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RESHUN HYDROPOWER PROJECT

TENDER CIVIL - 2
POWER STATION AND INTAKE STRUCTURES

(CIVIL WORKS)
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

VOLUME II
Technical Specifications

TALBE OF CONTENTS

No. Description Page #

Section - 1General Description of Construction Works for Power House and


Intake Structures TS- 1

Section - 2Diversion TS- 6

Section - 3Dewatering, Drainage and Pumping TS- 8

Section - 4Excavation/Refill, Backfill TS- 10

Section - 5Rock Excavation TS- 13

Section - 6Rock Bolts, Wire Mesh, Steel Mats and Gabions TS- 17

Section - 7Shotcrete TS- 22

Section - 8Concrete Placing TS- 27

Section - 9Reinforcement TS- 42

Section - 10Form Work TS- 47

Section - 11Cyclopean Concrete TS- 50

Section - 12Stone Masonry TS- 53

Section - 13Surface Renderings TS- 59

Section - 14Brick Work TS- 64

Section - 15Cement Concrete Floors TS- 68

Section - 16Terrazzo and Marble Works TS- 70

Section - 17Steel Doors, Windows and Shutters TS- 74

Section - 18Carpenter, Joiner, Glazier TS- 77

Section - 19Painting TS- 81

Section - 20Water - Proofing and Roof Insulation TS- 89

Section - 21Expansion Joints TS- 93

Section - 22Aluminium Windows and Doors TS- 95

Section - 23Water Supply Services and Fire Fighting System TS-98

Section - 24Sanitary Installation TS-103

Section - 25Drainage TS-110

Section - 26 Steel Work TS-119

Section - 27 Stone Work TS-122


Technical Specifications

SECTION.1
General Description of Construction works for power house and Intake Structures.

1. DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURES

1.1 Intake Structures (Tyrolean Weirs)

Due to the fact that because of geological conditions the tunnel intake must be located at a level above
the confluence of Latshal Gol and Shakoh Gol two weirs are required on each river.

The most adequate manner to draw water from a river in mountainous area, where water is always
loaded with gravel and silt during the high flood season, is to construct a tyrolean weir.

The water is drawn out of the river by a trash rack which is integrated in the weir. This rack stops the
gravel above a defined grain size from entering the downstream structures.

In each of the weirs 3 gates will be installed. The first one has the function to clean the area upstream
of the weir during high flood season, if required. The second gate is the winter intake. During
low water season the water of the river is not overflowing the trash rack, but will be drawn
completely by this gate. The third gate has the function as stop gate keeping the water out of
the gravel spill and sand trap structures.

The tyrolean weirs will be constructed mainly out of cyclopean concrete, rubble stone masonry and
some reinforced concrete.

To avoid leakage of water under the foundation of the weirs upstream, provision is made for a sealing
carpet consisting of a layer of fine grained material over the excavation level, a sealing foil
(min. thickness 0.2 mm) a cement layer and a stone pavement in cement mortar (1:8).

A small cutoff wall out of P.C.C. (1:4:8) will limit the sealing carpet upstream. To protect the weir
downstream, riprap out of blocs bigger than 80 Cm in diameter shall be filled, as well as a
strip of 5 m width of pavement with blocks downstream of the weir foundation.

Design data:

Shakoh Gol: (losses in conversion pipe are taken into consido"12


_*TM"`+/\1

TS - 1
Technical Specifications

TS - 2
Technical Specifications

6.5WORK PROCEDURES

6.5.1Drilling for Rock Bolts:

6.5.1.1Holes for rock bolts shall be drilled to the exact depths required by the lengths of the bolt at
locations shown on the drawings, or as required by the Engineer. The Contractor shall
provide access to the face for this purpose as soon as possible after the completion of the
excavation of each round or bench.

6.5.1.2Holes which are drilled out of place or alignment shall be replaced as required y the Engineer
at no additional cost to the Employer.

6.5.1.3The diameter of holes for the installation of rock bolts shall be according to the diameters of
mechanical shells which will be approximately 38 mm. For rock dowels, the hole diameter
shall not be less than 28 mm.

6.5.1.4The rock surface around the drilled holes to receive the bearing plate shall be chipped smooth
or be covered with a smooth quick-set cement pad supplied by the Contractor.

TS - 3
Technical Specifications

6.5.2Rock Bolt Installation:

6.5.2.1The procedures and equipment used for drilling holes in rock and for installing and tensioning
the bolts shall be in accordance with these specifications and subject to review by the
Engineer.

6.5.2.2Unless instructed otherwise,rock bolts shall be installed and tensioned prior to the excavation
of the next bench or round of rock excavation.

6.5.2.3The Contractor shall provide all material and equipment necessary for cement grouting and
dry packing of installed rock bolts and dowels.

6.5.3Installing and Tensioning of Rock Bolts:

6.5.3.1All rock bolts shall be installed in accordance with the following procedures:

6.5.3.2After the hole for the rock bolts has been drilled and washed clean, the Contractor shall pour
or inject sufficient cement grout into the hole such that when the bolt is fully inserted into the
hole, it will displace the grout, leaving the annuals completely filled with grout. The grout
shall be a workable 1:1 sand/cement mix. When necessary, due to inclination of the hole, or
when required by the Engineer, the Contractor shall place the grout in the hole using
perforated metal sleeves acceptable to the Engineer.

6.5.3.3For mechanical type anchors, the bearing plate shall be placed over the projecting end of the
bolt and bevelled washers shall be used as necessary to provide a uniform bearing at right
angles to the longitudinal axis of the bolt. A flat washer shall be used between the last
bevelled washer and the nut. All threads on the bolt and the nut shall be free of rust and
burrs.

6.5.3.4An acceptable grease or wax mastic shall be used between the nut and the flat washer.

6.5.3.5The Contractor shall provide all the equipment required to tension the rock bolts. Equipment
shall comprise of a suitable hydraulic jack having center bore in the ram for installation of the
jack concentrically over the end of the bolt, a hydraulic pump and all other required
accessories. Equipment shall be acceptable to the Engineer.

6.5.3.6Following setting of the grout (approx 48 hrs,) as proven by field tests performed under similar
rock and ambient temperature conditions, a tension of 60 percent of the yield or ultimate
strength for rock bolts shall be applied to the bolt by jacking. This load shall be held for a 5
min period to check anchor slippage before locking of the nut. Over stressed or damaged
bolts shall be replaced by the contractor at no additional cost to the Employer.

6.5.3.7After the bolt has been tensioned, the tension shall not be relaxed for any purpose unless
required by the Engineer.

6.5.3.8If it is found that any bolt is not taking the required tension without anchorage slip, another bolt
shall be installed in a new hole drilled in the immediate vicinity of the unsatisfactory bolt.

TS - 4
Technical Specifications

6.5.4 Protection of Rock Bolts:

6.5.4.1Bearing plates which will be permanently exposed shall be coated before installation with an
anti-corrosion protective coating compound. Any defects in the coating shall be adequately
recoated after installation. The outer ends of the rock bolts, nuts and washers shall also be
coated with anti-corrosion compound after installation and tensioning. The remaining portions
of all rock bolts shall be clean and free of all deleterious materials, including dirt, paint and
grease.

6.5.5Reserve Supply of Rock Bolts:

6.5.5.1The Contractor shall maintain on site a reserve supply of all rock bolt types and extensions in
lengths, all complete with accessories.

6.5.6 Installation of Gabions

6.5.6.1The wire mesh should be cut according to the requirements of the Engineer. Out of the wire
mesh sheets the gabion will be formed and fixed properly. At the foreseen locations, the
gabions will be installed and filled with stones of such a size that they cannot slip through the
meshes of the gabion. When the box is full up to the highest level the top shall be covered
completely with a sheet of wire mesh which must be fixed properly with the other wire mesh
sheets.

6.6 QUALITY CONTROL

6.6.1The rock bolts will be tested as described in 6.5.3.6 - 6.5.3.8.

6.6.2The gabions will be checked visually by the Engineer before and after filling with stones.

6.7MEASUREMENT:

6.7.1Measurement for payment for rock bolts irrespective of types of anchorage will be made of the
actual length in meters of rock bolts installed, as shown on drawings or as required by the
Engineer.

6.7.2All drilling works for rock bolting are included in the payment for rock bolts.

6.7.3Measurement for payment of supplying, installing steel wire mesh or steel mats complete with
mesh anchors or other securing devices, will be made of the net area, in square meters, as
covered as required by the Engineer.

6.7.4Measurement for payment of supplying, installing gabions with securing devices will be made in
cubic meters as required by the Engineer.

6.8PAYMENT:

6.8.1Payment will be made at the unit price stated in the bill of quantities for providing and installing
rock bolts and accessories, complete in every respect and as specified herein.

6.8.2Payment for drilling holes for installation of rock bolts is deemed to be included in the unit price
for providing and installing rock bolts.

6.8.3Payment will be made at the unit price stated in the bill of quantities for supplying, installing wire
mesh and/or steel mats complete with mesh anchors or other securing devices, complete in
every respect and as specified herein.

TS - 5
Technical Specifications

6.8.4Payment for cement and additives for grout mixes, quick-set cement for bearing plates, pads
and rust protection materials and other ancillary works is deemed to be included in the unit
price for providing and installing rock bolts.

6.8.5Payment for gabions will be made at the unit price stated in the bill of quantities for supplying,
fixing, installing of wire mesh, filling with stones (which are lying around) and closing by a
cover of wire mesh.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 7

SHOTCRETE

7.1SCOPE OF WORK:

7.1.1The work to be done shall comprise of supply of all labour, plant and material, and the
performance of all work necessary for supplying and placing shotcrete in the work as shown on
the drawings and as required by the Engineer and as specified herein.

7.2DEFINITIONS:

7.2.1Shotcrete is defined as concrete applied from a spray nozzle onto a surface to form a layer of
pneumatically applied concrete on that surface.

7.2.2Rebound is defined as the constituents of shotcrete that rebound from the surface during the
application of shotcrete.

7.3GENERAL:

7.3.1Methods and workmanship in the application of shotcrete shall be in accordance with the best
modern practice and as specified herein.

7.3.2Shotcrete shall be placed in layers and to the extent and thickness shown on the drawings or
specified herein or as required by the Engineer.

7.3.3Generally, the requirement for shotcrete will be decided by the Engineer following scaling of rock
surfaces exposed by excavation. However, this shall not preclude the possibility of Contractor
being required to return, to place shotcrete in areas at any time following the excavation where
the Engineer considers this to be necessary.

7.4MATERIALS:

7.4.1Shotcrete shall be composed of cement, aggregates, water and admixtures, as specified herein.

7.4.2Cement, aggregate, water and admixtures shall conform to the requirements of Section - 8 except
as otherwise specified herein.

7.4.3The water content of aggregate at the time of incorporating into the mix shall be less than 7
percent by weight of oven-dry aggregates.

7.4.4Air used to apply shotcrete shall be clean and free of oil.

7.4.7Contractor shall use additives as approved by the Engineer.

7.5WORK PROCEDURES

7.5.1Shotcrete Mix Design:

7.5.1.1The class of shotcrete to be used in a particular location shall be as required by the Engineer.
The mix proportions of cement, aggregates and permitted admixtures in each class shall be as
determined by the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

7.5.1.2Minimum crushing strength shall not be less than 200 kg/cm 2 at 28 days. 110 kg/cm 2 at 3 days
and 40 kg/cm 2 at 7 hours.

7.5.1.3Shotcrete shall not be applied until the mix design for shotcrete is approved by the Engineer.

7.5.1.4Mix proportions shall be varied when required by the Engineer's representative to maintain
rebound at a minimum in accordance with para 7.5.6.

7.5.2Equipment:

7.5.2.1All equipment required to prepare, mix and place shotcrete shall be kept clean and maintained in
good operating condition at all times during construction. Batching and mixing equipment shall
conform to the requirements.

7.5.2.2The Contractor shall ensure that adequate air and water is supplied to the machine, as specified
by the equipment manufacturer and as required by the Engineer.

7.5.2.3In all areas where excavation is proceeding, the contractor shall ensure that sufficient equipment
is available to apply shotcrete at any face, as specified herein.

7.5.3Proficiency of Workmen:

7.5.3.1Nozzlemen shall have had previous experience in the application of coarse aggregate shotcrete
or shall work under the immediate supervision of a foreman or instructor with such experience.
Each crew shall demonstrate, when required by the Engineer acceptable proficiency in the
application of shotcrete to vertical and overhead test panels before beginning production work.

7.5.3.2For the purpose of this clause, acceptable shotcrete shall consist of a dense uniform concrete
without major rebound inclusions and without discernible weakness of bond between layers.
The nozzlemen shall shoot shotcrete with a uniform consistency and at the wettest consistency
short of the sag point. The nozzle shall be held at a predetermined distance and position so that
the stream of flowing material shall impinge as nearly as possible at right angles to the surface
to be covered. The inclusion of rebound or aggregate pockets will not be permitted in the
finished work. Rebound shall be removed and disposed of as specified herein.

7.5.4Surface Preparation:

7.5.4.1When shotcrete is to be applied to excavated surfaces immediately after blasting, the surfaces
shall be prepared by a minimum of scaling, as required by the Engineer, followed by washing
with clean water. All surfaces shall be wet, clean and free of rebound, at the time of application
of shotcrete. For all other shotcrete application, the surfaces to be treated shall be thoroughly
sluiced with air and water jet or cleaned by other means approved by the Engineer to remove
all traces of dirt, mud, debris, oil, loose particles, rebound or loose rock and any other
deleterious matter. The surfaces shall be kept moist until shotcrete is applied.

7.5.4.2Where water flows from the rock against which shotcrete is to be placed and when water cannot
be sealed off by shotcreting along, the water shall be excluded from the area by caulking or
diverted by pipes, pans or other approved means in such a manner that the shotcrete will be
unaffected by action of the water through percolation, by hydrostatic pressure or erosion.

7.5.4.3A layer of shotcrete which is to be covered by a succeeding layer shall first be allowed to take its
initial set and shall have all laitance, loose material, dirt or other deleterious material and
rebound removed by brooming, sluicing or other means acceptable to the Engineer.

7.5.4.4Shotcrete surfaces shall be kept moist until the succeeding layer of shotcrete is applied.

7.5.4.5At any time during surface preparation the Engineer may order that the contractor apply
shotcrete to isolated areas before proceeding with surface preparation.

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Technical Specifications

7.5.5Mixing and Placing:

7.5.5.1Shotcrete materials shall be accurately weigh-batched before mixing. Aggregates shall be


thoroughly mixed without the addition of water before being deported in the placing equipment.
Cement shall be added not more than 11/2 hours before application. Mixes which are not
applied within 11/2 hours of adding cement shall be discarded. Rapid-hardening additive shall be
accurately proportioned.

7.5.5.2Shotcrete shall not be applied to any surface without the acceptance of the Engineer. Should the
contractor consider that any surface requires shotcreting urgently, he shall immediately inform
the Engineer who will render a decision as soon as possible.

7.5.5.3In general, the maximum thickness of shotcrete in any one layer shall be such as to prevent
sagging. The maximum thickness of shotcrete applied in any one layer at any location shall not
be more than 30 mm.

7.5.5.4The Engineer will examine rock faces following blasting and scaling. On the basis of such
examination, the Engineer may require immediate shotcreting of surfaces, in which case
shotcrete shall be applied within 4 hours of blasting and before drilling the next round. Where
very poor rock conditions are anticipated, the Engineer may require that shotcrete equipment
be available before blasting so that shotcrete can be applied with the minimum of delay.

7.5.5.5Shotcrete, other than that placed immediately after blasting, shall not be placed in any area until
all blasting within 30 m of the area has been completed, unless otherwise approved by the
Engineer.

7.5.5.6Shotcreting above ground shall not be carried out when, in the opinion of the Engineer, shotcrete
cannot be placed effectively because of adverse weather conditions, unless adequate cover is
provided over the working area until the shotcrete has been cured sufficiently to prevent
damage.

7.5.5.7The Contractor shall develop operating procedures and operations to the satisfaction of the
Engineer to give:

- minimum rebound
- no inclusion of rebound in the finished shotcrete
- as smooth a finished surface as possible
- no hollow areas in the shotcrete
- a minimum of shrinkage cracks
- good adherence of the shotcrete to rock or other surface.

7.5.5.8The flow of the material at the nozzle shall be continuous and uniform and the rate of application
over any given area shall be uniform. Slags, sand spots, wet areas or other defects shall be cut
out and corrected as specified herein.

7.5.5.9At the start of shotcreting operations in any area, the Contractor shall, in close cooperation with
the Engineer and as part of the initial placement, establish procedures for the application of
shotcrete which will produce the best quality product with the minimum of rebound. Such
establishment of procedures shall include minor variations to mixes, if required, and variations
to acceptable finishes and thickness and quantities to be discharged at the nozzle to a unit
area of rock or length of tunnel, as required by the Engineer. The quantities of shotcrete to be
discharged at the nozzle shall be determined on the basis of average thickness of shotcrete
shown on the drawings or as required by the Engineer and taking due account of rebound.
Once procedures for the placement of shotcrete are established, subsequent work shall be
carried out accordingly.

7.5.5.10When required by the Engineer, the thickness of a layer in any area shall be checked by either
probing immediately after the shotcrete has been applied, by placing pins of known lengths in
the rock before shotcreting or by any other means approved by the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

7.5.5.11In shotcreting vertical or steeply inclined surfaces, other than roofs of underground cavities,
application shall begin at the lowest point and the shotcrete layer shall be built up in horizontal
strips until the entire surface is covered.

7.5.5.12The edges of shotcrete areas against which no further shotcrete is to be placed and where
required by the Engineer shall be formed to clean, regular lines and slopes, all to the approval
of the Engineer.

7.5.5.13Where drain holes have been drilled and instruments have been installed into rock on which
shotcrete is to be placed, the contractor shall take all necessary precautions to prevent such
holes from being plugged or instruments from being damaged.

7.5.5.14When shotcrete is to be performed near existing structures, the contractor shall ensure that no
damage results to the structure and shall protect the surface of structures before shotcreting.

7.5.5.15Application of shotcrete in any area shall be considered completed when the shotcrete has
been built up to the thickness specified.

7.5.5.16Where shotcrete is placed over wire mesh and supporting bolts, it shall be covered with
shotcrete to a depth of at least 30 mm.

7.5.6Rebound:

7.5.6.1Rebound shall be removed and disposed off, as required by the Engineer before any adjacent
area is shotcreted. Rebound shall not be reused. Special care shall be taken that rebound
does not build up at the junction of walls and floors both underground and on the surface.

7.5.6.2The Contractor shall make every effort to keep rebound to a minimum. If in the opinion of the
Engineer, rebound is excessive, he may require the contractor to revise the mix design for
shotcrete or its application procedures or take such other measures as the Engineer deems
necessary to reduce rebound to a reasonable level.

7.5.7Repair:

7.5.7.1Before a succeeding layer of shotcrete is placed, the preceding layer shall be checked for
drumminess to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

7.5.7.2The Contractor shall repair all drummy, sandy, cracked or spalled areas and any other areas
where, in the opinion of the Engineer, the shotcrete is faulty, by removing the shotcrete upto
the sound area of rock or shotcrete, carrying out surface preparation as specified herein and
replacing that area to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

7.6QUALITY CONTROL:

7.6.1For designing the mix, the Engineer may ask the contractor to prepare three test panels for each
mix.

7.6.2Sets of three panels for mix design shall consist of one shot downward onto a horizontal surface,
one shot onto an inclined or vertical surface and one shot overhead onto a horizontal surface.

7.6.3The Contractor shall also furnish all plant, materials and assistance necessary and carry out all
work to obtain representative test panels of shotcrete during initial mix design and subsequent
quality control.

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Technical Specifications

7.6.4Test panels shall be obtained by securely attaching an approved 1 m 2 by 8 cm deep timber box
with a rigid base to an area of rock similar to that to be shotcreted or an approved alternative
surface, wetting the box and applying shotcrete to the area obtained by the box in the manner
specified herein and using the same mixing and placing equipment to be used for the works.

7.6.5All panels shall be of minimum thickness of 80 mm; all panels shall be made in the presence of
the representative of the Engineer. The panels shall be left undisturbed at the point of
placement until the final set has taken place.

7.6.6Test panels shall be transported by the contractor to the site laboratory for testing immediately
after final set has taken place and in such a manner as to prevent their being damaged in any
way.

7.7MEASUREMENT:

7.7.1Measurement for payment shall be made of the total weight in kilograms of cement used in
shotcrete applied.

7.8PAYMENT:

7.8.1Payment will be made at the unit price stated in the bill of quantities for placing shotcrete,
complete in every respect, and as specified herein.

7.8.2No separate payment will be made for scaling and washing down and preparing the rock surfaces
prior to treatment with shotcrete.

7.8.3No separate payment will be made for supplying and installing drainage facilities required for
control of seepage water during the placement of shotcrete.

7.8.4No separate payment will be made for mixing admixtures in concrete. The quoted rate for
shotcreting shall be deemed to include, handling, transporting, storing and mixing of
admixtures.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 8

CONCRETE PLACING

8.1SCOPE OF WORK:

8.1.1The work to be done shall comprise of the supply of all labor, plant and material, and the
performance of all work necessary for supplying, mixing, transporting from the batching plant,
placing, compacting, curing and finishing concrete, and cleaning and preparing construction
joints, as shown on the drawings, as required by the Engineer and as specified herein.

8.2DEFINITIONS:

8.2.1.1"Cement" shall mean ordinary Portland cement as specified herein, in bulk or in 50 kg paper/jute
bags.

8.2.1.2"Water-cement ratio" shall mean the ratio of the weight of water contained in a freshly mixed
batch of concrete to the weight of cement contained in the same batch. The weight of water
shall mean that weight in the batch which is free to combine with the cement, but does not
include water absorbed by aggregates.

8.2.1.3The "cement content" of concrete shall mean the number of kilograms of cement per cubic
meter of concrete in place complete.

8.2.1.4"Secondary concrete"shall mean concrete placed in blockouts and used to embed items such as
sill beams, gate guides, etc., after primary concrete has been placed. "Primary concrete" shall
mean all concrete which is not classified as secondary concrete or shotcrete.

Whenever a particular standard is specified, its latest revision/edition shall be referred to.

8.2.2COMPOSITION OF CONCRETE:

8.2.2.1Concrete shall be composed of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and permitted
admixtures, as specified herein and as required by the Engineer.

8.2.3CONCRETE AND CONCRETE CONSTITUENTS:

8.2.3.1Concrete and concrete constituents and all materials and operations relating to concrete shall
meet the requirements of the Pakistani Standards, and as required by the Engineer.

8.2.3.2Concrete constituents shall be batched and mixed at site using suitable equipment to determine
and control accurately the amount of each ingredient entering the mix. The amount of each
ingredient shall be batched correctly with sufficient accuracy to obtain concrete of the quality
specified in these specifications.

8.2.3.3Facilities for storage of concrete constituents and batching and mixing of concrete shall be
available for inspection by the Engineer at all times.

8.2.3.4The use of a water reducing admixture to improve workability without reducing the strength or
durability of the mix will be considered by the Engineer. If acceptable to the Engineer, it shall
be used in strict conformance with the manufacturer's instructions and will be supplied to the
Contractor by the Employer at no cost.

8.2.3.4No other admixtures shall be permitted without written acceptance of the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

8.3GENERAL:

8.3.1All concrete work, production, testing and placement shall be performed in strict conformance with
the standards.

8.3.2Equipment and methods for the production, transportation, placing, consolidating, curing and
finishing of concrete shall be subject to acceptance by the Engineer.

8.3.3Specifications for placing, measurement and payment of shotcrete is covered under Section -7.

8.4 MATERIALS

8.4.1CEMENT:

8.4.1.1Cement shall be ordinary Portland cement unless otherwise approved by the Engineer's
representative.

8.4.1.2 TRANSPORTATION OF CEMENT:

8.4.1.2.1All bulk tank trucks and other bulk carriers shall be clean and dry prior to loading with
cement. All carriers for both bulk and bagged cement shall be equipped with
weather proof closures on all openings.

8.4.1.3STORAGE:

8.4.1.3.1Sufficient storage facilities shall be provided at the batch plant to enable each new
shipment of cement to be stored separately from the cement stored from
earlier shipments.

8.4.1.3.2Cement shall be stored above ground, adequately protected against rain, sun and
moisture. Bulk storage bins and silos shall be emptied completely and
cleaned of all cement accumulations every 3 months.

8.4.1.3.3Arrangements shall be made such that stocks of approved cement are adequate to
meet the program of work at all times. The program shall allow time for
testing and approval of each shipment before such cement is incorporated in
the work.

8.4.1.3.4Cement shall be used in the order in which it is to be received on site. Cement stored
by the Contractor and found unfit for use shall not be allowed to be used on
works.

8.4.2AGGREGATES - GENERAL:

8.4.2.1.1Unless otherwise specified, concrete aggregates shall conform to the requirements.

8.4.2.1.2Aggregates shall be supplied only from sources approved by the Engineer. Approval
of a source shall not be construed as constituting acceptance of all materials
to be taken from that source.

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Technical Specifications

8.4.2.1.3The quality of all aggregates used in the work, including processing such as washing,
classifying, screening, rescreening, crushing and blending, necessary to meet
the required specifications, shall all be subject to acceptance of the Engineer.

8.4.2.2FINE AGGREGATES:

8.4.2.2.1Fine aggregates shall have uniform and stable moisture content and shall conform to
the grading requirements.

8.4.2.2.2If necessary, fine aggregate shall be washed to remove excess fines.

8.4.2.2.3The fine aggregate shall contain not more than 0.10 percent by weight of deleterious
(reactive) ferrous sulphides. The total percentage of deleterious substances
must not exceed 5 percent of weight.

8.4.2.2.4Fine aggregate having a specific gravity of less than 2.80 g/cm 3 shall be rejected.
Fine aggregate, when submitted to a soundness test with a solution of sodium
sulphate, after five cycles of tests, shall not suffer a loss of weight in excess
of 10 percent.

8.4.2.3COARSE AGGREGATES:

8.4.2.3.1Coarse aggregate shall consist of screened natural gravel or crushed rock.

