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Lecture22

MechanicalEnergyBalance

Contents

Exercise1

Exercise2

Exercise3
KeyWords:Fluidflow,MacroscopicBalance,FrictionalLosses,TurbulentFlow

Exercise1

Itisproposedtoinstallafantodrawairatrestinahorizontalstraightductof250mm 350mmcross
section.Theductis60mlong.

Figure1:Horizontalstraightduct

Theairenterstheductat30 m minmeasuredat298 Kand755 mm Hg.Calculatethehorsepower


ofthefan,ifthefandischargesairat755 mm Hgpressure.

1mmHg 133.2 Nm .Frictionlossduetocontractionandexpansionare0.4and1respectively.


K
Viscosityof air 1.78 10

SOLUTION

Applyingmechanicalenergybalancebetweenplane1and2andnotingthatZ Z (ductishorizontal),
P P (inletpressureat1=exitpressureatplane2andV V (velocityatplane1=velocityat
plane2),weget.

F M 0(1)
L
F 2f V ef V ef V (2)
D

By1and2weget

L
M V 2f ef ef (3)
D

FisfrictionfactorandisafunctionofReynoldsnumber.

D V
Re (4)

. . K
De 0.292 m and 1.18
. . RT

InsertingthevaluesofDe, , andV(Visvelocityofairinduct),ineq.4,weget

Re 1.105 10
.
Flowisturbulentandweusef 0.0791 Re

Intheequation3substitutethevaluesofe , e , L, De, f , V,toget.

M 80.94 per kg offluid.

Power 80 .94 0.5 1.18 0.048 kw

Now1 kw 1.341 hP horse power

Horse power of fan 0.064 hP.

Exercise2

Afandrawsexhaustgasesat800 fromthehoodofafurnaceasshownbelow

Figure2:Arrangementofhoodtodischargeexhaustgases

Theexhaustgasflowrateis at 1 atm and 298 k

Theductisrectangularcrosssection0.2m 0.3mandisjoinedbyanelbowasshowninthefigure.
Totallengthoftheductis90m.Calculatehorsepowerofthefanfromthefollowingdata

Frictionlossesduetocontractionandexpansionare0.4and1respectively.


1.77 10 m s at 1073 K. Use f 0.0791 Re tocalculatefrictionfactor.
L
Equivalentlengthforelbow 20.
D

Hint:Applymechanicalenergybalancebetweenplane1and2andgetthefollowingexpression

gZ F M(5)

L L
gZ V 2f ef ef (6)
D D

Substitutingthevalues.

Power=8.8hP.

Exercise3

Applymechanicalenergybalanceequationtocalculatevelocityofgasflowinginapipe

Velocityofgasflowinginapipeiscalculatedbymeasuringthedifferencebetweenthestaticpressure
andtheimpactpressurebythepitottubeatagivenpointintheflow.Thepitottubeconsistsoftwo
openings:impactandstatic.Impactopeningisdirectedtoreceivetheimpactoftheflowandthestatic
openingremainsatparalleltothedirectionofflow.

Mechanicalenergycanbeappliedatplane1whichisupstreamfromtheimpactpointandplane2just
attheimpactpointtofindtherelationshipbetweenpressuredifferenceandvelocity.Kineticenergyof
thegasisconvertedtopressureatplane2.Atpoint1velocityisknownandthepressureisthat
determinedbystaticopeningofpitottube.Atpoint2velocityiszeroandpressureisthatdetectedby
impactopening.

Mechanicalenergybalancesimplifiesto

P P V
0 (7)

P P
V V (8)
Thefrictionallossesaretakenintoaccountbythedischargecoefficient CP whichdependsonthe
designofimpactandstaticopeningsofthepitottube.Thuseq.8is

P P
V CP (9)

Notethatthepitottubemeasuresthepressureataparticularpointintheflowandthevelocitywillalso
correspondtothatpoint.Inordertoobtainthecompletevelocityprofile,itisnecessarytotraversethe
pitottuberadiallyinordertobeabletomeasurethepressureandthentocalculatethevelocity.The
followingrelationscanbeusedtocalculatetheaveragevelocity:

Forlaminarflow
V
0.5 0 Re 2100 (10)
V

andinturbulentflowregion10 10 .
V DV
0.62 0.04 log (11)
V

Forgasesatlowspeeds 60 / andisothermalconditionswemayuseeq.8aswell.Athigher
velocityofgases,densityofthegasisnotconstantandBernouliequationistobewrittenina
differentialformi.e.

P P V
P
(12)

Forthecompressiblefluidflowingunderadiabaticconditionsandassumingidealgaslaw,therelation
betweenPand is

P constant (13)

Whereistheisentropicexponentofthegas.Itsvalueis1.3formonoatomic,1.4fordiatomicand
1.669forHeandargon.

By12and13weget.

P P
V V CP 1 (14)
P

Assignment:

1)Itisproposedtoinstallafantodrawairatrestinahorizontalstraightductof250mm 350mm
crosssection.Theductis60mlong.Theairenterstheductat30 m minmeasuredat298Kand755
mmHg.Calculatethehorsepowerofthefan,ifthefandischargesairat755mmHgpressure.
1mmHg 133.2 Nm .Frictionlossduetocontractionandexpansionare0.4and1respectively.
K
Viscosity air 1.78 10

Figure1:Horizontalstraightduct

2)Afandrawsexhaustgasesat8000Cfromthehoodofafurnaceasshownbelow

Figure2:Arrangementofhoodtodischargeexhaustgases

Theexhaustgasflowrateis at 1 atm and 98 k

Theductisrectangularcrosssection0.2m 0.3mandisjoinedbyasselbowasShowninthefigure.
Totallengthoftheductis90m.Calculatehorsepowerofthefanfromthefollowingdata

Frictionlossesduetocontractionandexpansionare0.4and1respectively.


1.77 10 m s at 1073 K. Use f 0.0791 Re tocalculatefrictionfactor.
L
Equivalentlengthforelbow 20.
D