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Approaches

The approach to an airport is often the most critical phase of the flight. The controller not only
keeps the terminal area safe, but provides the pilot with crucial information needed to execute
the approach safely
Purpose: This lesson will provide an overview of the Instrument Approach Procedures (IAPs),
identify the types of approaches available to pilots and the charts used to depict these
approaches

Lesson Objectives 1.On an End-of-Lesson Test identify types of approaches, and the
purpose, contents, and specific items and information (e.g., minimum altitudes, courses,
missed approaches, etc.) of an Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) Chart. 2.Given an IAP
Chart, and in accordance with a U.S. Terminal Procedures Chart, you will identify the contents
and geographical features.

An Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) is a series of predetermined maneuvers for


the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the
initial approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually.
IAPs are designed to:
Provide an IFR descent from an en route environment to a point where a safe landing
can be made.
Guide aircraft through clouds (IFR conditions) to a point where the runway environment
can be seen.
The more accurate the Navigational Aids (NAVAIDs) comprising the IAP, the lower
the aircraft can descend in IFR conditions.
Although IAPs are designed for use in IFR conditions, they may be executed in VFR
conditions also.
Instrument Approach Procedures, both civil and military, are described in IAP charts
located in U.S. Terminal Procedures volumes.
U.S TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHART
U.S. TERMINAL PROCEDURES CHART

ATB21-4
FOUR SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT APPROACH
FOUR SEGMENTS OF AN
INSTRUMENT APPROACH
IAF
FORISTELL 1 4
.. .
110.8 FTZ .. INITIAL MISSED
Chan 45

R-
12
8 759
076
3
256
1
1
21
2 FINAL
03

INTERMEDIATE

10 NM

ATB21-9B

TYPES OF INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES (IAPs)


The INITIAL APPROACH SEGMENT transitions an aircraft from the en route portion of the
flight to the approach phase.
Varies from approach to approach
Can include radials, headings, radar vectors, procedure turns, or DME arcs.
Places the aircraft in a position to navigate toward the primary NAVAID or final
approach fix used for the approach
Ends upon interception of the inbound approach course
The INTERMEDIATE APPROACH SEGMENT is that portion of the approach where the
aircraft is maneuvering towards the primary NAVAID from which the approach is conducted.
Takes the aircraft to the NAVAID or final approach fix used for the approach.
May consist of an extended portion of the final approach course prior to reaching the
final approach fix.

The FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT is the part of the approach where the aircraft is
navigating from the final approach fix to the airport.

Begins at the final approach fix

Ends at a point from which a safe landing can be made, or at the beginning of a missed
approach procedure

The MISSED APPROACH SEGMENT is a procedure used when the pilot is unable to
establish visual contact with the airport or runway at the end of the approach procedure.

Consists of a climb to a safe altitude, and usually a turn or a heading to a point where
the aircraft will enter holding.

Established for every instrument approach.


Positively identifies the exact point when the final approach must be abandoned
and the missed approach procedure initiated.

General Information
There are several types of Instrument Approach Procedures.

Each is designed for use with a specific type of navigational system and named after
the NAVAID they use and, in most cases, the primary runway they serve.

The types of approaches available at a specific airport are dependent on the size and
complexity of the airport.

A large airport serving thousands of flights each day will have many types of Instrument
Approach Procedures.

A small airport may have only one.

APPROACH CATEGORIES

Glideslope information is precise altitude guidance allowing the aircraft to descend closer
to runway elevation.
The chart below shows the various types of IAPs

TYPES OF IAPs
Precision Nonprecision
LOC
ILS VOR
MLS VOR/DME
PAR TACAN
WAAS /LPV/RNP GPS
NDB
ASR

http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/at
o/service_units/techops/navservices/gnss/library/factsheets/

Instrument Landing System (ILS) Approach


Precision approach

Approach of choice when the ceilings and visibility are very low.

Basic components:

Localizer
Provides horizontal guidance

Glideslope

Provides vertical guidance

Marker beacons (outer and middle)

Provide range guidance

Approach lights

Provide transition from instrument flight to visual flight.

Optional components:

Inner marker beacons

Provide range guidance

Compass locators

Provide transition from en route NAVAIDs to ILS.

If the glideslope component of an ILS approach is inoperative, the remainder of the procedure
is classified as a Localizer approach.

Microwave Landing System (MLS) Approach


Precision approach

Provides multiple approach courses and curved approach paths.

Very few in existence.

