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Basic Communications

The use of standard phraseology and specific meanings for commonly used words and phrases has
minimized the misunderstandings that occur in ATC communications. The controller MUST have a good
knowledge of basic phraseology in order to communicate with pilots and other facilities. Confusion and/or
misunderstandings could lead to serious situations. ATC human factors research has shown that improper
communication or lack of communications is the leading cause of operational errors and aircraft accidents.
This lesson will help you understand the need for good communications. Basic phraseology,
communication priorities, ATC communications, and coordination procedures will be discussed, as well as
the steps of the position relief briefing.

On an End-of-Lesson Test, and in accordance with FAA Orders 7110.65 and 7110.10,
you will identify:
1. Radio and interphone communications.
2. ICAO phonetics.
3. Numbers usage.
4. Basic phraseology.
5. Coordination procedures.
6. The purpose and steps of the position relief briefing.

Radio frequencies are used only for the specific purpose intended.
A frequency may be used for more than one function, except
Do not use ground control frequency for airborne communication.
A minimum number of frequencies are used to conduct communications.
Interphones and assigned radio frequencies are to be monitored continuously.
Speaker volumes are kept at a level to enable the controller to hear all transmissions.
Authorized transmissions are only those messages necessary for:
Air traffic control or otherwise contributing to air safety.
Safe and efficient use of the National Airspace System (NAS).
Operational information to an aircraft or its company, as requested, when abnormal conditions
necessitates.
Official FAA messages as required.
Pilots may be authorized to interrupt the continuous monitoring of their assigned radio frequency for
safety reasons when:
Requested.
Approved by ATC.
A mutually agreeable time off frequency is established.

ICAO Phonetics 7110.65 par. 2-4-16


International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) phonetics are used for the pronunciation of numbers
and letters.
Clarifies individual letters
Prevents misunderstanding
Numbers
Pronunciation of numbers may vary with each individual speaker.
To eliminate these variations and promote standardization, pronunciation tables have been
established.
Pronounce numbers as shown in the table below:

NUMBERS
Character Word Pronunciation
0 Zero ZE-RO
1 One WUN
2 Two TOO
3 Three TREE
4 Four FOW-ER
5 Five FIFE
6 Six SIX
7 Seven SEV-EN
8 Eight AIT
9 Nine NIN-ER

Alphabet 7110.65 par. 2-4-16


When it is necessary to spell words in radiotelephony, use the ICAO pronunciation of the
alphabet listed below to prevent confusion:

ALPHABET
Character Word Pronunciation
A Alfa AL-FAH
B Bravo BRAH-VOH
C Charlie CHAR-LEE
D Delta DELL-TAH
E Echo ECK-OH
F Foxtrot FOKS-TROT
G Golf GOLF
H Hotel HOH-TELL
I India IN-DEE-AH
J Juliett JEW-LEE ETT
K Kilo KEY-LOH
L Lima LEE-MAH
M Mike MIKE
N November NO-VEM-BER
O Oscar OSS-CAH
P Papa PAH-PAH
Q Quebec KEH-BECK
R Romeo ROW-ME-OH
S Sierra SEE-AIR-AH
T Tango TANG-GO
U Uniform YOU-NEE-FORM
V Victor VIK-TAH
W Whiskey WISS-KEY
X X-ray ECK-SRAY
Y Yankee YAN-GKEY
Z Zulu ZOO-LOO

Words and Phrases 7110.65, Glossary


Words and phrases frequently used in pilot/controller communications are printed in bold italics in the
Pilot/Controller Glossary found in the back of FAA Order 7110.65.

Word Meanings 7110.65 par. 1-2-1


When using FAA Orders 7110.65 and 7110.10 for references, the words listed below will have the
following meanings:
WORD MEANINGS

Shall - A procedure is mandatory.


Should - A procedure is recommended.
May or Need Not - A procedure is optional.
Will - Futurity, not a requirement for the application of a procedure.

Annotations 7110.65, par. 1-2-5


When using FAA Order 7110.65, the annotations listed below will have the following meanings:
PHRASEOLOGY - The words or phrases used in communications.
If needed, after using the prescribed phraseology, a message may be rephrased for better
understanding.
EXAMPLE - A sample of the use of the prescribed phraseology.
If no specific phraseology is shown, the example merely denotes suggested words and/or
phrases that may be used, but is not mandatory.
Words and/or phrases used are expected, to the extent practical, to approximate those used in
the example.
Always use good judgment when using nonstandard phraseology.

NUMBERS USAGE
Serial Numbers 7110.65, par. 2-4-17
When communicating a number, state each digit separately and omit any commas.

SERIAL NUMBERS
Number Stated
11,495 One one four niner five
20,069 Two zero zero six niner

Altitudes:Follow each digit in the hundreds or thousands by the word hundred or thousand
ALTITUDES
Number Stated
10,000 One zero thousand
11,000 One one thousand
17,900 One seven thousand niner hundred

Altitudes may be RESTATED in group form for clarity.

