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Original Title: A Study On Stream Bed Hydraulic Conductivity Of Beas River In India

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India

1 2

VIRENDER KUMAR SARDA, MIKHIL UNNIKRISHNAN

1,2

Civil Engineering Department, NIT Hamirpur

Abstract: Hydraulic conductivity is one of the principal and most important soil hydraulic characteristics and is used in all

equations for groundwater (subsurface water) flow. The vertical hydraulic conductivity of streambed plays an important role

in river water and groundwater interaction. Determination of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the entire riverbed has

significant importance for the study of groundwater recharge and is a necessary parameter in numerical modeling of stream-

aquifer interactions. In the present study, primary objective was to determine the variation of streambed vertical hydraulic

conductivity along Beas River. To carry out this objective, three locations along the river (A, B and C) and four transects at

each location was selected. Data was collected for two seasons i.e. winter (November-January) and summer (March-May) of

2015-2016. The spatial and temporal variation of streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity of Beas riverbed using field

standpipe permeameter test and laboratory constant head permeameter test were carried out in this study. The results

indicated that there was a wide variation of Kv values obtained from lab test and field test. The values from laboratory test

were smaller than those of field test in all locations. Across the river, values of Kv increased from river bank to the middle of

the river at all locations. Along the river, the streambed Kv values decreased from location-A to location-B. At location-C,

the Kv values were found to be higher than that at location-B. The streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity values obtained

in summer season were larger than those obtained during winter season. The statistical distribution of streambed vertical

hydraulic conductivity along the Beas River was studied using normality tests. It was also observed from the normality tests

that Kv values were not normally distributed at location A and location B, but were normally distributed at location C.

Keywords: Streambed hydraulic conductivity, Beas River, spatial and temporal variation, permeameter tests, normality test.

pores. It also depends on the soil temperature and the

1. INTRODUCTION viscosity and density of the water (Oosterbaan and Nijland,

Hydraulic properties of a streambed are major control in the 1994). In some structure-less soils (sandy soils) the K value

hydrologic connection between a stream and an aquifer is the same in all directions, but usually the K values varies

Chenet al. (2008). They are key parameters in the with flow direction. Anisotropy plays very important role

calculation of stream flow depletion (Chen and Shu, 2006) . in soil hydrology. Hydraulic conductivity in vertical and

Better understandings on the sensitivity of various horizontal direction is marked as Kv , Kh and value in

hydraulic properties are beneficial for model development

and application purposes (Rocha et al., 2006). Streambed intermediate direction is Kr . Soil layers vertical hydraulic

characteristics such as vertical hydraulic conductivity, bed conductivity is very often different from horizontal

material, thickness, width, topography, and the curvature conductivity because of vertical differences in the structure,

influence the streambed hydraulic properties and thus water texture and porosity (Stibinger, 2014). The vertical and

movement (Packman et al., 2004). The application of flow horizontal hydraulic conductivities of the streambed play

laws to engineering problems such as design of earth dams, important roles in surface water and groundwater

tailing dams, clay liner for waste management practice, and exchanges. Therefore, determination of the streambed

slope subjected to rain water infiltration requires the anisotropy is of importance in the analysis of stream-

quantification of hydraulic properties of soil (Gallage et al., aquifer interactions (Cardenas and Zlotnik, 2003).

2013). Streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity plays an

Modeling of a groundwater system is generally based on important role in understanding and quantifying the stream-

solving mathematical equations containing many aquifer interactions and stream ecosystems (Generaeux et

parameters characterizing the system. In order to have a al., 2008, Mckenzie, 2008). Higher streambed Kv induces a

reliable model, its parameter values should fit their actual higher rate of stream depletion due to groundwater

ones. Sometimes the parameters can be measured from withdrawal. Therefore, knowledge of streambed Kv is

samples in the field or in a laboratory, or they can be

determined by specially designed pumping well tests essential to characterize hydrologic connections between a

(Ibrahim, 2013). Accurate estimation of aquifer properties stream and its adjacent aquifers, and is a necessary

such as hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and parameter in numerical modeling of stream-aquifer

storativity are considered crucial for successful interactions (Min et al., 2012). The major goal in local

groundwater development and management practices water resource management is to develop practices that

(Oosterbaan and Nijland, 1994). maintain adequate water levels in the streams while