Further implementation has been put on hold since Global Positioning System
(GPS) was developed.

Precision Approach Radar (PAR) Approach


Precision approach.

Provides altitude and azimuth information from the controller.

Controller provides guidance to pilot by radar vectors to the runway.

Available to pilots in distress or to expedite traffic

Localizer (LOC) Approach


Nonprecision approach

Uses the Localizer component of the ILS.

May be present when no glideslope is installed.


Less accurate than the ILS approach because no electronic altitude guidance is provided.
More accurate than a VOR approach (greater signal sensitivity).

Very High Frequency Omnidirect-ional Range (VOR) Station Approach


Nonprecision approach

Very common type of approach

The VOR itself need not be located at the airport.

Provides a course to be intercepted and tracked, which leads to the airport.

VOR/Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)


Nonprecision approach

More accurate than the VOR approach because of the range guidance provided by the
DME.

Usually allows for lower minimum altitudes using step-down fixes along the final
approach course

Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) Approach


Nonprecision approach
Provides azimuth & distance information, similar to VOR/DME approach.
Used by military

Global Positioning System (GPS) Approach


Nonprecision approach

Approach of the future

Provides approaches to airports that may not have any.

Navigational guidance provided by 24 satellites.

May overlay an already existing approach procedure or may be a stand-alone


procedure.

Nondirectional Beacon (NDB) Approach


Nonprecision approach

Less accurate than a VOR approach.

Adversely affected by lightning and precipitation static.

Provides a nondirectional signal that a pilot uses to fly a course to the airport.

Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) Approach


Nonprecision approach
Controller provides course guidance to the pilot in relation to the final approach course
(azimuth) and the distance (range) from the end of the runway.
Recommended altitudes are provided at pilots request.
Controller informs the pilot when on course, and of any observed deviations from course.
Transmissions are made approximately every 15 seconds on final.
Similar to the PAR approach, but with no electronic altitude guidance.
Airports with published ASR approaches are listed in the radar minimums section of the U.S.
Terminal Procedures Publications
No-Gyro Approach
Controller guided radar approach.
Controller times the aircrafts turns based on a standard rate turn of three degrees per
second (3/sec).
Available for use in emergency situations after critical instrument failure.
Loss of Directional Gyro or other stabilized compass.

RESPONSE ITEM

An aircraft must be in instrument flight conditions to execute an Instrument


Approach Procedure (IAP).
A. True
B. False

RESPONSE ITEM
An approach is termed precision because it
A. lines the aircraft up with the active runway.
B. provides electronic glideslope information.
C. allows the aircraft to descend through the overcast safely.

IAP CHARTS
Purpose The purpose of an IAP chart is to portray the aeronautical data which is required
to execute instrument approach procedures to airports. IAP charts are commonly referred
to as Approach Plates.)

Layout
All IAPs except the PAR and ASR (radar approaches) are depicted using the same general
format.

Symbols used on the IAP can be found, with accompanying explanations, in the Legend.

Like SIDs and STARs, IAPs are listed alphabetically in the U.S. Terminal Procedures
Volumes, first under city, then under airport.

The seven sections of the IAP are:

Margin Information
Pilot Briefing Information
Planview
Airport Diagram
Missed Approach Icons
Profile View
Minimums Section

INSTRUMENT APPROACH CHART

MARGIN INFORMATION
PILOT BRIEFING
INFORMATION

PLANVIEW

AERODROME
MISSED APPROACH
ICONS
PROFILE

MINIMUMS

MARGIN INFORMATION
ATB21-9

Each section of the IAP chart has information needed for the approach
Margin Information The city, state, airport name, and procedure name are identified
in several ways in the top and bottom margins.
MARGIN INFORMATION

CITY AND
STATE PROCEDURE
TOP MARGIN NAME
ST. LOUI S, MI SSOURI
AL-5400 (FAA)
Rwy ldg 7245
LOC I-SUS APP CRS TDZE 462 ILS RWY 8R
111.9 076
Apt Elev 463 ST. LOUIS/SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS (SUS)

REFERENCE NUMBER AND


APPROVING AUTHORITY AIRPORT AIRPORT
CITY AND
N AME IDENTIFIER
STATE
BOTTOM MARGIN
ST. LOUI S, MI SSOURI
ST. LOUIS/SPIRIT OF ST. LOUIS (SUS)
Amdt 13B 03079 3840N 9039W
ILS RWY 8R

PROCEDURE AIRPORT PROCEDURE


VERSION COORDINATES NAME

ATB21-10

When the procedure identifier includes /DME, or when there is a note stating that DME is
a requirement, operative DME receivers and ground equipment are required to execute the
IAP.
Example: An approach labeled VOR/DME Rwy 26 requires the aircraft to have
operative DME receivers and the ground DME equipment must be operational.