ALTITUDES
Number Stated
10,000 Ten thousand
11,000 Eleven thousand
17,900 Seventeen thousand niner hundred

Flight Levels 7110.65, par. 2-4-17


When stating flight levels, speak the words flight level followed by the separate digits.
FLIGHT LEVELS
Number Stated
FL180 Flight level one eight zero
FL275 Flight level two seven five

Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA)/ Decision Height (DH) Altitudes


State the separate digits of the MDA/DH altitude.

MDA/DH ALTITUDES
MDA/DH Altitude Stated
1,320 Minimum descent altitude, one three two zero.
486 Decision height, four, eight, six

Time 7110.65, par. 2-4-17


The 24-hour clock is used in air traffic control and is expressed in terms of Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC).
To clarify between UTC and local time:
UTC - The word zulu may be spoken after stating the time.
Local - When using local time, the word local, or the time zone equivalent, shall be spoken
after stating the time.
When stating time, use the four separate digits of the hour and minutes based on the 24-hour clock.
When the hour is a single digit, precede the time with a zero.
When time is p.m., convert to 24-hour, 4-digit, beginning at 1:00 p.m. =1300.

TIME
Time (12 hr.) Time (24 hr.) Stated
1:15 a.m. 0115 Zero one one five
1:15 p.m. 1315 One three one five
2230 (UTC) Two two three zero zulu
2:30 p.m. One four three zero local/Pacific

Field Elevation Definition 7110.65, Glossary par. 2-4-17


Field elevation is the highest point of an airports usable runways measured in feet from Mean Sea Level
(MSL) (Also known as airport elevation)
When giving field elevation, speak the words field elevation followed by the separate digits of the
elevation.

FIELD ELEVATION
Elevation Stated
17 feet Field elevation, one seven
817 feet Field elevation, eight one seven
2,817 feet Field elevation, two eight one seven

Altimeter Setting: State the word altimeter followed by the digits of the altimeter setting
NOTE: The point is omitted.
ALTIMETER SETTING
Setting Stated
29.92 Altimeter, two niner niner two
30.01 Altimeter, three zero zero one

Surface Wind 7110.65, par. 2-4-17


Wind direction is based on 360 degrees and given to the nearest 10 degrees.
(State the word wind followed by digits of the direction (degree), then the word at and the separate
digits of the indicated velocity in knots, include gusts when necessary.)

SURFACE WIND
Encoded as Stated
03025 Wind zero three zero at two five
27015G35 Wind two seven zero at one five gusts three five

Heading are based on 360 degrees and are stated by saying the word heading, followed by the three
separate digits of the number of degrees.
Omit the word degrees.
When the heading is a double digit, precede with zero.
When the heading is a single digit, precede with zero zero.

HEADING
Heading Stated
5 degrees Heading zero zero five
30 degrees Heading zero three zero
360 degrees Heading three six zero

Radar Beacon Code: Assign codes by stating the separate digits of the 4-digit code, preceded by the
word squawk.

RADAR BEACON CODE


Code Stated
1000 Squawk one zero zero zero
2100 Squawk two one zero zero
0452 Squawk zero four five two
3617 Squawk three six one seven

Runways 7110.65, par. 2-4-17


State the word runway followed by the separate digits of the runway.
(For a parallel runway, state the word left, right, or center if the letter L, R, or C is
included in the runway designation.)
RUNWAYS

A Runway niner left


B Runway two seven center
C Runway niner right D

D Runway three one

Frequencies 7110.65, par. 2-4-17


Identify frequencies by inserting the word point where the decimal point occurs.
Omit the third digit to the right of the decimal point.
For example, for 118.675, omit the 5.

FREQUENCIES
Frequency Stated
126.55 One two six point five five
243.0 Two four three point zero
135.275 One three five point two seven

Military aircraft may use local channel numbers in lieu of frequencies for locally-based aircraft when the
local aircraft and ATC use the same channel.

FREQUENCIES
Frequency Stated
275.8 MHz Local channel one two

Issue MLS/TACAN frequencies by stating the assigned two- or three-digit channel number

FREQUENCIES
Frequency Stated
111.1 MLS channel five three zero
114.1 TACAN channel eight eight
Speed 7110.65, par. 2-4-17 State the separate digits of the speed followed by the word knots.

SPEED
Speed Stated
250 Two five zero knots
190 One niner zero knots

When using Mach numbers, use the word MACH followed by the separate digits of the
Mach number.
Insert the word point where the decimal appears.

MACH NUMBER
Mach Number Stated
1.5 Mach one point five
0.64 Mach point six four
0.7 Mach point seven

Miles 7110.65, par. 2-4-17 State the separate digits of the mileage, followed by the word mile or
miles.

MILES
Mileage Stated
30 Three zero miles
45 Four five miles

Numbers Clarification 7110.65, par. 2-4-18 If necessary for clarification, and after stating numbers as
specified in FAA Order 7110.65, par. 2-4-17, controllers may restate numbers using either group or single-
digit form.