8.4.2.3.2Coarse aggregate shall be supplied in two sizes, 40 mm to 20 mm, and 20 mm to


No. 4. Coarse aggregate shall be washed at the aggregate source; however,
further washing at the batch plant may be required if the aggregate is found
to be unacceptable to the Engineer.

8.4.2.3.3Coarse aggregate shall have a loss of less than 50 percent, as determined by Los
Angeles abrasion test.

8.4.2.3.4When subject to the sodium sulphate soundness test, coarse aggregate shall not
suffer more than 10 percent loss of weight after five cycles.

8.4.2.3.5Coarse aggregate shall be separated into two nominal sizes, which shall conform to
the grading requirements of the following table when tested for the nominal
size specified.

Percentage Passing for Graded Aggregate


Sieve of Nominal Size
Designation 40 mm 20 mm

63 mm 100 100
40 mm 95 to 100 100
20 mm 30 to 70 95 to 100
10 mm 10 to 35 25 to 55
4.75 mm 0 to 5 0 to 10

8.4.2.3.6As far as possible, coarse aggregates shall be of regular shape and free of elongated
particles. The volumetric coefficient C, which defines the ratio of the total
volume of a number of particles taken at random and the volume of spheres
having a diameter equal to the greatest dimension of each element, shall be
greater than or equal to the following values.

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Technical Specifications

Aggregate Size Ratio

6.7/26.5 mm C = 0.15
26.5/150.0 mm C = 0.11

8.4.2.3.7Coarse aggregates delivered to the batching plant shall have a uniform and stable
moisture content.

8.4.2.3.8The coarse aggregate shall contain not more than 0.30 percent by weight of
deleterious (reactive) iron sulphides.

8.4.2.3.9The sum of the percentages of all deleterious substances in any size shall not exceed
3 percent by weight. Coarse aggregates may be rejected if, the specific
gravity (saturated surface-dry basis), is less than 2.60 g/cm 3.

8.4.2.4AGGREGATE STORAGE:

8.4.2.4.1Aggregates shall be stored in such a manner so as to prevent contamination and segregation


and to facilitate cooling and drainage of excessive moisture as required. Storage
arrangements shall be subject to acceptance by the Engineer.

8.4.2.5 WATER:

8.4.2.5.1A reliable water supply shall be installed and maintained for washing of aggregate and the
manufacture and curing of concrete.

8.4.2.5.2Water to be used in washing of aggregates and manufacturing and curing shall conform with
the following specifications. Water shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of oil, acids,
alkalies, sugar, salt and organic matter.

8.4.2.5.3Water for manufacturing of concrete shall be approved by the Engineer.

8.4.2.5.4Adequate water storage facilities shall be provided at the batching plant to ensure that no part
of the concrete operations shall be hindered by a temporary break down in the main supply
system.

8.5WORK PROCEDURES

8.5.1CONCRETE MIX DESIGN:

8.5.1.1Mix proportions for the designated classes of concrete to be used in the Work shall be
determined by trial mix design from strength tests and be in accordance with the relevant
Specification. Classes of concrete required shall be as indicated.
Minimum specified
Maximum Size of compressive cube
Aggregate strength at 28 days
Class of Concrete (mm) (N/mm 2) Kg/cm 2

B5 32 5 50
B10 32 10 100
B15 32 15 150
B25 32 25 250
B35 32 35 350

TS - 15
Technical Specifications

8.5.1.2Prior to commencement of permanent concrete work, trial mixes shall be prepared for each
class of concrete listed above. The trial mixes shall be prepared with the batching and mixing
plant to be used for the work and using cement and aggregates, etc., which have been
approved by the Engineer.

8.5.1.3Consistency of Concrete
There are three consistency ranges which have influence on the minimum cement content.

Range Quality Best Method of compacting

C1 Stiff concrete strong vibrator or compressing in thin layers

C2 Plastic Concretevibrating or stoking and ramming

C3 Soft Concrete Stoking or soft vibrating

8.5.1.4Minimum Cement Content:

The minimum cement content for each grade of concrete shall be as follows:

Class of Minimum cement content


Concrete in kg/m3 **)
Consistency Consistency Consistency
C1 *) C2 C3

B5 *) 140-160 160-180 --

B10 *) 190-210 210-230 230-260

B15 240-270 270-300 300-330

B25 280-310 310-340 340-380

*)For P.C.C. only

**)The cement content must be enlarged by 10% if aggregate size is 0/16 mm, by 20% if
aggregate size is 0/8 mm.

The minimum cement contents mentioned above are for average conditions. The Contractor shall
design the mixes for 10 % (ten percent) higher compressive strength over and above those
specified in para 8.5.1.1.

8.5.1.5The amount of water to be added to the mix shall be adjusted to compensate for any variation in
the free-moisture content of the aggregates as they enter the batch plant. Water shall not be
added to the mix beyond the water-cement ratio specified without the written authority of the
Engineer.

8.5.1.6The Engineer may prepare from these mixes, samples for compression testing.

8.5.1.7 Cement Concrete


Following the procedure in Pakistan the table below may be used for quantities of material required for
various mixes, per one cubic meter of finished concrete. Exact quantity of the concrete
produced depends upon the type, size and grading of the aggregate and sand, and also the
quantity of water used in the mix.

TS - 16
Technical Specifications

Cement in Kilograms Aggregate


graded (av.)
Dry Sand 12 to 25
Mix (av.) mm
(Nominal)
Machine mixing Hand mixing

Gravel Broken Gravel Broken


Shingle Stone Shingle Stone cu.m cu.m

1:1:2 550 580 570 600 0.40 0.80


1:1:3 370 390 380 400 0.42 0.84
1:2:3 360 380 370 390 0.54 0.81
1:2:4 290 310 300 320 0.45 0.90
1:2:5 250 270 260 280 0.46 0.92
1:3:6 190 210 200 220 0.46 0.92
1:4:8 140 160 150 170 0.47 0.94
1:5:10 120 130 120 130 0.48 0.96
1:6:12 100 110 100 110 0.49 0.98
1:6:18 70 80 70 80 0.35 1.00

For the different consistencies and the minimum cement content the table under 8.5.1.4 is leading.

As per definition concrete below mix 1:4:8 can only be used as blinding concrete under pavements but
not under buildings.

8.5.2 MIXING:

8.5.2.1The mixers shall not be charged in a manner that some water will enter in advance of cement
and aggregate and all materials shall continue to flow in as rapidly as possible. The
construction of the mixers shall prevent loss of materials during charging.

8.5.2.2The mixers shall not be charged beyond their rated capacities and the entire contents of the
mixer shall be discharged before recharging.

8.5.2.3Unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer for mixers of 1 m 3 capacity or less, the mixing of
each batch shall continue for not less than 1 to 1.5 minutes (but not more than 5 minutes
when mixing air-entrained concrete) after all materials, except the full amount of water, are in
the mixer. For mixers of larger capacity, the minimum mixing time will be increased by 15
seconds for each additional 0.5 m3.

8.5.2.4The mixing time shall be increased when, in the opinion of the Engineer,the charging and mixing
operations fail to result in the required uniformity of composition and consistency within the
batch and from batch to batch.

8.5.2.5Mixers shall be rotated at the rate recommended by the manufacturer of the mixer.

8.5.2.6The arrangement for controlling, measuring and mixing operations shall be such that the
operator or an assistant in communication with the operator, may observe the concrete
discharging from the mixer.

8.5.2.7Each mixer shall be cleaned after each period of continuous operation and shall be maintained
in such a condition that the mixing action will not be impaired.

8.5.2.8On no account shall any addition be made to any component of a concrete batch once that
batch has been mixed and discharged from the mixer, whether for the purpose of retempering
or for any other reason, without the prior approval of the Engineer.

TS - 17
Technical Specifications

8.5.3CONVEYING:

8.5.3.1Concrete shall be conveyed from the delivery point to the place of final deposition by methods
which will prevent segregation or loss of ingredients or damage by exposure to the elements.
Plant such as buckets, cars, conveyers, transit mixers of 8 m 3 capacity and pumping
equipment which may be used for conveying concrete shall be of such size, design and
condition as to ensure an even and adequate supply of concrete at the placement area. All
methods used shall be reviewed by the Engineer.

8.5.3.2Particular attention shall be paid to prevent segregation at the ends of chutes, at hopper gates
and at all other points of discharge.

8.5.3.3In general, the use of chutes to convey concrete will not be permitted, except that chutes less
than 3 m in total length may be used immediately adjacent to or in the forms, with acceptance
of the Engineer. Where chutes are used, they shall be so constructed and arranged so to
permit continuous flow of concrete without separation of the ingredients. Chutes shall not
have a slope steeper than 1 Vertical : 2 Horizontal.

8.5.3.4There shall be no vertical drop greater than 1.5 m except where equipment satisfactory to the
Engineer is used to confine and control the falling concrete.

8.5.3.5Concrete may be dropped through flexible elephant-trunk chutes, provided some method is used
at the lower end to retard the speed of the falling concrete and prevent it from segregating.
Where it is necessary to drop concrete more than 1.5 m, it shall fall into a hopper with a
capacity of 1 m 3 more than the total capacity of the full trunk.

8.5.3.6The conveying plant shall be kept free from hardened concrete and foreign materials and shall
be cleaned at frequent intervals.

8.5.4PLACING - GENERAL:

8.5.4.1The Contractor shall provide the Engineer with a weekly placing schedule giving the detailed
location of the pours, the approximate extent of pours, and the date on which the concrete will
be placed.

8.5.4.2Prior to placing concrete in any location, the Contractor shall provide the Engineer with written
notice, using a standard notice form accepted by the Engineer that the preparation of
formwork, reinforcing steel, steel ribs, piping etc., if any, for such pour has been completed.
No concrete placement shall be started until pour preparation has been inspected, and
approved by the Engineer.

8.5.4.3No concrete shall be placed under water, except where shown on the drawings, unless
specifically so required by the Engineer and then the method of depositing the concrete shall
be entirely in accordance with requirements of the Engineer. No concrete shall be placed in
running water. Water shall, generally, not be allowed to rise over freshly poured concrete until
final set has been achieved.

8.5.4.4The Contractor shall place concrete in a given location only after the Engineer agrees for
placement of such concrete. All concrete shall be placed in the presence of the Engineer.
Concrete placed without prior knowledge and approval of the Engineer may be required to be
removed and replaced at no additional cost to the Employer.

8.5.4.5All concrete-placing plant and methods shall be subject to acceptance by the Engineer.

8.5.4.6In order to reduce bleeding, slump shall be no higher than necessary to achieve proper
placement and consolidation.

TS - 18
Technical Specifications

8.5.4.7Where excavation has been carried beyond the neat line of excavation shown on the drawings,
the space between the actual limit of rock excavation and the neat line shall be filled with
concrete of the same class as that specified to the neat line, and shall be placed with it to form
an integral mass, except when the Engineer orders otherwise.

8.5.5PREPARATION FOR PLACING:

8.5.5.1All surfaces on which or against which concrete is to be placed, including surfaces of


construction joints between successive concrete placements, reinforcing steel and embedded
parts, shall be thoroughly cleaned of grout, laitance, loose particles or other deleterious
matter.

8.5.5.2Surface, seepage and other water shall be so controlled to the satisfaction of the Engineer, that
at no time during the placement or hardening of the concrete will it wash, mix with, or seep
into the concrete.

8.5.6PLACING AND COMPACTING CONCRETE:

8.5.6.1Concreting shall be done as a continuous operation until placing in the lift, section or monolith is
completed, and Contractor shall make all arrangements necessary to maintain continuity of
concrete placing in any particular pour during meal periods, shift changes, or any other such
interruptions.

8.5.6.2Concrete shall be placed in the forms as quickly as possible and not later than half an hour after
delivery. These limits may be modified by the Engineer to suit working or weather conditions.
Concrete which is not placed within the above specified time limit shall be wasted, as required
by the Engineer.

8.5.6.3In all cases, concrete shall be deposited as nearly as practicable directly in its final position and
shall not be caused to flow by vibrators or otherwise in a manner which will permit or cause
segregation.

8.5.6.4Concrete shall be placed in litts to construction joints as shown on the drawings or as directed by
the Engineer. The height of concrete lifts shall be as shown on the detailed construction
drawings or as in the case of the tunnel lining as otherwise agreed upon between the Engineer
and Contractor before placing the concrete. The lifts shall generally not exceed 2 m in height,
unless specifically so permitted or required by the Engineer. The concrete shall be deposited
in horizontal layers, the thickness of which shall generally not exceed 500 mm. If, in the
opinion of the Engineer, 500 mm layers of concrete cannot be placed satisfactorily, the
Engineer may require layers of lesser depths.

8.5.6.5Each layer of concrete shall be consolidated to the maximum practicable density, be free from
pockets of coarse aggregate, completely fill all recesses in forms and around embedded
parts, and be free of all voids. The concrete shall be compacted and worked into all corners
and angles of the forms, around reinforcement and embedded items without permitting the
component concrete materials to segregate.

8.5.6.6No layer of concrete shall be placed until the previous layer in the same lift has been thoroughly
consolidated, as specified. Each layer of concrete within a lift shall be covered with fresh
concrete, preferably as soon as possible, but certainly within the period when the lower layer
is still capable of being revibrated so that successive layers can be thoroughly worked
together.

8.5.6.7The maximum permissible time between placing successive layers shall not exceed 45 min and
shall be reduced, as required by the Engineer to suit the temperature, humidity and job
conditions. Concrete shall not be piled up in the forms in a manner that causes movement of
the unconsolidated concrete, or permits mortar to escape from the coarse aggregate.

TS - 19
Technical Specifications

8.5.6.8Concrete shall be consolidated with the aid of approved immersion type mechanical vibrators or
electric or air- driven vibrators operating at a speed of at least 7,000 cycles/min when
immersed in the concrete. The vibrating equipment shall at all times be adequate in number
of units and power to properly consolidate all concrete as it is being placed, to the satisfaction
of the Engineer. Vibrators with flexible operating shafts shall be used for reinforced concrete
and for concrete in restricted forms. At least one extra vibrator in working condition shall be
constantly on hand at each point of placement for emergency use.

8.5.6.9Application of the vibrators shall be made systematically and at such intervals that the zones of
influence overlap and the concrete is properly compacted.

8.5.6.10Every vibrator shall be operated in a near-vertical position and the vibrating head shall be
allowed to penetrate under the action of its own weight. In consolidating each layer of
concrete, the vibrating head shall be allowed to penetrate and revibrate the concrete in the
upper portion of the underlying layers. Extreme care shall be taken to ensure that the vibrators
do not touch or disturb the reinforcing, embedded steel or forms.

8.5.6.11To ensure even and dense surfaces which are free from aggregate pockets, honey combing or
air holes, it may be necessary to supplement internal vibration with hand spading along the
boundaries of the concrete and around embedded parts while the concrete is plastic under the
vibratory action. Should slip forms be used, the equipment and methods shall be such that the
finished concrete will be well consolidated and homogeneous.

8.5.6.12The Contractor shall use any or all of the above methods of consolidation, if required, to
produce the necessary finish. Form vibrators shall not be used unless the forms are designed
for form vibration or unless specifically authorized by the Engineer.

8.5.7PARTS EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE:

8.5.7.1Anchors, anchor bolts, structural shapes, plates and bearings required in connection with the
installation of gates, gate hoists, valves operating machinery and other apparatus shall be
installed in the concrete by Contractor, as shown on the drawings or as required by the
Engineer. Where-ever practicable, anchors shall be installed before the concrete is placed
and, except as specified, drilling installation of anchors in the concrete after concrete is placed
will not be permitted. Before being placed in position, all anchors and embedded parts shall
be thoroughly cleaned of rust, grease, paint, splashed concrete, or other coatings that will
reduce bond.

8.5.7.2Embedded anchors shall be supported during embedment and embedded so that the tolerances
specified will not be exceeded. Care shall be taken not to disturb or displace embedment
items during concrete placement.

8.5.8FINISHING OF CONCRETE:

8.5.8.1Any damage or finished concrete resulting from the action of removing form work or from any
other cause shall be repaired to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

8.5.8.2The finished surfaces of concrete shall be true, sound, smooth and free from fins, offsets, pits,
depressions, voids, blemished and other defective concrete and surface irregularities, and
shall be in accordance with the requirements for the particular class of finish specified herein
or shown on the drawings.

8.5.8.3Finishing work shall be done only by skilled workmen in the presence of the Engineer and shall
be performed within 4 weeks of placing. Before final acceptance of the work, the Contractor
shall clean all exposed concrete surfaces of all encrustations of cement, mortar or grout, to
the satisfaction of the Engineer. Concrete shall not be considered finished until all required
repair work and finishing have been completed.

TS - 20
Technical Specifications

8.5.8.4Surface finished shall generally conform to the types and tolerances indicated in Table 1 (8.6.4)
unless otherwise specified herein, as shown on the drawings, or as required by the Engineer.

a)Type 1 tolerance shall apply to departure from alignment and grade shown on the drawings.

b)Type 2 tolerance shall apply to variation in cross-sectional dimensions of structural


members, such as tunnel linings, walls, piers, beams, etc.

c)Type 3 tolerance shall apply to abrupt irregularities such as offsets and fins, caused by
displaced or misplaced formwork sheathing, lining or supports, by loose knots in
forms or by otherwise defective form material.

d)Type 4 tolerance shall apply to gradual irregularities caused by misalignment of form work
from the dimensions shown on the drawings and measured from 3.0 m long straight
template.

8.5.8.5Positive tolerance shall be measured outside and negative inside the lines and grades defining
the structure on the drawings.

8.5.9CURING AND PROTECTION OF CONCRETE:

8.5.9.1Plant for curing and protection of concrete shall be available at the location of each concrete
placement before concrete placement is started, and the water used for curing shall meet the
requirements for water used for mixing concrete. Curing water temperature shall not exceed
25oC or above the expected minimum ambient temperature of the 28 day curing period.
Minimum anticipated ambient temperatures shall be based on climatological records and
forecasts approved by the Engineer.

8.5.9.2Exposed surfaces of concrete which have been finished as specified herein shall be protected
from the direct rays of the sun for at least 3 days after placing. Freshly placed concrete shall
be protected from damage by rainfall.

8.5.9.3Exposed surfaces shall be kept moist or the moisture in the concrete shall be prevented from
evaporating for at least 10 days after placing by means of continuous sprinkling or spraying
with water, or by other methods authorized by the Engineer.

8.5.9.4Curing shall be taken not to disturb the steel reinforcement projecting from any placement for at
least 24 hours after the completion of such placement.

8.5.10CONSTRUCTION JOINTS:

8.5.10.1Construction joints are defined as concrete surfaces on or against which concrete is to be


placed and to which new concrete is to adhere and which have become so rigid that the new
concrete cannot be incorporated integrally with that previously placed.

8.5.10.2Construction joints shall be located in the positions shown on the drawings or as required by the
Engineer and the Contractor shall not be permitted to form any additional joints or deviate
from the joints indicated on the drawings, without the written authorization of the Engineer.
Joints at exposed surfaces of concrete shall be straight and continuous, as shown on the
drawings or otherwise specified.

8.5.10.3Horizontal construction joints shall be arranged where-ever possible to coincide with joints in
the formwork.

TS - 21
Technical Specifications

8.5.10.4To prevent feather edges, the construction joints at the tops of horizontal lifts near sloping
exposed concrete surfaces shall be inclined near the exposed surface so that the angle
between such inclined surface and the exposed concrete surface will be not less than 50o.

8.5.10.5Formed construction joints and the surface of horizontal joints and the surfaces against which
new concrete are to be placed shall be wet sand-blasted or roughened by scrubbing or brush
hammering to expose the aggregate.

8.5.10.6Immediately prior to placing new concrete, the surface of all construction joints shall be
thoroughly cleaned with high-pressure water jet or sand-blasting to remove any trace of
laitance, loose sand, loose or undercut coarse aggregate, oil, grease or any foreign material of
any kind.

8.5.10.7The use of a retarded shall not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility of producing surfaces
at construction joints as specified and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

8.5.10.8Disturbance of the surface at a joint during the early stages of hardening shall be avoided, and
traffic on the concrete will not be permitted until the concrete has hardened sufficiently to
withstand such treatment without injury.

8.5.10.9All construction joints shall be kept continuously moist until they are covered with concrete,
provided that, if it becomes necessary to delay the placement of new concrete on or against
a construction joint for an extended period, moist curing of the surface of the joint may be
discontinued at the expiration of the regular prescribed curing period. If the moist curing is so
discontinued, it shall be resumed not later than 24 hours prior to the placement of new
concrete against the joint.

8.5.10.10All cold joints shall be treated like construction joints.

8.5.11 REPAIR OF CONCRETE:

8.5.11.1Repair of damaged or defective concrete shall be performed by skilled workmen only, and in
the presence of the Engineer. No repair work shall be carried out until the Engineer, has
inspected the location of the proposed repair and accepted the method or repair proposed by
the Contractor.

8.5.11.2The Contractor shall correct all imperfections on the concrete surface as necessary to produce
surfaces that conform to the requirements specified in para 8.5.9.

8.5.11.3Where concrete is exposed to flowing water or to weather, porous and fractured concrete and
surface concrete to which additions are required to bring it to prescribed lines shall be
removed by chipping openings into the concrete to a minimum of 75 mm below the
reinforcing or to the depth required by the Engineer if sound concrete is not encountered at
75 mm. Repair areas shall be formed and area filled with fresh concrete. If the concrete
section to be repaired contains no reinforcement, concrete shall be chipped to a minimum
depth of 100 mm.

8.5.11.4The chipped openings shall be sharp-edged and keyed and shall be filled to the required lines
with fresh concrete or patching mortar, as required by the Engineer. Where concrete is used
for filling, the chipped openings shall be not less than 75 mm in depth and the fresh concrete
shall be reinforced and dowelled to the surface of the openings, as directed by the Engineer.

TS - 22
Technical Specifications

8.5.11.5Mortar for patching shall consist of 1 part cementing material, 2 parts by volume of regular
concrete sand, and just enough water so that after thorough mixing of the incredients the
mortar will barely hold together when compacted by squeezing with the hand. The mortar
shall be fresh when placed, and any mortar that is not used within 2 hours after preparation
shall be wasted. Just prior to mortar application, the surface to which the mortar is to bond
shall be kept wet for at least 2 hours, then scrubbed with a small quantity of cement grout
using a wire brush.

8.5.11.6Where repairs are more than 25 mm deep, the mortar shall be applied in layers not more than
20 mm thick to avoid sagging. After each layer, except the last, is placed, it shall be
thoroughly roughened by scratching with a trowel to provide an effective bond with the
succeeding layers. The last or finishing layer shall be smoothened with a trowel to form a
continuous surface with the surrounding concrete. All patches on exposed surface shall be
neat and smooth and as nearly as possible the same color as the adjoining concrete. All
patches shall be thoroughly bonded to the surfaces of the chipped openings, shall be cured
to the satisfaction of the Engineer and shall be sound and free from shrinkage cracks and
drummy areas.

8.5.11.7Concrete surfaces where high velocity flows may occur, and as required by the Engineer,
repairs to surfaces having F 3 and U 3 finishes shall be bonded with an epoxy adhesive
acceptable to the Engineer and used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

8.5.11.8All repairs to the surface of concrete required for flowing water shall be ground smooth to meet
the tolerances specified for that surface.

8.6QUALITY CONTROL:

8.6.1GENERAL

8.6.1.1A system of quality control shall be provided, operated and maintained at the batch and mixing
plants to ensure that the standards specified for concrete herein are met.

8.6.1.2The weights of the components of every batch shall be recorded and the records will be
submitted to the Engineer daily.

8.6.1.3Compressive strength shall be tested, samples being taken from every 100 m 3 for each class of
concrete, with a minimum of one group of samples per shift. Each test group shall consist of
nine cubes.

8.6.1.4In the event the specified strength criteria are not met, the Engineer may, if he deems it
necessary, require that the unacceptable concrete be cut out and replaced.

8.6.1.5In the event quality control tests indicate that concrete below the specified standards is being
produced, the Engineer may order such adjustment of mix design, additional quality control,
or other measures as it may deem necessary, to raise quality to specified standards.

8.6.2MEASUREMENT AND TOLERANCES:

8.6.2.1Water, cement, admixtures, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate shall be measured separately
and not cumulatively. The accuracy of the measuring devices shall be maintained so that the
indicated measure does not vary by more than 1 percent from true measure throughout their
range of use. The devices shall be capable of being operated to control the delivery of
materials so that the combined inaccuracies in feeding and measuring do not exceed the
following limits:

TS - 23
Technical Specifications

Material Percent (by weight)

Cement 2
Water 1.5
Aggregates 3
Admixture 2

8.6.3CALIBRATION OF MEASURING DEVICES:

8.6.3.1At the batch plant, standard certified test weights shall be provided and such other auxiliary
equipment as may be necessary to check the operating performance of each scale or other
measuring device. When required by the Engineer, the operator shall perform these tests in
the presence of the Engineer.

8.6.3.2Unless otherwise required by the Engineer, check tests of equipment used for measuring water,
cement and admixtures shall be made at least every 2 weeks, and, of equipment used for
measuring fine and coarse aggregates, at least every month. After completion of each check
test, the operator shall report the results to the Engineer and make such adjustment, repairs, or
replacement as the Engineer deems necessary to secure satisfactory performance before
further use of the measuring devices is allowed.

8.6.4TEMPERATURE OF CONCRETE:

8.6.4.1Every effort shall be made to minimize the temperature of concrete during manufacture,
placement and curing.

8.6.4.2Any or all of the following means shall be adopted, as required by the Engineer to produce
concrete of minimum temperature.

-protect all freshly placed concrete from exposure to direct sunlight.


-employ continuous moist curing.
-spray forms and reinforcement with water where they are exposed to direct sunlight.
-spray water on aggregate piles.
-keep mixing time and the time required to convey to point of placement to a minimum.
-shade batching, mixing and conveying equipment, paint, pipes, storage bins and tanks white.