Hydraulic conductivity K is one of the principal and most

allowing withdrawals for agricultural, domestic and

industrial production. The first step in this direction is

important soil hydraulic characteristics (parameters) and it determining the spatial variation in streambed hydraulic

is an important factor in water transport in the soil and is conductovity (Wue et al., 2015).

used in all equations for groundwater (subsurface water)

The Kv value of a soil profile can be highly variable from

flow (Stibinger, 2014). The value of a saturated soil Ks

place to place as well as at different depths (spatial

represents its average hydraulic conductivity, which variability). Not only can different soil layers have different

depends mainly on the size, shape, and distribution of the hydraulic conductivities but, even within a soil layer, the

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hydraulic conductivity can vary tremendously (Oosterbaan The principal soil types found in this riverbed are sub-

and Nijland, 1994). Some studies have revealed that the mountain, brown hill, and alluvial soils. The maximum and

vertical hydraulic conductivity changes significantly along minimum silt deposition recorded was in the month of July

the river cross section (perpendicular to the river flow) and September, with mean maximum and minimum

(Min et al., 2012). Along the river flow (in the downstream monthly silt deposition of the order 1079.99 ppm and 70.02

direction), even in a small reach (no more than hundreds of ppm respectively at Dhaulasidh dam site. The dam site is

meters), the permeability varied remarkably. Temporally located approximately 10 km from the downstream side of

changing hydraulic conductivity has the capacity to impact the study area. The maximum and minimum discharge

rates of ecological and biogeochemical processes (Wue et recorded was in the month of July and January, with mean

al., 2015). The temporal variability of streambed Kv has maximum and minimum monthly discharge of the order

298.45 cumecs and 38.4 cumecs (SJVN, 2016).

been studied in detail in the past decades. These studies

have shown that temporal pattern in streambed vertical In the study area (Fig. 1), three locations A, B, C were

hydraulic conductivity differed from one location to another selected over a stretch of 14 km in Beas River from Baleth

and can be an important consideration in induced stream to Jangalberi. The details of these locations are given in

infiltration (Springer et al., 1999). Table 1.

In the rivers of Himachal Pradesh measurement of changes

in the elevation of the streambed surface suggests erosion

and deposition which plays an important role in causing the

spatial and temporal variability in streambed (Surian,

2002). The River Beas serves as a major source of water for

the cities and villages along its bank. It has been utilized for

irrigation purposes and harnessing hydroelectricity. Several

dams are constructed across its span like the Pong Dam,

Pandoh Dam, and Dhaulasidh dam. According to the data

collected from Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (SJVN) Limited,

the maximum and minimum silt deposition recorded was in

the month of July and September respectively and the

maximum and minimum discharge recorded was in the

month of July and January respectively. The difference

between the maximum and minimum value is found to be

of high magnitude resulting in appreciable changes in the Figure 1 Map showing the study sites. In-situ tests were

riverbed properties. This necessitates the need for detailed performed at 3 locations (from sites A to C) between

study on spatial and temporal variation of hydraulic Jangalberi and Bhaleth [Map of India, 2016].

conductivity of Beas River.

Table 1 Details of different sites of location A, B and C

2. STUDY AREA Location details Distance Distance Width

The study was conducted on Beas River at Tira sujanpur, from between u/s of

which is located in the district of Hamirpur, Himachal river and d/s (m) river(m)