NUMBERS CLARIFICATION
Number Single Digit Form Group Form
17,000 One seven thousand Seventeen thousand
(Altitude)
29.92 Altimeter two niner niner Twenty nine ninety two
(Altimeter Setting) two
126.55 One two six point five five One twenty six point fifty
(Frequency) five

Number Pronounced
(Speed) 250
(Frequency) 126.1
(Miles) 30
(Runway) 15
(Heading) 30 degrees
(Wind) 50 degrees 20 knots
(Code) 1200
(Mach) 0.9
(Frequency) 123.255
(Runway) 31C
(Wind) 200 degrees 10 knots

Tower Identification 7110.65, par. 2-4-19 To identify airport traffic control towers, state:
Name of the facility followed by-Word TOWER
TOWER IDENTIFICATION

TULSA
BOSTON
TOWER
TOWER

Approach Controls Identification 7110.65, par. 2-4-19: Approach controls are identified by stating:
Name of the facility followed by- Word APPROACH

APPROACH CONTROL
DENVER
APPROACH
NEW YORK
APPROACH

(NOTE: Tower and Approach Control are referred to as Terminal facilities.)


Identify functions within a terminal facility (Tower or Approach Control) by stating
the name of the: Facility- Function
PHRASEOLOGY
BOSTON DEPARTURE
LA GUARDIA CLEARANCE DELIVERY
OHARE GROUND

Military Facilities: Where military and civilian facilities are located in the same central area, state:
Branch of military service followed by-Name of facility followed by-Type of facility
PHRASEOLOGY
NAVY JACKSONVILLE APPROACH
NAVY JACKSONVILLE TOWER

Automated Flight Service Station (AFSS) 7110.65, par. 2-4-19: Automated Flight Service Stations
are identified by stating: The name of the station followed by the word RADIO.

AUTOMATED FLIGHT SERVICE STATIONS (AFSSs)


KANSAS CITY
ANCHORAGE RADIO
RADIO

Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC): Identify ARTCCs by stating: The name of the
facility followed by the word CENTER

PHRASEOLOGY
OAKLAND CENTER
ATLANTA CENTER

QUESTION: How do you identify an airport traffic control tower?

QUESTION: How are Automated Flight Service Stations (AFSSs) identified?

QUESTION: How is Oakland, California ARTCC identified?


Aircraft Identification 7110.65, par. 2-4-20: When replying to aircraft with similar-sounding
identifications, use full identification. Example: N82852 and N82582 are both monitoring the same
frequency. To avoid misunderstanding, use the full aircraft identification when communicating with
either aircraft. For other aircraft, you may use the same identification that the pilot used in the
initial call-up. After communication is established, use the correct identification.

Abbreviated Transmissions 7110.65, par. 2-4-9 : Abbreviated transmissions are used to shorten
aircraft identification. Transmissions may be abbreviated as follows: Use the identification prefix and
the last three digits or letters of the aircraft identification after communications have been established.
Example: Communications have been established with N12345. Aircraft identification can now
be abbreviated to N345.
Do not abbreviate similar-sounding aircraft identifications or the identification of an air carrier or other
civil aircraft having an FAA authorized call sign.

Civil 7110.65, par. 2-4-20:


For general aviation aircraft, state one of the following: Aircraft type
Manufacturers name or the prefix NOVEMBER (denotes U.S. aircraft registry) One must be used
when the controller establishes initial communications-Followed by ICAO phonetic
pronunciation of the numbers/letters of the aircraft registration

PHRASEOLOGY
SKYLANE ONE FOUR TWO FOUR
Aircraft Model

DOUGLAS THREE ZERO FIVE ROMEO


Aircraft Manufacturer

NOVEMBER ONE TWO THREE FOUR GOLF


U.S. Aircraft Registry

Air Carrier: For air carrier and other civil aircraft with FAA authorized call signs, state the call sign
followed by the flight numbers in group form.

PHRASEOLOGY
AMERICAN FIFTY-TWO
DELTA ONE HUNDRED
UNITED FIVE SEVENTY
DELTA ONE ZERO ONE
NORTHWEST SEVENTEEN TWENTY-FIVE

If confusion exists when using group numbers, pronounce digits one at a time for clarity.

PHRASEOLOGY
AMERICAN FIVE TWO
DELTA ONE ZERO ZERO

For air taxi and commercial operators not having FAA authorized call signs, state: Prefix TANGO on
initial contact, if used by the pilot, followed by the registration number.
PHRASEOLOGY
TANGO MOONEY ONE FIVE TWO QUEBEC

The prefix may be dropped in subsequent communications. (MOONEY ONE FIVE TWO QUEBEC)

Airborne Ambulance 7110.65, par. 2-4-20 For air carrier/air taxi ambulance, state: Prefix
LIFEGUARD, if used by the pilot, followed by the call sign and flight numbers in group form
(LIFEGUARD DELTA FIFTY-ONE).
For a civilian airborne ambulance, state: The word LIFEGUARD followed by the registration numbers
and letters (LIFEGUARD THREE ZERO ONE ZERO BRAVO)

U.S. Military 7110.65, pars. 2-3-4 and 2-4-20: Military aircraft are identified with prefixes of
abbreviations indicating branch of service and/or type of mission.

