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STRUCTURE DESIGN CALCULATIONS

OF
MPS
AT

9MLD MPS & 3MLD STP

AT FARUKHNAGAR

CLIENT:
EXECUTIVE ENGINEER, PHED
FARUKHNAGAR (GURGAON)

SUBMITTED BY:

M/S MAHALAXMI CONSTRUCTION COMPANY


953, SECTOR 23, HUDA BHIWANI

EMAIL: - msmahalaxmibwn@gmail.com
DESIGN BASIS

Concrete grade: M 25 for Building and M30 for liquid retaining

structures Steel grade: Fe 500

Density of Concrete = 25

kN/m3 Seismic Zone: IV

Minimum clear cover to concrete elements:

Surfaces in contact with water : 45 mm

Surfaces not in contact with water : 30 mm

Beams : 45 mm

Columns : 45 mm

Foundations : 50 mm

DESIGN CODES AND REFERENCES

IS 456-2000 Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete

IS 1893-2002 Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures

IS 13920-1993 Code of practice for Ductile Detailing in RCC members

IS 875-1987 Part 2 Code of Practice for Design Loads (Imposed Loads)

SP 16-1980 Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete

SP 34-1987 Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and detailing

Page 2
DESIGN OF WALLS

Page 3
DESIGN OF WALL W1 Location: PIPE GALLERY OUTER LONG WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 8.15 BOF: 213.980 GWT: 200.000

BOW: 213.980 TOW: 215.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Earth 214.280 0.30 0.52 15.67 Cantilever Wall
Fill 2 Earth 214.500 0.52 0.52 15.67 Cantilever Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 1.52 Design Height of Wall (m) = 0.52
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 1.52

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side 1.20 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 1.20 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 7.16 on Fill 2 face: 7.16


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 7.16 on Fill 2 face: 7.16

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: - Page 4


Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Earth) = 0.333


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.111


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Earth 0.111 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 1.52 - - Height above BOF = 1.52


Provided thickness 150 150 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS


Page 5
Cantilever Wall -

Moment coefficient at bottom and other reference points = -1/6


Moment coefficients assumed to be same at edge, quarter point and mid-point
Multiplier = k' * r * (HOF - Ht of ref point from bottom)^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 1 = 0.111
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

1.52
0.52 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.39 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.26 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.0 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01
0.13 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.1 -0.02 -0.02 -0.02
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.3 -0.05 -0.05 -0.05

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
1.52 150 180
0.52 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending Page 6 180
0.39 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending 180
0.26 -0.01 0.00 150 -0.01 Bending 180
0.13 -0.02 0.00 150 0.00 37 -0.02 Bending 180
0.00 -0.05 0.00 150 0.00 37 -0.05 Bending 180

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
1.52 180
0.52 112 0.00 - - 180
0.39 112 0.00 31 - 180
0.26 112 0.01 0 - 180
0.13 112 0.03 0.00 1 - 180
0.00 112 0.07 0.00 2 - 180

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
1.52 180
0.52 112 0.00 - - 180
0.39 112 0.00 - - 180
0.26 112 0.00 - - 180
0.13 112 0.00 - - 180 Page 7
0.00 112 0.00 - - 180

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

Cantilever Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00

2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
1.52
0.52 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
0.39 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.0 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
0.26 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.1 -0.02 -0.02 -0.02 -
0.13 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.4 -0.06 -0.06 -0.06 -
0.00 -0.1667 -0.1667 -0.1667 0.8 -0.14 -0.14 -0.14 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
1.52 150 180
0.52 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending 180
0.39 0.00 0.00 150 0.00 Bending 180
0.26 0.00 -0.02 150 -0.02 Bending 180
0.13 0.00 -0.06 150 0.00 37 -0.06 Bending 180
0.00 0.00 -0.14 150 0.00 37 -0.14 Bending 180
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Page 8
Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
1.52 180
0.52 112 0.00 - - 180
0.39 112 0.00 31 - 180
0.26 112 0.03 31 - 180
0.13 112 0.09 0.00 31 - 180
0.00 112 0.21 0.00 31 - 180

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table

Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
1.52 180
0.52 112 0.00 31 - 180
0.39 112 0.00 31 - 180
0.26 112 0.00 31 - 180
0.13 112 0.00 31 - 180
0.00 112 0.00 31 - 180

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
1.52 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.52 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.39 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.26 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.13 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.00 180 180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
1.52 180 180 180 180
0.52 180 180 180 180
0.39 180 180 180 180Page 9
0.26 180 180 180 180
0.13 180 180 180 180
0.00 180 180 180 180

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
1.52 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.52 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.39 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.26 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.13 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
0.00 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Cantilever Wall -

Shear along side edge


1 m length of wall is assumed to contribute towards shear at vertical edge
Shear = 1 * Pressure of the fill (Coefficient = 1)
Pressure of the fill = k' * r * (HOF - h) ; h = height from bottom, k' and r are for the respective fills
Shear at corner & mid-pt of bottom edge
Shear = 0.5 * k' * r * HOF^2 = 0.5 * HOF * Pressure of fill (Coefficient = 0.5 * HOF)

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
1.52
0.52 Side edge - 1.000 0.00 150 112
0.39 Side edge 0.15 1.000 0.15 150 112
0.26 Side edge 0.30 1.000 0.30 150 112
0.13 Side edge 0.45 1.000 0.45 150 112
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 0.61 -0.260 -0.16 150 112
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 0.61 0.260 0.16 150 112

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall.