8.6.4.3In case of low temperatures, proper measures have to be taken to guarantee the quality of
concrete as specified. No concrete work shall be undertaken below temperatures of minus 5
degrees celsius.

TS - 24
Technical Specifications

8.6.4 TABLE - 1

TYPES AND TOLERANCES FOR FINISHING OF CONCRETE SURFACES

Type of General Areas of Application and Method of Forming Tolerance


Finish mm

F1 Formed surfaces of construction joints and other surfaces which will not be permanently +10
exposed. The surface will require no treatment after form removal, other than repair of
defective concrete and specified curing, or treatment as specified for construction joints.

F2 All permanently exposed formed surfaces for which type F3 finish is not specified. For +5
which sheating or lining shall be placed so that joint marks on the concrete surface will be -5
in general alignment, both horizontally and vertically, and conform to a standard pattern.
Immediately on the removal of forms, all unslightly ridges or fines shall be removed, all
holes left by removal of ends of forms rods shall be neatly filled with mortar and surfaces
treated to meet the required tolerances by tooling and rubbing.

F3 Formed surfaces which will be exposed to flowing water. These surfaces shall be hard, +3
smooth and dense, free from offsets, pits, voids, air holes irregularities, and shall be -3
chipped, ground and thoroughly cleaned as necessary to conform to the required
tolerances.

U1 Unformed, screeded surfaces which will be covered by fill materials, static water or + 10
concrete. Type U1 finish shall be used as the first stage. Types U2 and U3 as finishes.
Finishing shall consist of sufficient levelling and screeded to produce an even, uniform
surface meeting the required tolerance.

U2 Unformed surfaces not permanently concealed by fill or concrete or not required to +5


receive type U3 finish. Floating by means of hand or power-driven equipment shall be -5
started as soon as the screeded surface has stiffened sufficiently, and shall be the
minimum necessary to produce a surface that is free from screed marks and that Type of
General Areas of Application and is uniform in texture. If type U3 finish is to be applied,
floating shall be continued until a small amount of mortar without excess water is brought
to the surface so as to permit effective trowelling.

U3 Unformed, screeded surfaces which will be exposed to flowing water. This finish shall be +3
applied by steel trowelling after the concrete has hardened enough to prevent excess of -3
fine materials and water from being worked to the surface free from blemishes, ripples
and trowel marks. After the surface has nearly hardened, it shall be trowelled once more
until the surface is hard and glossy in appearance.

TS - 25
Technical Specifications

8.7MEASUREMENT:

8.7.1The limits of the various pay items specified herein shall be as shown on the drawings, and as
required by the Engineer.

8.7.2Measurement for payment for placing concrete shall be made of the volume, in cubic meters,
within the neat lines of concrete or within the neat lines of concrete and rock paylines, in the
various structures, as shown on the drawings or as required or determined by the Engineer.

8.8PAYMENT:

8.8.1Payment will be made at the respective unit prices for supplying, mixing, transporting, placing,
compacting, curing and finishing concrete, complete in every respect, and as specified herein.

8.8.2All associated works to concrete placement, such as removal of forms and repair and finishing of
concrete shall be completed as soon as practicable after concrete is placed. Concrete will not
be considered for payment until all associated work has been completed to the satisfaction of
the Engineer.

8.8.3The Contractor shall not be paid for the concrete wasted due to the fault of the Contractor, nor for
concrete used in areas of overbreak due to the Contractor's negligence. However, in cases of
overbreaks, which occur entirely due to geological reasons which cannot be controlled by the
Contractor and subject to the satisfaction of the Engineer, concrete back filling shall be done by
the Contractor for which only the cost of cement used shall be reimbursed to the Contractor.
The cost of other materials such as aggregates, water and all labor for mixing, handling and
placement work etc. shall be borne by the Contractor.

8.8.4No separate payment will be made for adding admixtures to concrete.

8.8.5No deductions shall be made in the quantity of concrete for embedments in the concrete steel
supports and accessories, reinforcement steel, pipes and miscellaneous metal works but
deductions shall be made for recesses, openings and cavities provided in the concrete.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 9

REINFORCEMENT

9.1SCOPE OF WORK:

9.1.1The work includes supplying, cutting, bending, binding, welding and placing in position high yield
strength deformed bars and plain mild steel bars as reinforcement for concrete to be placed at
various locations.

9.2DEFINITIONS:

9.2.1The items covered under this specification are as under:

Providing and fixing in position, steel high yield strength deformed bars and plain mild steel bars for
reinforcement including cutting, bending, placing in position, binding and all other operations.

9.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

9.3.1The items of work falling within the scope of work under this section shall be executed in
accordance with the Pakistan Standard Specifications (latest edition) given under:

-Specification for mild steel wire for General the Engineering purposes
-Specification for mild steel and medium tensile steel bars and hard drawn steel wire for
concrete reinforcement
-Mild steel and medium tensile steel bars Hard drawn steel wire
-Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete
-Specification for covered electrodes for metal arc welding of structural steel
-For welding products other than sheets
-For welding sheets
-Hot rolled mild steel medium tensile steel and high yield strength steel deformed bar for
concrete reinforcement
-Specification for cold worked steel high yield strength deformed bars for concrete
reinforcement
-Code of practice for bending and fixing of bar for concrete reinforcement
-Code of practice for welding of mild steel bars used for reinforced concrete construction
-Recommendation for detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete works
-Recommendations for welding cold worked bars for reinforced concrete construction.

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Technical Specifications

9.4 MATERIALS

9.4.1Ribbed steel bars have to be according British Standards BS: 4461:1969 in nominal diameters as
shown below.

USEFUL DATA

Size Area Wt. Perimeter Length per Minimum


(mm) (cm 2) kg/metre (cm.) ton (meter) bend radius

6 0.283 0.222 1.89 4510


8 0.503 0.395 2.51 2532
10 0.785 0.617 3.14 1621
12 1.131 0.888 3.77 1125
14 1.539 1.208 4.40 829
16 2.011 1.578 5.03 633
18 2.545 2.000 5.65 500 4d
20 3.142 2.466 6.28 405
22 3.801 2.980 6.91 336
25 4.909 3.854 7.85 260 ___________
28 6.157 4.830 8.80 207
32 8.042 6.313 10.05 159
36 10.179 7.990 11.31 125 6d
40 12.566 9.864 12.57 101
50 19.635 15.410 15.71 65

9.4.2Mild steel bars have to be according to BS : 4449 : 1969 which will be used in special cases only
as directed by the Engineer.

9.5WORK PROCEDURES

9.5.1GENERAL:

9.5.1.1Steel reinforcing bars shall be placed in concrete where shown on the drawings or directed by
the Engineer. The drawings issued with these specifications show only in part the requirement
of reinforcement and further drawings will be issued by the Engineer during the course of the
contract. The Contractor shall prepare and furnish for approval drawings indicating the bar
bending details and reinforcement bar lists for all structures.

9.5.1.2Not less than 30 days prior to placement of reinforcement, the Contractor shall submit to the
Engineer, for approval three prints and a reproducible of each of his reinforcement detail
drawings. The Contractor's drawings shall show necessary details for checking the bars during
placement and for use in establishing payment quantities. Reinforcement bars shall conform to
requirements shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer. The approval of the
Engineer to the Contractor's reinforcement detail drawings shall not relieve the Contractor of
his responsibility for the correctness of details or for conformance with the requirements of
these specifications.

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Technical Specifications

9.5.2CUTTING, BENDING AND BINDING:

9.5.2.1The Contractor shall be responsible for the accuracy of the cutting, bending and placing of the
reinforcement. Reinforcement will be inspected for compliance with the requirements as to
grade, size, shape, length, splicing locations, position and amount after it has been placed. No
concreting shall be started unless the reinforcement as placed in the work is finally checked,
recorded and certified by the Engineer.

9.5.2.2Before the reinforcement is placed, the surfaces of the bars and the surfaces of any metal bar
supports shall be cleaned of heavy rust, loose mill scale, dirt, grease and other objectionable
foreign substances. Heavy flaky rust which can be removed by firm rubbing with burlap or
equivalent treatment is considered objectionable. After being placed, the reinforcing bars shall
be maintained in a clean condition until they are completely embedded in the concrete.

9.5.2.3Reinforcing bars shall be accurately placed and secured in position so that there will be a clear
distance of at least 25 mm between the bars and any adjacent embedded metal work and the
bars and fabric will not be displaced during the placing of concrete. The Contractor shall also
ensure that there is no disturbance of the reinforcing bars in concrete that has already been
placed.

9.5.2.4Wire for binding reinforcement shall be of soft and annealed mild steel. Binding wire shall have
tensile strength of not less than 51 kg/mm 2. The wire shall have minimum diameter of 1 mm.
Chairs, hangers, spacers and other supports for reinforcement may be of concrete, metal and
other approved material. Where portion of such supports will be exposed on concrete surface
designated to receive F2 or F3 finish, the exposed portion of support shall be galvanized or
other corrosion - resistant material except that concrete support will not be permitted. Such
supports shall not be exposed on surfaces designated to receive the finish. Unless otherwise
shown on the drawings, the reinforcement in structures shall be so placed that there will be a
clear distance of at least 25 mm between the reinforcement and any anchor bolts, form ties or
other embedded metal work. The minimum allowable clearance between parallel round bars
shall not be less than 1.5 times the diameter of the larger bar and for square bars shall not be
less than twice the side dimension of the larger bar or 1.5 times the maximum size of
aggregate whichever is greater. Bars crossing each other where required shall be secured by
binding wire in such a manner that they do not slip over each other at the time of fixing and
concreting. Wire used for binding reinforcement will not be measured for payment.

9.5.3SPLICING:

9.5.3.1Where it is necessary to splice reinforcement, the splices shall be made by lapping, by welding
or by mechanical means.

9.5.3.2Joints or splices in reinforcing bars shall generally be made at the positions shown on the
drawings, but the Contractor would be permitted to make joints or splices at positions other
than those shown on the drawings, provided that such positions are approved by the Engineer
and that joints and splices in adjacent bars are staggered if directed by the Engineer. Approval
of such additional splices will generally be restricted to splices not closer than 8 m in horizontal
bars or 4 m in vertical bars measured between mid point of laps. The number of splices shall
be kept to a minimum.

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Technical Specifications

9.5.3.3If the Contractor proposes to use welded splices in reinforcing bars, the equipment, the materials
and all welding and testing procedures shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer. The
Contractor shall carry out test welds as required by the Engineer.

9.5.3.4If the Contractor proposes to use mechanical couplings for reinforcing bars, he shall submit
samples of the proposed couplings to the Engineer for approval not less than 69 days prior to
their proposed use.

9.5.4CARE OF PLACED REINFORCEMENT AND CONCRETE:

9.5.4.1Where reinforcement bars are bent aside at construction joints and afterwards bent back into
their original position, care shall be taken to ensure that at no time the radius of the bend is less
than 6 diameters for deformed bars and 4 diameters for plain mild steel bars. Care shall also
be taken, when bending back bars, to ensure that the concrete around the bar is not damaged.

9.6 QUALITY CONTROL

9.6.1Prior to placing the concrete all reinforcing bars placed shall be checked by the Engineer.

9.6.2If any misplacement is found the Contractor shall remove the bars and place the right ones. In
case of complicated dismantling the Engineer may allow for correction of the situation by
placing additional bars in the right shape where required. This will be without any cost to the
Employer.

9.6.3The Contractor has to keep the reinforcement bars pleas as described in item 9.5.2.2. The
removal of all dirt and foreign substances is the responsibility of the Contractor without any cost
to the Employer.

9.7MEASUREMENT

9.7.1Measurement for payment, of furnishing and placing reinforcing bars will be made only of the
calculated weight of the bars placed in concrete, in accordance with the drawings or as directed
by the Engineer. The calculated weight for reinforcing bars shall be determined as follows:

a)The calculated weight of reinforcing bars shall be based on standard weight per unit length of
reinforcing bars given in the Standards for indigenous steel reinforcement bars and
standard weight per unit length of reinforcing bars indicated by the manufacturers for
imported steel reinforcement bars.

b)All other joints or splices shown on the drawings or directed by the Engineer will be measured
as laps. Mechanical couplings, approved by the Engineer, will be measured for payment, in
terms of length of equivalent lap joint. Additional joints or splices will not be measured for
payment.

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Technical Specifications

9.8PAYMENT

9.8.1Payment for furnishing and placing reinforcement bars will be made at the rate tendered. The rate
shall include the cost of preparing reinforcement detailed drawings including bar placing
drawings and bar bending diagrams; of submitting the drawings to the Employer, of preparing
all necessary bar list and cutting list; of furnishing and attaching wire ties and metal or other
approved supports, if used; and of cutting, bending, cleaning, securing and maintaining in
position all reinforcing bars as shown on the drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 10

FORM WORK

10.1SCOPE OF WORK:

10.1.1The work to be done shall comprise of supply of all labor, plant and materials, and the
performance of all work necessary for the design, supply, fabrication, erection, maintenance
and removal of formwork and falsework to form concrete, as shown on the drawings, as
required by the Engineer and as specified herein.

10.2DEFINITIONS:

10.2.1"Forms" or "formwork" shall mean the mould into which concrete is placed.

10.2.2"Falsework" or "shoring" shall mean the structural supports and bracing for forms used in any part
of the works.

10.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

NOT USED

10.4MATERIALS:

10.4.1All materials used in formwork construction shall be of adequate strength and quality for their
intended purpose and shall be to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

10.4.2Timber shall be sound, straight, free from warp, decay and loose knots, and shall be dressed
smooth.

10.4.3Where plywood is used, it shall be non-warping, non- wrinkling and manufactured with special
water-proof glues. Plywood sheets shall be of uniform width and length.

10.4.4The surface of steel or steel-lined forms shall be smooth. Forms with dents, buckled areas or
other surface irregularities shall not be used.

10.4.5Reuse of forms and form lumber will be allowed only if they are thoroughly cleaned and repaired
and capable of producing the finish required for the concrete. Timber or plywood forms repaired
with metal patches shall not be used for forming surfaces other than those for which F1 finish is
required.

10.4.6Damaged forms or forms which have deteriorated through usage shall not be used.

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Technical Specifications

10.5 WORK PROCEDURES

10.5.1DESIGN AND ERECTION OF FORMWORK:

10.5.1.1Forms and falsework shall be designed, fabricated, erected and removed in


accordance with Standards, as required by the Engineer and as specified
herein.

10.5.1.2All falsework shall be designed to withstand safely all live and dead loads which might
be applied to the falsework during all stages of construction, service and
removal.

10.5.1.3The Contractor shall be solely responsible for the design, construction and
maintenance of any and all formwork and falsework required in the work.

10.5.1.4Detailed drawings of shoring and falsework shall be prepared by the Contractor. The
calculations and drawings shall show the size and specification of the
falsework, including the type and grade of all materials used in the
construction, design loads on falsework supports, horizontal forces imposed
on the falsework and used for design purpose, and details of splices and
connections, including nails, spikes and other fasteners. If mechanical
equipment such as concrete buggies of screeding machines are to be used,
this information shall be shown on the drawings.

10.5.1.5Falsework shall be constructed only after the falsework drawings have been accepted
by the Engineer.

10.5.1.6Four copies of the detailed falsework drawings and calculations shall be submitted to
the Engineer for review. Review by the Engineer of the Contractor's drawings
and calculations shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for the
adequacy of form and falsework, or for the safety of persons or property, or
for the successful completion of the work.

10.5.1.7The Contractor shall construct the falsework in strict accordance with the accepted
falsework drawings, one set of which shall be kept at the site at all times, and
no changes will be allowed without prior written acceptance of such change
by the Engineer.

10.5.1.8Forms shall be designed to permit the concrete to be deposited as nearly as is


practicable directly in its final position, and to allow inspection, checking and
clean-up of the formwork and reinforcement to be completed without delay.

10.5.1.9Formwork and falsework shall be designed, constructed, erected and maintained such
as to confine the concrete without loss of mortar and produce finished
surfaces which are within the tolerances specified.

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Technical Specifications

10.5.1.10Forms for concrete against which backfill is to be placed or which will not be exposed to
view may be constructed of smooth tight boards not less than 25 mm nominal
thickness.

10.5.1.11Forms for concrete exposed to flow of water or exposed to view shall be constructed of
steel or plywood which is smooth and free from defects with matched and sanded
joints to give a symmetrical pattern over the entire area. Chamfer strips, 35 mm by 35
mm, shall be used on all exposed corners, unless otherwise specified or required by
the Engineer.

10.5.1.12Form ties, supports, anchors, braces, spreaders and other similar devices which will be
embedded in the concrete shall incorporate threaded metal bars to facilitate removal of
forms. Wood spreaders shall not be left in the forms. Any metal remaining embedded
in the concrete shall be at least 40 mm from the surface of concrete. Holes left in the
concrete by removal of parts of form ties or similar devices shall be well filled with
cement mortar and neatly finished.

10.5.1.13Form inserts or other similar permanently embedded items shall be accurately located
and securely fastened in place. The number and location of form ties and bolts shall be
such as to ensure that forms fit tightly against the concrete previously placed and
remain in tight contact during operations.

10.5.1.14Forms shall be set and maintained within the specified tolerance limits so that the
complete concrete surfaces are within these limits.

10.5.1.15All form surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned before erection and shall be lubricated
with a non-staining mineral oil. All excess oil shall be wiped off the forms prior to
placement of concrete. Oil shall not be allowed to come into contact with reinforcing
steel or other embedded items.

10.5.1.16Immediately before concrete is placed, all forms shall be inspected to ensure that they
are properly placed, sufficiently rigid, clean, tight, properly surface treated and free
from excess of oil or other foreign materials. No concrete shall be placed until
formwork has been inspected and accepted by the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 11

CYCLOPEAN CONCRETE

11.1 SCOPE OF WORK

11.1.1The work to be done shall comprise of the supply of all labour, plant and material, and the
performance of all work necessary for supplying, mixing, transporting from the batching plant,
placing, compacting, curing and finishing cyclopean concrete, and cleaning and preparing
construction joints, as shown on the drawings, as required by the Engineer and as specified
herein.

11.2 DEFINITIONS:

11.2.1General

11.2.1.1"Cement" shall mean ordinary Portland cement as specified herein, in bulk or in 50 kg


paper/jute bags.

11.2.1.2"Water-cement ratio" shall mean the ratio of the weight of water contained in a freshly mixed
batch of concrete to the weight of cement contained in the same batch. The weight of water
shall mean that weight in the batch which is free to combine with the cement, but does not
include water absorbed by aggregates.

11.2.1.3The "cement content" of concrete shall mean the number of kilograms of cement per cubic
meter of concrete in place complete.

11.2.1.4"Secondary concrete" shall mean concrete placed in blockouts and used to embed items such
as sill beams, gate guides, etc., after primary concrete has been placed. "Primary concrete"
shall mean all concrete which is not classified as secondary concrete or shotcrete.

11.2.1.5Whenever a particular standard is specified, its latest revision/edition shall be referred to.

11.2.2 COMPOSITION OF CYCLOPEAN CONCRETE

Cyclopean concrete shall be composed of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and
permitted admixtures, stones, blocks up to a diameter of 50 cm, as specified herein and as
required by the Engineer.

11.2.3 CONCRETE AND CONCRETE CONSTITUENTS:

- As per Section - 8, 8.2.3.

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Technical Specifications

11.3 GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

- As per Section - 8, 8.3.

11.4 MATERIALS

11.4.1 As per Section - 8, 8.4.

11.4.2In addition to the normal prepared concrete the cyclopean concrete will consist of stones and
blocks up to diameter of 50 cm.

11.5 WORK PROCEDURES

11.5.1 - As per Section - 8, 8.5.1.

11.5.2 - As per Section - 8, 8.5.2.

11.5.3 - As per Section - 8, 8.5.3.

11.5.4 - As per Section - 8, 8.5.4.

11.5.5 PREPARATION FOR PLACING

11.5.5.1 - As per Section - 8, 8.5.5.

11.5.5.2 - As per Section - 8, 8.5.5.

11.5.5.3To avoid form work the Contractor is allowed to build the contours of the construction out of
course rubble masonry in advance. After the outer contours are dried up sufficiently he is
allowed to fill the inner space with primary concrete and add stones and blocks in each layer
of concrete.

11.5.6 - As per Section - 8, 8.5.6.

11.5.7- As per Section - 8, 8.5.7.

11.5.8 FINISHING OF CYCLOPEAN CONCRETE

11.5.8.1If the vertical contours are built out of course rubble masonry as described under 11.5.5.3 no
finishing is required.

11.5.8.2The outer parts at the top of the construction shall be covered with ashlar blocks in coarse
masonry, set in cement mortar (1:3).

11.5.8.3If the vertical contours are built up with form work the Contractor must follow the instructions as
described under Section - 8, 8.5.8.

11.5.9 - As per Section - 8, 8.5.9.

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Technical Specifications

11.5.10 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS

There will be construction joints (block joints) in cyclopean concrete in some of the structures. The
construction joints shall be carried out in accordance per Section - 8, 8.5.10 and Section -21.

11.5.11 REPAIR OF CONCRETE

- As per Section - 8, 8.5.11.

11.6 QUALITY CONTROL

- As per Section - 8, 8.6.

The tolerances as per Table-1 in Section - 8, 8.6.5, are not valid for cyclopean concrete.

11.7 MEASUREMENT

- As per Section - 8, 8.7.

11.8 PAYMENT

- As per Section - 8, 8.8.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 12

STONE MASONRY

12.1 SCOPE OF WORK

12.1.1The work under this section includes first class stone masonry in walls, both internal and external
of any thickness and height as well as in foundations, bottom slabs and arches shown on the
drawings. The stone masonry shall be carried out in cement, sand mortar of proportion
specified in the Bill of Quantities.

12.2 STONE MASONRY

12.2.1Stone masonry is the art of building in stone. In order to reduce expenses involved in the cutting
and dressing of stone, only the face stones are dressed. The interior or hearting is made up
with smaller stones roughly positioned with a hammer or backed up with concrete or
brickwork. In most of the cases, stones of varying dimensions are used, which makes it a
matter of great skill to obtain a proper bond in the work. Owing to the irregular shape of
materials the walls have also to be built considerably thicker than walls of the same height in
brick, except the walls made of fine dressed coursed stones. The large dimensions in which
stone may be obtained, render it superior to brick for a building of architectural value and
make it possible to have cornices of great projection and other bold features characteristic of
classic styles. The comparatively large size of the blocks gives scale to the subject which is
destroyed by the numerous joints inevitable with brickwork. It requires considerable
experience to determine the appropriate size of blocks of stone to be used in a certain
position and to ensure that they will conform to the general scale of the building. for instance
very small stone used in the plinth of a huge building would look shabby and ridiculous.

12.2.2ASHLAR BLOCK IN COURSE MASONRY - This is the type of masonry used for harbour walls,
embankments and similar heavy works. The stones are usually rock faced, square, brought to
wide joints, and set in cement mortar 1:3 or hydraulic lime mortar (1 of lime and 2 of sand).

12.2.3COURSE RUBBLE MASONRY - It is frequently used for the smallest sizes of bridge abutments,
small arch culverts, box and open culverts, wallings for unimportant buildings, foundations of
buildings and backings of ashlar masonry. It is composed of roughly shaped stone fittings,
approximate on level beds and wall bonded. When carefully executed with good mortar, the
masonry possesses the strength and durability required.

12.2.4RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY - This class of masonry is used for less important types of walls,
like boundary walls. Stones are hammer dressed on the face, sides and beds to an extent
that they come into close proximity.

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Technical Specifications

12.3 GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

12.3.1The material used and workmanship applied in works shall be of highest quality and conform with
the code of practice applicable in the area and as per directions of the Engineer and details
made out in the drawings, specifications and the BOQ.

12.3.2Usually stones have a granulated structure and a low tensional and shearing resistance. They
should, therefore, always be laid keeping the following points in view:

1.that they resist compressional stresses.

2.that they have their laminae at right angles or thereabouts to the pressure.

3.that with side thrusts, the mass of stone must be so disposed that its weight when
compounded with the thrust will give a resultant that will fall within the middle third of
the bed joint.

4.that eccentric vertical loads such as from ends of beams should always have their centre of
pressure within the middle third of the wall to avoid tensional stresses.

5.that laminated stones should never be laid with their laminae planes parallel to the face of
the wall, otherwise there is a danger of scaling.

12.4 MATERIALS

12.4.1Stone shall be procured from an approved source. Approved sample of the stone shall be
retained as a standard of material to be furnished at the site of work. All stone used in the
work shall be equal in all respects to the approved samples.

12.4.2For ashlar block in course masonry the stone shall be rough tooled on all beds and joints so as to
give rectangular shape. Faces shall be accurately square and all face joints dressed at right
angle to the face for a distance of 4 inches.

12.4.3For coursed rubble masonry

1.The stone shall be laid in horizontal courses not less than 15 cm in height. All stones in a
course shall be of equal height and all courses of the same height, unless otherwise
specified. But no course shall be thicker than the course below it. All stones shall be set
full in specified mortar in beds and joints.

12.4.4 For Random Rubble Masonry

The stone shall be hammer dressed on the face and on the sides and beds to such an extent that weak
corners are chipped off and the stones come into close proximity, when laid. Each stone shall
be laid on its quarry bed and shall be wedged or pinned strongly into position in the wall by
spawls or chips which may show on the face.

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Technical Specifications

12.4.5 Mortar

12.4.5.1Mortar shall be cement sand mortar and its ingredients shall be mixed in proportion as
specified in the BOQ shall be by volume except when directed otherwise by the Engineer.

12.4.5.2Cement and sand shall be thoroughly mixed in a dry state on a pucca platform, in trough or a
mixer and appropriate quantity of water added to make the mortar of workable consistency.
The mortar in single batch shall be of quantity which could be used within 30 minutes of
mixing water. Such mortar which has not been used within 30 minutes of addition of water
shall be discarded. The mixing platform or trough shall be thoroughly washed and cleaned at
the close of the day's work.

12.4.5.3Portland cement shall conform to B.S.12 or as specified under Section - 8, 8.4.1.

12.4.5.4Sand and other fine aggregate shall be as specified under Section - 8, 8.4.2.2.