U.S. MILITARY ABBREVIATIONS


Prefix Service Name Example
A Air Force A35542
C Coast Guard C12345
G Air/Army National Guard G54672
R Army R34617
VM Marine VM56734
VV Navy V V32756

For military aircraft, state: The service name followed by the last five digits of the serial number (Copter
when the aircraft is a helicopter and is NOT a Presidential or Vice Presidential flight.) Examples:
A 35542 - Air Force Three Five Five Four Two, VV 32756 - Navy Three Two Seven Five Six,
R 36511 - Army Copter Three Six Five One One.

Special military operations are identified by: The type of mission and/or the special operations, and the call
sign. For special military operations, state: Mission/special operation followed by the last five digits of
the serial number.

SPECIAL OPERATIONS ABBREVIATIONS


Prefix Mission/Special Operation Example
E AIR EVAC (Air Evacuation) E50213
L LOGAIR (USAF Contract) L65324
RCH REACH (Air Mobility Command) RCH2761
S SAM (Special Air Mission) S43214

PHRASEOLOGY
E50213 - AIR EVAC FIVE ZERO TWO ONE THREE
L65324 - LOGAIR SIX FIVE THREE TWO FOUR
RCH2761 - REACH TWO SEVEN SIX ONE
S43214 - SAM FOUR THREE TWO ONE FOUR

U.S. military and tactical training flights can be identified by using any pronounceable word of three to six
letters followed by a one to five digit number.
PHRASEOLOGY
SNOMAN ONE = SNOMAN1
PAT ONE FIVE SEVEN = PAT157

Identify North American Air Defense (NORAD) interceptors by an assigned double letter and a two-digit
flight number (Example: Hotel Kilo One Two).

Presidential Aircraft 7110.65, par. 2-4-20: When the President is aboard a military aircraft, state: The
name of the military service followed by the word ONE. When the President is aboard a civil
aircraft, state the words, EXECUTIVE ONE. When the Presidents family is aboard any aircraft,
state the words, EXECUTIVE ONE FOXTROT. (

Vice Presidential aircraft: Use the word TWO. When the Vice Presidential family is on any
aircraft, state the words, EXECUTIVE TWO FOXTROT. (

PRESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION

Office Military Civil


President AIR FORCE ONE EXECUTIVE ONE
ARMY ONE
Presidents Family EXECUTIVE ONE EXECUTIVE ONE
FOXTROT FOXTROT
Vice President AIR FORCE TWO EXECUTIVE TWO
Vice Presidents EXECUTIVE TWO EXECUTIVE TWO
Family FOXTROT FOXTROT

DOT and FAA Flights 7110.65, par. 2-4-20: Use the following identifiers and call signs for FAA and DOT
officials:

FAA AND DOT OFFICIALS IDENTIFICATION


Official Identifier Call sign
Secretary of Transportation DOT1 Transport 1
Deputy Secretary of Transportation DOT2 Transport 2
Administrator, FAA1 Safeair 1
Federal Aviation Administration
Deputy Administrator, FAA2 Safeair 2
Federal Aviation Administration

Special Flights: For Department of Energy Flights, state the letters R-A-C (use phonetic alphabet)
followed by the last four separate digits of aircraft registration. Example: ROMEO ALFA CHARLIE
ONE SIX FIVE THREE. State the words FLIGHT CHECK followed by the digits of the
registration number for aircraft making flight inspections of navigational aids (Example: FLIGHT
CHECK THREE NINER SIX.).

Foreign Registry 7110.65, par. 2-4-20: For civil aircraft state the aircraft type or manufacturers name
followed by letters/numbers of aircraft registration, or the letters or digits of aircraft registration or call
signs (Examples: Stationair F-L-R-B. or C-F-L-R-B.)
For foreign air carrier state the abbreviated name of operating company followed by letters or digits of
registration or call sign (Example: AIR FRANCE F-L-R-L-G); or the abbreviated name of
operating company followed by flight number in group form or separate digits if pilot chooses that
format (Examples: Scandinavian Sixty-Eight or Scandinavian Six Eight).
QUESTION: What is the prefix for a domestic general aviation aircraft when
the aircraft type, model name, and/or manufacturers name are unknown?

QUESTION: What is the phraseology for American Airlines Flight 52?

QUESTION: What is the call sign for a civilian airborne ambulance flight?

QUESTION: What are the letter prefixes for the following military services:
Air Force, Army, and Navy?

A Navigational Aid (NAVAID 7110.65, Glossary) is any visual or electronic device airborne or on the
surface which provides point-to-point guidance information or position data to aircraft in flight.

Airways and Routes 7110.65, par. 2-5-1:


VORs/VORTACs/TACANs are navigational aids that make up airways and jet routes.
For airways, state the word VICTOR followed by the airway number in group form.
For jet routes, state the letter J followed by the route number in group form.