Approach Name: The name of the approach, as published, is used to identify the
approach, even though a component of the approach is inoperative.
Examples: ILS Runway 9, VOR Runway 17, LOC Runway 25 Right
Exceptions: Localizer on an ILS or the azimuth on an MLS
Numbers, or letters from the end of the alphabet, appearing in the approach name, denote
approaches to the same runway using the same approach aid.
Examples: Hi TACAN 1 Runway 6L or Hi TACAN 2 Runway 6L;
RNAV (GPS) Z Runway 4 or RNAV (GPS) Y Runway 4
Letters from the beginning of the alphabet, that are used as a suffix to the approach name,
denote procedures that do not meet the criteria for a straight-in approach (final approach
course aligned within 30 degrees of the runway heading).
Examples: VOR-A, GPS-B
Pilot Briefing Information Consists of three horizontal rows of boxes that contain
information specific to the approach procedure on the chart. Provides a quick reference of
vital approach data for the pilot.
PILOT BRIEFING INFORMATION
PILOT BRIEFING INFORMATION

APP CRS Rwy ldg 7245


LOC I-SUS TDZE 462
111.9 076 Apt Elev 463

A MALSR
MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 1500 then climbing left turn
A5 to 2400 direct FTZ VORTAC and hold .

ATIS ST. LOUIS APP CON SPIRIT TOWER GND CON CLNC DEL ST. LOUIS CLNC DEL ST. LOUIS RADIO
134.8 126.5 254.3 124.75 (CTAF) 257.2 121.7 126.65 126.65 122.6
(w hen tow er cl osed)

ATB21 -11

Top row contains primary navigation information:


Primary navigation aid and frequency
Final approach course information
Available landing distance
Touchdown zone and airport elevations

Middle row contains:


Procedure notes and limitations
Icons indicating any nonstandard alternate and/or takeoff minimums
Approach lighting symbology
Full text description of the missed approach procedure
Bottom row lists pertinent frequencies in the order of their anticipated use.
If a tower is located at the airport, that frequency box is bolded.
Planview The Planview is a birds-eye view of the entire IAP. The symbology is
located in the legend, Section G. The following items are shown
PLANVIEW

SADEN

2300

(15.8)
2400
183
250

1251
0 3100
04

2 400
(1 24
2

8)
8.
IAF
FORISTELL 1128
110.8 FTZ
.. . ST. LOUIS

.. 970 117.4 STL . ..
PLANVIEW

Chan 45 Chan 121

682
R-280 2400 NoPT to LOM 810 673
100 128 (6.4) and
925
LOC (5) MM
280
R-
12 751
8
759
LOCALIZER 111.9
076 ..
I-SUS ..

256

211

031

LOM/IAF
SNOOP 1070

326 SU ..
RADAR

10 NM

ATB21-12

Distance circle
All information inside this solid ring is to scale
Usually 10-NM radius

Minimum Safe Altitudes (MSAs) or Terminal Arrival Areas (TAAs)

Geographical landmarks (such as rivers and lakes)


NAVAIDs

Transition routes (may include a DME arc)

Altitude

Mileage information

NOTE: DME arcs are not easy to fly. Pilots may refuse to accept a DME arc transition to an
IAP.

Approach NAVAID

Navigation frequency information

Localizer Course

Outbound course

Procedure turn
Inbound course

Locator Outer Marker (LOM)


Made up of a marker beacon (range information) and a compass locator (transition
information)
Runways

Missed approach track

Published holding pattern for missed approach

IAP notes
Obstructions (height always given in MSL)

Minimum Altitudes for Use in an Emergency


SU is the identifier for the compass locator the first two letters of the localizer identification
group. )
Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)
An emergency altitude to be used within 25 NM of the NAVAID upon which the
approach is predicated.
Ensures 1,000 feet of obstruction clearance, but does not ensure NAVAID frequency reception.
MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE (MSA)
MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE

MINIMUM ALTITUDE 2300


IN THE NORTHERN
PORTION OF THE 250
AREA

MINIMUM ALTITUDE
0
IN THE SOUTHERN
04 3100
PORTION OF THE
AREA

ATB21-13A

TERMINAL ARRIVAL AREA (TAA)