12.4.5.5Water shall be clean, free from any organic impurities acids, alkalies, greasy or oily
substances, either in solution or in suspension as specified under Section - 8, 8.4.2.5.

12.4.5.6 Mix Proportions

Cement Mortars: Quantities of cement and dry sand required per cubic meter of wet mortar:

Mix Sand per 100 kg


Proportions Cement Sand of Cement
Cement : Sand kg cu. m cu. m

1:1 1020 0.71 0.07


1:2 680 0.95 0.14
1:3 510 1.05 0.21
1:4 380 1.05 0.28
1:5 310 1.05 0.34
1:6 250 1.05 0.42
1:7 220 1.05 0.48
1:8 200 1.05 0.54

The quantities of cement given are only average and inclusive of wastage, good for practical purposes.
The actual quantity of cement varies according to the fineness of the sand used. Fine sands
need more cement than coarse sands. Well graded sands need much less cement. Cement
occupies the voids in the sand. Water also occupies space. Where white cement and marble
dust are used for decorative plaster, the same quantities of cement and marble dust, instead
of sand, are used.

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Technical Specifications

12.5 WORK PROCEDURES

12.5.1GENERAL

12.5.1.1Before use, all stone shall be soaked in clean water in a tank or a pit for at least 2 hours, except
in case of masonry in mud mortar where dry stone shall be used.

12.5.1.2i)Every stone shall be laid in the work on its natural quarry bed or in such a manner that the
stresses borne by it come normal to such bed.

ii)Whenever possible, the entire masonry in any structure shall be carried up at uniform level.
Where breaks are unavoidable, joints shall be made in gradual steps. Cross
walls shall be carefully bonded into the main wall and all junctions of wall shall
be formed at the time the walls are being built.

iii)Each stone shall be set with both bed and vertical joints filled with mortar, except in case of
dry stone pitching or masonry, and thoroughly bedded in.

iv)All masonry shall be taken up truly plumb or at the specified slope in the case of batter.

v)Quoins and jambs shall be laid at a true right angle to the bed, the corners being straight
and vertical. In the case of masonry with hammer dressed stone, a chisel draft
one-inch wide shall be given on each external face to allow accurate plumbing.
Quoins shall be laid headers and stretchers alternately.

vi)Jambs for door and window openings shall be formed with quoins of the full height of the
course. The length and breadth of the quoins shall be at least 2-1/2 times and
1-1/4 times the depth of the course respectively. For door openings three, and
for window openings two, of these quoins shall be stone of full thickness of wall.
Door and window frames shall be let into 1/2 inch chassis in the quoins.

12.5.1.3Holdfasts and similar fixtures shall be built in with the surrounding stone masonry in their
correct position in specified mortar. These shall be built in as the work progresses and not
inserted later on into space left for them.

12.5.1.4All lintels and inside stone, not to be plastred over, shall be of the full width of the wall in which
they are laid, including the thickness of the plastered face or faces.

12.5.1.5Door and window openings shall have flat or relieving arches or lintels spanning across them as
shown on the drawing or as specified.

12.5.1.6The Contractor shall provide all scaffolding, staging, ladders, etc., necessary for the work. All
walls or other stone masonry of the building shall be securely braced and protected against
damages by wind and storms during construction. No extra rate will be paid for this item of
work.

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Technical Specifications

12.5.2 ASHLAR BLOCK IN COURSE MASONRY

12.5.2.1Each course shall const of stones of even thickness and no course shall be less than 6 inches
in height. Stones shall break joints on the face by at least half the height of the course. No
course shall be greater in height than the one below it. No stones in face, except closer, shall
have less breadth than height. No stone shall tail into the wall less than its height and at least
1/3rd of the face stones shall tail into the wall twice their height.

12.5.2.2All courses shall be laid with beds truly horizontal and joints truly vertical. Each bed and joint
shall be full of the mortar specified and each stone shall be struck with a wooden maul to
bring it to a solid bearing. No face joint shall be thicker than 6 mm.

12.5.2.3In walls less than 0.6 m thick, through stone shall be inserted at every course at 1.5 m intervals
breaking joints with similar stone in course above and below. In walls more than 0.6 m thick
through stone shall overlap each other by at least 15 cm.

12.5.3 COURSED RUBBLE MASONRY

12.5.3.1The face stone shall be square on all joints in masonry. The bed shall be hammer or chisel-
dressed, true and square, for at least 3 inches back from the face, and the joints for at least 4
cm. The face of the stone shall be hammer dressed and "bushing" not to project more than 4
cm.

12.5.3.2All side joints shall be vertical and beds horizontal, and no joint shall be more than 9 mm in
thickness. No pinning shall be allowed on face.

12.5.3.3No face stone shall be less in breadth than its height, nor shall it tail into the work to a length
less than its height; at least 1/3rd of the stone shall tail into the work at least twice its height or
in walls thicker than 0.6 m, three times its height.

12.5.3.4Through stones shall be inserted 1.5 m to 1.8 m apart in every course, and shall run right
through the wall, not more than 0.6 m thick. When the wall is more than 0.6 m thick, a line of
two or more headers shall be laid from face to back, which shall overlap each other at least
15 cm. The headers shall have a length of at three times the height.

12.5.3.5Stone shall break joint by at least half the height of the course.

12.5.3.6Quoins shall be of the same height as the course in which they occur, shall be formed of stone
at least 4.5 cm long and shall be laid stretcher and header alternately. They shall be laid
square on their beds which shall be fairly dressed to a depth of at least 10 cm.

12.5.3.7The work on the interior face shall be precisely the same as on the exterior face, except that
side joints need not be vertical.

12.5.3.8The interior of the wall, called hearting, shall consist of flat-bedded stones carefully laid on their
proper beds and solidly bedded in mortar. Chips and spawls of stones are wedged in,
wherever necessary, so as to avoid thick beds or joints of mortar. No dry work or hollow
spaces shall be left anywhere in the masonry. The face work and hearting shall be brought up
evenly, but the hearting shall not be levelled up at each course by the use of chips.

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Technical Specifications

12.5.4RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY

12.5.4.1No stone shall tail into the wall less than 1-1/2 times its height. The stone shall be arranged to
break joints as much as possible. Care shall be taken to avoid long continuous vertical joints.

12.5.4.2One header stone shall be inserted at least every 0.5 m 2 of the surface (face) and shall run
right through the wall if it is not more than 0.6 m thick. If the wall is more than 0.6 m thick, a
line of headers shall be laid from face to back which shall overlap each other at least 15 cm.

12.5.4.3Hearting or interior filling between the front and back face shall consist of rubble stone, not less
than 15 cm in any direction, carefully laid, hammered down with a wooden mallet into place
and solidly bedded in mortar. Chips and spawls of stone shall be used, wherever necessary,
so as to avoid thick beds or joints of mortar. No dry work or hollow spaces shall be left
anywhere in the body of the masonry. Hearting shall be laid nearly level with each course
except that at about 0.9 m interval vertical "plumbs" projecting 15 to 23 cm shall be firmly
embodied to form a bond between successive courses. Hearting shall not be brought to the
same level as the front and back stones by the use of chips. The use of chips shall be
restricted to only wedges in the hearting.

12.6 QUALITY CONTROL

12.6.1The regulations laid down in 12.5.1 will be checked. In case the quality of the surface of the walls
is not sufficient and according to the specifications, the Engineer may order plaster to cover
and seal the surface of the walls and floors to achieve the required quality. This work, when
not specified in the Contract, will be done by the Contractor with no expense to the Employer.

12.6.1Special control will be put on the preparation and proper use of mortar as specified under 12.4.5
of this section.

12.7 MEASUREMENT

12.7.1Measurement will be done to work out the volume of work constructed.

12.8 PAYMENT

12.8.1Payment will be at the respective unit prices of volume already constructed.

12.8.2The cost of material, labour, curing, mortar, scaffolding and appliances at site and all operations
in connection with the installation of stone work in accordance with the drawings, finishing
schedules and as specified above shall be included in the unit prices given in the BOQ for
different items.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 13

SURFACE RENDERING

13.1 SCOPE OF WORK

The work under this section includes the following types of surface renderings to be provided to Walls
and Surfaces prior to applying any surface finishings.

a)Cement plastering to Internal and External Walls.

b)Cement pointing to exposed brick/block Walls.

13.2 DEFINITION

Plaster is a material used in a plastic state, which can be trowelled to form a hard covering for interior
or exterior surfaces, walls, ceilings, etc., in any building or structure.

13.2.2Pointing is the filling of horizontal and vertical joints in stone work or brick work after erection of
the construction.

13.3 GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

13.3.1Except as otherwise specified, plaster work shall be in conformity with B.S. 5492 "Internal
Plastering" and B.S. 5262 "External rendered finishes" as applicable to work shown on
drawings and specified.

13.4 MATERIALS

13.4.1Cement shall be as specified under Section - 8, 8.4.1.

13.4.2Sand shall be of medium coarse grain obtained from local approved quarries subject to the
approval of the Engineer. It shall conform with B.S. 1198 (1976) and as described under
Section - 8, 8.4.2.2.

13.4.3Water shall be as specified under Section - 8, 8.4.2.5.

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Technical Specifications

13.4.4Mortars for plastering should have the following proportions by volume of dry material:

Cement Sand Lime Paste

General 1 2 to 6
Watertight mortar 1 2 to 3 1/3 to 1/2
Under coat 1 4 to 6 1
Finishing coat 1 9 2
Watertight finishing 1 10 to 12 3
for chimney breasts 1 8 to 10 3

14.4.5 Mortars for pointing:

Normally, pointing is done with mortar having the following mix ratios:

Cement Sand Lime Paste Surkhi

Outside work 1 1 to 3 - -
1/3 - 1 1 to 2
- 1 1 1/2 to 1

14.4.6 Cement Mortors

- As per Section -12, 12.4.5.6.

13.5 WORK PROCEDURES

13.5.1 PLASTERING

13.5.1.1Preparation of Surface: The surface on which plaster is to be applied should be in case of brick
walls properly raked and wetted before application of plaster. In case of concrete face to
receive plaster, all surface shall be properly roughened by dragging wire brushes while the
concrete surface is still raw or by hacking if the surface had hardened so that 40% of the
surface is roughened to approval. This is included in the rate of plaster.

13.5.1.2Plastering: Plaster work shall be done in conformity with British Standard 5492 "Internal
Plastering" and B.S. 5262 "External Rendered Finishes". All tools should be cleaned by
scrapping and washing at the end of each day's work, or before use. Metal tools should be
cleaned after each operation. All tools should be examined and thoroughly cleaned before
plastering is begun.

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Technical Specifications

13.5.1.3All corners and arrises shall be rounded if required while plastering and the rate of plaster is
inclusive of this proviso. The plaster shall be laid to a true and plumb surface and tested
frequently with plumb-bob and straight edge not less than 3 m in length. All horizontal lines
and surfaces shall be tested with a level and all jambs and corners with a plumb-bob as the
work proceeds. All mouldings shall be worked true to template and shall be neat clean, level
and parallel, or truly plumb as the case may be.

13.5.1.4Wherever a thickness of more than 20 mm is specified, it shall be applied in 2 coats, rendering


coat and final coat. The rendering coat shall be carried to full length of walls or natural
breaking points. No vertical or horizontal joints which show themselves shall be permissible.
The rendering coat shall be roughened with waving lines drawn by wire brushes when wet to
provide bond for final coat. The final coat shall be applied only after the rendering coat has
been properly cured. Before final coat is applied the rendering coat shall be properly wetted.
The final coat shall then be applied and finished with wooden floats/steel floats to present
smooth and uniform surface.

13.5.1.5All putlog holes shall be filled up in advance of the plastering as the scaffolding is being taken
down. The plaster shall be kept wet for 10 days after completion.

13.5.1.6Patching: Plaster containing cracks, blisters, pits, etc. or discolouration will not be acceptable.
Such plaster shall be removed and replaced with plaster conforming to this specifications and
approved by the Engineer. Patching of defective work will be permitted only when approved
by the Engineer and such patching shall match existing work in texture and colour.

13.5.1.7Floating Coat: Plastering coat of moist cement if specified in schedule of quantities shall be
carried out as follows:

Immediately after the surface has been plastered and while the plaster is still green a floating coat of
moist cement shall be applied on it and the surface rubbed smooth with steel trowel. No
trowel marks are to be left on the surface. If trowel marks are visible after the surface has
been finished it may be required to be dismantled and redone.

No payment for the work dismantled will be made.

13.5.1.8Mortar: The mortar mix for plaster work shall be as specified in the Bill of Quantities and
prepared in manner laid down for preparation of mortar for stone work in Section - 12, 12.4.5,
12.4.5.6 and under this Section 13.4.4.

13.5.2 POINTING

13.5.2.1Preparation of Surface: The surface shall be prepared in the same manner as described for
plaster work and if the joints are not properly struck as the work proceeded they shall be
raked out before the mortar sets. The surface prepared shall be inspected and approved by
the Engineer before actual pointing work is started.

13.5.2.2Pointing: Unless otherwise specified, may be of the following type of pointing suitable or as
shown on the drawings and shall be done on the exposed surfaces of brick work or block
masonry walls.

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Technical Specifications

i)Deep struck pointing


ii)Ruled pointing.

13.5.2.3Mortar: The mortar mix shall be as specified in the Bill of Quantities and prepared in manner
laid down for preparation of mortar for stone work in Section - 12, 12.4.5, 12.4.5.6 and under
this Section 13.4.5.

13.5.2.4Pointing Tools: The pointing tools for horizontal joints shall be such as to form weathered and
struck joints and for vertical joints, triangles, so as to make a (v) notch in the joint. Care shall
be taken not to develop a cutting edge in the tools since the idea is to compress the green
mortar into the joints and not to cut it away.

13.5.2.5Edges of bricks/Blocks: The mortar shall not be spread irregularly over the edges and corners
of the bricks/blocks which shall be left clearly visible. The practice of smearing mortar over
defects of bricks/blocks to hide them shall not be allowed and shall render the whole
brickwork/blockwork liable to be rejected.

13.5.2.6Washing after pointing: After pointing the face of the work shall be cleared off the surplus
mortar sticking to the face. No washing shall be done till the pointing has set.

13.5.2.7Curing: Pointed work shall be kept wet for 10 days after its completion. The work shall be
protected during that period from extreme fluctuation of weather.

13.6 QUALITY CONTROL

All the material used for plastering or pointing, shall be approved by the Engineer and same type of
material will be used throughout the work in progress. If the Engineer desires to get the
material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his own cost from a laboratory
approved by the Engineer.

13.7 MEASUREMENT

13.7.1Plaster shall be measured as product of length and height of walls over which it is laid. One side
deduction of opening will be made if plastered on both faces of the wall and no deduction of
opening will be made when plaster is on one side of the wall. No addition for plaster on jambs
and soffit of openings will be made and paid for. Plaster on ceiling etc., will be measured as
total area covered.

13.7.2Same method of measuring shall be applicable to "pointing", as described for plaster work.

13.8 PAYMENT

Payment will be made for both these items, plastering and pointing per sq. metre for completed work.
The respective rates will include:

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Technical Specifications

a)Plastering or pointing surfaces and corners with the mortars specified including cost of
labour and materials.

b)Preparing, cleaning and watering the surface to be plastered or pointed.

c)Watering and protecting the plaster or pointing after completion.

d)Provision, erection and removal of scaffolding and tools and plants like special floats, levels
& plumb bobs.

e)Provision of v groved lines in plastered wall surfaces where shown on drawings or directed
by Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 14

BRICK WORK

14.1 SCOPE OF WORK

The work under this section includes First Class Brick Work in Walls, both internal and external of any
thickness and of heights shown on the drawings. The Brick Work shall be carried out in
cement, sand mortar of proportion specified in Bill of Quantities.

14.2 DEFINITION

14.2.1Brick work consists of brick-laying with burned bricks out of clay or with cement blocks.

14.2.2Mortar means a mixture of cement and sand or lime, cement and sand as specified in the BOQ.

14.3 GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

The material used and workmanship applied in the works shall be highest quality and conform with
Code of practice applicable in the area and as per directions of the Engineer or his authorized
representative and details made out of the drawings, specifications and the Bill of Quantities.

14.4 MATERIALS

14.4.1Brick: shall be first class strong, sound, of well burnt clay, uniform in shape, colour and shall
measure 9' x 4"-3/8" x 2-11/16" (or equivalent metric size) so that every four courses laid shall
measure to be 305 mm (one foot) in height. Bricks should produce a ringing sound when
struck. The brick shall be free from flaws, Cracks, Chip Stones, nodules of lime of kankar or
other blemishes. The brick should not absorb more than 1/6 th of its weight, when soaked in
water for an hour. Minimum compressive strength should not be less than 140 kg/CM 3. Bricks
of only one size shall be used throughout the work and bricks from different kilns not having
the same size shall not be allowed.

14.2.2 Mortar for Brick Works

14.4.2.1Mortar shall be cement sand mortar and its ingredients shall be mixed in proportions as
specified in the BOQ and as per Section -12, 12.4.5.6 shall be by volume except when
directed otherwise by the Engineer.

14.4.2.2In special cases for internal walls the mortar shall be lime, cement sand mortar and mixed in
proportion as specified in the BOQ.

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Technical Specifications

14.4.2.3Cement and sand shall be thoroughly mixed in a dry state on a pucca platform, in trough or a
mixer and appropriate quantity of water added to make the mortar of workable consistency.
The mortar in single batch shall be of quantity which could be used within 30 minutes of
mixing water. Such mortar which has not been used within 30 minutes of addition of water
shall be discarded. The mixing platform or trough shall be thoroughly washed and cleaned at
the close of the day's work.

14.4.2.4Portland cement shall conform to B.S.12 or as specified under Section - 8, 8.4.1.

14.4.2.5Sand and other fine aggregate shall be as specified under Section - 8, 8.4.2.2.

14.4.2.6Water shall be clean, free from any organic impurities acids, alkalies, greasy or oily
substances, either in solution or in suspension as specified under Section - 8, 8.4.2.5.

14.4.2.7Wall Ties: Metal wall ties shall conform to the requirements of B.S. 243 "Metal Wall Ties",
where applicable. Other ties shall have stiffness, strength and durability at least equal to the
weakest tie specified in this standard. All metal wall ties shall be galvanized.

14.5WORK PROCEDURES

14.5.1Brick-laying:

14.5.1.1The brick work shall be done with approved bricks and shall be strictly in accordance with the
drawings. The bricks shall be laid in mortar specified in Bill of Quantities. Before the bricks
are used, they shall be soaked in water tanks (to be constructed by the Contractor at his own
cost) for at least four hours. The bricks shall be placed in the water tanks in a manner that
they do not get damaged.

14.5.1.2Bricks shall always be laid in English bond (unless otherwise specified) with frogs upwards.
Bricks shall be laid with bed and vertical joints properly filled with specified mortar. Brick work
must be truly plumb and must be checked by plumb bobs and straight edges frequently. Brick
work should present a perfect straight and vertical surface and no chipping or rubbing shall be
allowed. Brick work where necessitated by the drawing to have curved or chamfered surface
shall be cut and chiselled finely such as when placed in position they do not present ugly look
or require levelling up with extra mortar. Where work has to be left, the wall shall be left in
slope and in no case the difference of height between different walls shall be more than 1.25
meters (5') at any section of the building.

14.5.1.3All brick work shall be bonded where it abuts other brick work, concrete walls and concrete
columns. Where brick walls and partitions intersect or abut it is absolutely necessary to
interlock the masonry of the two walls in such a way as not to leave a straight vertical joint
between the two walls. In such cases the bond shall be obtained by placing closer 114 mm (4-
1/2 inches) from the face in every alternate course of the wall or masonry ties shall be
provided. Where brick work abuts concrete, wall ties engaging in dove-tail slots shall be
provided at every fourth course. 75 mm (3") long dove-tail slots cast in concrete members at
every fourth brick course height shall be considered sufficient under these specifications,
unless the Contractor considers continuous length of slots convenient for his working. Where
M.S. Bar wall ties are shown on drawings these shall supersede dove-tail wall ties specified
herein.

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Technical Specifications

14.5.1.4Brick work shall be wedged to the underside of floor and roof slabs and the top most horizontal
joints shall be filled with mortar well compacted.

14.5.1.5Putlog holes shall always be along headers and not more than one brick in length and shall be
neatly bricked in on removal of scaffolding.

14.5.1.6Built in anchor bolts, inserts, pipe supports, hangers, pipe sleeves, dowels, ties and all items
shown on the drawings or specified are required to be built into the masonry as the work
progresses.

14.5.1.7Frames and other built-in work shall be maintained in their proper position and bracing shall not
be removed until they are securely held by the masonry. The spaces around all built-in items
shall be filled with masonry. Where required for latter building in, leave openings in masonry
for heating and plumbing pipes, electric conduits etc. and after piping or conduits have been
installed, fill around same with brick work.

14.5.1.8Do all cutting and patching of masonry required for installation of built-in work or work
supported by masonry. The masonry shall be kept properly cured for at least 10 days where
cement mortar is used. Where according to plans and sections, the masonry would require
cut bricks to be used, the same shall be done by the Contractor free of cost to obtain correct
thickness according to drawings.

14.5.2 Jointing:

14.5.2.1Vertical joints in alternate courses must be directly one over the other, horizontal joints shall be
truly level. The thickness of joints shall be between 8 mm to 12.5 mm (5/16" to 1/2") or as
shown otherwise on the drawings. The thickness of joints must be kept uniform throughout the
progress of work and varying sizes of joints shall not be allowed. The joints of the masonry
must be racked out uniformly at the close of each day work and extra mortar sticking on the
face of the work must be scrubbed out and cleaned daily.

14.6 QUALITY CONTROL

14.6.1The samples of all the material used for brick work shall be approved by the Engineer and same
type of material shall be used during the work in progress. If the Engineer desires to get the
material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor from a laboratory approved by the
Engineer at his own expenses.

14.6.2The walls should be vertical and the corners at an angle of 100 grade (90 o). If the walls are not
according specifications, the Engineer may ask for removal or for reduction of the unit price
in such a case.

14.7 MEASUREMENT

14.7.1Brick work in foundations and walls 230 mm thick or above will be measured in length and
breadth of wall with height forming the volume.

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Technical Specifications

14.7.2Brick work in walls of thickness 115 mm and 75 mm shall be measured by surface stating the
thickness of each wall.

14.7.3No measurements for joints will be done.

14.7.4All mild steel reinforcement shall be measured as specified under Section - 04.

14.8 PAYMENT

14.8.1Brick work will be paid by volume as measured under this Section 14.7.1 and specified in the
BOQ.

14.8.2Brick work in walls 115 mm and 75 mm will be paid in superficial area in unit prices as specified
in the BOQ.

14.8.3The rate for items of work in this Section shall include:

14.8.3.1The cost of material, labour, curing scaffolding and appliances at site and all operations in
connection with the installation of brick work in accordance with the drawings, finish
schedules and as specified above.

14.8.3.2Cutting and patching work required for installation of built-in work.

14.8.3.3All assistance to other trades for built-in items to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

14.8.3.4Providing and fixing dove tail wall ties for joining brick work with cement concrete members
and cast stone veneering or jali with masonry where specifically called for in the BOQ.

14.8.3.5M.S. Bar wall ties if specified shall be measured and paid under Section -8 "Concrete Placing".

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 15
CEMENT CONCRETE FLOORS

15.1SCOPE OF WORKS

The work under this Section includes, flooring and paving the area shown in drawings, BOQ or as
directed by the Engineer.

15.2DEFINITIONS

15.2.1Cement concrek floors consist of P.C.C. only and covers the structural construction

15.3GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

15.3.1Except as otherwise specified, flooring work shall be in conformity to British Standard C.P. 2ch" In
situ Flooring", as applicable to the work shown on the drawings and as specified.

15.4MATERIALS

15.4.1Cement: shall be standard grey portland cement conforming to the requirements of B.S. 12"
portland cement" as specified under the Section -8, 8.4.1

15.4.2Sand: as specified under the Section -8, 8.4.2.2

15.4.3Aggregate: as specified under the Section -8, 8.4.2.3

15.4.4Mesh Reinforcement: for R.C.C. floor shall conform to B.S. 4483, 1969 - Steel Fabric for the
Reinforcement of concrete as manufactured by BRC Al-Burhan Ltd. or approved equal.

15.4.5Water: shall be clean, free from any organic impurities, acids, alkalies, greasy or oily substances,
either in solution or in suspension as specified in the Section -8, 8.4.2.5

15.5WORK PROCEDURES

15.5.1Cement concrete topping

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Technical Specifications

15.5.1.1Materials, method of mixing and laying of cement concrete floors shall be in the manner as
specified for mixing of cement concrete under Section-8 "Concr`ete placing". The laying shall
be in accordance with British Standard Code of Practice 204 "In Situ Flooring-part 2 concrete
flooring" and in manner as specified under Section" Concrete Work". Surface shall be truly
levelled or shall be pitched to drains where required. The concrete after laying shall be
finished by tamping the concrete with special tools to force the coarse aggregate away from
the surface, then screening the floating with straight edges to bring the surface to the required
finish level. While the concrete is still green, but sufficiently hardened it shall be wood floated
to a true even plane with no coarse aggregate visible. Sufficient pressure shall be used on the
wood floats to bring moisture to the surface. After the surface moisture has disappeared
surface shall be steel trowelled to a smooth, even, impervious finish, free from trowel marks.
After the cement has set enough to ring the trowel, the surface shall be given a second steel
trowelling to a furnished finish. The use of additional mortar or neat cement for giving a
smooth finish is definitely prohibited. The surface, over which the topping is to be laid, shall
be divided into square or rectangular panels not exceeding 5 sq, meter or as shown on the
drawings; the exact size will be decided by the Engineer. The symmetrical panels shall be
formed by wooden or iron screeds of 40 mm width and of a depth equal to the thickness of
the floor concrete. The top of these screeds should be at the exact level of the finished floor.
Alternate panels should be laid on alternate days. The surface shall be tested with a straight
edge to detect high and low spots which shall be eliminated. The Contractor must keep a
straight edge not less than 3 metre with parallel sides as well as 10" spirit level for the
purpose of testing the trueness of the floor being laid throughout the time, the work is in
progress. In no case will hammering of any type be allowed on a finished surface.