Military Training Routes (MTRs):


State the letters IR or VR followed by the route number in group form.

Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes:


For high altitude RNAV routes, state the letter Q followed by the route number in group form.
For low altitude RNAV routes, state the word Tango followed by the route number in group
form.
AIRWAYS AND JET ROUTES
Airway V12 = VICTOR TWELVE
Jet Route J35 = J THIRTY-FIVE
IR Route IR531 = I-R FIVE THIRTY-ONE
VR Route VR42 = V-R FORTY-TWO
Q Route Q136 = Q ONE THIRTY-SIX
T Route T212 = TANGO TWO TWELVE

NAVAID Terms 7110.65, par. 2-5-2: Radials of VOR/VORTAC/TACAN: State name of NAVAID,
followed by the separate digits of the radial, followed by the word RADIAL.

PHRASEOLOGY
TULSA THREE ONE ZERO RADIAL

Arcs of VOR-DME/VORTAC/TACAN/MLS
State distance in miles from NAVAID, followed by
Words MILE ARC, followed by
Direction from NAVAID, followed by
Word OF, followed by
Name of NAVAID

PHRASEOLOGY
TWO ZERO MILE ARC SOUTH OF TULSA

NAVAID fixes (7110.65, par. 2-5-3) are determined by reference to a radial and distance from one of the
following:
VOR-DME
VORTAC
TACAN
ILS-DME
MLS

When a fix is not named, state the name of the:NAVAID, followed by the radial and distance from
NAVAID, followed by the words MILE FIX.

PHRASEOLOGY
APPLETON ZERO FIVE ZERO RADIAL THREE SEVEN MILE FIX

If the fix is charted, state the name of the fix (If clarification is needed, use specific terms to describe a
fix.).

PHRASEOLOGY
PRYOR INTERSECTION
WILL ROGERS VORTAC
DAVIS V-O-R
BRAVO D-M-E FIX

QUESTION: What letter precedes the airway number for a VOR airway? How
is it pronounced?

COORDINATION is the relay of instructions, unusual situations, and essential


information between all affected individuals.

Priorities 7110.65, par. 2-4-10:


The order of priority during coordination or during the transfer of information is:
First - emergencies
Second - clearance and control instructions
Third - movement and control messages in the following order:
Progress reports
Departure and arrival reports
Flight plans
Fourth - movement messages on VFR aircraft

MESSAGE PRIORITY
DELTA TWELVE, MAINTAIN
EMERGENCIES ONE ZERO THOUSAND.

1st
2nd

CLEARANCE & CONTROL


I HAVE A PROGRESS REPORT INSTRUCTIONS
ON NOVEMBER ONE TWO.

3rd
MOVEMENT & CONTROL
MESSAGES
AFSS

Interrupt lower priority messages (7110.65, par. 2-4-11) when you have an emergency or control message
to transmit, use the words below for priority interruption:
Emergency
Control
Intrafacility coordination - the exchange of information between positions within a facility (Occurs in all
three options: En Route, Terminal (Approach Control and Tower), and Automated Flight Service
Station).

Interfacility coordination is the exchange of information between different facilities.

Types of Coordination: is required within a facility or between facilities anytime it is necessary to


relay instructions, unusual situations, and essential information.

TYPES OF COORDINATION
Radar Handoffs
Radar Point Outs
Transfer of Control
Runway Crossings
Forwarding Flight Plan Information
Arrival Information (i.e., inbounds)
Clearances and Instructions

Radar Handoff and Point Out Definitions 7110.65, par. 5-4-2


REQUIRED COORDINATION
REQUIRED COORDINATION
SECTOR BOUNDARY D.
SECTOR 1 SECTOR 2

B.
AAL12
170
DAL34
WEATHER
111 H-
H-02
170
113 270
Point out and
A. Control
Instructions
Radar Handoff
and Frequency
Change

C.

A handoff is an action taken to transfer radar identification of an aircraft from one controller to another
controller when the aircraft will enter the receiving controllers airspace and radio communications will be
transferred.

A point out is a physical or automated action to transfer identification of an aircraft from one controller to
another if the aircraft will or may enter the airspace of another controller, but radio communications will
not be transferred.

To the extent possible, communications transfer should be made when the handoff has been
accepted.

Transfer of control is the action whereby the responsibility for separation of an aircraft is transferred from
one controller to another. Transfer of control may be accomplished upon completion of a radar handoff and
frequency change to the receiving controller as specified in a Facility Directive or Letter of Agreement, and
at a prescribed or coordinated location, time, fix or altitude.

Runway Crossings 7110.65, par. 3-1-3: Ground control shall coordinate and obtain approval
from local control before authorizing an aircraft or a vehicle to cross or use any portion of an active
runway. This coordination shall include the point/intersection at the runway where the operation will
occur. The ground controller shall advise the local controller when the coordinated runway operation
is completed.