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)


Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max Page 10
Ht from Nominal Shear
Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
1.52
0.52 0.00 0.00 0.000 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.39 0.15 0.23 0.002 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.26 0.30 0.45 0.004 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.13 0.45 0.68 0.006 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.00 0.16 0.24 0.002 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.00 0.16 0.24 0.002 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
1.52
0.52 Side edge - 1.000 0.00 150 112
0.39 Side edge 0.78 1.000 0.78 150 112
0.26 Side edge 1.56 1.000 1.56 150 112
0.13 Side edge 2.34 1.000 2.34 150 112
0.00 Corner - bottom edge 3.12 -0.260 -0.81 150 112
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge 3.12 0.260 0.81 150 112

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
1.52
0.52 0.00 0.00 0.000 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.39 0.78 1.17 0.010 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.26 1.56 2.34 0.021 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.13 2.34 3.51 0.031 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.00 0.81 1.22 0.011 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
0.00 0.81 1.22 0.011 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Page 11
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
1.52
0.52 150 Bending 0.00 279 279
0.39 150 Bending 0.00 279 279
0.26 150 Bending 0.01 279 279
0.13 150 Bending 0.02 0.00 279 279
0.00 150 Bending 0.05 0.00 279 279

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 38
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Page 12
Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =

Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')


Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 23.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.1615 0.0


0.0 23.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.1615 0.0
0.2 23.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.1613 Page 13 0.0
0.7 23.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.1608 0.0
1.6 23.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.1598 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 14
DESIGN OF WALL W2 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP OUTER LONG WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 4.00 BOF: 206.950 GWT: 200.000

BOW: 206.950 TOW: 215.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 214.500 7.55 7.55 0.53 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Earth 214.500 7.55 7.55 0.53 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 8.55 Design Height of Wall (m) = 7.55
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.55

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 2.00 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 19.90


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 19.90

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: - Page 15


Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 1.29 8.55 - Height above BOF = 8.55
Provided thickness 450 450 200.00 - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS


Page 16
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.53
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.55
7.55 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 4518.9 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.66 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0011 4518.9 0.54 0.00 -5.06
3.78 0.0024 0.0011 -0.0021 4518.9 10.65 5.06 -9.58
1.89 0.0044 0.0012 -0.0012 4518.9 19.69 5.60 -5.60
0.00 -0.0161 -0.0088 0.0000 4518.9 -72.63 -39.92 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.55 200 240
7.55 0.00 0.00 234 0.00 Bending 281
5.66 -5.06 0.54 299 -5.06 Bending Page 17 359
3.78 -9.58 10.65 364 -9.58 Bending 437
1.89 -5.60 19.69 429 0.00 162 -5.60 Bending 515
0.00 -72.63 0.00 450 0.00 172 -72.63 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 281
7.55 181 0.00 - - 281
5.66 246 7.59 71 - 359
3.78 311 14.36 107 - 437
1.89 376 8.39 0.00 51 - 515
0.00 397 108.95 0.00 649 - 649

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 281
7.55 196 0.00 - - 281
5.66 261 0.81 7 - 359
3.78 326 15.98 113 - 437
1.89 391 29.54 175 - 515
0.00 412 0.00 - - 540 Page 18
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.53
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.55
7.55 0.0014 0.0001 -0.0026 4518.9 6.13 0.54 -11.73
5.66 0.0054 0.0011 -0.0048 4518.9 24.21 5.06 -21.85
3.78 0.0065 0.0012 -0.0100 4518.9 29.27 5.60 -44.98
1.89 0.0061 0.0012 -0.0077 4518.9 27.65 5.60 -34.86
0.00 -0.0032 -0.0021 0.0000 4518.9 -14.63 -9.58 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.55 200 240
7.55 -11.73 6.13 234 - 64 -11.73 Bending 281
5.66 -21.85 24.21 299 - 97 -21.85 Bending 359
3.78 -44.98 29.27 364 - 129 -44.98 Bending 437
1.89 -34.86 27.65 429 - 162 -34.86 Bending 515
0.00 0.00 -14.63 450 - 172 0.00 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 19
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 281
7.55 181 17.60 0.00 228 - 281
5.66 246 32.77 0.00 313 - 359
3.78 311 67.47 0.00 512 - 512
1.89 376 52.30 0.00 324 - 515
0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 281
7.55 196 0.00 - - 281
5.66 261 0.00 - - 359
3.78 326 0.00 - - 437
1.89 391 0.00 - - 515
0.00 412 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.55 281 281
7.55 181 0.00 0 281 196 9.20 109 281
5.66 246 0.00 0 359 261 36.32 326 359
3.78 311 0.00 0 437 326 43.90 314 437
1.89 376 0.00 0 515 391 41.48 246 515
0.00 397 21.95 128 540 412 0.00 0 540

