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You are on page 1of 25

The simplest way to convey a fluid, in a contained system from Point A to Point B, is by means of a

conduit or pipe (Fig. 1).

Contents

[hide]

1 Piping design

2 Bernoulli equation

5.3.4 Spitzglass equation

6 Multiphase flow

6.1.1 Bubble

o 6.3 Simplified friction pressure drop approximation for two phase flow

8 Nomenclature

9 References

11 External links

12 See also

Piping design

The minimum basic parameters that are required to design the piping system include, but are not

limited to, the following.

The distance between Point A and Point B (or length the fluid must travel) and equivalent

length (pressure losses) introduced by valves and fittings.

These basic parameters are needed to design a piping system. Assuming steady-state flow, there

are a number of equations, which are based upon the general energy equation, that can be

employed to design the piping system. The variables associated with the fluid (i.e., liquid, gas, or

multiphase) affect the flow. This leads to the derivation and development of equations that are

applicable to a particular fluid. Although piping systems and pipeline design can get complex, the

vast majority of the design problems encountered by the engineer can be solved by the standard flow

equations.

Bernoulli equation

The basic equation developed to represent steady-state fluid flow is the Bernoulli equation which

assumes that total mechanical energy is conserved for steady, incompressible, inviscid, isothermal

flow with no heat transfer or work done. These restrictive conditions can actually be representative of

many physical systems.

(Eq. 1)

where

P = pressure, psi,

= density, lbm/ft3,

V = velocity, ft/sec,

and

(Eq. 2)

and

(Eq. 3)

where

HL = head loss, ft,

V = velocity, ft/sec,

= density, lbm/ft3,

and

The Reynolds number is a dimensionless parameter that is useful in characterizing the degree of

turbulence in the flow regime and is needed to determine the Moody friction factor. It is expressed as

(Eq. 4)

where

= density, lbm/ft3,

and

= viscosity, lbm/ft-sec.

(Eq. 5)

where

= viscosity, cp,

and

V = velocity, ft/sec.

(Eq. 6)

where

= viscosity, cp,

weight divided by 29),

an

d

The Moody friction factor, f, expressed in the previous equations, is a function of the Reynolds

number and the roughness of the internal surface of the pipe and is given by Fig. 3. The Moody

friction factor is impacted by the characteristic of the flow in the pipe. For laminar flow, where Re is <

2,000, there is little mixing of the flowing fluid, and the flow velocity is parabolic; the Moody friction

factor is expressed as f = 64/Re. For turbulent flow, where Re > 4,000, there is complete mixing of

the flow, and the flow velocity has a uniform profile; f depends on Re and the relative roughness

(/D). The relative roughness is the ratio of absolute roughness, , a measure of surface

imperfections to the pipe internal diameter, D. Table 9.1 lists the absolute roughness for several

types of pipe materials.

Table 1

If the viscosity of the liquid is unknown, Fig. 4 can be used for the viscosity of crude oil, Fig. 5 for

effective viscosity of crude-oil/water mixtures, and Fig. 6 for the viscosity of natural gas. In using

some of these figures, the relationship between viscosity in centistokes and viscosity in centipoise

must be used

(Eq. 7)

where

= kinematic viscosity, centistokes,

and

SG = specific gravity.

Fig. 4Standard viscosity/temperature charts for liquid petroleum products (courtesy of ASTM).

Fig. 6Hydrocarbon-gas viscosity vs. temperature (courtesy Western Supply Co.).

General equation

Eq. 3 can be expressed in terms of pipe inside diameter (ID) as stated next.

(Eq. 8)

where

and

The Hazen-Williams equation, which is applicable only for water in turbulent flow at 60F, expresses

head loss as

(Eq. 9)

where

and

Table 2

(Eq. 10)

General equation

The general equation for calculating gas flow is stated as

(Eq. 11)

where

L = length, ft,

P1 = upstream pressure, psia,

and

Assumptions: no work performed, steady-state flow, and f = constant as a function of the length.

Simplified equation

For practical pipeline purposes, Eq. 11 can be simplified to

(Eq. 12)

where

T = flowing temperature, R,

and

L = length, ft.

Suppliers Assn.).

Three simplified derivative equations can be used to calculate gas flow in pipelines:

All three are effective, but the accuracy and applicability of each equation falls within certain ranges

of flow and pipe diameter. The equations are stated next.

Weymouth equation

This equation is used for high-Reynolds-number flows where the Moody friction factor is merely a

function of relative roughness.

(Eq. 13)

where

L = length, ft,

and

Panhandle equation

This equation is used for moderate-Reynolds-number flows where the Moody friction factor is

independent of relative roughness and is a function of Reynolds number to a negative power.

