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SHIVANG CHAUDHARY

March 16, 2009 E MAIL ID- shivang47@gmail.com /MOBILE-9904474045

Dear all,
Congrats for your GATE Result. Now, concentrate on your admission process
& carrying out admission process smoothly is as important as scoring good rank
in GATE.

DO SMART WORK FOR NIPER SEAT

Dear friends,
We have not seen many institutes but of the much we have seen and the much
we have heard, NIPER is amongst the best. We are sure most of you would be
aspiring of being in NIPER. Those who are sure of their capability and
competence should prove their worth. Those who are determined will find their
way at their own but if there is a helping hand, probability of success is higher.
So this is a small attempt to help those aspiring for a career in pharmaceutical
research at NIPER.
Here is a compilation of certain important points for each subject to be noted.
These are just grids for the study and are helpful for the exam. By the way most
of these are covered in B. Pharm syllabus. For the paper, our experience is that
one should revise the GATE syllabus and should
have grip on the FUNDAMENTALS (M.SC-SUBJECTS-ORGANIC
CHEMISTRY,ANALYSIS,BIOCHEMISTRY,MICROBIOLOGY,BIO-
TECHNOLOGY,M.B.A-MANAGEMENT RELATED ,LOGICAL). Most
of the questions in paper are quite easy. But be sure you are well prepared for it.
What to study???
The below mentioned topics are most frequently touched topics in last 5 yrs
March 16, 2009

SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
B.PHARMA (NIRMA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY)

M.S.PHARMA (PHARMACEUTICS)-NIPER-A.
SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
March 16, 2009 E MAIL ID- shivang47@gmail.com /MOBILE-9904474045

ORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY


1. IUPAC nomenclature, R and S nomenclature, E and Z isomerism, ,
2. Conformations
3. Hybridization, aromaticity, Huckles rule reaction mechanisms- Electrophilic,
Nucleophilic , SN1, SN2, Elimination E1 E2 etc.
4. Ester hydrolysis, Aac1 Aac2……all eight mechanisms (Jerry march)
Markovnikoves rule, Bredts rule, Stereo selectivity, stereospecificity,
regioselectivity, chemo selectivity, chirality, stereochemistry, conformations,
rearrangements, acids and bases.
5. Imine-enamine Tautamerism, keto-enol tautamerism, pericyclic reactions,
racemic mixture, resolution methods.
6. Amino acids proteins, various methods for amino acid detection, Ninhydrin
test, peptide sequencing, structures of amino acids, essential and nonessential
amino acids,
7. Introduction to thermal methods of analysis like, TGA, DSC DTA etc.
8. Carbohydrates classification, osazone test, mutarotation, etc,
9. Various Heterocycles, Heterocycle synthesis, reactions,.
10. Introduction to Redox reactions
11. Spectroscopy: (basics specially): VVIMP topic.
12. NMR, and C-NMR ranges from Morrison & Boyd
13. Mass, Basic concepts about various peaks M+1, molecular ion, base peak
etc. IR, Frequencies of various groups specially carbonyls. UV (finding the
lamda max values)
14. Chromatography: detailed especially HPLC, HPTLC and other modern
techniques and basic fundamental theory like van demeter equation, resolution,
hetp etc.
15. Reaction kinetics, first second third and pseudo first order reactions,
radiolabelling for determination of mechanism.
16. Common condensation reactions like aldol, claisen perkin , dickmenn,
darzen etc.
17. Other reactions like cannizarros reaction, prins reaction, especially reactions
of carbonyl compounds.
March 16, 2009

REFERENCES:
JERRY MARCH +MORRISON AND BOYD+ I. L. FINAR
V.K.KAPOOR

SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
B.PHARMA (NIRMA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY)

M.S.PHARMA (PHARMACEUTICS)-NIPER-A.
SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
March 16, 2009 E MAIL ID- shivang47@gmail.com /MOBILE-9904474045

PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY:

1. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacological effect, desired,


undesired, toxic, adverse effects.
2. Bioavailability, bioequivalence, various factors of ADME
3. Drug metabolism: various pathways and other details.
4. Drug interactions, agonist, antagonist, partial agonist, protein binding, drug
distribution, distribution volume, excretion pathways etc.
5. Mechanism of drug action, drug-receptor interaction.
6. Various adrenergic, cholinergic and other receptors
7. Detailed study of CNS pharmacology specially opiod receptors
8. Study of basis of threshold areas of work in NIPER in pharmacology dept.
mentioned in brochure.
9. Diseases: study of the pharmacology of the diseases and drugs used with
mode of action especially of diabetes, malaria, leishmaniasis, TB, hypertension,
myocardial ischemia, inflammation, and immunomodualtion.
10. Chemotherapy and pathophysiology- knowledge of antibiotics, their mode
of
action and the microorganisms responsible for various common diseases.)
11 . Bioassay methods