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00 Page 20


2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
8.55
7.55 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 2579.6 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
5.66 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0011 2579.6 0.31 0.00 -2.89 -
3.78 0.0024 0.0011 -0.0021 2579.6 6.08 2.89 -5.47 -
1.89 0.0044 0.0012 -0.0012 2579.6 11.24 3.19 -3.19 -
0.00 -0.0161 -0.0088 0.0000 2579.6 -41.46 -22.79 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.55 200 240
7.55 0.00 0.00 234 0.00 Bending 281
5.66 0.31 -2.89 299 -2.89 Bending 359
3.78 6.08 -5.47 364 -5.47 Bending 437
1.89 11.24 -3.19 429 0.00 177 -3.19 Bending 515
0.00 0.00 -41.46 450 0.00 187 -41.46 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 281
7.55 196 0.00 - - 281
5.66 261 4.33 40 - 359
3.78 326 8.20 53 - 437
1.89 391 4.79 0.00 26 - 515
0.00 412 62.19 0.00 348 - 540

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table
Page 21
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 281
7.55 181 0.00 19 - 281
5.66 246 0.46 14 - 359
3.78 311 9.12 67 - 437
1.89 376 16.86 101 - 515
0.00 397 0.00 9 - 540

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
8.55
7.55 0.0014 0.0001 -0.0026 2579.6 3.50 0.31 -6.70
5.66 0.0054 0.0011 -0.0048 2579.6 13.82 2.89 -12.47
3.78 0.0065 0.0012 -0.0100 2579.6 16.71 3.19 -25.68
1.89 0.0061 0.0012 -0.0077 2579.6 15.79 3.19 -19.90
0.00 -0.0032 -0.0021 0.0000 2579.6 -8.35 -5.47 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.55 200 240
7.55 -6.70 3.50 234 0.00 79 -6.70 Bending 281
5.66 -12.47 13.82 299 0.00 112 -12.47 Bending 359
3.78 -25.68 16.71 364 0.00 144 -25.68 Bending 437
1.89 -19.90 15.79 429 0.00 177 -19.90 Bending 515
0.00 0.00 -8.35 450 0.00 187 0.00 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 22
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 281
7.55 196 10.05 0.00 124 - 281
5.66 261 18.71 0.00 160 - 359
3.78 326 38.52 0.00 279 - 437
1.89 391 29.85 0.00 178 - 515
0.00 412 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 281
7.55 181 0.00 - - 281
5.66 246 0.00 - - 359
3.78 311 0.00 - - 437
1.89 376 0.00 - - 515
0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.55 281 281
7.55 181 5.25 77 281 196 0.00 0 281
5.66 246 20.73 199 359 261 0.00 0 359
3.78 311 25.06 190 437 326 0.00 0 437
1.89 376 23.68 148 515 391 0.00 0 515
0.00 397 0.00 0 540 412 12.53 67 540

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
8.55 281 281 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180
7.55 359 281 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180
5.66 437 359 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180
3.78 515 437 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180
1.89 540 515 12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180
Page 23
0.00 649 540 12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 2.50

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
8.55 281 281 281 281
7.55 281 281 281 281
5.66 359 359 359 359
3.78 512 437 437 437
1.89 515 515 515 515
0.00 540 540 540 540

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
8.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
7.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
5.66 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
3.78 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
1.89 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
0.00 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.60 6.50 6.50

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.53
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 Side edge - 0.001 0.36 234 181
5.66 Side edge - 0.068 40.80 299 246
3.78 Side edge - 0.136 81.25 364 311
1.89 Side edge - 0.199 119.30 429 376
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.269 -160.91 450 397
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.147 88.00 450 397

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 24
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.55
7.55 0.36 0.54 0.003 628 0.35 0.97 3.50 OK
5.66 40.80 61.20 0.248 1065 0.43 0.94 3.50 OK
3.78 81.25 121.87 0.391 1065 0.34 0.84 3.50 OK
1.89 119.30 178.96 0.475 1065 0.28 0.78 3.50 OK
0.00 160.91 241.37 0.608 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK
0.00 88.00 131.99 0.332 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 Side edge - 0.001 0.20 234 196
5.66 Side edge - 0.068 23.29 299 261
3.78 Side edge - 0.136 46.38 364 326
1.89 Side edge - 0.199 68.11 429 391
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.269 -91.86 450 412
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.147 50.23 450 412

