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h-x diagram

(psychrometric chart)
Determination of physical and thermodynamic properties
of gas-vapour mixtures

Department for Building Service and Process Engineering


Balzs Bokor, PhD student
Building D, Room 124 a
Tel: 463-2535; e-mail: bokor@epgep.bme.hu
INTRODUCTION
BUDAPEST TIHANY

Source: www.index.hu Source: balaton.network.hu

PCS ESZTERGOM

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Source: www.panoramio.com
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INTRODUCTION

Source: www.teachingengineering.org
Source: www.myallergo.de

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DEFINITIONS

Source: www.britannica.com
Atmospheric air consists of:
Gaseous components Contaminants (e.g. smoke, pollen
and gaseous pollutants)
Water vapour 5
DEFINITIONS
Dry air
All water vapour and
Oxygen 21% other gases 1% contaminants removed
Its composition is relatively
constant
Moist air
A two-component-mixture of
dry air and water vapour
The amount of water vapour in
moist air can vary from 0 (dry
air) to a maximum value
Nitrogen 78% (saturation)
Saturation depends on
The components of dry air
temperature and pressure 6
HUMIDITY PARAMETERS
Humidity ratio (x)
The quantity of water vapour present in air
Moisture content (or mixing ratio) of a given moist air sample is the
ratio of the mass of water vapour to the mass of dry air in the sample

=

wv: water vapour
da: dry air

Assuming ideal gas behaviour

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HUMIDITY PARAMETERS
Specific enthalpy
The specific enthalpy of a humid air sample (1+ ) containing 1 kg dry
air and x kg water vapour at a temperature of t equals the enthalpy of
the dry air and the enthalpy of x kg water vapour.
The specific enthalpy of dry air: = ,

, : specific heat capacity of dry air

The specific enthalpy of x kg water vapour: = + ,



: enthalpy of the waters vaporisation


, : specific heat capacity of water vapour

+ = , + ( + , )

sensible heat + latent heat


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HUMIDITY PARAMETERS
With exact values

= 0 1+ = 0


The specific heat capacity of dry air: , = 1


The specific heat capacity of water vapour: , = 1.86


The enthalpy of the waters vaporisation: 0 = 2501

+ = + ( + . )

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STRUCTURE OF THE h-x DIAGRAM
+ = + ( + . )
Lines of constant temperature in 1 diagram
1+
Rise of lines: = 2501 + 1.86
=.
Lines of constant temperature diverge with rising temperature

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika


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STRUCTURE OF THE h-x DIAGRAM
+ = + ( + . )

0 , divergence of lines is minimal


Rise of line = 0: 2501

Rise of line = 100: 2687


Problem with readibility
Richard Mollier (1863-1935) German professor of Applied Physics

Transformation of coordinates

Source: en.wikipedia.org
Rotation of axis x by axis x
h=const. lines || axis x

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STRUCTURE OF THE h-x DIAGRAM
Transformation of
coordinates
Rotation of axis x by
axis x
h=const. lines || axis x

Still no information
about condensation

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika 12


To see the connection between pressure, humidity and partial vapour
pressure, lets see the fraction of the ideal gas laws of both components:



=


29
= = = 1.61
18

Knowing that: 1+ = + we can express as follows:


= 1+
0.622 +

; Whats the maximum value of x at a certain temperature?

13
At a certain temperature , =


= 0.622
1+

From this point humidity mixed into the compound can be only in liquid state of
matter. Liquid water droplets suspended in the air are commonly known as fog.

The specific enthalpy of foggy air is:

+ = , + + , + ,

DRY AIR WATER VAPOUR FOG



Substituting , = 4.17 we determine the rise of constant

temperature lines when > :
1+
= 4.17
=
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h-x DIAGRAM OF HUMID AIR

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

With rising x until saturation curve constant temperature lines are slightly
steeper than horizontal; reaching the saturation curve, the rise falls
Curve connecting breaking points is called saturation curve (=1 or 100%)
Position of the saturation curve depends on the ptotal
If ptotal xs saturation curve 15
h-x DIAGRAM OF HUMID AIR

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

Relative humidity () is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour


(pwv) in a given moist air sample to the partial pressure of water vapour in an
air sample saturated at the same temperature and pressure (ps(T))

= %
()
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RELATIVE HUMIDITY () IN DAILY LIFE
Everyday devices Breath becomes visible

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Weather forecast

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Source: www.saratoga.com 17
RELATIVE HUMIDITY () IN DAILY LIFE

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Finnish sauna: tin = 90-95C; = 10%

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THE IMPORTANCE OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY ()
Medicine
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Operation theatres Rehabilitation treatment
Relative humidity () must be kept Lake cave in Tapolca
on an exact value Used for curing respiratory diseases
If too low, wounds would dry out t = 20C; = ~100%
If too high, patient and personnel High Ca content
would sweat 19
THE IMPORTANCE OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY ()

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Drying technologies
Extremely complex air conditioning needed
Relative humidity () defines the intensity drying process
If drying too intensive, product gets crusty
If drying too weak, product gets mouldy
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THE IMPORTANCE OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY ()

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika


Source: en.wikipedia.org

Flight altitude: up to 12,000 m


toutside = -50C
Source: www.boeing.com

Thin outside air gets pressurised


(gets very hot) and cooled
Mixing with cabin air (50-50%)
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ADIABATIC HUMIDIFICATION
What happens when humid air contacts a large surface of water adiabatically?