(Eq. 14)

where

E = efficiency factor (new pipe: 1.0; good operating conditions: 0.95; average

operating conditions: 0.85),

Lm = length, miles,

an

d

Spitzglass equation

(Eq. 15)

where

Qg = gas-flow rate, MMscf/D,

and

Assumptions:

T = 520R,

P1 = 15 psia,

Z = 1.0,

and

P = < 10% of P 1 .

As previously discussed, there are certain conditions under which the various formulas are more

applicable. A general guideline for application of the formulas is given next.

This formula is recommended for most general-use flow applications.

Weymouth equation

The Weymouth equation is recommended for smaller-diameter pipe (generally, 12 in. and less). It is

also recommended for shorter lengths of segments ( < 20 miles) within production batteries and for

branch gathering lines, medium- to high-pressure (+/100 psig to > 1,000 psig) applications, and a

high Reynolds number.

Panhandle equation

This equation is recommended for larger-diameter pipe (12-in. diameter and greater). It is also

recommended for long runs of pipe ( > 20 miles) such as cross-country transmission pipelines and

for moderate Reynolds numbers.

Spitzglass equation

The Spitzglass equation is recommended for low-pressure vent lines < 12 in. in diameter (P < 10%

of P1).

The petroleum engineer will find that the general gas equation and the Weymouth equation are very

useful. The Weymouth equation is ideal for designing branch laterals and trunk lines in field gas-

gathering systems.

Multiphase flow

Flow regimes

Fluid from the wellbore to the first piece of production equipment (separator) is generally two-phase

liquid/gas flow.

The characteristics of horizontal, multiphase flow regimes are shown in Fig. 8. They can be

described as follows:

Bubble: Occurs at very low gas/liquid ratios where the gas forms bubbles that rise to the top

of the pipe.

Plug: Occurs at higher gas/liquid ratios where the gas bubbles form moderate-sized plugs.

Stratified: As the gas/liquid ratios increase, plugs become longer until the gas and liquid

flow in separate layers.

Wavy: As the gas/liquid ratios increase further, the energy of the flowing gas stream causes

waves in the flowing liquid.

Slug: As the gas/liquid ratios continue to increase, the wave heights of the liquid increase

until the crests contact the top of the pipe, creating liquid slugs.

Spray: At extremely high gas/liquid ratios, the liquid is dispersed into the flowing-gas

stream.

Fig. 9[1] shows the various flow regimes that could be expected in horizontal flow as a function of the

superficial velocities of gas and liquid flow. Superficial velocity is the velocity that would exist if the

other phase was not present.

[1]

Fig. 9Horizontal multiphase-flow map (after Griffith).

The multiphase flow in vertical and inclined pipe behaves somewhat differently from multiphase flow

in horizontal pipe. The characteristics of the vertical flow regimes are shown in Fig. 10 and are

described next.

Bubble

Where the gas/liquid ratios are small, the gas is present in the liquid in small, variable-diameter,

randomly distributed bubbles. The liquid moves at a fairly uniform velocity while the bubbles move up

through the liquid at differing velocities, which are dictated by the size of the bubbles. Except for the

total composite-fluid density, the bubbles have little effect on the pressure gradient.

Slug flow

As the gas/liquid ratios continue to increase, the wave heights of the liquid increase until the crests

contact the top of the pipe, creating liquid slugs.

Transition flow

The fluid changes from a continuous liquid phase to a continuous gas phase. The liquid slugs

virtually disappear and are entrained in the gas phase. The effects of the liquid are still significant,

but the effects of the gas phase are predominant.

The gas phase is continuous, and the bulk of the liquid is entrained within the gas. The liquid wets

the pipe wall, but the effects of the liquid are minimal as the gas phase becomes the controlling

factor. Fig. 11[2] shows the various flow regimes that could be expected in vertical flow as a function of

the superficial velocities of gas and liquid flow.

The calculation of pressure drop in two-phase flow is very complex and is based on empirical

relationships to take into account the phase changes that occur because of pressure and

temperature changes along the flow, the relative velocities of the phases, and complex effects of

elevation changes. Table 3 lists several commercial programs that are available to model pressure

drop. Because all are based to some extent on empirical relations, they are limited in accuracy to the

data sets from which the relations were designed. It is not unusual for measured pressure drops in

the field to differ by 20% from those calculated by any of these models.

Table 3

Eq. 16 provides an approximate solution for friction pressure drop in two-phase-flow problems that

meet the assumptions stated.