REFERENCES : RANG & DALE ++ LIPINCOTT

March 16, 2009

SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
B.PHARMA (NIRMA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY)

M.S.PHARMA (PHARMACEUTICS)-NIPER-A.
SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
March 16, 2009 E MAIL ID- shivang47@gmail.com /MOBILE-9904474045

PHARMACEUTICS AND FORMULATION


1. Drug delivery systems (DDS): NDDS models, osmotic pumps, various
release patterns
eg. Controlled release, delayed release. Sustained release etc., order of release.
Oral controlled DDS, factors affecting controlled release.
2. Carriers in DDS: polymers and their classification, types, carbohydrates,
surfactants, proteins, lipids, prodrugs etc.
3. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS): principles, absorption
enhancers, evaluation of TDDS.
4. Parenterals: requirements, advantages, disadvantages, release pattern, route of
drug delivery.
5. Drug targeting: microspheres, nanoparticles, liposomes, monoclonal
antibodies, etc.
and some idea on polymers used in this field.
6. Preformulation detailed.
7. Complexation, solubilization, polymerization, viscosity measurements.
8. Dosage form development- stages, implications of dosage form.
9. Additives of formulation, types, examples, advantages, disadvantages, drug
excipient
interaction, incompatibility, various types of incompatibilities.
10. Dosage forms: solid (tablets, capsules, pills etc), liquid (emulsion,
suspension etc),
sterile ( injectables), aerosols. Principles, advantages, disadvantages and
problems.
11. Packaging: materials, labeling etc. Types of containers (eg. Tamper-proof
containers)
12. In process controls, Product specification, documentation.
13. Compartmental modeling.
14. Bioavailability, bioequivalence studies. Methods of improvement of oral
bioavailability.
15. Evaluation of formulation, principles and methods of release control in oral
formulations.
March 16, 2009

REFERENCES:
REMINGTON’S PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES+
LACHMANN+
ALFRED MARTIN+SUBRAHMANYAM

SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
B.PHARMA (NIRMA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY)

M.S.PHARMA (PHARMACEUTICS)-NIPER-A.
SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
March 16, 2009 E MAIL ID- shivang47@gmail.com /MOBILE-9904474045

NATURAL PRODUCTS:
In natural products more stress should be given on phytochemistry part rather
than pharmacognosy aspects but you should know about
biological sources and chemical constituents
1. Methods of extraction, isolation and characterization of natural products.
Various
separation techniques used for isolation of natural products.
2. Biosynthetic pathways.
3. Primary metabolites, their examples.
4. Secondary metabolites, various classes of secondary metabolites (eg.
Alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, lignans, saponins, lipids, flavonoids, coumarins,
etc.). Here most imp. part is chemistry of these classes.
5. Important therapeutic classes: antidiabetics, hepatoprotectives,
immmunomodulators, neutraceuticals, natural products for gynaecological
disorders, anti-cancer, anti-viral
(mainly anti-HIV), adaptogens etc.
6. Dietary antioxidants, Marine natural products, Plant growth regulators.
7. Fischer projection formulas.
8. Biological sources of important classes of natural products. (Selected ones
only)
9. Standardization of natural products, analytical pharmacognosy.
10. What is difference between natural products and pharmacognosy ?
11. Some knowledge about types and preparation of ayurvedic formulatios like
asava, arista etc.
REFERENCES: TREASE AND EVANS+ KOKATE�
March 16, 2009

SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
B.PHARMA (NIRMA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY)

M.S.PHARMA (PHARMACEUTICS)-NIPER-A.
SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
March 16, 2009 E MAIL ID- shivang47@gmail.com /MOBILE-9904474045

PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS:
1. Stability testing of pharmaceuticals, various stability tests, kinetic studies,
shelf life determination, thermal stability, formulation stability.
2. Various analytical techniques
3. Tests: physical and chemical tests, limit tests, microbiological tests,
biological tests, disintegration and dissolution tests.
4. Thermal techniques: DSC, DTA, TGA, etc.
5. Chromatography- detailed.
6. QA and QC: GLP, TQM, ISO system.
7. Solubility: pH, pka, surfactant HLB values, Rheology. (IMP)
8. Crystallinity, polymorphism, solvates and hydrates, crystal habits, porosity,
surface area flow properties.
9. Dosage forms, Stages of dosage form development
10. Osmolality, osmolarity, osmotic pressure, conductivity
REFERENCES-VOGEL,PAVIA,WILLARD,SKOOG,KASTURE