Forwarding Flight Plan Information 7110.65, par. 2-2-2: Flight plan information distributed and
shared by all involved facilities is essential coordination. The forwarding of flight plan information to the
appropriate ATC facility, AFSS, base operations, etc. is normally accomplished by computer. Manual
passage is required when the computer is not in service.

Arrival Information 7110.65, pars. 4-7-7 and 4-7-12: En route and terminal facilities shall
coordinate and forward the following information to nonapproach control towers soon enough to
permit adjustment of traffic flow, or to AFSSs soon enough to provide local airport advisories:
ARRIVAL INFORMATION FORWARDED TO NONAPPROACH
CONTROL TOWERS OR AFSSs
1. Aircraft Identification
2. Type of Aircraft
3. Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA)
4. Type of Approach

En route (7110.65, par. 4-7-6) shall forward the following information to approach control facilities before
transfer of control jurisdiction.

ARRIVAL INFORMATION FORWARDED TO APPROACH


CONTROL FACILITIES
1. Aircraft Identification (See Appendix A)
2. Type of Aircraft and Equipment Suffix
3. ETA and Altitude
4. Clearance Limit
5. Transfer of Control Point

Equipment Suffixes 7110.65, par. 2-3-7: When forwarding this information, state the aircraft type,
followed by the word slant and the appropriate phonetic letter equivalent of the suffix.

Suffix Aircraft Equipment


NO DME
/X No transponder
/T Transponder with no Mode C
/U Transponder with Mode C
DME
/D No transponder
/B Transponder with no Mode C
/A Transponder with Mode C
TACAN ONLY
/M No transponder
/N Transponder with no Mode C
/P Transponder with Mode C
AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV)
/Y LORAN, VOR/DME, or INS with no transponder
/C LORAN, VOR/DME, or INS, transponder with no Mode C
/I LORAN, VOR/DME, or INS, transponder with Mode C
/G GPS, transponder with Mode C
Example: Cessna One-eighty-two slant alpha

Clearances and Instructions 7110.65, par. 4-2-4; 7110.10, par. 4-3-7:


Relay clearances verbatim.
When issuing information, relaying clearances, or instructions, ensure acknowledgement by the pilot.
If altitude, heading, or other items are read back by the pilot, ensure the readback is correct.
If incorrect, or incomplete, make corrections as appropriate.
METHODS OF COORDINATION
LOA

3. Facility Directives
DAL442 AA L242
26C 270C
015 440 004 420

A15736
240C
015 330

1. Automated

DAL442 AAL242
26C 270C
015 440 004 420

A15736
240C
015 330

2. Interphone
4. Verbal/Physical

The most commonly used methods of coordination are: Automated (computer), Interphone (primary
method-same principle as telephone), Facility Directives/Letters of Agreements (LOAs), Noninterphone
communication, and Verbal/physical (

QUESTION: What are seven types of coordination?

QUESTION: What is the action where the responsibility for separation of an


aircraft is changed from one controller to another?

ATC COMMUNICATION: The ATC team concept not only exists between sectors,
but includes other centers, approach controls, towers, Automated Flight Service Stations, and military ATC
facilities.
COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR ATC TEAMS

AFSS
As sectors work as teams,
so do facilities
Weather
briefing

SECTOR TEAM Takeoff


clearance

TOWER
En Route
clearance
ARTCC

Effective teams have good communications, a constructive climate, and shared workload.
Communication skills for ATC teams include the ability to:
Communicate effectively
Resolve conflict
Manage team resources
COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR ATC TEAMS
DELTA TWENTY-SIX, I MEAN TWO,
Ill take the handoffs
HOLD AT THE... NO, I MEAN TURN
RIGHT ABOUT SIX ZERO, NEVER
and you take the
MIND, JUST GO STRAIGHT pointouts, okay?
Okay.

Thats not
very effective.

COMMUNICATE EFFECTIVELY

RESOLVE CONFLICT

MANAGE
TEAM
RESOURCES

GOOD COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Give specific info Confirm message understood

Speak
Explicitly! Specifically!
Clearly! Slowly!
ATC teams with good communication skills:
Talk to each other about:
What they are thinking and planning.
What they are doing or have done.
Example: Position Relief Briefing
Give each other enough specific information to avoid confusion.
Communicate through careful strip marking.
Speak up when needed (e.g., point out something, ask a teammate to do something, ask a question
for clarification.)
Speak:
Explicitly and specifically (e.g., use aircraft call signs)
Clearly and slowly enough to be understood.
Get confirmation that their messages are understood.
Relay critical information quickly.

To receive information accurately:


Verify receipt of verbal and nonverbal messages.
Ask questions related to verbal/nonverbal messages when received messages are unintelligible or
confusing.
Provide constructive feedback.
Solicit more information as needed about a situation from team members.