TERMINAL ARRIVAL AREA


STRAIGHT-IN AREA
30 NM RADIUS ALTITUDES
CENTERED ON PROVIDE AT LEAST
THE INITIAL 1,000-FT OBSTACLE
APPROACH FIX CLEARANCE

RIGHT BASE AREA LEFT BASE AREA


Terminal Arrival Area (TAA)
For use by aircraft equipped with advanced navigation such as a Flight Management
System or Global Positioning System.
Found on some Area Navigation (RNAV) approach charts.
Replaces the MSA and provides minimum altitudes with standard obstacle clearance
depending upon the direction from which the aircraft is arriving.
Based on a 30-mile radius of the Initial Approach Fix (IAF).
Airport Diagram
The Airport Diagram gives detailed information about:
Airport layout
Runways
Flying time from the Final Approach Fix (FAF) to the Missed Approach Point (MAP)

AIRPORT DIAGRAM
AIRPORT ELEV 463 Rwy 8R ldg 7245
ELEVATION Rwy 26L ldg 7004

APPROACH NOTES
LIGHTING
SYMBOLS
AIRPORT DIAGRAM

26R

5000 x 75 A5
P

581
TOUCHDOWN
8L

26L
V

ZONE A5 7485 x 15
0

ELEVATION
V
8R

TDZE 624
462
OBSTRUCTIONS
076 5.2 NM 747
from FAF
RUNWAY
LIGHTING AIDS DISPLACED
AVAILABLE MIRL Rwy 8L-26R L THRESHOLD
HIRL Rwy 8R-26L L
FAF DISTANCE
FAF to MAP 5.2 NM
TIME/SPEED Knots 60 90 120 150 180
TABLE Min:Sec 5:12 3:28 2:36 2:05 1:44

The following items are shown on the Airport Diagram:


Airport elevation
Approach lights symbol
Touchdown zone elevation
Obstructions in MSL
Runway lighting aids available
Distance from FAF to MAP
Table showing time/speed from FAF to MAP
Displaced threshold
Notes
Missed Approach Icons
Provides a visual depiction of the instructions for conducting the missed approach
procedure.

Icons shown are in addition to the full text found in the pilot briefing information
section.

Gives the pilot a quick reference of critical data

MISSED APPROACH ICONS

MISSED APPROACH ICONS

1500 2400 FTZ

110.8

CLIMB FOLLOWED BY THEN DIRECT


STRAIGHT A CLIMBING FTZ
AHEAD TO 1500 LEFT TURN TO
2400

ATB21-15

Up to four icons provide the essential steps in visual form and may include any or all of the
following:

Direction of the initial turn


Next heading and/or course
Next altitude
Next/holding fix

Terms
The Decision Height (DH) is the height at which a decision must be made during a
precision approach to either continue the approach or execute a missed approach.

The Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) is the lowest altitude to which descent is
authorized on final approach where no electronic glideslope is provided (non-precision
approach).
NOTE: The pilot MUST have either the approach lights or the runway environment in sight
before descending below a DH or an MDA.)

Profile View - Precision Approach


The Profile View shows a side view of the Instrument Approach Procedure. The symbology
is located in the legend, Section H.
The information is different for Precision and Nonprecision approaches
PROFILE VIEW - PRECISION APPROACH

ALTITUDE MISSED
PROCEDURE OF FINAL APPROACH
TURN MINIMUM GLIDESLOPE APPROACH ICONS
ALTITUDE AT LOM FIX
COURSES
LOM
1500 2400 FTZ
RADAR
Remain
within 10 NM
6 2197 110.8
25
MM MIDDLE
MARKER
2400 076
GS 3.00 2400
TCH 56
4.7 NM 0.5

THRESHOLD MINIMUM DISTANCES MISSED


GLIDESLOPE
CROSSING GLIDESLOPE APPROACH
ANGLE GLIDESLOPE
HEIGHT (AGL) INTERCEPT TRACK
ALTITUDE

The following items are shown in the Profile View of a Precision Approach:
Courses of the IAP to be flown
Maximum distance of procedure turn
Minimum altitudes
Procedure turn altitude
Glideslope intercept altitude
Altitude of the glideslope at the LOM
Final Approach Fix (FAF)
Depicted by a Lightning Bolt ( ) when flown as a full ILS approach with glideslope
Depicted by a Maltese Cross ( ) when flown as a localizer approach (when the
glideslope is inoperative)
Glideslope descent angle in degrees
Threshold crossing height (TCH) in feet AGL
Glideslope
Distance from:
Runway threshold to the middle marker
Middle marker to locator outer marker