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

xair ; tair ; air h1 = h 2


twater because of evaporation t1 > t2 and 1 < 2
If = twater = tair = twb wet bulb temperature
=
Outgoing air is saturated (=100%) 22
ADIABATIC HUMIDIFICATION

Source: www.weldingcode.com
Source: Bihari:Termodinamika
Dry bulb temperature is the temperature of the air-water vapour mixture
measured in the normal way with a thermometer.
tdb [C]

Wet bulb temperature is the temperature shown by a thermometer with a


wetted bulb exposed to a current of air to cause evaporation of its moisture.
twb [C]
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HUMIDITY MEASUREMENT DEVICES

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The elastic modulus of certain organic (hair or sheep
Source: www.bgrg.hu

gut) materials can depend on their humidity content.


Stressed with constant force their length can change
depending on the humidity of the surrounding air. 24
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing two different qualities of humid air

Accounting equations
1 1 + 2 2
1 1 + 2 2 = =
1 + 2
1 1 + 2 2 =
1 1 + 2 2
1 + 2 = =
1 + 2 25
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing two different qualities of humid air

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

Mixing two different qualities of humid air the condition of the mixture is to be
found on the line connecting the two initial conditions. The position is to be
defined by the law of the lever. 26
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing humid air with water

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika


Source: www.clh.hu

If water is added to air without any heat supply, the air condition changes
adiabatically along a constant enthalpy line.
2=95% (complete saturation cannot be reached)
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MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing humid air with water

Accounting equations
1 + = 2
1 + = 2

1 +
2 =

1 +
2 =

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Source: Bihari: Termodinamika
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing humid air with water

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika


Adiabatic humidification (along h=constant line)
tair ; twater ; xair ; air
Water hygiene extremely important 29
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing humid air with water: WATER HYGENE EXTREMELY IMPORTANT
Source: www.randrwaterhygieneservices.co.uk

Legionella bacteria present in water Legionellosis


Legionellosis is transmitted by the inhalation of aerosolised water
contaminated with the bacteria.
Prevention: THERMAL DESINFECTATION 30
MIXING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM
Mixing humid air with steam


= = 0 + ,

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

1 +
Accounting equations 2 =

1 + = 2
1 + = 2 1 +
2 =
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COOLING AND HUMIDITY LOAD IN CLOSED SPACES
Cooling load
People
Lighting
Machinery

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika


Hot surfaces
Surfaces of water
Instationer cooling load
(summer)
Heat loss (winter)

Humidity load Gradient scale


People
Surfaces of water
=
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HEATING PROCESSES IN h-x DIAGRAM

When heating moist air


Specific moisture (x) remains
constant
Relative humidity ()
Source: Bihari: Termodinamika

decreases

Design parameter of outdoor air in Hungary (winter)


=
= % 33
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING
Design parameter of outdoor air in Hungary (summer)
=
= %

Source: Bihari: Termodinamika


Fall of temperature: x=const.
Dew-point (tdew) is the temperature at which an air-water vapour mixture
will become saturated and begin to yield drops of condensed water.
Cooling humid air from t1 to t2 results in x amount of condensate. 34
AVOIDING CONDENSATION

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Insulating heating pipelines Insulating cooling pipelines


Foil-laminated mineral rock wool A built in vapour barrier prevents
insulation condensation
Air among fasers For cold water services, chilled water
lines, air conditioning ductwork and
Economical solution refrigerated pipework

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DRYING AGENT SILICA GEL

Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/silica_gel
Source: www.armygasmasks.com
Source: www.desiccantpacks.net

Granular, porous form of silicon dioxide made synthetically from sodium


silicate. High surface area: ~800 m2/g
It has a strong affinity for water molecules (desiccant or drying agent).
In WW1 used for the adsorption of vapours and gases in gas mask
canisters. In WW2 used for keeping penicillin dry and protecting military
equipment from moisture damage.
Humidity indicator: changes colour. 36
Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/silica_gel
AIR HANDLING UNITS (AHU)

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Air heating
Mixing two different qualities of humid air
Adiabatic humidifying
Air cooling
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Source: www.gopixpic.com

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FROM h-x DIAGRAM TO PSYCHROMETRIC CHART

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THANK YOU
FOR
YOUR ATTENTION
Department for Building Service and Process Engineering
Balzs Bokor, PhD student
Building D, Room 124 a
Tel: 463-2535; e-mail: bokor@epgep.bme.hu 39