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
Some barriers to good communication are:

Fear of hurting other peoples feelings


Fear of being different from the team
Fear of approaching a supervisor
Making assumptions about the situation
Avoiding the situation
Not wanting to take responsibility
Reluctance to confront poor performance

MANAGING RESOURCES IN ATC: Resources include everything controllers


have available to perform effectively, such as:
People (teammates, supervisor, controllers in adjacent sectors)
Equipment (computer, flight strips, PVD, interphones)
Procedures and publications (7110.65, controller charts)
Personal resources (knowledge, experience, judgment, planning, and decision-making skills)
MANAGING RESOURCES
PEOPLE EQUIPMENT

PUBLICATIONS PERSONAL
RESOURCES
knowledge
experience
judgment
planning
decision-making
skills

Being a good resource for other team members begins by knowing:


When one of your team members needs help.
How to offer your help to a team member.
Obstacles to Effective Teamwork: Certain factors may affect team members ability to function
efficiently:
Physical (e.g., health, fatigue)
Controllers have a responsibility to come to the job rested, healthy, alert, and ready to work.
Distractions (e.g., noise within the control room, activity or maintenance at other sectors, tours)
Emotional (e.g., confidence, attitude, stress, anxiety, conflict with coworkers, family problems)
Signs of emotional stress include:
Talking too fast or too slowly
Taking procedural shortcuts to keep up with workload
Loss of situation awareness
Daydreaming or inattentiveness
POSITION RELIEF BRIEFING
Coordination:
An important aspect of teamwork is ensuring effective communication during position relief or change
of shift. This is one of the most frequently cited areas that contribute to operational errors.
The purpose of the position relief briefing is to ensure the expeditious movement of traffic without
compromising safety.
Transfer of position/team responsibility requires coordination between teams and is accomplished
through a position relief briefing.
Step-by-Step Process 7110.65, App. D; 7110.10, par. 1-3-3: The position relief briefing is a four-step
process consisting of the following:
1. Preview the position
2. Verbal briefing
3. Assumption of position responsibility
4. Review the position
POSITION RELIEF CHECKLIST

Preview the The first step in the position relief briefing process is to preview the situation.
Position

PREVIEW THE POSITION


Relieving Specialist Specialist Being Relieved
1. Follow the checklist and review the Status
Information Areas (SIAs).
2. Observe position equipment, operational
situation, and work environment.
3. Listen to voice communications and
observe other operational actions.
4. Observe current and pending aircraft and
vehicular traffic and correlate with flight
and other movement information.
5. Indicate to the specialist being relieved
that the position has been previewed and
that the verbal briefing may begin.

Verbal Briefing is the second step in the position relief briefing process.
VERBAL BRIEFING
Relieving Specialist Specialist Being Relieved
1. Brief the relieving specialist on the
abnormal status of items not listed
on the SIA(s) as well as on any items
of special interest calling for verbal
explanation or additional discussion.
2. Brief on traffic if applicable.
3. Ask questions necessary to ensure a
complete understanding of the
operational situation.
4. Completely answer any questions
asked.

Assumption of Position Responsibility is the third step in the position relief briefing process.
ASSUMPTION OF POSITION RESPONSIBILITY
Relieving Specialist Specialist Being Relieved
1. Make a statement or otherwise
indicate to the specialist being
relieved that position responsibility
has been assumed.
2. Release the position to the relieving
specialist.

Review the Position is the fourth step in the position relief briefing process.

REVIEW THE POSITION


Relieving Specialist Specialist Being Relieved
1. Sign-on the position unless a facility
directive authorizes substep 8.
2. Check, verify, and update the 2. Brief on traffic if applicable.
information obtained in steps 1 & 2.
3. Check position equipment in
accordance with existing directives.
4. Review checklist, SIAs, written
notes, and other prescribed sources
of information, and advise the
relieving specialist of known
omissions, updates, or inaccuracies.
5. Observe overall position operation to
determine if assistance is needed.
6. If assistance is needed, provide or
summon it as appropriate.
7. Advise the appropriate position
regarding known SIA omissions,
updates, or inaccuracies.
8. Sign-on the relieving specialist, if
appropriate.
9. Sign off the position in accordance
with existing directives or otherwise
indicate that the relief process is
complete.

RESPONSE ITEM

After the relieving specialist has assumed responsibility for the sector, the relieved
specialist

A. immediately leaves the area.


B. reviews all information for omissions or inaccuracies.
C. signs off the position and remains at the sector for 10 minutes.

QUESTION: If the specialist being relieved recognizes an inaccuracy


immediately after relinquishing position responsibility, who should be notified?

RESPONSE ITEM

Before receiving a verbal briefing from the specialist being relieved, the relieving
specialist shall

A. indicate that he/she has assumed position responsibility.


B. sign onto the position.
C. preview the position.

RESPONSE ITEM

Briefing on applicable traffic is accomplished during which step of the briefing


process?