�BIOTECHNOLOGY

CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISM WITH SOME SPECIFIC


CHARACTERISTICS &
1. Gene expression, mutation, replication, transcription, translation,
recombination, bacteriophages.
2. Fermentation: fermenters, fermentation process, its regulation, conditions,
bioprocessors, various enzymes in fermentation technology. Fermentation of
Antibiotics, vitamins, amino acids, hydroxy acids such as lactic acid etc.
3. Gene therapy: methods and applications.
4. Monoclonal antibodies, insulin, interferons, enkephylins, angiotensin
analogues and other peptides.
5. Enzymes, types of enzymes and enzyme kinetics etc.
March 16, 2009

6. Use of microorganisms in pharmaceutical industries.


REFERENCE- PECLZAR,PRESCOTT



SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
B.PHARMA (NIRMA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY)

M.S.PHARMA (PHARMACEUTICS)-NIPER-A.
SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
March 16, 2009 E MAIL ID- shivang47@gmail.com /MOBILE-9904474045

PRACTICE OF PHARMACY: 
Adverse Drug Reactions,
Rational drug use as well as some typical case studies in diabetes and
hypertension and
some case study regarding cvs and antiinffective. Therapeutic drug monitoring

March 16, 2009

SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
B.PHARMA (NIRMA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY)

M.S.PHARMA (PHARMACEUTICS)-NIPER-A.
SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
March 16, 2009 E MAIL ID- shivang47@gmail.com /MOBILE-9904474045

Hospital pharmacy
Clinical pharmacy
* You should give attention to statistics in which mean, median, mode, anova,
paired test.
*Pharmacy Act and D&C act. and knowledge about important laboratories of
India and
there location.
VERY FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION:
_Polarity of solvents for chromatography
_ Rf values for better separation.
_ Absorbent in reverse phase chromatography
_ Partition coefficient between liquid-liquid phase
_ Naming of peptides (i.e. pentapeptide, hexapeptide)
_ Hetero and homo diens
_ Setro of biphenyl,cyclohexane(conformations)
_ Haemllet equation and saturation kinetics
_ IR frequency of carbonyl compounds
_ Solvents for IR and NMR
_ Mechanism of action of barbiturates, pyrimethamine, co trimoxazole
_ Technique for separation of isomers and racemic mixture.
_ Applications of spectroscopic technique
_ Gas laws (boyle charles etc)
_ Polymers in pharmaceutics.
_ Calculation for J value (NMR)
_ Isomers of important phytopharmaceuticals and its use.
_ Alpha carotene contains how many rings
_ Squalene contains how many isoprene units
_ Use of each 5 HT receptors
_ Measurement of flow properties and its importance
_ Role of excipients and stage of addition of each
_ Solvents for oral use, iv use and reconstitution
_ All IP standards for tablets and capsules
_ Accelerated stability testing
_ Applications of various mixers and dryers
March 16, 2009

_ Identification of peaks in mass spectroscopy


_ Surfactants its classification and HLB values for different surfactants
_ Anti malarial drugs their structure, iupac, mechanism of action
_ Enzymes as biomarkers in various disease state
_ Protein binding of important drugs
_ Vitamins: name, deficiency ,
SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
B.PHARMA (NIRMA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY)

M.S.PHARMA (PHARMACEUTICS)-NIPER-A.
SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
March 16, 2009 E MAIL ID- shivang47@gmail.com /MOBILE-9904474045

_ From last 3 years there are few questions of general knowledge


,logical,MANAGEMANT (MBA)-REFERENCE-R.M.MEHTA-
vallabh prakashan

Column NAME OF REPUTED INSTITUTES PROVIDING


1 POSTGRADUATION COURSE IN PHARMACY FIELD
1 NIPER, SAS NAGAR
2 NIPER, AHMEDABAD
3 NIPER, HYEDRABAD
4 NIPER, RAIBARELI
5 NIPER, KOLKATA
6 NIPER, GUWAHATI
7 NIPER, HAJIPUR
8 UDCT, BOMBAY (MPHARM, MTECH, INTGRD. PHD)
9 IIT BOMBAY(BIOMEDICAL ENGG.)
10 IIT GUWAHATI MTECH(BIOTECH)
11 IIT KANPUR MTECH(BSBE)
12 IIT KHARAGPUR (INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY)
13 BHU, VARANASI
14 BCP, MUMBAI
15 MANIPAL UNIV.
16 MS UNIV BARODA
17 BITS PILANI
18 BITS MESRA, RANCHI
March 16, 2009

SHIVANG CHAUDHARY
B.PHARMA (NIRMA INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY)

M.S.PHARMA (PHARMACEUTICS)-NIPER-A.