(Eq. 16)

where

L = length, ft,

and

(Eq. 17)

where

and

(Eq. 18)

where

T = operating temperature, R,

SG = specific gravity of liquid, relative to water, lbm/ft3,

and

There are several notable characteristics associated with pressure drop because of elevation

changes in two-phase flow. The flow characteristics associated with the elevation changes include:

In downhill lines, flow becomes stratified as liquid flows faster than gas.

The depth of the liquid layer adjusts to the static pressure head and is equal to the friction

pressure drop.

In low gas/liquid flow, the flow in uphill segments can be liquid "full" at low flow rates. Thus,

at low flow rates, the total pressure drop is the sum of the pressure drops for all of the uphill

runs.

With increased gas flow, the total pressure drop may decrease as liquid is removed from

uphill segments.

The pressure drop at low flow rates associated with an uphill elevation change may be approximated

with Eq. 19.

(Eq. 19)

where

and

The total pressure drop can then be approximated by the sum of the pressure drops for each uphill

segment.

One of the most important parameters affecting pressure drop in piping systems is pressure loss in

the fittings and valves, which is incorporated in the system. For piping systems within production

facilities, the pressure drop through fittings and valves can be much greater than that through the

straight run of pipe itself. In long pipeline systems, the pressure drop through fittings and valves can

often be ignored.

Resistance coefficients

The head loss in valves and fittings can be calculated with resistance coefficients as

(Eq. 20)

where

and

V = velocity, ft/sec.

The resistance coefficients Kr for individual valves and fittings are found in tabular form in a number

of industry publications. Most manufacturers publish tabular data for all sizes and configurations of

their products. One of the best sources of data is the Crane Flow of Fluids, technical paper No.

410. [3] The Natural Gas Processors Suppliers Assn. (NGPSA) Engineering Data Book[4] and Ingersoll-

Rands Cameron Hydraulic Data Book[5] are also good sources of references for the information.

Some examples of resistance coefficients are listed in Tables 4 and 5.

Table 4

Table 5

Table 5 (Cont'd)

Table 5 (Cont'd)

Table 5 (Cont'd)

Flow coefficients

The flow coefficient for liquids, CV, is determined experimentally for each valve or fitting as the flow of

water, in gal/min at 60F for a pressure drop of 1 psi through the fitting. The relationship between flow

and resistance coefficients can be expressed as

(Eq. 21)

In any fitting or valve with a known CV, the pressure drop can be calculated for different conditions of

flow and liquid properties with Eq. 22.

(Eq. 22)

where

and

Again, the CV is published for most valves and fittings and can be found in Crane Flow of Fluids,

Engineering Data Book,[4] Cameron Hydraulic Data Book,[5] as well as the manufacturers technical

[3]

data.

Equivalent lengths

The head loss associated with valves and fittings can also be calculated by considering equivalent

"lengths" of pipe segments for each valve and fitting. In other words, the calculated head loss caused

by fluid passing through a gate valve is expressed as an additional length of pipe that is added to the

actual length of pipe in calculating pressure drop.

All of the equivalent lengths caused by the valves and fittings within a pipe segment would be added

together to compute the pressure drop for the pipe segment. The equivalent length, Le, can be

determined from the resistance coefficient, Kr, and the flow coefficient, CV, using the formulas given

next.

(Eq. 23)

(Eq. 24)

and

(Eq. 25)

where

and

Table 6 shows equivalent lengths of pipe for a variety of valves and fittings for a number of standard

pipe sizes.

Table 6

Nomenclature

Z = elevation head, ft,

P = pressure, psi,

= density, lbm/ft3,

V = velocity, ft/sec,

= viscosity, lbm/ft-sec.

weight divided by 29),

Qg = gas-flow rate, MMscf/D.

= absolute viscosity, cp

W

T = operating temperature, R,

Z

References

1. Jump up to:1.0 1.1 Griffith, P. 1984. Multiphase Flow in Pipes. J Pet Technol 36 (3): 361-367. SPE-

12895-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12895-PA.

2. Jump up to:2.0 2.1 Taitel, Y., Bornea, D., and Dukler, A.E. 1980. Modelling flow pattern transitions for

steady upward gas-liquid flow in vertical tubes. AIChE J. 26 (3): 345-

354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690260304.

3. Jump up to:3.0 3.1 Crane Flow of Fluids, Technical Paper No. 410. 1976. New York City: Crane

Manufacturing Co.

4. Jump up to:4.0 4.1 Engineering Data Book, ninth edition. 1972. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Natural Gas

Processors Suppliers Assn.

5. Jump up to:5.0 5.1 Westway, C.R. and Loomis,A.W. ed. 1979. Cameron Hydraulic Data Book,

sixteenth edition. Woodcliff Lake, New Jersey: Ingersoll-Rand.

Fuente: http://petrowiki.org/Pressure_drop_evaluation_along_pipelines

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