15.5.1.2Concrete shall be left un-disturbed for 24 hours after laying. During the process of laying as well
as for a period of 14 days after, the concrete shall be protected by suitable covering from the
weather and the extremes of temperatures and kept wet for that period. During laying the
covering will be damp gunny bags, and after laying damp sand or saw dust.

15.5.2R.C.C. Floor

15.5.2.1Materials, method of mixing and finishing R.C.C. floor shall be as specified under Section -8,
Concrete placing. Mesh reinforcement shall be laced in the slab as specified in BOQ and as
shown in drawings. "Expansion Joints" if shown on drawing or specified in schedule of
quantities shall be 15 mm thick filled in with approved bitumastic filler, !Alternate Bay
Construction! in "Concrete work" shall be strictly adhered to.

15.6QUALITY CONTROL

15.6.1All the material used under this section shall be approved by the Engineer and same type of
material will be used through out the work in progress. If the Engineer desires to get the
material tested, this will be got done by ;the contractor at his own cost from a laboratory
approved by the Engineer.

15.7MEASUREMENT

15.7.1The area covered with cement concrete will be measured in length and breadth of floor

15.8PAYMENT

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Technical Specifications

15.8.1The concrete floor will be paid at unit rates as specified in the BOQ.

15.8.2Rates for all items under this section shall cover the cost of furnishing all the materials, labour
scaffolding and appliances at site and of performing all operations in connection with laying
all the items in accordance with drawings and BOQ and as specified above.

15.8.3The rate shall include all assistance to other trades for built in items to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.

15.8.4Grade 100 concrete subfloor shall be measured and paid separately.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION-16
TERRAZZO AND MARBLE WORK

16.1SCOPE OF WORK

The work under this section includes Terrazzo/Marble works at places shown in the drawings, described
in the BOQ or as directed by the Engineer.

16.2DEFINITION

16.2.1Terrazzo means flooring with white portland cement, sand and marble aggregates.

16.2.2Marble work means flooring or covering surfaces with natural marble tiles.

16.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

16.3.1Unless otherwise specified, terrazzo work shall be in conformity with British Standard codes of
practice C.P. 204". In situ flooring part-I, In situ flooring-General part-III and Terrazzo flooring
as applicable to the work shown on the drawings and specifications.

16.4MATERIAL

16.4.1Cement: shall conform to B.S. 12 "portland cement for white portland cement and standard grey
cement".

16.4.2Sand: shall conform to requirements of B.S. 1199 "Building sands from Natural sources".

16.4.3Marble Aggregate: shall be crushed marble chips sound and hard. Marble shall be approved by
the Engineer and of the sizes as mentioned in the Bill of Quantities or as required by the
Engineer.

16.4.4Aggregate for bed concrete: shall be as specified under section "Cement concrete floors".

16.4.5Marble Tiles

Pakistani Marble of selected figures in slab and tiles obtained from a quarry approved by the Engineer.

16.4.6Dividing strips: shall be of aluminium of 3 mm thickness width equal to the thickness of Terrazzo
floor, or glass equivalent.

16.4.7Water: shall be clean, free from any organic impurities, acids, alkalies, greasy or oily substances,
either in solution or in suspension as specified under section "Concrete Placing".

16.4.8Angle for stair nosing: shall be cold rolled alluminium angles of the size specified in drawings and
BOQ.

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Technical Specifications

16.5WORK PROCEDURES

16.5.1IN SITU TERRAZZO FLOORING

16.5.1.1Materials and Proportions: Grey cement shall be used. The floor shall consist of a wearing
surface of thickness as specified in BOQ after grinding and polishing of marble chipping and
cement, (of the specified colour), laid over a layer of grade 210 concrete of the specified
thickness which shall be mixed and laid in the manner specified for cement concrete floor,
except that only such quantity of water will be used as would enable the mix to ball in hand
when squeezed. Cement concrete shall be laid over the structural slab or over subfloor of
specified thickness of grade 100 concrete as specified under "Concrete placing" which will be
paid for separately. The Contractor should make allowance for grinding and polishing of top
layer so as the finished thickness of this layer is of thickness as specified.

16.5.1.2Laying: The cement concrete will be levelled with a trowel and straight edge and at once
consolidated with hand thapies and finished with steel trowel to an even but rough surface, so
that the top marble chipping layer bonds with cement concrete. Over this layer of cement
concrete the top layer of cement marble chips and marble powder mixed in the proportion of
1:2:1/2 (1 cement, 2 marble chips and 1/2 marble powder) will be laid. The cement and
marble chips must be mixed dry in such quantities as are sufficient for the whole area of one
specified shade. After dry mixing great care must be taken to protect the mixed material from
harmful effects of moisture. The water shall be added to only such quantities as can be
consumed in less than 30 minutes, the quantity of water being the minimum required for
workability. Mixing must be done on water tight platform. A layer of cement and marble
chipping mixture should be well trowelled into the surface of the base concrete before filling
to be top level of the screeds. The layer should be well compacted and all obvious voids
should be filled in with further material. A layer of neat cement, of the specified colour is then
to be well trowelled into the surface leaving a plain smooth surface. The marble chips and
cement mixture must be laid on the cement concrete while the letter is sufficiently green so
that the two bond and harden together and act as one slab.

16.5.1.3Panel size and Dividing strips: Floors shall be laid in panels of about 1.5 m x 1.5 m or of size
as directed by the Engineer. Dividing strips of aluminium or glass shall have to be used.
These strips shall not be less than 3 mm thick and of width equal to the total thickness of
cement concrete base and Terrazzo topping.

16.5.1.4Finishing: After an interval of 48/72 hours, the top layer must be evenly and smoothly rubbed
with grinding machine with the medium and fine grinding stones so as to ensure that all
marble chippings are evenly exposed all over the surface. Great care must be taken to see
that the rubbing is adequate. If marble chips are not evenly exposed, the Contractor will pull
down the surface and re-do it at his own cost. The surface, after all chips have been evenly
exposed, will be left undisturbed for 2 or 3 weeks. After this period the surface shall be
cleaned of dirt and dust by rubbing gently with pumice stone in sufficient water. If the surface
has some-how been dirtied, it must be washed with washing soda. Three days after the
surface has been cleaned, it will be rubbed hard with oxalic acid (1: 10 solution) using felt or
an old blanket. After this the surface is to be cleaned and washed with plenty of water. After
the surface has dried, a final gloss shall be given by wax polishing the surface to the
satisfaction of the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

16.5.2TERRAZZO IN DADO & SKIRTING

16.5.2.1The marble chips and cement shall conform to specifications for floor. Mixing will be in the
same manner and proportion. The plastered surface over which the dado/skirting is to be
applied shall be well roughened and watered, cement mortar of specified ratio shell then be
plastered over this well roughened surface so that the finished thickness is as indicated in the
BOQ. Before the base course has set, the layer of marble chipping mixture (of the
specification for flooring) shall be well trowelled. The cement and marble chipping mixture
shall be applied with a wooden trowel. A layer of neat cement of the specified colour is then to
be well trowelled into the surface leaving a plain smooth surface.

16.5.2.2After 48 hours the Contractor will start finishing as in floor specified above.

16.5.2.3Terrazzo skirting shall be run in all places where terrazzo floors are laid unless otherwise
shown. Skirting and dado shall be straight level and in plumb in units not more than 3 m in
length, without strips, neatly mitred at corners and returned on themselves at openings.
Intersections at floors shall be straight and flush. They shall be with 1 inch radius cove at floor
unless otherwise shown. In dado Vertical Aluminium strips or glass strips shall be in
continuation of those in the floor.

16.5.3STAIRS

16.5.3.1The stair risers and treads shall be finished according to exact sizes including the Terrazzo
Topping. Where shown on drawings the nosing shall be flush with the Terrazzo Topping, and
shall be protected by extruded Aluminium angle which shall be firmly secured by means of
counter sunk screws cast together with the step. If precast terrazzo tiles are specified in the
BOQ for stair case treads, these shall be of the size, shape and thickness as shown on the
drawings.

16.5.4MARBLE WORK

16.5.4.1Material: Pakistani marble of selected figure in slabs and tiles of the required sizes and
thickness as shown on Drawings and B.O.Q. shall be used.

16.5.4.2Floor: The marble shall be bedded in cement sand mortar in ratio of 1:2 and coating of neat
cement. The joints shall be filled with white cement putty with an addition of five percent of
gum and resin in equal parts.

16.5.4.3Curing: The surface of marble slabs when laid shall be perfectly true, level projected or sloped
as shown on the Drawings. During the progress of work and seven days after the laying, the
walls shall be cured with water.

16.4.3.4Finishings: When properly set and at the time of final finishing the walls and floors shall be
rubbed with carborandum stone. When the surface is finally finished it shall be polished with
mansion polish so as to attain a smooth uniform surface. No mortar filling of any sort shall be
allowed on finished surfaces.

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Technical Specifications

16.6QUALITY CONTROL

16.6.1All the material used for Terrazzo/Marble shall be approved by the Engineer and same type of
material will be used through out the work in progress. If the Engineer desires to get the
material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his own cost from laboratory
approved by the Engineer.

16.7MEASUREMENT

The superficial area will be measured in square meter for all items of work in this Section.

16.8PAYMENT

16.8.1Payment will be made according to the square metres measured at unit rates as specified in the
B.O.Q.

16.8.2The unit rates will include:

16.8.2.1The cost of furnishing all labour, materials dividing strips for floors, dado, skirting.

16.8.2.2Aluminium nosing to staircase treads shall be measured in linear metre and paid at
the rate given in BOQ.

16.8.2.3All assistance to other trades for built in items to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION-17
STEEL DOORS, WINDOWS AND SHUTTERS

17.1SCOPE OF WORK

17.1.1The work covered under this section comprises of the following items:

Providing and fixing of steel doors, windows, roller shutters including glazing, painting and metal ware
fixtures as shown in the Drawings, specified in the Specifications and the BOQ.

17.2DEFINITION

17.2.1The work done under this Section consists of steel and not aluminium or wood.

17.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

17.3.1The works under this Section shall be in strict conformity with the British Standards as specified
under the following items.

17.4MATERIALS

17.4.1Steel Channels: shall conform to the requirements of B.S. 4360 "Structural Steel".

17.4.2Steel Plates: shall conform to the requirements of B.S. 1449 "Steel plates, sheets and strips".

17.4.3Steel Sections: shall conform to B.S. 4360 "Structural Steel".

17.4.4Glazing: shall be as specified under "Joiner, carpenter and glazier".

17.4.5Wrought iron: shall conform to B.S. 51 "Wrought iron for General Engineering purposes" and B.S.
858 as best suited for the purpose.

17.4.6Metal Casement Windows and doors: shall conform to B.S. 6510 "Metal casement windows and
casement doors for domestic buildings" or as shown on the Drawings and specified in the
BOQ in case of locally rolled window sections.

17.5WORk PROCEDURES

17.5.1Steel Casement, windows, ventilators & doors:

17.5.1.1Shall be of medium universal sections. Vent and frame sections shall have a depth front to
buck of 33 mm. and steel thickness of 4.75 mm. conforming to requirements of B.S. 6510
Metal casement windows and casement doors. All sections shall be of hot rolled low carbon
steel and shall be solid one piece sections with flanges rolled integral.

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Technical Specifications

17.5.1.2Flanges forming the weathering contacts shall provide not less than 5 mm contact as both
inside and outside points of closure. If some sections are shown on drawings as composite
sections made by welding steel channels, angles and plates, these would only be accepted in
lieu of one piece sections under these Specifications. In case, it is specifically mentioned in
the schedule of quantities, that locally rolled sections are to be used in manufacture of steel
casement windows and doors, then the !Z! section used shall be 25 mm deep and 3 mm thick
unless shown otherwise in the Drawings.

17.5.1.3Corners of frames and vents shall be mitred, solid welded and shall be finished flush and
smooth on surface that will be exposed after installations.

17.5.1.4Where composite steel sections are shown on Drawings, welds shall be continuous but shall be
staggered in welding in order to avoid warping and twisting of members. Completed members
shall be in one length without splices and shall be straightened so that they shall not be more
than 1.5 mm from a straight plane in either direction for the full length of member.

17.5.1.5Care shall be taken in handling doors, windows etc. during transportation and at job site. These
shall be stored under cover. These shall be installed only by skilled mechanics, set plumb,
level, in alignment and properly braced to prevent distortion. These shall be erected in
position as the building progresses using proper holdfasts as shown on drawings or counter
sunk bolts and screws as dictated by site requirements.

17.5.1.6Hinges for windows shall be of steel or malleable iron with nonferrous bushings or washers.
Two hinges per ventilator shall be furnished except that for ventilators exceeding 165 cm in
height, three hinges shall be furnished. Ten inches long solid bronze or moulded heavy gauge
galvanized iron peg stays, one for each ventilator shall be provided. These shall be of
manufacturer's standard design and shall be secured to windows with corrosion resisting
bolts. A single locking handle, in accordance with manufacturer;s standard or as approved by
the Engineer, shall be furnished for each leaf except that for ventilators exceeding 165 cm in
height, approved two points locking device, with steel connecting rods, shall be furnished.
Locking handles shall be smooth finished solid bronze. They shall be stacked securely to the
windows with brass or other corrosion resisting screws. Metal glazing bead if shown on the
Drawings shall be galvanized of minimum 18 SWG and to the size and details shown on the
Drawings or shall be of a standard detail of manufacturer approved by the Engineer.

17.5.1.7Three hinges of steel or malleable iron with non-ferrous bushings or washers shall be provided
for each leaf of the doors. Approved type locks and other fittings shall be installed as shown
on the drawings, BOQ and as specified elsewhere in these Specifications.

17.5.1.8After installation, doors, windows and ventilators shall be protected from construction hazards
that will interfere with their operation or damage their appearance or finish. They shall be
cleaned on inside and outside of all mortar, plaster paint or other foreign matter to present a
neat appearance. Hardware and moving parts shall be lubricated.

17.5.2Glazing and Painting: shall be as specified under Section -18.

All doors, windows and ventilators shall be painted with three coats of approved paint as specified in
Section -19 "Painting".

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Technical Specifications

17.5.3Rooling Shutters: shall be of solid front made of 22 Gauge G.I. sheet strips. G.I. sheet strips shall
be 38 mm wide and shall be machine moulded so that covers and slits represent neat
appearance. The rolling rails and frames shall be approved make and secured firmly to
concrete by means of bolts and nuts. The rolled top portion shall be encased in 3 mm thick
sheet casing. When installed, the shutters shall be capable of easy operation and provided
with approved type of handles, eyes for padlocks etc. They will be painted one coat of primer
suitable for G.I. surface and three coats of approved paint.

17.6QUALITY CONTROL

17.6.1All samples of the material used for the work under this Section shall be approved by the
Engineer and same type of material shall be used throughout the work in progress. If the
Engineer desires to get the material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his own
cost from a laboratory approved by the Engineer.

17.7MEASUREMENT

17.7.1For doors, windows and ventilators the clear opening area in brick work, stone work or concrete
will be done in sq. metres.

17.8PAYMENT

17.8.1Payment for doors, windows and ventilators will be done by unit rates per sq. metre as specified
in BOQ.

17.8.2The rates for all items under this Section shall cover the cost of furnishing all the materials,
labour, scaffoldings and appliances at site and performing all operations in connection with
their installation in accordance with instructions of the Engineer. It is particularly mentioned
that the rates for doors and windows etc. shall include supplying, fixing, including glazing,
fittings such as locks, peg stays, handles etc. as specified and indicated on Drawings and
BOQ and painting as described above complete.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 18
CARPENTER, JOINER , GLAZIER

18.1SCOPE OF WORK

18.1.1The work covered by this section consists of supplying and fixing wooden doors and wood work
as shown in the drawings and described in the BOQ and Rates. The schedule of wooden
doors alongwith hardware and fixtures is also given on the Drawings. Soft wooden frames,
flush doors shall be painted.

18.2DEFINITION

The work done under this Section consists out of wood and glass only.

18.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

18.3.1The works under this Section shall be in strict conformity with the British Standards as specified
under the following items.

18.4MATERIALS

18.4.1Timber: Where Deodar wood is mentioned in specifications, BOQ and Drawings, it shall be best
quality seasoned deodar wood as approved by the Engineer. Wood core for flush doors shall
be of best quality block board. The wood shall conform to requirements of specifications for
"wood doors" as given in pakistan standard 142: 1961. Any timber rejected by the Engineer
shall be removed from the site of the work immediately.

18.4.2Screw: Screws shall conform to the requirements of B.S. 1210 "Wood Screws".

18.4.3Plywood: Plywood shall conform to the applicable requirements of B.S. 459 A2 of workmanship
and quality. Unless otherwise specified or shown on the Drawing, the plywood shall be 3 ply, 4
mm thick and shall be commercial veneered for all exposed faces.

18.4.4Flush doors: Flush doors shall conform to B.S. 459 "Flush wooden doors" and B.S.C.P. 151-Part-I
"Flush wood " doors".

It shall have 3 ply 4 mm thick plywood face veneered on all exposed faces, conforming to the
applicable requirements of B.S. 459.

18.4.5Hardware: Hardware shall be of best quality and make of approved manufacture. Their sizes,
material and number shall be detailed in the tender documents.

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Technical Specifications

18.4.6Glass:

18.4.6.1Unless otherwise indicated glass shall be of the following weight per square foot for
various sizes mentioned below:

1) Not exceeding 12"x14" -16oz.

2) Exceeding 12"x14" but not exceeding 24"x24"-21 oz.

3) Exceeding 24" but not exceeding 30"x30"-26 oz.

4) Exceeding 30"x30" but not exceeding 36"x36"-32 oz.

5) Exceeding 36"x36" plate glass (1/4" thick).

18.4.6.2For other sizes of glazing, equivalent area of glazing will determine the weight. In
case, glazing is of different size and area within a unit due to distribution of
mullions, transom bars and styles, the weight of glazing suitable for the
biggest size of glazing shall be used throughout the glazed unit. If weight of
glazing is mentioned specifically in the BOQ then this weight would succeed
the weights specified above. Glass shall be free from specks, bubbles,
distortion and flaws of every kind.

18.4.7Plate Glass: Plate Glass shall be first quality polished transparent glass conforming to the
applicable requirements of B.S. 952 "Glass for glazing". Unless otherwise indicated, plate
glass shall be 5 mm thick with the two surfaces smooth and polished so as to give clear
undistorted vision and reflection.

18.4.8Paint: Paint shall be as specified under Section -9 "Painting". Wood preservative shall be
creosote or pentachlorophenol and shall conform to the applicable requirements of B.S. 1282
"Classification of wood preservatives and their method of application".

18.4.9Putty: Putty shall be an elastic glazing compound suitable for interior and exterior glazing and
shall conform to the requirements of B.S. 544 "Linseed oil putty for use in wooden frames".
The putty for metal frames shall be of a type specially prepared for use with metal frames
conforming to the applicable requirements of the British Standard or of a make approved by
the Engineer.

18.5WORK PROCEDURES

18.5.1Doors

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Technical Specifications

18.5.1.1The door frames shall be of best quality wood specified in BOQ and shall be
fabricated of the exact sizes and dimensions as provided in the Drawings.
Stops shall be of best quality timber of same specifications as that for frames.
Where the door frames are not to have any sills the vertical length shall be
embedded in the floor at least 50 mm deep. No extra payment will be made
for this extra length. Frames shall have a rebate to receive the leaves. The
rebate shall be 12 mm deep and width equal to the thickness of the leaf. All
the frames shall be ready before the work reaches sill level so that they can be
built in as the work proceeds. The frames shall be secured to the brick work or
concrete by hold fasts or expanded bolts as shown on the Drawings or as
approved by the Engineer. The number and sizes of hold fasts or expanded
bolts to each frame shall be as indicated on the Drawings or in table elsewhere
in these Specifications. All surfaces in contact with masonry or concrete shall
be creosoted.

18.5.2Flush Doors

18.5.2.1Flush doors shall conform to the applicable requirements of B.S. 459 "Flush wood
doors" and B.S. code of practice 151 "Doors and windows part-I". Door leaf
shall be of well seasoned solid core of block board cross grained and face
veneered with 3 ply 4 mm thick plywood of commercial quality on each side.
Frame shall be of deodar wood as indicated on Drawings and BOQ. Door leaf
shall have well seasoned hard wood edge strips, of quality and design shown
on drawings, on all four edges of leaf. Overall thickness of door leaf shall be
as shown on the drawings.

18.5.2.2Face veneers shall be free of saps, mineral streaks, knots and irregularities and shall
be suitable for paint finish. Veneer construction shall provide for equal stress
on both sides to ensure absence of warp. Flush doors shall be screwed to the
frames by means of hinges which shall be counter sunk in the wooden frames.

18.5.2.3Panelled and glazed doors: Panelled & Glazed doors shall conform to the applicable
requirements of B.S. 459 "Panelled and glazed wood doors" Part-I and B.S.
Code of practice 151 Part-I.

18.5.2.4Door's shall be of well seasoned deodar wood or of the timber specified. Panel shall
be of veneer ply wood 13 mm thick or glass as indicated in the Drawings.
Style, rails and beads shall be of well seasoned best quality deodar wood or of
timber specified. Glazing beads shall be removable on the interior.

18.5.3Toilets doors:

18.5.3.1Toilet doors shall be veneered flush type doors as specified in para 18.5.2 above,
fixed in position as shown in the Drawings and completed as mentioned in the
BOQ for the respective item. These doors shall be supplied and fixed with butt
hinges, occupancy and slide bar latches, coathook and rubber tipped dumper
in the toilet compartments.

18.5.4Glazing:

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Technical Specifications

18.5.4.1The sizes of glass indicated on the drawings are approximate only, and the actual
sizes required shall be determined by measuring the frames to receive the
glass. All glass shall be factory lebelled on each pane and the lable shall not
be removed until finally approved by the Engineer. One field coat of paint
shall be applied to doors before glazing. Glass will be fixed with best quality
putty. Deodar wood or steel moulding as directed or as shown on Drawings or
given in BOQ, glass, if specified to be fixed with putty, shall be bedded in putty
and face puttied. Sashes shall be fixed so that they cannot move until putty or
glazing compound has set.

18.5.4.2Glass shall be protected against damage. After inspection, any lables, and paint spots
shall be removed from the glass and glass shall be washed clean. Damaged
or broken glass shall be removed and replaced before acceptance at no
expense to the Employer.

18.5.5Steel Louvers

18.5.5.1Steel Louvers shall be manufactured of the material conforming to the type and
design shown on Drawings as given under Section -17 "STEEL DOORS &
WINDOWS" or as directed by the Engineer.

18.5.6Painting

18.5.6.1All wooden doors and wood work shall be painted. The specifications for painting,
shall be as given under Section -19 "PAINTING".

18.6QUALITY CONTROL

18.6.1All samples of the material used for the work under this Section shall be approved by the
Engineer and same type of material shall be used throughout the work. If the Engineer
desires to get the material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his own cost from
a laboratory approved by the Engineer. Tests mentioned in Pakistan Standard 142:1961 for
"Wood Doors" shall apply to the wooden doors, manufactured by the Contractor.

18.7MEASUREMENT

18.7.1The measurement of wood work in doors will be the net area, after fixing, no allowance being
made for waste, overlap, rebates or the like.

18.8PAYMENT

18.8.1All doors shall be paid by measuring the area of clear opening in brick work or concrete in sq.
metres. The rate for all the items under wood work shall cover the cost of furnishing all
materials, hardware, glazing where required, labour, scaffolding, creosoting and painting as
specified under Section-19 "Painting" and appliances at site and performing all operations in
connection with the installation of doors and hardware in accordance with Drawings, finishing
schedule and as specified above.

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Technical Specifications

18.8.2The wood work other than in doors, windows etc. shall be measured in cubic metres of finished
and completed item of work as specified and shall be paid at rates quoted for the respective
item of the BOQ. The rate shall cover the cost of furnishing all materials, hardware, labour,
scaffolding, creosoting or painting as specified or shown in the Drawings.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 19
PAINTING

19.1SCOPE OF WORK

The work covered under this Section consists of providing, painting, distempering, white washing and
cement based paints treatment to buildings as well as to steel structures, metal pipes and
surfaces as shown in Drawings, described in the specifications "Schedule of Finishing", BOQ
and as directed by the Engineer.

19.2DEFINITION

The work under this Section consists of painting only. No sealing measures with bitumen etc. are
included.

19.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

19.3.1Except as otherwise specified, all painting shall be applied in conformity with C.P. 231 "Painting"
as applicable to the work.

19.3.2The colour and surface finish required for various materials shall be as approved by the
Engineer.

19.3.3SCHEDULE OF PAINTING

The following schedule of painting and whitewashing shall be applicable to various locations and
exposures of surfaces to be painted or finally treated.

19.3.3.1Primers for painted surfaces

a) Concrete, plaster surfaces and i)For plastic emulsioned surfaces, one coat of
asbestos cement surfaces. primer sealer, pigmented, alkali
(Interior & Exterior) resistant type of approved brand.

ii)For synthetic vinyl distempered surfaces, no


primer coat is required.

b)Wooden surface (Interior & Exterior) One coat of pink lead based wood primer in oil
medium of approved make.

c)Bare ferrous metal surfaces (for shop One coat of red lead primer of approved make.
painting)

d)Galvanized metal surfaces. One coat of Etach primer (primer base and
activator) of approved make.

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Technical Specifications

19.3.3.2Intermediate & finish coats for painted surfaces

After proper application of primers, the various surfaces shall be finally painted as under:-

a) i)Concrete and plaster surfaces (Interior)Two coats of synthetic plastic emulsion (flatwall finish) over
one coat of under-bound putty, where
specified.

OR

Two coats of synthetic venyl distemper over one coat of underbound putty where specified.

ii)Concrete and plaster surface (Exterior)Two coats of cement based colour finish.

b)Wooden surfaces (Interior & Exterior)Two coats of synthetic enamel paint (gloss or flat finish)

c)Ferrous metal surfacesOne coat of metal under-coat plus two coats of super gloss synthetic enamel
paint where specified.