Pradesh, India. The River Beas, which is a major tributary bank

o o Location- u/s Ts1 2.6

of Indus river, originates at 32 2159N and 77 0508E A site Ts2 19.0

223

and flows for some 470 kilometers before meeting Sutlej Ts3 30.8

River in the Indian state of Punjab. The drainage basin of Ts4 42.3 821

Beas River is around 20,303 square kilometers large. The d/s Ts1 1.3

average bed slope is 1 in 40 for first 120 km from its site Ts2 13.7

135

source, which decreases to 1 in 5,000 near plains. The chief Ts3 25.9

tributaries are Bain, Banganga, Luni and Uhal. Ts4 43.0

Average flow for the Beas is 61,302 cusecs in August and Location- u/s Ts1 8.0

4641 cusecs in January. The river flow in summer mainly B site Ts2 23.5 286

consists of monsoonal run off combined with snow-melt Ts3 42.1

discharge. The low flow in winter is more or less constant Ts4 65.8 949

(Map of India, 2016). d/s Ts1 12.0

The climate of this river basin varies all through from very site Ts2 28.0

262

hot summer to cold winter. The temperature varies from Ts3 50.0

o o Ts4 68.5

38 C in summers to almost 0 C in winters. The period Location- u/s Ts1 6.3

from March to June is the period of continuous rise in C site Ts2 20.1

853

temperature. June is the hottest month of the year, with Ts3 34.6

mean maximum and mean minimum monthly temperatures Ts4 50.6

1439

o o d/s Ts1 2.8

of the order of 36 C and 21 C respectively at Indian site Ts2 25.9 413

Meteorological Department (IMD) station at Mandi. The Ts3 47.5

monsoon rainfall occurs mainly during July to September. Ts4 66.2

Maximum rainfall occurs in the months of July-August. At each location, in-situ permeameter tests as well as

The annual average rainfall at IMD stations at Mandi and sample collection were performed at two points, upstream

Dharamshala are 1642.2 mm and 3035 mm respectively (u/s) and downstream (d/s) of the location. At location-A

(Tira Sujanpur, 2015). (Jangalberi), (u/s) and (d/s) sites were taken 850 m apart on

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either side of the Mandh River joining the Beas River at A. 3.1.2 Sediment sampling

At location-B (Tira Sujanpur), (u/s) and (d/s) site were Once the field standpipe permeameter test was done, the

taken 100 m apart on either side of the tributary Nuegal soil samples using sampler (Fig. 3) were collected from

khad joining the main river at B. At location-C (Baleth), about 20 cm distances around the standpipe sites so that

(u/s) site was the wider part of the river and (d/s) site was there was no significant difference in the soil

the narrow part and they were 820 m apart. At every u/s and characteristics. The samples were then collected in

d/s site, four transect points Ts1,Ts2,Ts3,Ts 4 were fixed sampling bags and brought to the laboratory for lab test.

across the river for experimental works.

To study the spatial variation, vertical hydraulic

conductivity measurements taken at six locations along the

river and four transect at each location will be selected. To

study the temporal variation, it has also been proposed to

collect data for two seasons i.e. winter (November-January)

and summer (February-April).

A total of 48 measurements at four transect

Ts1,Ts2,Ts3,Ts4 at upstream and downstream sites of

three locations (A, B and C) in two seasons winter

(November-January) and summer (March-May) were

performed to determine the spatial and temporal variation Figure 3 Sediment sampler

of streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity. 3.2 Laboratory test

3.2.1 Constant head permeameter test

Laboratory determination of vertical hydraulic conductivity

3. METHODOLOGY was done using the constant head permeameter test. The

3.1 Field test constant head permeameter apparatus (Fig. 4) consist of a

3.1.1 Field standpipe permeameter test mould with two porous stones and collar. The porous stones

The field standpipe permeameter test (SP) involves were saturated and then placed on the drainage base. About

inserting a pipe vertically into the streambed, filling the 2.5 kg of sample was filled in the mould and then

pipe with river water, measuring the rate of decline of the compacted to the required density. In order to saturate the

water level, and then calculating the vertical hydraulic sample, water reservoir was connected to the base and

conductivity using the rate of decline (Fig. 2). water was allowed to flow upward. The reservoir was later

disconnected from the outlet. The specimen was connected

through the top inlet to the constant head reservoir, the

bottom outlet was opened and steady state of flow was

established. The quantity of flow for a convenient time

interval was noted. Temperature of water collected was also

noted. Using Darcys law, the hydraulic conductivity of

sample was calculated (Sobolewski, 2005):

K QL (2)

Ah

3

Figure 2 In-situ permeameter [Chen, 2002] Where Q = Flow rate (m /day); L = length of sediment

In the present study, a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe of 2

column; A = area (m ); h = head (height of the water).

inner diameter 3.8 cm and length 140 cm was used. The

tube was inserted into the streambed sediments, ensuring

that the length of the sediment column was approximately

35 cm. River water was poured carefully into the pipe

without disturbing the sediment column inside the pipe.

After the initial water head in the pipe was recorded, the

stop watch was started and the elapsed time was recorded.

