Flight Management System (FMS) is a computer system that uses a large database to
allow routes to be preprogrammed and fed into the system by means of a data loader.
The system is constantly updated with respect to position accuracy by reference to
conventional navigation aids.
This sophisticated program and its associated database ensures that the most
appropriate aids are automatically selected during the information update cycle.

The Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), commonly referred to as the Glass Cockpit,
replaces the conventional, mechanical Flight Director (FD) and Horizontal Situation Indicator
(HSI) in a fully equipped IFR aircraft with computer-generated, color-digital, electronic
displays.
Used in conjunction with other instruments to show position and adjust course.
EFIS takes raw flight and navigation data, (attitude, heading, VOR or any other navigation
system course and track, weather radar information, plus a variety of supplemental data such
as DME distance, airspeed, and radar altitude) and directs the information to a specialized
computer, a symbol generator.
The symbol generator looks at the type of display requested by the pilot (full compass,
segmented compass, en route configuration, approach configuration, with or without
weather radar overlay).
Sorts, categorizes, and analyzes all the available flight and navigational information,
then
Converts that information into digital data from which color symbols similar to
conventional FD and HSI symbols are created for display on the corresponding CRT.

The more modern flat panel displays include at least one Primary Flight Display, a Navigation
Display, an Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System, and a Multifunction Display.
GLASS COCKPIT

GLASS COCKPIT

ATB22-30

The Primary Flight Display (PFD) combines all the primary flight instruments into a single
visual presentation, including heading, attitude, altitude, and vertical speed. It may also
present route and glideslope guidance as well as airspeed and altitude trends and
warnings. In larger aircraft, a second PFD is provided for the copilot.
The Navigation Display (ND) has traditionally presented a compass arc or compass rose
providing aircraft heading and position with respect to selected NAVAIDs. However, the
use of a GPS in this role, which is a satellite-based system, along with a highly detailed
moving map, has become the standard of modern day navigation. Information presented
on a GPS display may range anywhere from lines of text to aircraft position and
movement over the ground, mapping and surrounding terrain elevations, weather
graphics, lightning strikes, and the proximity of other aircraft, all on one screen.
An Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) provides digital readouts of
engine operating data such as fuel flow and temperatures, as well as an alerting capability
to warn pilots when individual engine parameters are exceeded.
A Multifunction Display (MFD) serves as a multi-purpose computer and can be
used as a backup for the other displays in addition to providing route planning, checklists,
weather information, and schematic diagrams of aircraft systems for use in trouble shooting and
during an emergency.
ELECTRONIC ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR
(APPROACH CONFIGURATION)

RADAR
AIR SPEED ALTITUDE
R. ALT 405

180 F GLIDESLOPE

160
0420 ALTITUDE
140
LOCALIZER
120

100 00
DME DH 250
30 2 3 4 5 6 7

The Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI) replaces the attitude indicator (artificial
horizon), altimeter, radar altimeter, directional gyro, and glideslope indicator.

The EADI can be configured in the approach configuration or the cruise configuration.

In the approach configuration, only information unique to the approach phase of flight will
be displayed.

Localizer information (disappears when en route)


Glideslope information (disappears when en route)
Radar altitude (height above ground) not usable above 1,200 feet
DME
Decision Height (DH)
An electronic runway (not shown)

In the cruise configuration, only information unique to the en route phase of flight will be
displayed.

Pressure altitude
Mach speed
Heading
Course
ELECTRONIC HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (EHSI)
GS146 TAS146 IHIQ /044
000/000 02.6NM
COMPASS
CARD
RANGE
MARKS
COURSE
LINE
30 30

20 20 NAVAID

NAVAID TEB LGA


JFK /049 PPK /342
JFK
02.1NM

The Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) can be configured in either the full-
compass configuration or the segmented arc configuration.

The full-compass configuration will display the digital course and ground speed readouts
available on most HSIs. The EHSI can also display certain background bits of information,
including:

Heading source
Selected heading
Selected course
Navigation source
Weather radar display along with the antenna tilt angle
Ground speed
DME

In the segmented arc configuration, aircraft position relative to the selected route ahead
and relative to any hazardous weather can be displayed with great clarity and without
sacrificing any essential navigation data.

The segmented arc configuration will also display the background bits of
information listed above.

TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM


(TCAS)
The Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is a self-contained, airborne collision
avoidance system that is intended to provide a back-up for the separation services provided
by air traffic controllers in order to prevent near mid-air or mid-air collisions.
TCAS is not an air traffic system, but it is a system that directly affects air traffic control.
TCAS consists of four functions:
Surveillance
Collision Avoidance System (CAS) algorithms
Air-to-air coordination using the data link provided by the Mode S Transponder
Display of information to the pilot
Each of these functions is executed once per second, and provides the pilot with an updated
position report on nearby aircraft every second. The surveillance function transmits
interrogations and processes replies from transponders in order to identify and track nearby
aircraft.
TCAS interrogates on the same frequency as ground radar and receives replies from
transponders used to reply to ground interrogations. The surveillance function provides
information of an intruders:
Range
Closure rate
Bearing
Altitude and vertical speed, if the intruder is reporting altitude.
Using the track information provided by the surveillance function, the CAS logic determines if a
nearby aircraft represents a threat to the TCAS-equipped aircraft.
If a threat is perceived, the CAS logic selects a Resolution Advisory (RA) to either:
Increase the vertical miss distance from the intruder, or
Maintain the existing vertical miss distance from the intruder
In encounters where both aircraft are equipped with TCAS, coordination between the two aircraft
occurs prior to the issuance of any RA to ensure that the RAs issued to each aircraft are in
opposite directions and are compatible.
TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (TCAS)

1 2

SUGGESTED INTRUDER
5 4
VERTICAL AIRCRAFT
00
SPEED AT SAME
ALTITUDE
0

5 4

1 2

M R

The display function provides the interface between the pilot and TCAS.

TCAS installations typically have two displays:

Traffic display presents the pilot with a plan view of the location of nearby traffic.

The RA display presents information on the vertical speed to be flown, or the range of
vertical speeds to be avoided in order to increase or maintain vertical miss distance,
respectively
TCAS interrogates on the same frequency as ground ATC radar and the receiver replies from
the same transponders used for ATC.

As a minimum, TCAS will provide range and relative-bearing information for all transponder-
equipped aircraft; however, TCAS cannot provide altitude and vertical speed information for
aircraft not reporting their altitude.
Traffic Alerts (TAs) are issued 35 to 45 seconds (depending on the event altitude) prior to the
Closest Point of Approach (CPA) and can be issued for any intruder with an operating
transponder.

RAs are issued 15 to 35 seconds prior to CPA.

RAs will be issued against any aircraft that are equipped with an operating transponder
and are reporting altitude.

TCAS can issue RAs for more than one aircraft in a multiple aircraft encounter
situation.
Aircraft not equipped with an operating transponder will not be tracked by TCAS.

TCAS does not know the intent of either aircraft. Its calculations are based on projections
of both aircraft and flight profiles using the last three or four tracks updates

PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS AFFECTING FLIGHT


Hypoxia occurs when the oxygen available to body tissues is insufficient to meet their needs.

Greatest risk occurs as a result of ascent to altitude with its associated fall in ambient
pressure.

Affects night vision, judgment, memory, alertness, and coordination.

Induces a feeling of well-being (euphoria) that can prevent the pilot from recognizing its
effects.

Pilot performance can seriously deteriorate within 15 minutes at 15,000 feet.

Small amounts of alcohol and low doses of some over-the-counter drugs can make the
brain more susceptible to hypoxia.

A lack of oxygen in the body can be caused by some of the following:

Loss of cabin pressure at high altitudes, above 10,000 feet MSL


Carbon monoxide and some drugs
Lowered hemoglobin
Alcohol and other poisons

Symptoms of hypoxia include:

Slow reactions
Impaired thinking
Unusual fatigue
Pilot sounds intoxicated and may reflect carefree, humorous attitude

Hypoxia can result in unconsciousness and death.

If erratic flight or any symptoms of hypoxia are observed, request the pilot to check oxygen
system.

If the pilot has no oxygen system, suggest immediate descent below 10,000 feet.

Hyperventilation occurs when there is an abnormal increase in the volume of air breathed in
and out of the lungs.
Can occur subconsciously as a result of tension or anxiety when a stressful situation is
encountered, and can result in unconsciousness.

If the rate and depth of breathing is consciously brought under control, the body will relax
and recover.

The symptoms of hyperventilation include:

Dizziness
Nausea
Drowsiness

Be alert to the possible occurrence of hyperventilation during emergency


conditions.

Spatial disorientation (sometimes referred to as vertigo) is the loss of proper bearings; state of
mental confusion as to position, location, or movement relative to the position of the Earth.

Leans occur when an aircraft returns to straight-and-level flight, but the pilot feels
compelled to lean into an imaginary turn which is still sensed by the inner ear.

Coriolis illusion occurs when a pilot in a turn makes a sudden head movement.