OR

Two coats of high quality aluminium paint, where specified.

d)Galvanized metal surfacesOne coat of metal under-coat plus two coats of enamel paint.

OR

Two coats of high quality aluminium paint where specified.

19.3.3.3Concrete and cement plastered surfaces:3 coats of white washing or colour washing as and
where specified.

19.4MATERIALS

19.4.1Paint shall be plastic emulsion or synthetic enamel paints of high grade products of known
manufacturers and when approved, shall be delivered on the work in original unbroken
packages bearing the maker's name and brands. Materials shall conform to the applicable.
British Standard specifications and shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's
printed directions.

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Technical Specifications

19.4.2Colour pigments shall be pure, non-fading pigments finely ground at least 99 per cent passing a
325 mesh sieve.

19.4.3Distemper shall be synthetic vinyl distemper of the best quality in the market approved by the
Engineer. The distemper shall be delivered on the work in original unbroken packages
bearing the maker's name and brand.

19.4.4Cement based paint shall be obtained in sealed tin from approved manufacturers. It shall be
delivered on the work in original and sealed packages bearing the maker's name etc.

19.4.5Lime: The lime shall of best quality unslaked with no impurities.

19.5WORK PROCEDURES

19.5.1Preparation of Surface

19.5.1.1All surfaces shall be clean, dry and free from dust at the time any coating is applied. Base
coats applied shall be in good condition and surfaces well covered by touching up any base
or abraded spots. Base coats shall be rubbed smooth.

19.5.1.2Wood work shall be smooth and free from raised grain or other surface imperfections. Knots
and pitch streaks shall be skellacked before painting. Nail holes, cracks and similar blemishes
shall be neatly puttied and sanded smooth after priming and before body or finish coats are
applied.

19.5.1.3Concrete surface shall be cleaned until free of all loose and foreign material and excess mortar,
using metal scrappers and wire brushes if necessary. Grease and oil spots shall be removed
by suitable cleaning compound and then rinsed with clean water to remove and traces of
alkali. Efflorescence (alkali salts) shall be removed by washing with a 5 to 10 percent solution
of muriatic acid, allowed to remain until effervescing ceases, then rinsing with clean water to
remove all traces of acid. Interior concrete surfaces shall be washed with zinc sulphate
solution. Treated surfaces shall be allowed to dry thoroughly before any distemper or any
cement based paint is applied.

19.5.1.4Plaster work shall dry for a minimum of 60 days prior to distempering or applying any cement
based paint. Surfaces shall be clean and free from grit, loose plaster and surface irregularities
before distemper or cement based paint is applied.

19.5.1.5Ferrous surfaces that have not been shop coated shall be cleaned and painted with protective
paint conforming to British Standard Specifications B.S. 2521/4 followed by finish coats. Shop
coated metal shall be protected from corrosion before and after installation by treating
corroded areas immediately upon detection.

19.5.1.6Abraded spots on shop-coated surfaces shall be wire-brushed and touched up with the same
material as the shop coat.

19.5.2Touching up: At the completion of other branches of work all finished work shall be touched up
and restored where damaged or defaced and the entire work left free from blemishes at no
expenses to owner.

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Technical Specifications

19.5.3PAINTING OF WOODEN SURFACES

19.5.3.1General

19.5.3.1.1Paints and finishing materials shall be free from skins, lumps or any foreign matter when
used. Pigments and fillers shall be kept well stirred while being applied. Work that is
not to be finished under this Section shall be protected against spatters, stains or
soiling and each type of finish shall be protected against similar defacement by other
finish and shall be left clean.

19.5.3.1.2Each coat shall be evenly worked out and allowed to become dry before any subsequent coat
is applied or rubbing done and shall be of different tint from that of preceding coat.

19.5.3.1.3Finish coats shall be of the exact shades selected. The finished work shall be free from runs
and sags, defective coverage and clogging of lines or angles. Edges of paint adjoining
other materials or other closures shall be full and clean cut without over-lapping.
Adjacent and uncoated areas and installations shall be protected by the use of drop
clothes or other approved precautionary measures. Spray painting shall not be
employed for joinery work which must be done by brush to obtain proper penetration
into joints and cracks etc.

19.5.3.2When the painting is applied by brushes the following instructions shall be followed:

19.5.3.2.1Brushes shall be in conformity to the applicable requirements of B.S. 2992.*

19.5.3.2.2All coats shall be spread as evenly and smoothly as possible by means of crossing and laying
off, the later in the direction of the grain in case of wood work. The priming coat must
be mixed thinner than subsequent coats to assist penetration or adhesion. The final
coat shall be very carefully crossed and laid off so that brush marks are not visible.

19.5.3.2.3Brush shall be reversed at frequent intervals so that it wears down evenly. A free easy stroke
shall be cultivated. Short and jerky strokes result in uneven surface. Stretching the
stroke too far shall not be allowed to avoid an uneven surface.

19.5.4PAINTING ON METAL WORK

19.5.4.1General

19.5.4.1.1Shop painting and site paintings shall be applied to items of metal work indicated in Drawings
or by the Engineer or specified in the relevant clause of these Specifications in the
manner described herein-under:

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19.5.4.2Surface Preparation: All oil, grease, dirt and rust-preventive compound shall be removed from
the surfaces by the use of a suitable solvent and clean wiping material. Following the solvent
cleaning, surfaces to be painted, including the damaged areas of shop-painted surfaces, shall
be cleaned of all rust, loose mill scale, dirt and other foreign substances by scraping,
chipping, blasting, wire brushing, or other effective means. In the event that rust forms or the
surfaces become otherwise contaminated in the interval between cleaning and painting,
recleaning will be required. Surfaces adjacent to metal work being cleaned or painted shall be
protected by effective masking, or other suitable means, during the cleaning and painting
operations.

19.5.4.3Paint Materials: All paint and coating materials shall be furnished and prepared in accordance
with the following requirements:

a)Alkyd priming paint for use under aluminum paint shall consist of zinc chromate pigment in an alkyd
varnish base.

b)Red-lead priming paint shall be an approved type consisting of lead oxide in a phenolicresin varnish.

c)Red-lead and red-iron oxide priming paint shall be an approved mixture of lead oxide and iron oxide
in a linseed oil vehicle.

d)Red-iron oxide finish paint shall be an approved type consisting of iron oxide in an alkyd-resin
vehicle.

e)Rust-preventive compound shall be of a petroleum base, have a soft-grease consistency, contain


solvent to facilitate application at ordinary temperatures, and be soluble in gasoline.

f)Special rust proof primer for G.I. pipes and sheets shall be of approved make and brand.

All paints shall be the best available of its type and shall be approved by the Engineer, prior to its
procurement. The paint shall not settle or separate within six months after delivery to the
extent that it cannot easily be restored to a smooth homogeneous mixture by manual stirring.

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Technical Specifications

19.5.4.4Application Procedures:

All paints and coating materials shall be in a thoroughly mixed condition at the time of application. If
necessary, to improve application properties, cold-applied paints may be heated by means of
a hot-water bath to temperatures not exceeding 38c. Aluminum paint, phenolic-resin
aluminum paint, red-lead priming paint, red-iron oxide finish paint and alkyd priming paint
may be thinned, if necessary, to improve application properties, but shall be thinned only with
mineral spirits or turpentine, not exceeding one pint of thinner per gallon of paint. Vinyl-resin
paint shall not be thinned except as recommended by the manufacturer. Paint shall not be
applied when the temperature of the metal, or of the surrounding air, is below 8c. Surfaces
shall be free from moisture at the time of painting. The first coat of paint shall be applied by
brushing. When paint is applied by spraying, suitable means shall be provided to prevent
segregation of the paint in the container during the painting operations. Effective means shall
be provided for removing all free oil and moisture from the air-supply lines of all spraying and
blast-cleaning equipment. Each coat of paint shall completely cover the surfaces and shall be
free from runs, sags and flaws. Each coat shall be allowed to dry or harden thoroughly before
the succeeding coat is applied. Surfaces to be painted, that will be inaccessible after
installation, shall be completely painted prior to installation.

a)Red-lead priming paint shall be applied at a maximum coverage of 37.2 sq. meters per gallon
(4.5459 liters) per coat. The first coat shall be applied by brush and subsequent coats
shall be applied by either brush or spray. Following ;the first coat, an additional tinted
brush coat shall be applied over all rivets, welds, bolts, seams, sharp corners and
edges before subsequent painting. Alternate coat shall be tinted for color contrast.

b)Successive coats of the phenolic-resin red-lead priming paint and phenolic-resin aluminium finish
paint shall be applied not longer than 24 hours following application of the preceding
coat.

c)Rust-preventive compound shall be applied to surfaces which are free of dirt and objectionable
materials, before any rusting takes place, and by brushing, swabbing or any convenient
method so as to obtain a heavy coating not less than 0.4 mm in thickness.

d)For the various locations and exposures, the number of primer field coats shall be as specified in
schedule of painting clause 19.3.3 of this Section.

19.5.5WHITE WASHING

The unslaked lime shall be placed in a large vessel full of water and shall be thoroughly mixed and
stirred up with pole or rod until the mixture attains the consistency of this cream. It will then be
strained through a clean and coarse cloth and 100 grams of gum boiled with 300 grams of
rice, added for each cubic foot of lime. The white wash then be applied in the same manner
as distemper. When completed the wash shall not crack or come off on finger when rubbed.

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Technical Specifications

19.5.6COLOUR WASH

Colour wash is prepared and applied in the same manner as white wash except that sufficient coloring
matter shall be added to give the desired tint on drying. When completed, the surface must
have uniform colour free from blotches. If the finished surface is not to the expectation of the
Engineer, the Contractor shall apply extra coat at his own cost till such finish is attained.

19.5.7CLEANING

19.5.7.1All cloths and cotton waste that might constitute a fire hazard shall be placed in closed metal
containers or destroyed at the end of each day. Upon completion of the work, all staging,
scaffolding and containers shall be removed from the site or destroyed in an approved
manner. Paint spots, oil or stains upon adjacent surfaces shall be removed. The Contractor
shall be responsible for the protection arrangement of other work while painting or
distempering work is in progress.

19.6QUALITY CONTROL

19.6.1Certified data, test samples and detailed application specifications shall be submitted for
approval of the Engineer. The detailed application specifications, when approved by the
Engineer, will become the approved application specifications. Any subsequent change in the
approved application specifications shall be approved by the Engineer. Samples of the paints
used for the work shall be approved by the Engineer and same type of paint shall be used
throughout the work in progress. If the Engineer desires to get the material tested, this will be
got done by the Contractor at his own cost from a laboratory approved by Engineer.

19.7MEASUREMENT

19.7.1No measurement will be made for the work of painting of wood and metal surfaces.

19.7.2For emulsion painting, distempering, cement based painting, whitewashing or colour washing on
concrete and plastered surfaces the area shall be measured by multiplying length by breadth
or height less the area of openings for doors and windows in the surfaces.

19.7.3This reduction for area of openings shall be one time the area of the opening, if the surface is
treated on both sides and no deduction of opening, if surface is treated on one side only. No
addition shall be made for jambs, soffits, cills etc. Where two different types of finishes are
specified for two sides of the wall, half the opening area shall be deducted from each type of
finish.

19.8PAYMENT

19.8.1The work of painting, wood and metal surfaces shall be paid in the respective section of "Steel
work", "Carpenter, joiner and Glazier" or "Steel doors, windows & shutters".

19.8.2Emulsion painting, distempering, cement based painting, whitewashing or colour washing on


concrete and plastered surfaces shall be paid on the basis of area over which they are done
by unit rates per sq. metre as specified in the BOQ.

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Technical Specifications

19.8.3The rate for all the items under this Section or paid with items in other Sections shall cover the
cost of furnishing all materials, labour, scaffoldings and appliances at site and performing all
operations in accordance with instructions of the Engineer, BOQ and as specified above.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 20
WATER-PROOFING AND ROOF INSULATION

20.1 SCOPE OF WORK

20.1.1The work under this Section consists of providing water-proofing treatment to roofs, under floors,
walls of basement and pipe sleeves in R.C. Structures as shown and described on the
Drawings and BOQ and rates and provision of heat insulation of roofs at places specified.

20.2 DEFINITION

The work under this Section comprises of sealing measures against water and moisture in structures
and heat insulation of roofs.

20.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

The works under this Section shall be in strait conformity with the British Standards as specified under
the following items.

20.4MATERIALS

20.4.1Materials shall, where applicable, be delivered to the site in manufacturer's original un-opened
containers with manufacturer's label having grade and name clearly marked thereon. A copy
of printed instructions of manufacturers shall be supplied to the Engineer.

20.4.2Bitumen shall conform to P.B.S-3 or P.BS-4 "Coal Tar Pitches for building purposes" - having
softening point not lower than 65C, or cut back bitumen to B.S. 3690 - "Bitumen for road
purpose" - Grade 25 S for bedding mineral chippings.

20.4.3Bitumen Primer: Bitumen cut back with volatile solvent having the following characteristics:

- Viscosity at 21C-22S maximum.


- Volatile solvent 60% by weight.

20.4.4Thermophore (Expanded Polystrene): Thermophore of 250 mm thickness not less than 24 kg/m 3
density and of the best quality manufactured in Pakistan as approved by the Engineer shall
be used.

20.4.5Polythene: Sheet of 0.2 mm thickness of the best quality approved by the Engineer shall be used
on the roof.

20.4.6Sand: as specified under the Section -08 "Concrete Placing".

20.4.7Clay Tile: Ist Class clay tiles size 225 x 113 x 37 mm locally available in market and approved by
the Engineer shall be used on the roof.

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Technical Specifications

20.4.8Rope for joints: The stranded rope for caulking through joints shall be of best quality jute fibre
tarred with bitumen and of size mentioned in the Drawing.

20.5WORK PROCEDURES

20.5.1 Membrane Water-Proofing

20.5.1.1General: Water-proofing Polithine sheet shall be in number of sheet layers as specified in


BOQ. Water-proofing shall not be applied when the ambient temperature is 5C or below.
Water-proofing on roofs, floor slabs in toilet rooms, shower rooms and similar spaces above
grade shall be turned up around the walls or partitions enclosing such areas for a height of at
least 200 mm, unless other height is indicated. Where pipes, conduits or other items pass
through the areas to be water-proofed and where floor drains occur in such areas, the water-
proofing shall not be installed until after the flashing around these items has been installed.
The flashing thus installed shall be wiped and mopped into layer of the water-proofing in a
manner that will ensure a water-proof joint.

20.5.1.2Preparation of Surfaces: Surfaces to receive water-proofing shall be clean and dry. All holes,
joints and cracks shall be pointed flush with mortar and high spots shall be cut off or ground
smooth. Before water-proofing is applied, the surface to be covered shall be carefully swept
to remove all dust and foreign matter, and shall be inspected and approved.

20.5.1.3Application of Water-Proofing: Bitumen primer shall be applied on the concrete surface to


cover the entire surface without any naked spots of concrete and shall be allowed to dry, it is
essential that this coating is free of volatiles before the first layer of sheet is applied. Bitumen
bonding compound shall be applied to the surface not less than 15 kg/10 m 2 before the
application of every Polythene sheet layer. The first length of the Polythene sheet shall be
laid in position and firmly rolled back half way. The bitumen bonding compound shall be
poured from a container on to the substructure and sheet rolled out. Pressure shall then be
applied to allow the layer of hot compound to soften and weld to coating material of the sheet,
any surplus hot compound squeezed out shall be smoothed out with scraper as work will
proceed. Only sufficient compound shall be poured in front of the roll to allow a thin strip of
compound to be squeezed out at the edges. The other half of the length of sheet shall then be
rolled up and the process repeated, making sure that the layer of hot bitumen bonding
compound is continuous.

20.5.1.4Final Finish of Roofs:

20.5.1.4.1Sand and Tiles Finish: where specified, 50 mm thick sand cushion shall be laid over
poythene sheets. Tiles of 37 mm thickness shall be laid over sand cushion
with 1:3 cement sand mortar in 4 x 4 metre panels with expansion joints filled
with non extruding mastic filler.

20.5.1.4.2Gravel finish: where specified, a layer of clean and graded graved or crush stone
shall be used at the rate of one cubic meter for an area of one hundred square
meters. It shall be laid simultaneously with flood coat of the Bitumen B.S.
3690 "Bitumen for road purposes" so as to provide proper embedding in
bitumen.

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Technical Specifications

20.5.2BITUMEN COATING

Where specified, water-proofing by bitumen coating shall be applied to surfaces which are indicated in
the Drawings and specified in the BOQ or as directed by the Engineer. The surface shall be
prepared in the same manner as specified in sub-para (II) Clause. Bitumen coating shall be
applied hot with fibre brushes or sprayed with tar sprayer as directed by the Engineer. The
rate of application of bitumen in conformity to B.S. 1310 - shall not be less than 1.5 kg Sq.
meter for each layer of coating.

20.5.3WATER-PROOFING OF PIPE SLEEVES

The work of water-proofing and caulking of gaps between service pipes and pipe sleeves, installed in
the R.C. structures, shall be carried out by caulking the space between the pipes and sleeves
with bitumenized rope and sealed with mastic filler and as directed by the Engineer.

20.5.4HEAT INSULATION OF ROOFS

Where heat insulation of roofs is specified, 50 mm thick Thermophore (Expanded Polystyrene) sheets
shall be applied while the mopping coat of membrane water-proofing is still tacky. Two layers
each of 0.2 mm thick Polythene sheet shall be laid over thermophore, each layer breaking
joints before final finish of roofs with sand and tiles as specified herein is applied.

20.6QUALITY CONTROL

All the materials used for the items under this Section shall be approved by the Engineer and same
type of material shall be used throughout the work in progress. If the Engineer desires to get
the material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his own cost from a laboratory
approved by the Engineer.

20.7MEASUREMENT

20.7.1The work of water-proofing including heat insulation where specified shall be measured in sq.
metres by multiplying the clear length by width of the surface.

20.7.2The work of bitumen coating shall be measured in sq. metres of the coated area.

20.8PAYMENT

20.8.1Payment for water-proofing including heat insulation will be paid by unit rates per sq. metre as
specified in the BOQ.

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Technical Specifications

The rate shall be for the finished work for the number of felt layers specified in the BOQ, final finish
with clay tiles and heat insulation where specified including caulking of pipe sleeves,
reinforcement of membrane water-proofing at corners etc., complete. No allowance of
wastage and overlaps shall be made The turn up around walls, partitions etc., shall be
measured and where shown on the Drawings, the felts should be nailed to walls or portions
through Greosoted Wooden Plugs and Strips. The Unit Rate in the BOQ should be inclusive
of this proviso.

20.8.2Payment of the bitumen coating will be made for the sq. metre coated by the unit rate as
specified in the BOQ.

The rate shall be for the number of layers specified in the respective items in the BOQ.

20.8.3The rates for all the items under this Section, shall cover the cost of furnishing all the materials,
labor, scaffolding and appliances at Site and all operations performed in accordance with the
instructions of the Engineer, BOQ and Rates, Drawings and Specifications described above.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 21
EXPANSION JOINTS

21.1SCOPE OF WORK

The work covered under this Section consists of furnishing all labour, equipment and materials; and
performing all operations and tests for constructing expansion and construction joints in
structures as shown and specified in Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

21.2DEFINITION

Expansion joints are constructed to limit the internal stresses in the structures.

21.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

The works under this Section shall be in strict conformity with the British Standards as specified under
the following items.

21.4MATERIALS

21.4.1Copper

Copper shall conform to the requirements of B.S. 2870 (1980) "Copper sheet and strip for roofing and
shall be of 1.5 mm thickness.

21.4.2Wood

Wood shall be best quality shisham wood to be used as hard wood conforming to the requirements of
timber as specified under Section-18 "Carpenter, joiner and glazier".

21.4.3Lead flashing

Lead flashing shall conform to the requirements of B.S. 1178 "Milled lead sheet and strip for building
purposes" and shall be 3 mm thick.

21.4.4P.V.C./Rubber Water Stops

P.V.C./Rubber water stops shall be 125 mm to 200 mm (5" to 8") wide with central bulb and shall be
equal to hydrofoil water stops manufactured by expandite or of any other approved
manufacturer.

21.4.5Filler

Filler shall be non-extruding of approved type and an approved flexible bitumastic seal of the normal
joints type which will retain its plastic properties at a temperature of 49c.

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Technical Specifications

21.4.6Aluminium

Aluminium sheet shall conform to the requirements of B.S. 1470 "Wrought aluminium and aluminium
alloys, sheet and strip" and shall be 3 mm (1/8") thick.

21.4.7Angles, Bolts, Nuts & Nails Etc.

Angles, Bolts, Nuts & Nails etc. shall be as specified under Section -26 "Steel work".

21.4.8G.I.Sheet

G.I.Sheet shall be 24 S.W.G. plain sheet conforming to B.S. Specifications.

21.5WORK PROCEDURES

The work shall be carried out strictly as detailed in Drawings and Specifications and in a workmanlike
manner. Special care shall be taken during construction that joints are not clogged by debris
and mortar dropping during construction. Before joints are filled by the non-extruding
bitumastic fill, the joints should be certified by the Engineer to be free of all debris, otherwise
the Contractor would be required to redo the joints at his own cost. Patentee's method of
welding P.V.C/Rubber water stops should be used and no other method would be accepted.
Tee or L junctions of P.V.C./Rubber water stops should be made as per printed instructions of
the manufacturer.

21.6QUALITY CONTROL

All the material used for all the items under this Section shall be approved by the Engineer and same
type of material shall be used through-out the work in progress. If the Engineer desires to get
the material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his own cost from a laboratory
approved by the Engineer.

21.7MEASUREMENT

Expansion joints shall be measured by their length.

21.8PAYMENT

Rates for all the items under this Section shall cover the cost of furnishing of all the materials, labour,
scaffoldings and appliances at site and performing all operations in connection with laying all
the items under this Section in accordance with the instructions of the Engineer, BOQ and
Drawings and as specified above. These shall be paid at rates as given in respective items of
BOQ.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 22
ALUMINIUM WINDOWS AND DOORS

22.1 SCOPE OF WORK

The work covered by this Section consists of providing and fixing of aluminium doors, windows,
shutters including glazing and metal ware fixtures as shown in the Drawings, specified in the
specifications and the BOQ.

22.2 DEFINITION

The work done under this Section consists out of aluminium and glass only.

22.3 GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

The work shall be carried out in accordance with the specifications and instructions contained in the
catalogue for doors and windows of M/S Krudson/Alcop/ACP Thermiace or conforming to the
equal standards from any other manufacturer.

22.4 MATERIALS

22.4.1All sections used for this fabrication of windows and doors shall be extruded aluminium alloy
6063-TS (TS) conforming to international standards for alloy quality and extrusion.

22.4.2The wall thickness of frame and sash members for windows and doors should not be less than
1.5 mm and 2.0 mm respectively.

22.4.3All section of windows and doors shall be anodized to thickness of not less than 15 microns matt
finished.

22.4.4All screws, nuts, bolts, rivets and other fastening devices shall be of aluminium, stainless steel, or
other corrosive resistant materials and shall if visible blend with frame finish.

22.4.5Glazing gaskets shall be provided throughout as per manufacturer's specifications.

22.4.6Doors shall be provided with nylon brushes at meeting styles for air tightness.

22.4.7Vinyl plastic weather strip shall be provided throughout the sides and top of the fixed door
frames.

22.4.8Each door shutter shall be provided a quality door lock and pressure closure subject to approval
of the Engineer.

22.4.9Frame, stiles and other structural member's shall be securely joined and reinforced by means of
diecast structural corner assemblies.

22.4.10Each sliding shutter of window shall be provided with best quality latch subject to approval of
the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

22.4.11Nylon rollers to be provided with anti-friction bearings for free and soundless operation of
windows.

22.4.12All sliding shutters of windows shall be removable from inside for easy glazing and cleaning.

22.4.13All joints between structure and metal shall be fully caulked and painted.

22.4.14After erection and glazing the contractor shall check and adjust all operating hardware on doors
and windows furnished under this item.

22.5 WORK PROCEDURE

22.5.1The workmanship shall be of best quality as accepted in the industry.

22.5.2Care shall be taken in handling doors, windows etc. during transportation and at jobs site. These
shall be installed only by skilled mechanics, set plumb, level, in alignment and properly
braced to prevent distortion. these shall be erected in position by counter sunk screws as
dictated by site requirements. After installation, doors and windows shall be protected from
construction hazards that will interfere with their operation or damage their appearance or
finish. they shall be cleaned on inside and outside of all mortar, plaster, paint or other foreign
matter to present a neat appearance. Hardware and moving parts shall be lubricated.

22.5.3 Glazing

22.5.3.1Sheet glass shall be of 6 mm thick tinted glass and size specified on Drawings and shall be free
from streaks, bubbles, distortion and flaws of significant nature. The glass shall be properly
cut to fit the rebates so as to have uniform space to accommodate rubber insertion all around
the panel between edge of the glass and the rebate. The glass shall be fixed as per door
manufacturers specifications and cleaned with methylated spirit on completion of work.

22.6 QUALITY CONTROL

22.6.1All samples of the material used for the work under this Section shall be approved by the
Engineer and the same quality of material shall be used throughout the work in progress. If
the Engineer desires to get the material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his
own cost from a laboratory approved by the Engineer.

22.7 MEASUREMENT

22.7.1The net area of metal doors and windows by multiplying the outside dimensions of length with
width of the doors and windows.

22.8 PAYMENT

22.8.1Payment will be done for the completed net area of doors and windows according to the unit
rates as specified in the B.O.Q.

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Technical Specifications

22.8.2Rates for all the items under this Section shall cover the cost of furnishing all the materials, labor,
scaffolding and appliances at site and performing all operations in connection with their
installation in accordance with instructions of the Engineer. The rate for doors and windows
etc. shall include supplying, fixing, including glazing nylon and PVC fixture, fittings such as
locks handles and pressure closures for doors etc. as specified and indicated in Drawings and
BOQ.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION -23
WATER SUPPLY SERVICES AND FIRE
FIGHTING SYSTEM

23.1 SCOPE OF WORK

23.1.1The work included in this Section comprises of the items of work and operations specified herein
under including furnishing of materials, labor and equipment for complete services as
indicated in the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

23.1.2Internal G.I.Pipe and Steel Pipe Lines and Fittings for Water Supply.