The water head in the pipe was recorded according to the

set time interval. Water temperature was also noted using

thermometer. During the each test, the water depth was

measured at each test location to determine its relationship

with streambed hydraulic conductivity. Using the water Figure 4 Constant head permeameter apparatus

head records at given time intervals, the values of Kv were 3.3 Statistical analysis

The streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity values

calculated from modified Hvorslev solution (Chen, 2002): obtained from the field permeameter tests were analyzed

Lv h1 statistically by normality tests to check whether the values

Kv ln (1)

t1 t2 h2 are distributed normally along the river. Normality tests are

used to determine if a data set is well-modeled by a normal

Where, LV = length of the sediment column in the pipe (m); distribution and to compute how likely it is for a random

h1 = initial hydraulic head (m); h2 = final hydraulic head variable underlying the data set to be normally distributed

(Normailty test, 2016).

(m); t1 = initial time at h1 (day) and t2 = final time at h2

(day). Statistical analysis of present data was done using the

normality tests by histogram plots and normality test

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(JB), Lilliefors, and ShapiroWilk (SW) tests were used,

L Max f Zi cZi , f Zi pZi1 (6)

at the level of significance 0.05. Lilliefors test is an Where f Zi = frequency associated with score Zi which is

adaption of the Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS) test. The S the proportion of score smaller or equal to its value; pZi

W test has requirements of the sample size N (7 N

= probability associated with this score if it comes from a

2,000), while Lilliefors tests are preferable to apply for a

standard normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a

large sample size N ( N 2,000). The JB test is not good at standard deviation of 1.

distributions with short tails. Lilliefors tests are also less

1 1 2

pZi i

Z

powerful than the SW test (Oztuna et al., 2006). exp Zi (7)

3.3.1 Histogram 2 2

The simplest and perhaps the oldest graphical display for

x m

one-dimensional data is the histogram, which divides the Zi i (8)

range of the data into bins and plots bars corresponding to S

N 2

m

each bin, the height of each bar reflecting the number of

data points in the corresponding bin. The histogram xi

2

graphically summarizes the distribution of a data set such as S i1 (9)

the center of the data, spread of the data, skewness of the N 1

data, presence of outliers, and presence of multiple modes If the calculated value of L is found to be greater than the

in the data (Oztuna et al., 2006). In the present study

Lcritical value, the null hypothesis is rejected (Abdi and

histogram represents graphically the frequency distribution

Molin, 2007).

of field Kv values at each location. Each location (location

3.3.4 Shapiro-Wilk (S-W) test

A, B and C) comprises of sixteen streambed Kv values The Shapiro-Wilk Test (S-W) has become the preferred test

(upstream and downstream values) of two seasons. of normality because of its good power properties as

3.3.2 JarqueBera (JB) test compared to a wide range of alternative tests (Shapiro-Wilk

The Jarqua-Bera test depends on skewness and kurtosis (S-W) test, 2016). The SW test depends on the correlation

statistics. The null hypothesis is that the data is normally between given data and their corresponding normal scores.

distributed. The test is based on the test statistic value (JB) A significant W statistic causes the researcher to reject the

which is calculated using the following formula (Normality assumption that the distribution is normal. The shapiro-wilk

test, 2016): test statistics is given by:

2 2 2

JB N S EK (3) W

b

(10)

6 24 SS

N

Where S = skewness; EK = excess kurtosis. The adjusted

formulae for S and EK with small sample adjustments p value

are given as:

n

3

SS xi m

2

(11)

i1

x m

b x

N m

a x

i1

3

S N 1N 2 SD

i N 1i i (12)

(4) i1

Where x = data observations; m = mean; SD = standard

deviation:

Where ai = weight for sample size N . corresponding to the calculated W is found. If the p

n

4

x m 2 value is less than 0.05, and then the null hypothesis is

N N 1 i 1 3N 1 rejected (Mendis and Pala, 2003).