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.55
7.55 0.20 0.31 0.002 436 0.22 0.91 3.50 OK
5.66 23.29 34.94 0.134 628 0.24 0.94 3.50 OK
3.78 46.38 69.57 0.213 628 0.19 0.86 3.50 OK
1.89 68.11 102.16 0.261 628 0.16 0.78 3.50 OK
0.00 91.86 137.79 0.334 628 0.15 0.78 3.50 OK
0.00 50.23 75.35 0.183 628 0.15 0.78 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-


Page 25
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 234 Bending 0.00 707 628
5.66 299 Bending 5.06 707 628
3.78 364 Bending 9.58 707 628
1.89 429 Bending 11.24 0.00 1414 628
0.00 450 Bending 72.63 0.00 1414 628

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Page 26
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =
Page 27
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 42.3 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1288 0.0


31.1 49.6 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0006 -0.1296 0.8
46.3 56.2 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1526 1.1
22.8 84.6 0.0001 0.0005 -0.0004 -0.0910 0.7
139.6 87.2 0.0008 0.0005 0.0003 0.0745 4.2
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 234 Bending 0.00 628 707
5.66 299 Bending 2.89 628 707
3.78 364 Bending 10.65 628 707
1.89 429 Bending 19.69 0.00 628 1414
0.00 450 Bending 41.46 0.00 628 1414

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 43.7 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1179 0.0


18.8 50.2 0.0001 0.0008 -0.0007 -0.1399 0.5
55.1 56.0 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1388 1.2
84.4 60.6 0.0005 0.0011 -0.0006 -0.1471 1.7
168.6 62.1 0.0010 0.0011 -0.0002 -0.0422 3.2
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Page 28
Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 234 Bending 11.73 0.00 628 436
5.66 299 Bending 21.85 0.00 1065 628
3.78 364 Bending 44.98 0.00 1065 628
1.89 429 Bending 34.86 0.00 1065 628
0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

111.2 40.4 0.0007 0.0007 0.0000 -0.0005 3.4


90.5 59.0 0.0005 0.0005 0.0001 0.0139 3.1
146.2 67.2 0.0008 0.0006 0.0003 0.0685 4.3
93.2 74.6 0.0005 0.0007 -0.0001 -0.0336 2.5
0.0 60.7 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3215 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 234 Bending 6.70 0.00 436 628
5.66 299 Bending 12.47 0.00 628 1065
3.78 364 Bending 25.68 0.00 628 1065
1.89 429 Bending 19.90 0.00 628 1065
0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

83.6 38.2 0.0006 0.0009 -0.0004 -0.0703 2.2


81.1 50.3 0.0005 0.0008 -0.0003 -0.0574 2.1
132.8 55.8 0.0008 0.0009 -0.0001 -0.0321 2.9
85.4 61.0 0.0005 0.0011 -0.0006 -0.1455 1.7
0.0 63.0 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.2832 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Page 29
Height Overall Provided reinf
from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 234 6.13 436 628
5.66 299 24.21 628 628
3.78 364 29.27 628 628
1.89 429 27.65 628 628
0.00 450 0.00 628 628

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

76.5 38.2 0.0005 0.0009 -0.0004 -0.0792 2.0


157.5 50.1 0.0010 0.0008 0.0002 0.0432 4.0
151.4 56.0 0.0009 0.0009 0.0000 -0.0064 3.4
118.6 61.4 0.0007 0.0011 -0.0004 -0.0979 2.4
0.0 63.0 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.2832 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Provided reinf


from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 234 3.50 628 436
5.66 299 13.82 628 628
3.78 364 16.71 628 628
1.89 429 15.79 628 628
0.00 450 0.00 628 628

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

33.2 40.4 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0005 -0.1029 1.0


95.4 47.2 0.0006 0.0008 -0.0003 -0.0646 2.4
90.6 53.4 0.0005 0.0010 -0.0005 -0.1189 2.0
70.4 59.0 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0008 -0.1993 1.4
0.0 60.7 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3215 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 30
DESIGN OF WALL W3 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP OUTER SCREEN CHANNEL SI

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 4.00 BOF: 208.240 GWT: 200.000

BOW: 206.950 TOW: 215.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 214.500 6.26 6.26 0.64 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Water 214.500 6.26 6.26 0.64 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 7.26 Design Height of Wall (m) = 6.26
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.55

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 2.00 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 19.90


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: 19.90

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: - Page 31


Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 7.26 - - Height above BOF = 7.26


Provided thickness 450 200 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS


Page 32
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.64
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

7.26
6.26 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 2575.8 0.00 0.00 0.00
4.70 0.0006 0.0000 -0.0016 2575.8 1.43 0.00 -4.01
3.13 0.0037 0.0016 -0.0026 2575.8 9.45 4.01 -6.58
1.57 0.0057 0.0021 -0.0021 2575.8 14.60 5.44 -5.44
0.00 -0.0200 -0.0119 0.0000 2575.8 -51.52 -30.63 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
7.26 200 240
6.26 0.00 0.00 234 0.00 Bending 281
4.70 -4.01 1.43 288 -4.01 Bending Page 33 346
3.13 -6.58 9.45 342 -6.58 Bending 411
1.57 -5.44 14.60 396 0.00 145 -5.44 Bending 475
0.00 -51.52 0.00 450 0.00 172 -51.52 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
7.26 281
6.26 181 0.00 - - 281
4.70 235 6.01 59 - 346
3.13 289 9.88 79 - 411
1.57 343 8.16 0.00 55 - 475
0.00 397 77.29 0.00 456 - 540