Middle marker
Missed approach information
Missed approach icons
Missed approach track shown as a dashed line. Missed Approach Point (MAP) for an
ILS approach is at the Decision Height (DH).
PROFILE VIEW - NONPRECISION APPROACH

PROCEDURE MISSED
TURN MINIMUM RADIALS APPROACH
ALTITUDE APPROACH ICONS
OR
NAVAID
BEARINGS

LOM 1500 2400 FTZ


Remain
within 10 NM
6 110.8
25
FINAL APPROACH FIX
2400 076
2400 07
6
3.46
TCH 45
5.2 NM

MINIMUM FINAL THRESHOLD MISSED MISSED


DISTANCE
ALTITUDE APPROACH CROSSING APPROACH APPROACH
OVER FAF ANGLE HEIGHT (AGL) POINT TRACK

The following items are shown in the Profile View of a Nonprecision approach:
NAVAID used to conduct the approach
Radials or bearings of the IAP to be flown
Maximum distance of procedure turn from the NAVAID
Minimum altitudes
Procedure turn altitude
Minimum altitude over FAF
Final Approach Fix (FAF)
Depicted by a Maltese Cross ( )
Final approach angle in degrees (used for programming vertical navigation guidance into
onboard flight computers)
Threshold crossing height (TCH) in feet AGL

Distance from runway threshold to the FAF

Missed approach information

Missed Approach Point (MAP) is timed from the FAF using the Time/Speed Table in the
Airport Diagram.
Missed approach Icons
Missed approach track shown as a dashed line
RESPONSE ITEM

An Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) is designed to provide

A. an IFR descent to a point where the active runway is in sight.


B. an IFR descent to a point where a safe landing can be made.
C. altitude guidance to a descending aircraft.

RESPONSE ITEM

There are three types of precision approaches: ILS, MLS and PAR.

A. True
B. False

QUESTION: What are the seven sections of the IAP Chart?

QUESTION: What is the purpose of the IAP Chart?

Minimums Section
The Minimums Section describes:

The lowest altitude the approaching aircraft may descend to in IFR conditions before
the missed approach procedure must be executed

The lowest visibility needed to execute the approach procedure.

Visibility may be in statute miles or in hundreds of feet (RVR).


RVR Visibility (statute miles)


1600 feet mile
2400 feet mile
3200 feet 5/8 mile
4000 feet mile
4500 feet 7/8 mile
5000 feet 1 mile
6000 feet 1 miles
Controllers are responsible for providing prevailing visibility information to the pilot. By comparing
this visibility to the minimum visibility information provided in this section, the pilot decides
what type of IAP to execute. Controllers are not responsible for determining whether
landing minimums do or do not exist.

Precision Minimums Section Contents


PRECISION MINIMUMS SECTION CONTENTS
PRECISION MINIMUMS SECTION
APPROACH HEIGHT OF DH
PROCEDURE AIRCRAFT DECISION ABOVE TOUCHDOWN
VARIATIONS CATEGORY HEIGHT VISIBILITY ZONE (HAT)

CATEGORY A B C D
S-ILS 8R 662/24 200 (200-)

S-LOC 8R 1020/24 558 (600-)


1020/50 1020/60
558 (600-1) 558 (600-1)

CIRCLING 1100-1 637 (700-1) 1120-1 1140-2


657 (700-1) 677 (700-2)

MINIMUM HEIGHT OF MDA HEIGHT OF MDA MILITARY


DESCENT ABOVE ABOVE AIRPORT MINIMUMS
ALTITUDE TOUCHDOWN ZONE (HAA)
(MDA) (HAT)

ATB21-21

The following items are contained in the Precision Minimums Section:

Aircraft approach categories

Determined according to weight and landing speed


Variations of the approach procedure:

Straight-in - to the aligned runway

Localizer - when the glideslope component is inoperative

This is a nonprecision approach.

Circling - when aircraft must circle to another runway because of wind direction and/or
velocity, or runway restrictions
Decision Height (DH)

Used for precision approach only (MSL).

Visibility

May be Runway Visual Range (RVR)

Runway Visual Range (RVR) is an instrumentally derived measurement of horizontal


visibility down the runway (from the approach end) in hundreds of feet.