4

EK N 1N 2N 3 SD

N 2N 3

(5) 3.3.5 Box plot

The critical value of J-B test at significance level of 0.05 is A box plot provides an excellent visual summary of many

5.99. If the calculated value JB is found to be greater than important aspects of a distribution. Box plots display

the critical value, then the null hypothesis is rejected and batches of data (McGill et al., 1978). It is a graphical

data will be concluded as not normally distributed. rendition of statistical data based on the minimum, first

quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum. The term

3.3.3 Lilliefors test "box plot" comes from the fact that the graph looks like a

The Lilliefors corrected Kolmogorov-Smirnov KS Test rectangle with lines extending from the top and bottom

(Box plot, 2016). Box plots provide basic information about

compares the cumulative distribution of data to the a distribution and are good at portraying extreme values and

expected cumulative normal distribution. This test is are especially good at showing differences between

different from the KS test because the population distributions (McGill et al., 1978).

parameters that are unknown are estimated, while the The values of streambed at four transect points across the

statistic is the same. The table values of the two tests are river calculated for upstream and downstream of three

different, which results in different decisions. The test locations along the river during two seasons i.e. winter

statistics associated with Lilliefors test is given as (Abdi (November-January) and summer (March-May) using field

and Molin, 2007): and laboratory tests were plotted against distance of each

transect from the bank in order to analyze the variation of

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Kv . Figures 5 is a typical of such graphs for winter season considerably less sediment transport and deposition from

at location C upstream. the tributary to the main river, thus resulting in higher Kv

during summer.

4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

4.1 Normality test

Histograms representing graphically the frequency

distribution of field Kv values of each location (A, B and C)

in a 15-km reach of the Beas River and comprising of

sixteen streambed Kv values (upstream and downstream

values of two seasons) were plotted. The population was

taken as sixteen Kv values ((4 u/s transect points + 4 d/s

Figure 5 Variation of Kv across the river section at transect point) two seasons = 16). Their corresponding

frequency and normal probability were found and the plots

Location-C u/s site (winter season)

were drawn with streambed Kv values along abscissa and,

From these it was noted that there was a wide variation of frequency and normal probability along ordinate. Figure 7

streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity obtained from is one such typical plot for location A.

field and laboratory test. The Kv values from laboratory

test were smaller than those of field test in all locations. The

variation of Kv obtained from field and lab tests can

be due to the disturbance in the structure of the sample

taken for the lab test by sediment sampling. In the case of

the field test, the sample inside the pipe was less disturbed

than the sample collected for lab tests. It was also observed

that up to a distance of 30 meters, there was not much

variation in field and laboratory Kv values. Beyond 30

meters, high variation of was observed and this may be due Figure 7 Histogram plot of streambed hydraulic

to higher variation in riverbed profile.

conductivity at location-A

It may also be noted that, at all locations along the river,

Normality tests by these histogram plots showed that

values of Kv increased from river bank to the middle of streambed values were not normally distributed at location

the river. The center of the river usually has higher flow A and location B but were normally distributed at location

velocity than the sides of the channel. A larger value may C. At location A and B, the streambed values were

occur in the channel sediments where the flow velocity is positively skewed as per the histogram plots.

generally higher, since fine-grained sediments can be

washed away by higher flows and they may deposit again in The normality test methods such as JarqueBera (JB),

the area with lower flow velocity. This may lead to higher Lilliefors, and ShapiroWilk (SW) tests were also carried

seepage towards middle of the river. Greater water depth out and the results obtained from these tests are shown in

can also result in coarser sediments which can lead to the Table 2.

higher streambed Kv

Table 2 Results of normality tests for location A, B and C

Figure 6 is a typical plot showing variation of Kv at location

A (d/s) for summer season (March-May).

Location Jarque Lilliefors Shapiro-Wilk

Bera (JB) Test (S-W) Test

Test

Location-A Yes No No

Location-B No No No

Location-C No Yes No

found to be normally distributed. But, the histogram plot

Figure 6 Variation of Kv across the river section at showed that these values were skewed. The reason behind

this is the unsuitability of J-B test for small size data.

Location-A d/s site (summer season)

Usually J-B test is employed for large size samples. For

From these figures it was noted that the variation in Kv in small samples the decision rule can be viewed as

summer season was the same as that observed during winter approximate. According to the Lilliefors test, location C

season. However, the streambed vertical hydraulic values were found to be normally distributed. The

conductivity values obtained in summer season were larger histogram plot also showed the same result. S-W test

than those obtained during winter season. This may be due showed that none of the data is normally distributed.

to the lesser discharge during summer which leads to

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It could be seen that Lilliefors test for normality gave same i. There was a wide variation of Kv values obtained from

results as the histogram plot results. So, Lilliefors normality

test is suitable for these streambed data. In general, lab test and field test. The Kv values from

laboratory test were smaller than those of field test in

streambed Kv values were found not to be normally

all locations in both the seasons. The variation of

distributed in location A and B. The reason may be due to obtained from field and lab tests can be due to the

the effect of tributaries at these locations. disturbance in the structure of the sample taken for the