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
7.26 281
6.26 181 0.00 - - 281
4.70 235 2.15 21 - 346
3.13 289 14.17 113 - 411
1.57 343 21.90 148 - 475
0.00 397 0.00 - - 540 Page 34
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.64
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

7.26
6.26 0.0027 0.0006 -0.0048 2575.8 6.87 1.43 -12.31
4.70 0.0067 0.0016 -0.0079 2575.8 17.17 4.01 -20.33
3.13 0.0082 0.0021 -0.0134 2575.8 21.18 5.44 -34.64
1.57 0.0066 0.0021 -0.0103 2575.8 16.89 5.44 -26.62
0.00 -0.0041 -0.0026 0.0000 2575.8 -10.59 -6.58 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
7.26 200 240
6.26 -12.31 6.87 234 - 64 -12.31 Bending 281
4.70 -20.33 17.17 288 - 91 -20.33 Bending 346
3.13 -34.64 21.18 342 - 118 -34.64 Bending 411
1.57 -26.62 16.89 396 - 145 -26.62 Bending 475
0.00 0.00 -10.59 450 - 172 0.00 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 35
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
7.26 281
6.26 181 18.47 0.00 239 - 281
4.70 235 30.49 0.00 305 - 346
3.13 289 51.96 0.00 424 - 424
1.57 343 39.93 0.00 271 - 475
0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
7.26 281
6.26 181 0.00 - - 281
4.70 235 0.00 - - 346
3.13 289 0.00 - - 411
1.57 343 0.00 - - 475
0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
7.26 281 281
6.26 181 0.00 0 281 181 10.31 132 281
4.70 235 0.00 0 346 235 25.76 256 346
3.13 289 0.00 0 411 289 31.77 256 411
1.57 343 0.00 0 475 343 25.33 171 475
0.00 397 15.89 92 540 397 0.00 0 540

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00 Page 36


2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
7.26
6.26 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 2575.8 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
4.70 0.0006 0.0000 -0.0016 2575.8 1.43 0.00 -4.01 -
3.13 0.0037 0.0016 -0.0026 2575.8 9.45 4.01 -6.58 -
1.57 0.0057 0.0021 -0.0021 2575.8 14.60 5.44 -5.44 -
0.00 -0.0200 -0.0119 0.0000 2575.8 -51.52 -30.63 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
7.26 200 240
6.26 0.00 0.00 234 0.00 Bending 281
4.70 1.43 -4.01 288 -4.01 Bending 346
3.13 9.45 -6.58 342 -6.58 Bending 411
1.57 14.60 -5.44 396 0.00 145 -5.44 Bending 475
0.00 0.00 -51.52 450 0.00 172 -51.52 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
7.26 281
6.26 181 0.00 - - 281
4.70 235 6.01 59 - 346
3.13 289 9.88 84 - 411
1.57 343 8.16 0.00 50 - 475
0.00 397 77.29 0.00 461 - 540

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table
Page 37
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
7.26 281
6.26 181 0.00 19 - 281
4.70 235 2.15 15 - 346
3.13 289 14.17 108 - 411
1.57 343 21.90 152 - 475
0.00 397 0.00 9 - 540

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
7.26
6.26 0.0027 0.0006 -0.0048 2575.8 6.87 1.43 -12.31
4.70 0.0067 0.0016 -0.0079 2575.8 17.17 4.01 -20.33
3.13 0.0082 0.0021 -0.0134 2575.8 21.18 5.44 -34.64
1.57 0.0066 0.0021 -0.0103 2575.8 16.89 5.44 -26.62
0.00 -0.0041 -0.0026 0.0000 2575.8 -10.59 -6.58 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
7.26 200 240
6.26 -12.31 6.87 234 0.00 64 -12.31 Bending 281
4.70 -20.33 17.17 288 0.00 91 -20.33 Bending 346
3.13 -34.64 21.18 342 0.00 118 -34.64 Bending 411
1.57 -26.62 16.89 396 0.00 145 -26.62 Bending 475
0.00 0.00 -10.59 450 0.00 172 0.00 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 38
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
7.26 281
6.26 181 18.47 0.00 233 - 281
4.70 235 30.49 0.00 300 - 346
3.13 289 51.96 0.00 428 - 428
1.57 343 39.93 0.00 275 - 475
0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
7.26 281
6.26 181 0.00 - - 281
4.70 235 0.00 - - 346
3.13 289 0.00 - - 411
1.57 343 0.00 - - 475
0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
7.26 281 281
6.26 181 10.31 135 281 181 0.00 0 281
4.70 235 25.76 254 346 235 0.00 0 346
3.13 289 31.77 254 411 289 0.00 0 411
1.57 343 25.33 172 475 343 0.00 0 475
0.00 397 0.00 0 540 397 15.89 96 540