A. Preview the position


B. Verbal briefing
C. Visual briefing

APPENDIX A: AT 302 Air Traffic Basics Aircraft Identifiers


Designator W Manufacturer Model
A310 2J/H Airbus
A319 2J/L Airbus
A340 4J/H Airbus
BE20 2T/S+ Beech Aircraft King Air
B350 2T/S+ Beech Aircraft King Air
BE35 1P/S Beech Aircraft Bonanza
BE40 2J/S+ Beech Aircraft Hawker
BE58 2P/S Beach Aircraft Baron
B712 2J/L Boeing
B721 3J/L Boeing
B735 2J/L Boeing
B744 4J/H Boeing
B752 2J/L Boeing
B753 2J/H Boeing
B762 2J/H Boeing
K35A 4JH Boeing Stratotanker
JS41 2T/S+ British Aerospace Jetstream
RJ85 4J/L British Aerospace RJ
CL60 2J/L Canadair Bombardier Challenger
CRJ2 2J/L Canadair Bombardier CRJ
C150 1P/S Cessna
C172 1P/S Cessna Skyhawk
C177 1P/S Cessna Cardinal
C182 1P/S Cessna Skylane
C210 1P/S Cessna Centurion
C310 2P/S Cessna
C421 2T/S Cessna Golden Eagle
C441 2T/S Cessna Conquest
C525 2J/S Cessna Citation
SR22 1P/S Cirrus
FA50 3J/S+ Dassault-Breguet Falcon
F900 3J/L Dassault-Breguet Falcon
DA22 1P/S Diamond Katana
DA42 2P/S Diamond Twin Star
EA50 2J/S Eclipse
E145 2J/L Embraer
F100 2J/L Fokker
LJ35 2J/S+ Learjet
F16 1J/L General Dynamics Fighting Falcon
AA5 1PS Grumman
GLF5 2J/L Gulfstream
C5 4J/H Lockheed Galaxy
C130 4T/L Lockheed
P3 4T/L Lockheed
C17 4J/H McDonnell-Douglas
DC94 2J/L McDonnell-Douglas
MD11 3J/H McDonnell-Douglas
MD88 2J/L McDonnell-Douglas
MU2 2T/S Mitsubishi
MU30 2J/S+ Mitsubishi Diamond
M20P 1P/S Mooney
J2 1P/S Piper Cub
P28A 1P/S Piper Cherokee
PA31 2P/S Piper Navajo
PA34 2P/S Piper Seneca
PAY1 2T/S Piper Cheyenne 1
AC68 2P/S Rockwell Commander

Helicopters

UH1 1T/S Bell Huey


H47 2T/L Boeing Chinook
H60 2T/S+ Sikorsky Blackhawk

APPENDIX B: WORDS AND PHRASES


You should become thoroughly familiar with each of the following ATC words/phrases
and their meaning.

WORD/PHRASE MEANING

ACKNOWLEDGE Let me know that you have received and understood my message.

ADVISE INTENTIONS Tell me what you plan to do.


AFFIRMATIVE Yes.
Used to prefix a message of noncontrol information when it is relayed to
ATC ADVISES an aircraft by other than an air traffic controller.

ATC CLEARS Used to prefix an ATC clearance when it is relayed to an aircraft by other
than an air traffic controller.

ATC REQUESTS Used to prefix an ATC request when it is relayed to an aircraft by other
than an air traffic controller.

CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF ATC authorization for an aircraft to depart. It is predicated on known
traffic and known physical airport conditions.

CLEARED TO LAND ATC authorization for an aircraft to land. It is predicated on known


traffic and known physical airport conditions.

CORRECTION An error has been made in the transmission and the correct version
follows.

EXPEDITE Used by ATC when prompt compliance is required to avoid the


development of an imminent situation, usually in conjunction with a
request for best rate of climb/descent, without requiring an exceptional
change in aircraft handling characteristics.

GO AHEAD Proceed with your message. Not to be used for any other purpose.

HOW DO YOU HEAR ME? A question relating to the quality of the transmission or to determine how
well the transmission is being received.

IMMEDIATELY Used by ATC when compliance with an action is required to avoid an


imminent situation.
I SAY AGAIN The message will be repeated.
NEGATIVE No or Permission not granted or That is not correct.
OUT The conversation is ended and no response is expected.
OVER My transmission is ended; I expect a response.
READ BACK Repeat my message back to me.
I have received all of your last transmission. It should not be used to
ROGER answer a question requiring a yes or no answer.
Used to request a repeat of the last transmission. Usually specifies
SAY AGAIN transmission or portion thereof not understood or received, e.g., Say
again all after ABRAM VOR.

SPEAK SLOWER Used in verbal communications as a request to reduce speech rate.

Means the controller or pilot must pause for a few seconds, usually to
STAND BY attend to other duties of a higher priority. Also means to wait as in
stand by for clearance. If a delay is lengthy, the caller should re-
establish contact.

THAT IS CORRECT The understanding you have is right.


VERIFY Request confirmation of information; e.g., Verify assigned altitude.

WILCO I have received your message, understand it, and will comply with it.

WORDS TWICE 1. As a request: Communication is difficult. Please say every phrase


twice.
2. As information: Since communications are difficult every phrase
in this message will be spoken twice.