4.2 Box plot lab test by sediment sampling.

Box plot of streambed values of three test locations

ii. Across the river, values of Kv increased from river

(location A, B and C) between Jangalberi and Baleth of

Beas River is shown in Fig. 8. In the box plot, box indicates bank to the middle of the river at all locations. Up to a

distance of 30 meters, there was not much variation in

the upper and lower quartile (75th and 25th percentile

value), the solid horizontal line inside the box indicates the Kv values. Beyond 30 meters, high variation of was

median value, and vertical line extends from the top of the observed in all locations.

box indicate the maximum value, and another vertical line iii. Along the river, the streambed Kv values decreased

extends from the bottom of the box indicate the minimum

value. The 25th and 75th percentile values are the values at from location-A to location-B. At location-C, the Kv

one-fourth and three-fourth positions of the total values were found to be higher than that at location-B.

population. The 25th percentile values for location A, B and iv. The streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity values

C are 12.324 m/day, 3.11 m/day and 6.372 m/day obtained in summer season were larger than those

respectively. The 75th percentile values for location A, B obtained during winter season.

and C are 39.74 m/day, 12.21m/day and 26.4 m/day v. Among histogram plots and normality test methods

respectively. like J-B test, Lilliefors test and S-W test, results

obtained from Lilliefors test were found to be better

compatible with histogram plots. So, Lilliefors

normality test is suitable for the present streambed

data. It has also been found that values were not

normally distributed at location A and location B, but

were normally distributed at location C.

vi. The streambed Kv values were found to be maximum

at location-A and minimum at location-B. Along the

river flow, the streambed Kv values decreased from

location-A to location-B and again increased towards

location-C. The effect of tributaries in between these

locations might have played an important role in

variation of streambed Kv values.

REFERENCES

1. Abdi, H. and Molin, P. (2007). Lilliefors/Van Soests test of

normality, Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics, pp.

540-544. http://www.utd.edu/herve

2. Box plot, http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/box-plot, 09-

June-2016.

3. Cardenas, M. B. and Zlotnik, V. A. (2003). A simple

Figure 8 Box plot of streambed Kv values of three test constant-head injection test for streambed hydraulic

locations (from sites A to C) between Jangalberi and Baleth conductivity estimation. Ground Water, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp.

of Beas River 867-871.

4. Chen, X. (2002). Determination of Streambed Hydraulic

From this plot, it can be seen that, the streambed Kv values

Conductivity Using Extended Permeameter Methods.

were found to be maximum at location-A and minimum at

Ground Water/Surface Water Interactions AWRA, Summer

location-B. Along the river flow, the streambed Kv values Specialty Conference, July 1-3.

decreased from location-A to location-B. The overall 5. Chen, X., Burbach, M. and Cheng, C. (2008). Electrical and

reduction in values may be due to the effect of tributaries hydraulic vertical variability in channel sediments and its

which carry fine sediments in to the main stream. At effects on stream flow depletion due to groundwater

location-C, the Kv values were found to be higher than extraction. Journal of Hydrology, 352, pp. 250 266.

that at location-B. Absence of tributaries in between 6. Chen X. H. and Shu, L. C. (2006). Groundwater

location-B and C can be the reason for the sudden increase evapotranspiration captured by seasonally pumping wells in

in Kv values. river valleys. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 318, pp. 334347.

7. Gallage, C., Kodikara, J., and Uchimura, T. (2013).

5. CONCLUSION Laboratory measurement of hydraulic conductivity functions

The variation in the vertical hydraulic conductivity was of two unsaturated sandy soils during drying and wetting

studied in a reach of Beas River in India. Data was Processes." Soil and Foundations, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 417-

collected at the upstream and downstream of three sections 430.

along the reach with six points on each transects for

8. Genereux, D. P., Leahy, S., Mitasova, H., Kennedy, C. D.,

summer and winter season. It was found that:

and Corbett, D. R. (2008). Spatial and temporal variability

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of streambed hydraulic conductivity in West Bear Creek, 25. Surian, N. (2002). Downstream variation in grain size along

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7

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