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
7.26 281 281 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
6.26 346 281 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
4.70 411 346 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
3.13 475 411 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
1.57 540 475 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
Page 39
0.00 540 540 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.60 1.60

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
8.55 281 281 281 281
7.55 281 281 281 281
5.99 346 346 346 346
4.42 424 428 411 411
2.86 475 475 475 475
1.29 540 540 540 540

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
8.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
7.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
5.99 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
4.42 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
2.86 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
1.29 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.60 6.50 1.60 6.50

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.64
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
7.26
6.26 Side edge - 0.003 1.14 234 181
4.70 Side edge - 0.083 34.34 288 235
3.13 Side edge - 0.164 67.54 342 289
1.57 Side edge - 0.226 93.07 396 343
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.309 -126.97 450 397
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.169 69.57 450 397

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 40
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
7.26
6.26 1.14 1.72 0.009 628 0.35 0.97 3.50 OK
4.70 34.34 51.51 0.219 1065 0.45 0.98 3.50 OK
3.13 67.54 101.30 0.350 1065 0.37 0.88 3.50 OK
1.57 93.07 139.60 0.407 1065 0.31 0.82 3.50 OK
0.00 126.97 190.46 0.480 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK
0.00 69.57 104.35 0.263 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
7.26
6.26 Side edge - 0.003 1.96 234 181
4.70 Side edge - 0.083 58.87 288 235
3.13 Side edge - 0.164 115.78 342 289
1.57 Side edge - 0.226 159.55 396 343
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.309 -217.67 450 397
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.169 119.26 450 397

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
7.26
6.26 1.96 2.94 0.016 628 0.35 1.12 3.50 OK
4.70 58.87 88.30 0.375 1065 0.45 1.25 3.50 OK
3.13 115.78 173.66 0.600 1065 0.37 1.14 3.50 OK
1.57 159.55 239.32 0.698 1065 0.31 1.07 3.50 OK
0.00 217.67 326.51 0.822 1414 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
0.00 119.26 178.89 0.451 1414 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-


Page 41
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
7.26
6.26 234 Bending 0.00 707 707
4.70 288 Bending 4.01 707 707
3.13 342 Bending 9.45 707 707
1.57 396 Bending 14.60 0.00 707 707
0.00 450 Bending 51.52 0.00 1414 1414

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 42
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =
Page 43
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 44.0 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1276 0.0


25.9 49.9 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0006 -0.1258 0.7
49.4 55.3 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1281 1.2
63.9 60.3 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1439 1.5
98.9 85.7 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0201 2.9
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
7.26
6.26 234 Bending 0.00 707 707
4.70 288 Bending 4.01 707 707
3.13 342 Bending 9.45 707 707
1.57 396 Bending 14.60 0.00 707 707
0.00 450 Bending 51.52 0.00 1414 1414

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 44.0 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1276 0.0


25.9 49.9 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0006 -0.1258 0.7
49.4 55.3 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1281 1.2
63.9 60.3 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1439 1.5
98.9 85.7 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0201 2.9
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Page 44
Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
7.26
6.26 234 Bending 12.31 0.00 628 628
4.70 288 Bending 20.33 0.00 1065 1065
3.13 342 Bending 34.64 0.00 1065 1065
1.57 396 Bending 26.62 0.00 1065 1065
0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

117.0 42.0 0.0008 0.0007 0.0001 0.0212 3.8


88.4 58.4 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0238 3.1
121.6 65.0 0.0008 0.0005 0.0002 0.0516 3.8
78.3 71.0 0.0005 0.0006 -0.0001 -0.0356 2.2
0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
7.26
6.26 234 Bending 12.31 0.00 628 628
4.70 288 Bending 20.33 0.00 1065 1065
3.13 342 Bending 34.64 0.00 1065 1065
1.57 396 Bending 26.62 0.00 1065 1065
0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

117.0 42.0 0.0008 0.0007 0.0001 0.0212 3.8


88.4 58.4 0.0006 0.0005 0.0001 0.0238 3.1
121.6 65.0 0.0008 0.0005 0.0002 0.0516 3.8
78.3 71.0 0.0005 0.0006 -0.0001 -0.0356 2.2
0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Page 45
Height Overall Provided reinf
from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
7.26
6.26 234 6.87 628 628
4.70 288 17.17 628 628
3.13 342 21.18 628 628
1.57 396 16.89 628 628
0.00 450 0.00 628 628

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

65.3 42.0 0.0005 0.0007 -0.0003 -0.0523 2.1


124.6 47.6 0.0008 0.0008 0.0000 -0.0046 3.4
124.1 52.7 0.0008 0.0009 -0.0002 -0.0440 3.0
83.0 57.4 0.0005 0.0011 -0.0006 -0.1476 1.8
0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Provided reinf


from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
7.26
6.26 234 6.87 628 628
4.70 288 17.17 628 628
3.13 342 21.18 628 628
1.57 396 16.89 628 628
0.00 450 0.00 628 628