May be in statute miles

Height of DH Above Touchdown Zone (HAT) (Listed in AGL)

Used for straight-in approach only because the landing runway is known and glideslope
is operational.

Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA)

Used for nonprecision approach


Height of MDA Above Touchdown Zone (HAT)

Used for Localizer approach because runway is known, but glideslope is inoperative.

Height of MDA Above Airport (HAA)

Used for circling version because runway is not known and glideslope is inoperative.

MDA for the circling version of the approach is the highest of all the minimum altitudes.

Military minimums
NONPRECISION MINIMUMS SECTION CONTENTS

NONPRECISION MINIMUMS SECTIONS


VARIATION OF MINIMUM HEIGHT OF MDA
APPROACH AIRCRAFT DESCENT ABOVE TOUCHDOWN
PROCEDURE CATEGORIES ALTITUDE ZONE (HAT) VISIBILITY

CATEGORY A B C D

S-12R
1100-1
1100-1 540 (600-1) 540 (600-1)

CIRCLING 1100-1 529 (600-1) 1100-1 1140-2


529 (600-1) 569 (600-2)
DUAL VOR OR VOR/DME MINIMA

S-12R 940-1 380 (400-1)

CIRCLING 1000-1 1040-1 1040-1 1140-2


429 (500-1) 469 (500-1) 469 (500-1) 569 (600-2)

VARIATION OF APPROACH CIRCLING MDA HEIGHT OF MDA


PROCEDURE (WITH SPECIFIC WITHOUT STEPDOWN ABOVE AIRPORT
AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT REQUIRED) (HAA)

ATB21-22

Aircraft categories

Variations of the approach procedure

Variation with specific airborne equipment required

Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) in MSL

Height of MDA Above Touchdown Zone (HAT) in AGL

Only used for straight-in version

Visibility in statute miles

Circling MDA without stepdown

Height of MDA Above Airport (HAA) in AGL

Only used for circling version


REVIEW
REVIEW

CATEGORY A B C D
S-ILS 29 1071/24 200 (200-)

S-LOC 29 1300/24 429 (500-)


1300/40 1300/50
429 (500-) 429(500-1)

CIRCLING 1340-1 465 (500 -1)


1340- 1 1520-2
465 (500 -1) 645 (700-2)

ATB21 -23

Minimums for S-ILS29 are the same for aircraft of all categories.

Compare:

DH for S-ILS29 = 1071 MSL


MDA for S-LOC29 = 1300 MSL
MDA for circling = 1340 MSL
HAT

For S-ILS29 = 200 AGL


For S-LOC29 = 429 AGL

HAA for circling approach = 465 AGL

Military minimums shown in parentheses


RESPONSE ITEM

TRUE/FALSE: Controllers are responsible for providing current prevailing


visibility/RVR appropriate to the runway-in-use; however, they are NOT
responsible for determining that landing minimums do or do NOT exist.

A. True
B. False

OTHER APPROACHES
A Visual Approach is conducted on an IFR flight plan. It authorizes the pilot to proceed
visually and clear of clouds to the airport. The pilot must, at all times, have either the
airport or the preceding aircraft in sight. This approach must be authorized and under
the control of the appropriate air traffic control facility. Reported weather at the airport
must be ceiling at or above 1,000 feet and visibility of 3 miles or greater.
May be initiated by controller or pilot when:

Operationally beneficial to pilot or controller

A visual approach is NOT an instrument approach procedure and there is NO missed


approach procedure.
An aircraft following another arriving aircraft may be cleared for visual approach. The
pilot must have the preceding aircraft in sight and maintain a safe landing interval.

A Contact Approach is an approach wherein an aircraft on an IFR flight plan, having


an air traffic control authorization, operating clear of clouds with at least 1 mile flight
visibility and a reasonable expectation of continuing to the destination airport in those
conditions, may deviate from the instrument approach procedure and proceed to the
destination airport by visual reference to the surface

Conditions for issuing a contact approach:

Must be requested by the pilot


Reported ground visibility must be at least 1 statute mile
Airport has a standard or special approach procedure
Pilot assumes responsibility for obstruction clearance

ACRONYM IDENTIFICATION EXERCISE


Directions In the space available, write out the meanings of the acronyms listed below.
Acronyms 1. IAP
2. NM
3. OM
4. ILS
5. FAF
6. MDA
7. IFR
8. HAT
9. ASR
10. ATIS
11. MAP
12. LOC
13. DH
14. S
15. RVR
16. HAA
17. LOM
18. DME
19. IAF
20. PAR