23.1.3Internal Steel Pipe Lines, Fittings and appliance for Fire Fighting System.

23.1.4Steel Pipe Lines and Fitting for Roof/Floor Drainage.

23.2DEFINITION

23.2.1The work under this Section consists of the piping system for the water supply and the fire
fighting system including all necessary accessories, attachments and ancillary items.

23.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

23.3.1The works under this Section shall be in conformity with the Pakistan Standards, and B.S using
first class materials locally manufactured as specified under the following subclauses.

23.3.2The materials used for joining, welding and fixing and workmanship applied in the services, shall
be of highest quality and grade and conform with the British Code of Practice and the work
shall be carried out as per directions of the Engineer or his authorized representative and
details laid out in the Drawings, in Specifications and in the BOQ.

23.3.3Because of small scale of the Drawings, it is not possible to indicate all offsets, fittings and
accessories that may be required. The Contractor shall carefully investigate the structural and
finishing conditions affecting all his work and shall arrange such work accordingly.

23.4MATERIALS

23.4.1Pipes and Fittings: Galvanized Iron pipes, c.i.Pipes, Steel pipes, Specials and Fittings shall be of
the best quality locally manufactured KPM or approved equal.

23.4.2Hangers, Supports, Anchors & Sleeves: for fixing pipes to wall and ceiling shall be of approved
design to be manufactured from steel sections and pipes consistent with good engineering
practice and shall be painted with bitumastic enamel paint or the paint of the same quality as
for the pipes supported by these hangers, supports or anchors/sleeves or any approved rust
proof paint.

23.4.3Pipe Sleeves: for passage of pipes through masonry or R.C.C. walls and floor shall be of cement
asbestos pipe. Diameter of pipe sleeve shall be 2.5 cm bigger than the outside diameter of
the pipe for which it is used.

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Technical Specifications

23.4.4Insulation Material: for water pipes and specials such as glass wool, insulation moulding, base
paper galvanized wire, cotton cloth/PVC tape/galvanized iron sheet etc. shall be supplied by
the Contractor.

23.4.5Jointing and Packing Materials:

23.4.5.1Lead: shall be sound, free from inclusion sand shall of the best quality available in
the market;

2.3.4.5.1Packing Material: the packing shall be pure jute, hemp or hempen spun yarn of the
best quality available in the market.

23.4.6Mortar: The mortar used for Caulking Joints shall be as described elsewhere in Specifications,
except that water added will be enough to just wet all particles of the dry mixed cement and
sand mixture. The field test for the same being that the prepared mortar shall form a ball
when pressed in hand, but shall split if dropped down from the hand.

23.4.7Fire Protection System: for fire hydrant such as hydrant box, hose and nozzels shall be supplied
by the Contractor.

23.5WORK PROCEDURES

23.5.1General: The Contractor shall employ properly Licensed, Trained and Skilled Workmen for
carrying out the various items of work under this Section. The quality of workmanship shall
conform to the British Standard Code of Practice for the respective trades. The Contractor
shall make adequate arrangements to carry out these items of work pertaining to services
simultaneously with Civil Works as far as practicable.

23.5.2Laying, Jointing and Welding of Pipelines:

23.5.2.1The pipe shall run-exposed or embedded in walls and floors as specified or shown on
Drawings. Where embedding in walls or floors is required, the necessary
instructions and route of pipe work shall be approved by the Engineer. Pipes
running exposed on walls and ceiling shall be properly clamped with Hangers,
Supports and Clamps. For passage of pipes through masonry walls and
R.C.C. beam slab and walls, asbestos sleeves shall be embedded and
properly caulked and water proofed. Pipes laid underground shall be provided
with protective coat as specified.

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Technical Specifications

23.5.2.2Screwed Joints: All screwed joints both internal and external shall be carefully
examined. The threads of the joints shall be perfect for full depth of the joint.
In case there is any flaw in the threads, the thread shall be tightly drawn over
the sockets and dyes of the correct size to suit the threads shall be used. The
screwed ends of pipes or specials to be joined shall be very tightly tapered so
that as the joint is screwed up the threads shall bind together more and more
tightly to ensure water thightness. The jointing work shall be so arranged ( in
the case of every joint) that the two ends of the pipes or specials jointed
thereby shall be at equal distance from the middle of the socket and shall
have a space of not more than 6 mm (1/4") between them at the center of the
socket. Before any joint is made all burns from the ends of the threaded joints
shall be removed. Best quality country cotton yarn smeared with genuine
white lead shall be wound in grooves of the outside threads of the pipes from
end to end of the joint. The strand of cotton yarn shall be very thin and of best
quality. The wrapping of the cotton yarn over the threads shall not be
permissible in case where the threads are already very tight and in such a
case only a paste of genuine white lead over the threads shall be smeared to
act a lubricant and to make up for the imperfections in the threads as the
pipes are screwed up. White lead paste shall be made up by boiling genuine
and moist white lead in linseed oil. Paste shall be made thin. No piece of
cotton yarn shall project outside ends of the joint or inside the pipe.

23.5.2.3Screwed flanged joints: Screwed flanged joints shall be employed on galvanized iron
pipelines for jointing special fittings and cast iron pipes. the jointing of
socketted and spigotted pipe with G.I. pipes shall be done with the help of
these joints, by employing flanged spigot, or flanged sockets. The flange of the
fitting shall be bolted on the flange of the galvanized iron pipe. The flange on
the G.I. pipe shall be suitable to be screwed on to the G.I.pipe and shall also
be made of G.I.pipe of approved quality. Flanged screwed joints on G.I.pipe
lines shall not be allowed to be buried in earth. Each joint shall be provided
with a small brick chamber, the length and height of which shall be 75 mm (3
inches) plus the outside diameter of the flange and 50 mm (2 inches) plus the
thickness of flanged joints inclusive of thickness of two flanges. The chamber
shall be made in bricks and cement sand mortar of 1:3 ratio and it shall be
covered with bricks laid in cement mortar of similar ratio. When flanges are
screwed over, the projecting ends of the pipes shall be neatly cut off, filed and
shall be made perfectly smooth and in level with the face of the flanges. Each
flanged joint shall be made by inserting an accurately cut disk of tough
multiply rubber insertion of not less than 3 mm (1/8") of thickness in between
the flanges. The rubber insertion shall be of approved quality. The inside
diameter of the rubber insertion disc shall be 33 mm (1/8") larger than the
outside diameter of the screwed end of the pipe and the outside diameter of
the discs shall be 1.5 mm (1/6") smaller than the outer diameter of the flanges.
The bolt holes in the rubber insertion and the flanges shall be drilled to
template. The bolts and nuts for al flanged joints shall conform to British
Standard Specification for mild steel bolts. The bolts shall be tightened
gradually with the help of standard spanners. In order to ensure even tightness
at all times, the same shall be accomplished by tightening bolts in the serial
order 1,4,2,5,3,6 for flanges having six bolts. Spanners with very large
leverage shall not be employed to avoid over-straining of bolts during
tightening of the nuts on flanged joints.

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Technical Specifications

23.5.2.5Welded joints for Mild Steel Pipes: The mild steel pipes for Water Supply and Gas
shall be welded where indicated and the welding shall be done as defined and
laid down in A.S.T.M. Standards or equivalent. Welding plant, instruments
cables shall conform to the requirements of the appropriate ASTM
(Designation A-371) or equivalent. The welding procedure shall be arranged to
suit the details of joints indicated on the Drawings and the positions in which
the welding is to be carried out.

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Technical Specifications

23.5.2.6Specials & Fittings: All changes in directions in the pipe line shall be effected by
means of bends/specials etc. of large radii and the use of elbows shall be
restricted only where there is no room for bends. In all such cases round
elbows shall be employed and square elbows not be permissible at any stage.
Bending of pipes by heating or otherwise shall not be permissible for effecting
changes of direction unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. Where change
of direction by the Engineer. Where change of direction in a pipe line is
permissible by bending pipe after heating short pieces of British Standard
Steam Quality wrought iron or mild steel pipes shall be employed. The outside
diameter of these pieces shall be protected adequately against corrosion with
bituminous coating or as directed by the Engineer.

23.5.2.7Pipe along Slopes: Unless otherwise directed by the Engineer in writing all pipe lines
shall be jointed starting from the lower end of slope.

23.5.2.8Pipes attached to walls and ceilings: Pipe Lines attached to walls and ceiling shall be
supported by galvanized iron holder bats or clamps of approved quality which
shall be properly secured into the walls or ceilings. Spacing of holder bats or
clamps shall not exceed 2.5 meter or as directed by the Engineer. Pipe lines
attached to walls or ceiling shall be laid with sufficient clearance in order to
facilitate painting, cleaning or for the provision of lagging material, if so
required. The cost of providing and fixing G.I. holder bats or clamps shall be
inclusive in the rate of G.I. pipeline installation.

23.6QUALITY CONTROL

23.6.1All the materials used under this Section shall be approved by the Engineer and the same type of
material will be used through out the work in progress. If the Engineer desires to get the
material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his own cost from a laboratory
approved by the Engineer.

23.6.2Testing of pipe lines:

23.6.2.1All piping shall be tested by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer.

23.6.2.2After a particular section of the pipe line has been completed, it shall be tested for
water tightness before being covered. This shall be done by closing the
section with sluice valves or with a blank end. The lines to be tested shall be
filled with water and the pressure shall be raised by means of a hand operated
force pump till the pressure gauge registers 15% above the specified working
pressure for the pipe line. The test shall be carried out with a gauge that is
reliable and has been accurately calibrated. Where the pipe has been laid to a
steep gradient, the test shall be carried out at the lower end of the pipe line. If
during the test, it is found that joint or joints is/are leaking, the joint/joints shall
be made good as per directions of the Engineer. The test shall be repeated till
no further leaks are apparent.

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Technical Specifications

23.6.2.3If tests are made with air, a pressure of not less than 0.35 Kilogram/cm 2 (5 Ibs/sq.in)
in case of water pipes, shall be applied with a force pump and maintained
atleast 15 minutes without leakage. A mercury column gauge shall be used in
making the air tests.

23.6.3Clearing pipe lines of obstruction:

23.6.3.1After testing the pipe lines as specified, the interior of pipelines shall be inspected to
ascertain that the pipes are entirely clear of obstructions and that the invert is
smooth. In case of pipes which cannot be inspected from inside, generally
under 10 cm or less in diameter, a loose plug shall be passed through each
pipe line to ensure that the pipes are entirely clear of obstruction and that the
invert is smooth. The loose plug shall be in the form of a cylinder with solid
ends made of timber not less than 5 cm in thickness or of any other material
as approved by the Engineer or his authorized representative.

23.7MEASUREMENT

23.7.1All pipe work shall be measured in running metre of finished length.

23.7.2All G.I. Fittings such as tees, bends, nipples, sockets, unions, flanged plates, reducers, caps and
plug etc. shall be measured alongwith the length of G.I. pipeline and shall be deemed to be
inclusive in the rate for pipeline.

23.7.3Shut off coupling type valves, gate valves, fire water hydrants with cabinet, brass fixtures etc
shall be measured in number.

23.7.4For insulation of pipe work with insulation materials supplied by the Contractor, all the pipe work
shall be measured in running metre of pipe length including specials insulated and shall be
paid under the respective item in the BOQ.

23.8PAYMENT

23.8.1Payment will be done by unit rates for running metres completed.

23.8.2Rates for all items under this Section shall cover the cost of furnishing materials, Labor and
Equipment at Site and performing all operations in connection with laying, fixing, jointing,
welding and constructing all items under this Section in accordance with Drawings, BOQ and
Specifications.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 24
SANITARY INSTALLATION

24.1SCOPE OF WORK

24.1.1The work covered under this Section consists of furnishing materials of best and approved quality
available in local market, Labor and Equipment for soil and waste, plumbing, installing
sanitary ware and appliance as specified in the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

24.2DEFINITION

The work under this Section consists of the piping system for the waste water transport including all
sanitary ware and appliances.

24.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

23.3.1The works under this Section shall be in conformity with British and Pakistan Standards as
specified under the following sub-clauses.

23.3.2The materials used in jointing, installing and workmanship applied in works shall of highest
quality and grade and conform to specifications given hereunder and details laid out in the
Drawings, and the BOQ as per directions of the Engineer or his authorized representatives.

24.3.3Because of small scale of the Drawings, it is not possible to indicate all offsets, fittings and
accessories that may be required. The Contractor shall carefully investigate the structural and
finish conditions affecting all his work and shall arrange such work accordingly.

24.4MATERIALS

24.4.1Sanitary ware and appliances such as W. Cs. basins, urinals, sinks, flushing tanks etc. shall be of
the best quality local manufacture as approved by the Engineer.

24.4.2Chromium plated sanitary fittings such as bibcocks, taps, mixing valves, stop-cocks, showers,
towel rails, paper holders, traps etc. shall be heavy duty, chromium plated, Pakistan make of
approved type and to be purchased by the Contractor after getting approval of the Engineer.
Articles like mirrors and glass shelves etc. shall also be purchased after getting approval of
the Engineer.

24.4.3All cast iron, soil, rain water down, waste and ventilating pipes including specials shall conform to
Specification B.S. 416: 1973 or of equivalent standard approved by the Engineer.

24.4.4Jointing and Packing Materials:

(a)Lead connections and lead shall be sound, free from inclusion and shall be of the best
quality available in the market.

(b)Packing material shall be of pure jute, hemp of hempen spun yarn, and shall be of the best
quality available in the market.

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Technical Specifications

24.4.5Pipe Clamps for fixing the pipes to walls and ceiling shall be of approved design to be
manufactured from the steel sections consistent with good engineering practice and shall be
painted with bitumastic enamel paints or paint of the same quality as for the pipes supported
by these clamps or any approved rust-proof paint.

24.4.6Pipe Sleeves for passage of pipes through masonry or R.C.C walls and floor slabs shall be of
cement asbestos as specified. Diameter of pipe sleeve shall be 2.5 cm bigger than the
outside diameter of the pipe for which it is used.

24.4.7Insulation Material for cast iron soil and waste pipes such as glass wool, insulation molding, base
paper, galvanized wire, cotton cloth/PVC tape/galvanized iron sheet etc, shall be supplied by
the Contractor.

24.5WORK PROCEDURES

24.5.1General

The Contractor shall employ properly licensed, trained and skilled workmen for carrying out the various
items of work under this Section. The quality of workmanship shall conform to British
Standard Code of Practice for the respective trades. The Contractor shall make adequate
arrangements to carry out these items of work pertaining to services simultaneously with civil
works as far as practicable.

24.5.2Soil, Waste, Vent and Anti-symphonic Pipes for plumbing Installation and Rain Water down pipes

24.5.2.1Examination of Pipes: Each pipe shall be carefully examined before being laid and
defective or damaged pipes shall not be used. The pipes shall be gently
hammered with a wooden mallet to judge their soundness before these are
laid or fixed. Any hollow sound showing cracks shall be rejected and removed
immediately from Site.

24.5.2.2Preparation of Pipes: The pipes before being laid shall be brushed through out to
remove any soil or stones that may have accumulated therein, the inside of
the sockets and outside of spigot being carefully cleaned.

24.5.2.3Laying of soil, waste, vent, anti-syphonic pipes and rain water down pipes

TS - 92
Technical Specifications

23.5.2.3.1The pipes shall run exposed or embedded in walls and floors as


specified or shown on Drawings. Where embedding in walls or
floors is required, the necessary instructions and route of pipe
work shall be approved by the Engineer. Pipes running
exposed on walls and ceiling shall be properly clamped with
hangers, supports and clamps. For passage of pipes through
masonry wall and R.C.C. beams, slab and walls sleeves shall
be embedded and properly caulked and water proofed.
Horizontal soil waste pipes shall be given a grade of 1/4 inch
per ft. and 1/8 inch per ft. respectively. All main vertical soil
stacks shall extend, when necessary, full size above the roof
line except where otherwise specifically indicated. The part of
soil stack carried up as vent pipe shall not have any bend or
angle except when unavoidable, in which case, the angle shall
be as obtuse as possible. The vent stack shall join the soil
stack at a point not less than one meter above the highest
connection to the soil stack. Horizontal waste line receiving the
discharge from two or more fixtures on the first floor shall be
provided with vents, unless separate venting of fixtures is
noted.

24.5.2.3.2Changes in pipe size on soil, waste and drain lines shall be made
with reducing fittings or recessed reducers. All changes in
direction shall be made by the appropriate use of 45 degree
Y's long or short sweep 1/4, 1/6, 1/8 or 1/16 bends or by a
combination of these or equivalent fittings except as indicated
in these specifications. Single and double sanitary tees quarter
bends may be used in drainage lines only where the direction
of flow is from horizontal to vertical. Short sweeps not less
than 3 inches in diameter may be used where the change in
direction of flow is either from horizontal to vertical or from
vertical to horizontal and may be used for making necessary
off sets between the ceiling and the next floor above. The use
of short sweep bends or fittings where deemed necessary
because of installation conditions, shall be subject to the
approval of Engineer.

24.5.2.3.2The Contractor shall provide off-sets in the piping where required or


directed by the Engineer to avoid interference with other work,
or to increase the headroom under piping, or to improve the
appearance of the pipe work. Piping shall be installed in such
a manner that the use of fitting or off-sets, as may be indicated
on the Drawings or as required, will permit freedom of
movement during expansion and contraction without causing
the pipes to be warped.

24.5.2.3.3All piping shall be installed in such a manner as to prevent delay or


interference with the work of others, working in the same area.

24.5.2.3.4All openings in pipes shall be kept closed during construction work


with plugs.

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Technical Specifications

24.5.3Union Connection: Slip joints will be permitted only in trap seals or on the inlet side of the traps.
Tucker or hub drainage fittings shall be used for making union connection wherever
practicable. The use of long screw and bushings is prohibited.

TS - 94
Technical Specifications

24.5.4Cleanouts: Cleanouts shall be of the same size as the pipe except that cleanout plugs larger than
100 mm will not be required. Cleanouts installed in connection with cast iron hub and spigot
pipe shall consist of along sweep 1/4 bend or one or two 1/8 bends extended to an easily
accessible place, or where indicated on the Drawings. An extra-heavy cast-brass ferrule with
countersunk trap screw cover shall be caulked into the hub of the fitting and shall be flush
with the floor. Where cleanouts in connection with threaded pipe are indicated and are
accessible, they shall be cast iron drainage T-pattern 90 branch fitting with extra heavy brass
screw plugs of the same size as the pipe up to and including 100 mm. The test tees with cast
iron cleanout plugs shall be installed at the foot of all soil, waste and drain stacks and on each
building drain outside the building. In addition, cleanouts shall be provided at all changes of
direction in excess of 45 and at distances not exceeding 15 meters in horizontal drain line,
100 mm and smaller size and not exceeding 30 meters in drain lines larger than 100 mm.
Under ground cleanouts shall be extended to an accessible location, to the surface of the
floor above, or to grade, subject to approval of the Engineer. Provide panels and plates for
access to cleanouts.

24.5.5Traps : Each fixture and piece of equipment, including floor drain, requiring connections to the
drainage system shall be equipped with a trap. Traps are to be supplied with the fixtures.
Each trap shall be placed as near to the fixture as possible and no fixture shall be double
trapped. Except as otherwise indicated, traps installed on bell and spigot pipe shall be cast
iron. Traps installed on threaded pipe shall be recess drainage pattern.

24.5.6Floor Traps: Floor traps with gratings shall be made of high-grade, strong, tough and even
grained metals. Castings shall be free from blow holes, porosity, hard spots, excessive
shrinkage, cracks or other injurious defects, shall be smooth and well-cleaned both inside and
outside and shall have all fins and roughness removed. Castings shall not be repaired,
plugged, brazed or burned in. The wall thickness of iron casting shall be not less than 6.25
mm.

24.5.7Lead joint for cast iron soil, waste and vent pipes and rain water down pipes: Joints shall be
made with lead, jute, hemp and hempen spun yarn. The packing material shall be well
packed into the annular space so as to prevent the entrance of lead into the pipe. The
remainder of the space shall be filled with molten lead that is not enough to show a rapid
change in color when stirred. Scum shall be removed before pouring. The lead shall be
caulked to form a tight joint without over staining the bell and shall have a minimum depth of
one inch after caulking.

24.5.8Insulation of pipes and Specials: Insulation shall be applied to pipes and specials (except vent
and rain water down pipes) according to the instructions supplied by the manufacturer of the
material or as directed by the Engineer.

24.5.9Fittings of Appliances: Fittings of sanitary-ware and appliances shall be carried out strictly in
accordance to location shown in Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. The fitting shall be
protected and cleaned before handing over to the representative of the Employer.

24.6QUALITY CONTROL

24.6.1All the material used under this Section shall be approved by the Engineer and same type of
materials will be used through out the work in progress. If the Engineer desires to get the
material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his own cost from a laboratory
approved by the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

24.6.2Testing of Pipe Lines:

24.6.2.1All piping shall be tested by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer.

24.6.2.2The pipes in trenches and in place to be covered shall be tested before any covering
is placed over them.

24.6.2.3Test of soil waste, vent and anti-syphonic pipes shall be carried out with water
pressure or air pressure test as directed by the Engineer.

24.6.2.4Where a portion of the system is to be tested, the test shall be conducted in the entire
system.

24.6.2.5Water pressure test or air pressure test shall be carried out as described hereunder:

(a)Water Test: The entire drainage and venting shall have all necessary
openings plugged to permit the entire system to be filled with water to
the level of the highest vent stack above the roof. The system shall
hold this water for 30 minutes without showing a drop greater than 10
cm. Where a portion of the system is to be tested, the test shall be
conducted in the same manner as described for the entire system,
exception that a vertical stack 3 meter above the highest horizontal
line to be tested may be installed and filled with water to maintain
sufficient pressure, or a pump may be used to supply the required
pressure. The pressure shall be maintained for 30 minutes.

(b)Air Test: If tests are made with air, a pressure of not less than 0.35 kg/cm 2
(5 lbs/Sq in) shall be applied with a force pump and maintained
atleast for 15 minutes without leakage.

A mercury column gauge shall be used in making the air test.

24.6.3Clearing pipe lines, Inspection Chambers and Traps: (1) After testing the pipelines as specified
the interior of pipelines and inspection chambers and traps shall be inspected to ascertain
that the pipeline are entirely clear of obstruction and that the invert is smooth. The inspection
chambers and traps are to be provided with proper cover and grating as specified before
handing over the system to the Employer.

24.7MEASUREMENT

24.7.1Measurement of Soil/Waste/Vent Pipe lines and Rain Water Down Pipes: All pipe work shall be
measured and paid in running meter of finished length of specified size of pipe as given in the
respective items of the BOQ. C.I. Specials in soil and waste pipe line should not be measured
in the finished length of the pipe line.

24.7.2Measurement of C.I. Special in Soil/Waste/Vent Lines and Rain Water Down Pipes: The cast iron
specials such as bends crosses tees, branches, inspection holes, reducers, floor traps etc. of
diameter, 50 to 100 mm shall be measured in numbers and paid under the respective item in
the BOQ.

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Technical Specifications

24.7.3Measurement of Pipe Insulation: The measurement of insulation of pipe lines and specials shall
be done per running meter of insulation completed.

24.7.4Measurement of Sanitary Earthenware and Appliances: Sanitary Earthware such as Water-


closets, Urinals, Lavatory Basins, Utility Sinks etc. including its fittings should be measured in
number and paid under the respective item of the BOQ. Other fixtures such as Shower
Fittings, Towel Rod, Toilet Paper Holder, Glass Shelves, Mirrors and C.P. Brass Bid Cocks
should also be measured in number and paid under the respective item of the BOQ.

24.8PAYMENT

24.8.1General: Rates for the respective items under this Section shall cover the cost of furnishing
materials, labor and equipment at Site and performing all operations in connection with fixing,
jointing, constructing and testing items under this Section in accordance with the Drawings,
BOQ and Specifications.

24.8.2Scope of Rate for Installation of C.I., Soil/Vent Pipe Lines, Rain Water Down Pipes & C.I.
Specials: The rate for installation of pipe work and C.I. Specials shall include the following in
addition to the Proviso mentioned in the BOQ and Specifications.

-Cost of providing jointing materials and labor for laying and jointing of pipe work and Specials;

-Cost of providing and installation of hangers, supports and asbestos sleeves;

-Making and repairing any cuts, holes and chases in walls, floors, slabs etc. where necessary;

-Painting exposed to view pipe work and supports, clamps etc. to match the building color;

-Testing and clearing of pipe lines and Specials etc. as specified.

-The payment will be made per running meter by unit as specified in BOQ.

24.8.3Payment for pipe insulation will be done per running meter completed by unit rate as specified in
the BOQ.

24.8.4Scope of Rate for Installation of Sanitary Earthenware and Appliances: The Scope of Rate to be
quoted in the Bill of Quantities for installation of Sanitary Earthenware such as Water closets
(English type and Indian type), Urinals, Lavatory Basins, Utility Sinks etc. should include the
cost of any jointing materials and labor for installation of Earthenware including W.C.Seats,
Flushing Tanks, Waste Pipes etc. and Chromium plated fixtures such as Inlet connections,
stop cocks, C.P. flush pipes, C.P. brass traps, over flow pipes, branch pipes, Basin and Sink
C.P. supply units, C.P. wall clamps with bolts and nuts etc. and should also include the cost of
making and repairing requisite number of cuts, holes and chases in walls, floors and slabs
etc. where necessary.

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Technical Specifications

24.8.5Scope of Rate for Installation of Fixtures such as Shower Fittings, Towel Rods, Toilet Paper
Holders, Glass Shelves, Mirrors and Bib Cocks to be quoted in the BOQ should include the
cost of any jointing materials and labor for installation of the Fixtures (including C.P. Stop
Cocks, C.P. Pipes, C.P. Wall Plate for Shower Unit), C.P. Wall Clamps, with bolts and nuts
etc. and should also include the cost of making and repairing requisite number of cuts, holes
and chases in walls, floors and slabs etc. where necessary.