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

65.3 42.0 0.0005 0.0007 -0.0003 -0.0523 2.1


124.6 47.6 0.0008 0.0008 0.0000 -0.0046 3.4
124.1 52.7 0.0008 0.0009 -0.0002 -0.0440 3.0
83.0 57.4 0.0005 0.0011 -0.0006 -0.1476 1.8
0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 46
DESIGN OF WALL W4 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP INTERNAL WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 4.00 BOF: 206.950 GWT: 200.000

BOW: 206.950 TOW: 215.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 214.500 7.55 7.55 0.53 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Water 214.500 7.55 7.55 0.53 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 8.55 Design Height of Wall (m) = 7.55
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 8.55

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side 0.60 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 0.60 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 1.79 on Fill 2 face: 1.79


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 1.79 on Fill 2 face: 1.79

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: - Page 47


Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 8.55 - - Height above BOF = 8.55


Provided thickness 450 200 - - Taper = Both sides

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS


Page 48
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.53
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.55
7.55 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 4518.9 0.00 0.00 0.00
5.66 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0011 4518.9 0.54 0.00 -5.06
3.78 0.0024 0.0011 -0.0021 4518.9 10.65 5.06 -9.58
1.89 0.0044 0.0012 -0.0012 4518.9 19.69 5.60 -5.60
0.00 -0.0161 -0.0088 0.0000 4518.9 -72.63 -39.92 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.55 200 240
7.55 0.00 0.00 229 0.00 Bending 275
5.66 -5.06 0.54 284 -5.06 Bending Page 49 341
3.78 -9.58 10.65 340 -9.58 Bending 408
1.89 -5.60 19.69 395 0.00 144 -5.60 Bending 474
0.00 -72.63 0.00 450 0.00 172 -72.63 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 275
7.55 176 0.00 - - 275
5.66 231 7.59 76 - 341
3.78 287 14.36 116 - 408
1.89 342 8.39 0.00 57 - 474
0.00 397 108.95 0.00 649 - 649

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 275
7.55 176 0.00 - - 275
5.66 231 0.81 8 - 341
3.78 287 15.98 129 - 408
1.89 342 29.54 201 - 474
0.00 397 0.00 - - 540 Page 50
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.53
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

8.55
7.55 0.0014 0.0001 -0.0026 4518.9 6.13 0.54 -11.73
5.66 0.0054 0.0011 -0.0048 4518.9 24.21 5.06 -21.85
3.78 0.0065 0.0012 -0.0100 4518.9 29.27 5.60 -44.98
1.89 0.0061 0.0012 -0.0077 4518.9 27.65 5.60 -34.86
0.00 -0.0032 -0.0021 0.0000 4518.9 -14.63 -9.58 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.55 200 240
7.55 -11.73 6.13 229 - 62 -11.73 Bending 275
5.66 -21.85 24.21 284 - 89 -21.85 Bending 341
3.78 -44.98 29.27 340 - 117 -44.98 Bending 408
1.89 -34.86 27.65 395 - 144 -34.86 Bending 474
0.00 0.00 -14.63 450 - 172 0.00 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 51
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 275
7.55 176 17.60 0.00 235 - 275
5.66 231 32.77 0.00 334 - 341
3.78 287 67.47 0.00 560 - 560
1.89 342 52.30 0.00 358 - 474
0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 275
7.55 176 0.00 - - 275
5.66 231 0.00 - - 341
3.78 287 0.00 - - 408
1.89 342 0.00 - - 474
0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.55 275 275
7.55 176 0.00 0 275 176 9.20 121 275
5.66 231 0.00 0 341 231 36.32 371 371
3.78 287 0.00 0 408 287 43.90 360 408
1.89 342 0.00 0 474 342 41.48 283 474
0.00 397 21.95 128 540 397 0.00 0 540

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00 Page 52


2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
8.55
7.55 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 4518.9 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
5.66 0.0001 0.0000 -0.0011 4518.9 0.54 0.00 -5.06 -
3.78 0.0024 0.0011 -0.0021 4518.9 10.65 5.06 -9.58 -
1.89 0.0044 0.0012 -0.0012 4518.9 19.69 5.60 -5.60 -
0.00 -0.0161 -0.0088 0.0000 4518.9 -72.63 -39.92 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.55 200 240
7.55 0.00 0.00 229 0.00 Bending 275
5.66 0.54 -5.06 284 -5.06 Bending 341
3.78 10.65 -9.58 340 -9.58 Bending 408
1.89 19.69 -5.60 395 0.00 144 -5.60 Bending 474
0.00 0.00 -72.63 450 0.00 172 -72.63 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 275
7.55 176 0.00 - - 275
5.66 231 7.59 75 - 341
3.78 287 14.36 121 - 408
1.89 342 8.39 0.00 61 - 474
0.00 397 108.95 0.00 652 - 652