TS - 98
Technical Specifications

SECTION - 25
DRAINAGE

25.1SCOPE OF WORK

The work covered under this Section consists of furnishing all labor, supplies, equipment and materials
and performing all operations and tests for providing reinforced concrete Drainage pipes and
structures connected there with as shown in the Drawings or as directed by the Engineer.

25.2DEFINITION

The work under this Section consists of laying reinforced concrete drainage pipes and structures there
with. These drainage pipes are meant for transport of waste water with or without rain water.
The works described in this Section are partly similar to the works in Section -24.

25.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

25.3.1The work under this Section shall be in conforming with British and Pakistani Standards, specially
the standards of Public Health Works.

25.3.2The materials used and workmanship applied in the system shall be of highest quality and grade
and conform with the British Standard Specifications and the code of practice and as per
directions of the Engineer or his authorized representative and details laid out in the
Drawings, Specification and the BOQ. All materials, fittings, fixtures etc. shall be invariably
got approved before hand from the Engineer. No substitute will be accepted in place of the
specific types of brands provided in the BOQ enclosed with the Tender.

25.4MATERIALS

25.4.1Reinforced Concrete Pipes:

25.4.1.1These shall be of "B" class as per Chapter 7.6 of "Specifications Vol.II (Public Health
Works) 1966 W.P. Buildings & Roads Department". These shall be cast spun
and shall have longitudinal and hoop steel and cores thickness in strict
conformity with the tables of above specifications. the inside surface shall be
perfectly smooth and liquid resisting and completely hardened before these
are used. It will be at the option of the Contractor to use spigot and socket or
collar type of pipes. the collars shall also be as specified in the above
mentioned standards.

25.4.2Packing Material: The packing shall be of pure jute, hemp or hempen spun yarn.

25.4.3Mortar: The mortar used for caulking joints shall be as described elsewhere in Specifications,
except that water added will be enough to just wet all particles of the dry mixed cement an
sand mixture. The field test for the same being that the prepared mortar shall form a ball
when pressed in hand, but the same ball shall split if dropped down from the hand.

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Technical Specifications

25.4.4Man-hole frame, cover & Gratings: Man-hole frame, cover and gratings shall be casted from a
mixture of cast iron scrap and a suitable grade of pig iron, and resultant metal shall be strong
grey structure, free from chips, air bubbles and sand holes and shall be smooth and even
both inside and outside.

25.4.5Man-hole Step Irons: These shall be of solid round section and the tails flattened.

25.4.6Fine and Coarse Aggregate: Aggregate shall be sand gravel or stone, natural or crushed or
combination thereof and shall comply with the requirements as given in clauses 8.4.2.2 and
8.4.2.3 Section -8 "Concrete placing".

25.4.7Cement: shall be of the grey portland cement as specified in Clause 8.4.1 of Section -8.

25.4.8Bricks: shall be first class, as specified in Clause 14.4.1 under Section -14 "Brick Work".

25.4.9Mild Steel Reinforcement: The steel reinforcement shall be plain mild steel bars drawn from billet
steel conforming to P.S. 231 (1962) as specified in Clause 9.4.2, Section -9.

25.5WORK PROCEDURES

25.5.1 General

25.5.1.1The Contractor shall employ properly licensed, trained and skilled workmen for
carrying out the various items of work under this Section. The quality of
workmanship shall conform to British Standard Code of Practice for the
respective trades. The Contractor shall make adequate arrangements to carry
out these items of work pertaining to services simultaneously with civil works
as far as practicable.

25.5.2Trenching: the work of excavating and back filling of trenches shall be carried out generally in
accordance with specifications setforth in Section -4, "Excavation/Refill, Backfill". In addition
to those Specifications the following provisions shall also be applicable for trenching and
backfilling.

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Technical Specifications

25.5.2.1Before the trench excavation is commenced, sight rails shall be erected at every 30
meters or any convenient distance as ordered by the Engineer and at all
points of changes of direction and gradient. The sight rails shall be of a
definite and uniform height above the invert of the pipe and the centerline
shall be clearly marked on the rail. The width of the trench at any point below
top of the pipe shall in general be not greater than the outside diameter of the
pipe plus 20 cm on either side to permit satisfactory jointing through tamping
of the bedding material under and around the pipe. Sheeting and bracing
where required shall be placed within the trench width as specified. Care shall
be taken not to over-excavate. The sides of the trenches shall be kept vertical
for all trenches upto 1 meter depth. Trenches with depth more than 1 meter
shall have side slope of 1/10 except in rock. Shoring shall be adopted in loose
ground and in places where excavation is not possible without time. Where
the trench depth is exceeded, the excess depth shall be filled with concrete of
the proportion and in a manner as required by the Engineer, but not weaker
than grade 100 and at the cost of the Contractor. The bottom of trenches shall
be graded to secure the required fall for pipe lines. Where wet or otherwise
unstable material that is incapable of properly supporting the pipe or utility
line, as determined by the Engineer is encountered in the bottom of the
trench, such soil shall be removed to firm bearing. Over depth excavation
shall be performed for the full width of the trench and then back filling to the
proper grade and compacted as described for back filling hereinafter. This
authorized over depth excavation and back filling shall be paid by the owner.

25.5.2.2Removal of Unstable Material: Whenever wet or otherwise unstable soil that is


incapable of properly supporting the pipe, as determined by the Engineer is
encountered in the bottom of the trench such material shall be removed to the
depth required and replaced to the proper grade with selected material,
compacted as provided hereinafter in paragraph "Back-filling of trenches".

25.5.2.3Bedding: The bedding surface for the pipe shall provide a firm foundation of uniform
density throughout the entire length of the pipe. The bed of the trench if soft
earth, shall be well rammed before laying the pipe or bed concrete. The pipe
shall be carefully bedded in the soil of foundation that has been accurately
shaped and rounded to conform to the lowest one-fourth of the outside portion
of the pipe for the entire length of the pipe. When necessary the bedding shall
be tamped. Depression for joints shall be only of such length, depth and width
as required for properly making the particular type of joint.

25.5.2.4Excavated Material: The various materials excavated shall be separated and stacked
so that in refilling they may be again relaid in the same order. The materials
shall be stacked clear of the trenches at least 1 meter away.

25.5.2.5Length of trenches in advance of construction: Unless otherwise directed by the


Engineer not more than 20 m advance of the constructed or laid sewer or a
laid pipe line shall be left open at any time. The trenches, however, shall be
excavated to a minimum length of 5 m in advance of the constructed/laid
pipe line, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

25.5.2.6Proximity to buildings: Where buildings in the vicinity of excavations in the opinion of


the Engineer are likely to be damaged or otherwise effected, the Contractor
shall provide proper shoring to protect such buildings. The Contractor shall
also be required to leave timbering inside excavations, if so required by the
Engineer whose opinion the removal of such timbering might involve danger
to buildings and structures in the vicinity.

25.5.2.7Obstruction to traffic: During excavation no obstruction to traffic shall be provided


with temporary bridges strong enough to carry heaviest moving loads likely to
pass. Wherever possible, temporary diversions shall be provided to ensure
free flow of traffic as per directions of the Engineer.

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25.5.2.8Preservation of road pavement, kerb, turf etc: All pavement, kerb and turf affected
during excavation shall be stacked/preserved on one side and this shall be
restored after refilling to original conditions. While dismantling pavement of
brick or concrete slabs, no brick or concrete slab shall be allowed to be
damaged. Before any road metal is replaced it shall be carefully shifted to the
satisfaction of Engineer. The Contractor shall sprinkle all excavated spoil with
water to avoid dust nuisance. Trees and hedges coming in the way of
excavation shall not be uprooted. These shall be crossed by tunnelling
underneath unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. The Contractor shall,
however, be responsible for clearing the surfaces of trenches or other
excavations of all trees, stumps, roots and other encumbrances that may
affect the progress of the work.

25.5.2.9Restoration of surfaces to original conditions: After refilling the Contractor shall be


responsible to restore all pavements, road surfaces, kerbs, turfs, trees and
hedges to original condition to the entire satisfaction of the Engineer. Any
settlement of surfaces shall be promptly repaired by the Contractor at his own
cost. Any damage arising out of any settlement of surface shall be fully borne
by the Contractor. In case, the Contractor fails to restore the settlement or
damages to the satisfaction of the Engineer it shall be empowered to get this
work done by other means at Contractor' cost.

25.5.2.10Measures against accidents: The Contractor shall provide fences around


excavations and put up warning lights and boards at night to guide traffic and
keep them away from excavations. In case of a heavy rainfall, immediate
measures shall be taken to dewater trenches and restore warning lights and
fences around excavations.

25.5.3Back filling of Trenches

25.5.3.1Pipe trenches shall not be back filled until all required tests are performed and until the utilities
system as installed conforms to the requirements specified. Except as
otherwise specified for special condition of over depth trenches shall be back-
filled to the ground surface with selected excavated material or other material
that is suitable for specified compaction, then refiled and compacted as
specified or the condition shall be otherwise corrected as permitted by the
Engineer. After the pipe line has been tested and approved by the Engineer,
the trenches shall be back-filled in the following manner.

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Selected material from excavation or borrow at a moisture content that will facilitate
compaction, shall be placed along both sides of the pipes in layers not
exceeding 15 cm compacted depth. The back fill shall be brought up evenly
on both sides of the pipe for its full length. Each layer of the fill shall be
thoroughly compacted with mechanical tampers or rammers, till it has reached
the density of the adjacent soil. The meaning of "The density of the adjacent
soil" when adjacent formation is rock will be interpreted as maximum density
at optimum moisture content. The back fill material in this portion of the trench
shall consist of earth, sandy clay, sand and gravel, soft shale or other
approved material free from stones larger than 8 cm in any dimension and
hard clods and conglomerates larger than 15 cm in any dimension, except that
where the pipe coated or wrapped for protection against corrosion the back-fill
material shall be free from stones larger than 3 cm in any dimension. Special
care shall be taken not to damage the wrapping of coating or pipes. This
method of filling and compacting shall continue until the fill has reached on
elevation of at least 30 cm above the top of the pipe. The remainder of the
trench shall be backfilled and compacted by spreading and compacting in 20
cm layers. The back-fill material for this portion shall be free of stones larger
than 15 cm in any dimension. Compacting of the back-fill shall be the rough
and test for density shall be made and any deficiency shall be corrected by the
Contractor without any additional cost to the owner. In areas other than under
roadways, parking areas and other paved areas, subject to vehicular
movement, settling of granular non-cohesive material with water shall be
permitted.

25.5.3.2Where it is necessary in the opinion of the Engineer any sheeting or bracing used
shall be left in place and the Contractor shall be paid for the same. Untreated
sheeting shall not be left in place beneath the structure of pavements.

25.5.4Stacking, Examining, Laying and Jointing of Cement Concrete Pipes

25.5.4.1General: The pipes shall be stacked along the side of the trenches, each pipe in its
proper position for laying for fixing with an extra pipe after every six pipes to
allow for cutting and adjustments. In doing this where such distribution is not
possible, the pipes shall be stacked in heaps at each end, sufficient to fill in
the length.

25.5.4.2Examination of the Pipes: Each pipe shall be carefully examined before being laid
and defective or damaged pipes shall not be used. The pipes shall be gently
hammered with a wooden mallet to judge their soundness before these are
laid or fixed. Any pipe giving hollow sound shall be removed immediately from
site.

25.5.4.3Preparation of Pipes: The pipes before being laid shall be brushed through out to
remove any soil or stones that may have accumulated therein, the inside of
the sockets and outside of spigot being carefully cleaned.

25.5.4.4 Laying of Pipes:

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25.5.4.4.1The interior of the pipes shall be thoroughly cleaned of all foreign


matter before being lowered into the trench, and shall be kept
clean during laying operation by plugging or other approved
method.

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Technical Specifications

25.5.4.4.2The bottom of the trench shall be shaped to give substantially


uniform circumferential support to the lower fourth of each
pipe. Pipe laying shall proceed up grade with the spigot ends
of bell and spigot pipe pointing in the direction of flow. Each
pipe shall be laid true to line and grade and in such manner as
to form close concentric joint with the adjoining pipe. As the
work progresses, the interior of the sewer shall be cleaned of
all dirt and superfluous materials of ever description. Where
cleaning after laying is difficult because of small pipe size, a
suitable swab or drag shall be kept in the pipe and pulled
forward past each joint immediately after the joining has been
completed. If the width of the trench for the pipe is exceeded
than is necessary, due to any reason other than direction, the
Contractor shall provide at no additional cost to the Employer,
such concrete cradling, pipe encasement or other bedding as
may be required to satisfactorily support the added load of the
backfill. Trenches shall be kept free from water until the water
pipe joining material has set and pipe shall not be laid when
the condition of the trench or the weather condition is
unsuitable for such work. At times when work is not in
progress, open ends of pipe and fittings shall be securely and
satisfactorily closed so that no trench water, earth, or other
substance will enter the pipe and fittings.

25.5.4.4.3In rock excavation where it may not be possible to have


substantially uniform circumfrential support due to hard and
uneven bed the excavation shall be atleast 50 mm more than
the design level the bed below the pipe and lower fourth of the
pipe shall be embedded in sand or as directed by the
Engineer.

25.5.4.4.4Any section of the pipe found to be defective before and after laying
shall be replaced with sound pipe without additional expense
to the Employer.

25.5.4.5Cement Mortar Joints to R.C. Pipes

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Technical Specifications

25.5.4.5.1The jointing of pipes with collars shall be done first with spun yarn
rope (dipped in hot maxphalt composition) fitted in between
the ends of pipes and pressed together. The dia of rope shall
not exceed 19 mm diameter or as directed by the Engineer.
The collar will then be brought in the middle of the joint.
Wooden wedges shall be placed at two or three places around
the pipe so that the collar may have uniform gap all round the
pipe. The inside of the collar and outside portion of the pipe
where joint will be made shall be cleaned with brush or cloth.
Cement mortar of (1:1) proportion shall then be inserted from
both ends of the collar. The mortar shall contain as less
quantity of water as possible and shall be carefully inserted by
hand into the joints and tightly caulked with caulking tool and
hammer. The mortar shall be finished off on the outside at an
angle of 45. The wooden wedges shall be carefully removed
and mortar filled in the cavity before finishing.

25.5.4.5.2At each time five or six pipes shall be jointed together. For pressing
together the pipes after putting bitumen soaked hemp rope,
suitable jacks and wedges shall be used. The joint shall be
protected from sun and air and maintained wet for atleast ten
days and shall not be covered with back fill until the joint can
stand the pressure test.

25.5.4.5.3While jointing the pipes with spigot and socket joints, the first pipe
shall be bedded to the established grade line with the socket
end up-stream. The interior surface of the socket shall be
carefully cleaned with a wet brush or cloth and the lower
portion of the socket filled with mortar to such a depth as to
bring the inner surface of the abutting pipes flush and even.
The spigot end of each subsequent pipe shall be cleaned with
a wet brush or cloth and put into the socket such that the
sections closely fit in and the inner side of pipe remains even.
After this the remainder of the joint shall be filled with mortar
and shall be well caulked with the help of caulking tool and
hammer. The mortar shall be finished smooth on the outside at
an angle of 45. The joints shall be protected as described
above.

25.5.5Manholes and Catch Basins

25.5.5.1Manholes, shall be located at every change of alignments and junction point. catch
basins shall be provided in the side of the road at proper intervals as provided
in the Drawings or directed by the Engineer.

25.5.5.2Brick masonry chamber shall be constructed for catch basin and shall have C.I
grating, frame and cover. The chamber shall be finished smooth from inside
and outside and the C.I grating, frame and cover shall be painted with
bitumastic paint.

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Technical Specifications

25.6QUALITY CONTROL

25.6.1All the material used under this Section shall be approved by the Engineer and same type of
material will be used through out the work in progress. If the Engineer desires to get the
material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his own cost from a laboratory
approved by the Engineer.

25.6.2Testing of pipelines

25.6.2.1All the piping shall be tested by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer.

25.6.2.2The pipes in trenches and in places to be covered should be tested before any
covering is placed over them.

25.6.2.3Test of drainage and sewerage pipes should be carried either with smoke test or
water test as directed by the Engineer.

25.6.2.4Where a portion of the system is to be tested, the test shall be conducted in the same
manner as specified for the entire system.

25.6.3Clearing Pipe and Manholes of Obstruction: After testing the pipe lines as specified, the interior
of pipelines and manholes shall be inspected to ascertain that the pipelines are entirely clear
of obstructions and that the invert is smooth. The manholes are to be provided with proper
C.I. Covers as specified before handing over the system to the Employer.

25.7MEASUREMENT

25.7.1Measurements of earth work in trenches

25.7.1.1On completion of the excavation of trench i.e. to true depth, level and grade,
measurements of excavation shall be taken as the area of the bottom of the
trench (any excess in width of trench excavated over the limit specified shall
be at Contractor's cost) multiplied by the average depth of trench for depths
upto 1 meter.

25.7.1.2For depth of trench beyond 1 meter, the measurement of excavation shall be taken
as the average cross sectional area of excavation (any excess in width of
trench or side slopes over the limit specified shall be at Contractor's cost)
multiplied by the length of the trench.

25.7.2Manholes and catch basins shall be measured in numbers.

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Technical Specifications

25.7.3Measurements for R.C.C. Pipe work: All pipe work shall be measured in running meters of
finished length. No wastage or length consumed in joints shall be measured and paid. All
collars, joints, plugs, beds off sets shall not be measured separately but shall be deemed to
be inclusive in the rate for pipe work.

25.8 PAYMENT

25.8.1General: Rates for all items under this Section shall cover the cost of furnishing all materials,
labor and appliances at Site and performing all operations in connection with laying, fixing,
joining, constructing and testing all items under this Section in accordance with Drawings,
BOQ and Specifications.

25.8.2Earth work in trenches will be paid according to unit rate as specified in the BOQ. This rate of
excavation shall include:

25.8.2.1Excavation of pipe trenches to the exact dimensions including form work, shoring,
strutting where required.

25.8.2.2Lifting and placing excavated material to any lift and distance.

25.8.2.3Back filling the sides of pipe trenches, watered and rammed as specified.

25.8.2.4Disposal of surplus excavation material as specified.

25.8.2.5Restoration of surfaces to original condition.

25.8.3All provisions regarding excavation and back filling as specified in Section -4 shall also apply in
the case and payment shall be made on rates quoted in respective items of BOQ under this
Section.

25.8.4Manholes and catch basins will be paid for the complete item as specified in BOQ and shown in
the Drawings.

25.8.5R.C.C. pipe work will be paid by unit rates as specified in the BOQ.

The rate for pipe work shall include the following in addition to the provisions mentioned in the BOQ
and specifications:

-Cost of providing, laying and jointing of pipe work.

-Testing and clearing of pipe lines etc. as specified.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 26
STEEL WORK

26.1SCOPE OF WORK

26.1.1This Section covers the performance of supply, fabrication, erection, and painting of all the "Steel
Work" as shown on the Drawings, specified in the BOQ or as directed by the Engineer.

26.2DEFINITION

The work done under this Section consists of steel, except steel doors, windows and shutters as
specified in Section -17, TS.

26.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

The works under this Section shall be in strict conforming with the British Standards or specially ASTM,
as specified under the following items.

26.4MATERIAL

Materials Standards

Structural Steel ASTM A-7-a Specifications for Steel for Bridges and Buildings.

ASTM A-373 Specification for structural steel for welding B.S.S 4360
(1972).

Steel Plates ASTM A-245 B.S.S. 4360 (1972).

Galvanized Steel ASTM Designation A-123 to A-153, A-475, A-385

Welding Electrodes ASTM Designation A-233

Rivet and Bolts ASTM Designation A-320

M.S.Bar P.S. 231 (1962)

26.5WORK PROCEDURES

26.5.1Shop Drawings: Before commencing any work the Contractor shall prepare and submit for
approval, detailed shop drawings for all items of manufacture, fabrication and assembly
undertaken and are required for proper execution of any item of work connected with
satisfactory completion of the Contract. These Drawings should be based and referred with
Drawings, Instructions and Specifications given in the Contract Documents and supplier's
manuals. The detailed procedure of submission, approval and recording of these shop
drawings shall be indicated by the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

26.5.2Production & Assembly

25.5.2.1All finished steel shall be well and clearly rolled to the dimensions sections and
weights as specified or required.

25.5.2.2All members shall be sound and free from cracks, scales, blisters, surface flaws,
limitations, tracked edges and defects of every sort. If any member is later
discovered to be having any such defects, the Contractor shall at his own cost
replace such components to conform to the Specifications. The structure shall
be shop fabricated in convenient number of places and these pieces shall be
reunited, welded, rivetted or field bolted to the architectural details and
structural drawings at Site prior to their being lifted in position. In no case will
the assembly be allowed on the false work.

26.5.2.3All points will be cut truly square so as to but properly together and will be made only
in such positions as shown on Drawings or as directed by the Engineer. All
field work of fabrication revetting, bolting and welding would be in the best
workmanlike manner. During erection, bending, straining or pounding with
sledges shall not be allowed.

26.5.3 Painting

26.5.3.1Welds and adjacent parent metal shall not be painted prior to dislodging, inspection
and approval.

26.5.3.2Metal surfaces which have been shop painted, shall be handled with care so as to
preserve the shop paint in the best practicable condition.

26.5.3.3In the case of surface to be welded, the steel shall not be painted or metal coated
within a suitable distance of any edges to be welded if the paint specified or
the metal coating would be harmful to welders or impair the quality of the
welds.

26.5.3.4Parts to be encased in concrete shall not be painted or oiled.

26.5.3.5All paints shall be the best available or the required color, type and shall be approved
by the Engineer before procurement.

26.5.3.6Preparation of surfaces, paints and application shall be as specified in Section -19


"Painting".

26.6QUALITY CONTROL

26.6.1All samples of the material used for the work under this Section shall be approved by the
Engineer and the same type of material shall be used through out the work in progress. If the
Engineer desires to get the material tested, this will be got done by the Contractor at his own
cost from a laboratory approved by the Engineer.

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Technical Specifications

26.7MEASUREMENT

26.7.1No measurement will be done. Only the proper installation shall be checked and the
completeness of each item ensured.

26.8PAYMENT

26.8.1Payment will be done item wise according to the unit rates as specified in the BOQ.

26.8.2Rates for all the items under this Section shall cover the cost of furnishing of all the materials,
labor, scaffoldings and appliances at Site and performing all operations in connection with
laying and fixing all the items under this Section in accordance with the instructions of the
Engineer, BOQ, Drawings and as specified. These shall be paid at rates as given in
respective item of BOQ.

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Technical Specifications

SECTION - 27
STONE WORK

27.1SCOPE OF WORK

The work under this Section includes the delivery of selected blocks, the proper positioning of these
blocks classified as Riprap for all kinds of pavement.

27.2DEFINITION

The work under this Section consists mainly of natural stones as riprap or for the purpose of every kind
of pavement. All kinds of stone masonary are described under Section -12, TS.

27.3GENERAL (REQUIREMENTS)

27.3.1The material used and workmanship applied in the works shall be highest quality and conform
with the code of practice applicable in the area and as per directions of the Engineer and
details made out in the Drawings, Specifications and the BOQ.

27.3.2The general requirements for natural stones as specified under Section 12, 12.3.2 TS shall be
followed.

27.4MATERIAL

27.4.1Stone shall be procured from an approved source. Approval sample of the stone shall be retained
as a standard of material to be furnished at the site of work. All stone used in the work shall
be equal in all respects to the approved samples.

27.4.2Blocks for riprap shall be of natural shape with a diameter bigger than 80 cm in one direction. The
minimum diameter in the orthogonal direction shall be not less than half of the first dia meter,
i.e. minimum 40 cm.

27.4.3The stones for pavement shall have such dimensions as required in the Drawings. The thickness
of the stone is the leading dimension. The surface dimensions are not restricted. Stones shall
be roughly hammer dressed on the face and on the sides to avoid large joints.

27.4.4Mortar shall be prepared as specified under Section -12, 12.4.5, TS.

27.5WORK PROCEDURES

27.5.1Riprap: The riprap blocks in the required size must be positioned as directed by the Engineer.
The Engineer may ask to fix the blocks in addition by gabion grate sheets or by drilling holes
through the blocks to put rockbolts as described under Section -6, TS.

27.5.2Pavement will be done in thickness as specified in the Drawings. The surface must be prepared
as specified in the Drawings. The pavement stones must always be laid on a layer of mortar
or P.C.C. as specified in the BOQ. The quality of mortar shall be 1:8 or 1:10. Pavement must
have the slope as specified in the Drawings. The surface must be flat in such a manner that
no water will remain there to become frozen in winter time and crack the joints.

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Technical Specifications

27.6QUALITY CONTROL

27.6.1The proper surface of pavement will be controlled by the Engineer.

27.6.2Special control will be exercised on the preparation and proper use of mortar as specified under
Section - 12, 12.4.5, TS.

27.7MEASUREMENT

27.7.1Riprap will be measured in volume delivered and positioned at the desired construction place. All
fixing measures shall be measured as per Section - 6, TS.

27.7.2Pavement will be measured in square meters for each specified thickness separate.

27.7.3Sealing measures, if required, will be measured extra in sq. meters per layer of foil.

27.7.4Fine grained material (sand) for the bed of the foil will not be measured.

27.8PAYMENT

27.8.1Payment for riprap will be done by unit rates per cubic meter positioned as specified in BOQ. All
fixing measures will be paid separate as specified under Section - 6, TS.

27.8.2Payment for pavement will be done by unit rates per sq. meter as specified for different
thicknesses in the BOQ.

27.8.3Sealing measures will be paid per unit rates per sq. meter as specified in the BOQ.

27.8.4The rates shall include the cost of material, machinery, labor, curing, mortar, scaffolding and
appliances at site and all operations in connection with the installation of stone work in
accordance with the Drawings, finishing schedules and as specified above shall be deemed
to be included in the unit prices given in the BOQ for different items.

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Technical Specifications

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