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table
Page 53
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 275
7.55 176 0.00 20 - 275
5.66 231 0.81 15 - 341
3.78 287 15.98 133 - 408
1.89 342 29.54 204 - 474
0.00 397 0.00 9 - 540

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
8.55
7.55 0.0014 0.0001 -0.0026 4518.9 6.13 0.54 -11.73
5.66 0.0054 0.0011 -0.0048 4518.9 24.21 5.06 -21.85
3.78 0.0065 0.0012 -0.0100 4518.9 29.27 5.60 -44.98
1.89 0.0061 0.0012 -0.0077 4518.9 27.65 5.60 -34.86
0.00 -0.0032 -0.0021 0.0000 4518.9 -14.63 -9.58 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
8.55 200 240
7.55 -11.73 6.13 229 0.00 62 -11.73 Bending 275
5.66 -21.85 24.21 284 0.00 89 -21.85 Bending 341
3.78 -44.98 29.27 340 0.00 117 -44.98 Bending 408
1.89 -34.86 27.65 395 0.00 144 -34.86 Bending 474
0.00 0.00 -14.63 450 0.00 172 0.00 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 54
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 275
7.55 176 17.60 0.00 240 - 275
5.66 231 32.77 0.00 336 - 341
3.78 287 67.47 0.00 560 - 560
1.89 342 52.30 0.00 360 - 474
0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
8.55 275
7.55 176 0.00 - - 275
5.66 231 0.00 - - 341
3.78 287 0.00 - - 408
1.89 342 0.00 - - 474
0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.55 275 275
7.55 176 9.20 119 275 176 0.00 0 275
5.66 231 36.32 368 368 231 0.00 0 341
3.78 287 43.90 356 408 287 0.00 0 408
1.89 342 41.48 287 474 342 0.00 0 474
0.00 397 0.00 0 540 397 21.95 131 540

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
8.55 275 275 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
7.55 341 275 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
5.66 408 341 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
3.78 474 408 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
1.89 540 474 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160
Page 55
0.00 649 652 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 2.50 2.50

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
8.55 275 275 275 275
7.55 275 275 275 275
5.66 341 341 368 371
3.78 560 560 408 408
1.89 474 474 474 474
0.00 540 540 540 540

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
8.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
7.55 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
5.66 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
3.78 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
1.89 10-180+12-180 10-180+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
0.00 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.60 6.50 1.60 6.50

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.53
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 Side edge - 0.001 0.36 229 176
5.66 Side edge - 0.068 40.80 284 231
3.78 Side edge - 0.136 81.25 340 287
1.89 Side edge - 0.199 119.30 395 342
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.269 -160.91 450 397
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.147 88.00 450 397

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 56
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.55
7.55 0.36 0.54 0.003 628 0.36 0.98 3.50 OK
5.66 40.80 61.20 0.264 1065 0.46 0.99 3.50 OK
3.78 81.25 121.87 0.425 1065 0.37 0.88 3.50 OK
1.89 119.30 178.96 0.524 1065 0.31 0.82 3.50 OK
0.00 160.91 241.37 0.608 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK
0.00 88.00 131.99 0.332 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 Side edge - 0.001 0.61 229 176
5.66 Side edge - 0.068 69.95 284 231
3.78 Side edge - 0.136 139.28 340 287
1.89 Side edge - 0.199 204.52 395 342
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.269 -275.85 450 397
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.147 150.85 450 397

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
8.55
7.55 0.61 0.92 0.005 628 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
5.66 69.95 104.92 0.453 1065 0.46 1.25 3.50 OK
3.78 139.28 208.93 0.729 1065 0.37 1.14 3.50 OK
1.89 204.52 306.78 0.898 1065 0.31 1.07 3.50 OK
0.00 275.85 413.77 1.042 1414 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
0.00 150.85 226.27 0.570 1414 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-


Page 57
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 229 Bending 0.00 707 707
5.66 284 Bending 5.06 707 707
3.78 340 Bending 10.65 707 707
1.89 395 Bending 19.69 0.00 1414 1414
0.00 450 Bending 72.63 0.00 1414 1414

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 58
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =
Page 59
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 43.4 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1243 0.0


33.3 49.5 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0005 -0.1125 1.0
56.2 55.0 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1162 1.4
44.2 79.0 0.0003 0.0004 -0.0002 -0.0458 1.4
139.4 85.7 0.0008 0.0005 0.0003 0.0826 4.1
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 229 Bending 0.00 707 707
5.66 284 Bending 5.06 707 707
3.78 340 Bending 10.65 707 707
1.89 395 Bending 19.69 0.00 1414 1414
0.00 450 Bending 72.63 0.00 1414 1414

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 43.4 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1243 0.0


33.3 49.5 0.0002 0.0007 -0.0005 -0.1125 1.0
56.2 55.0 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0005 -0.1162 1.4
44.2 79.0 0.0003 0.0004 -0.0002 -0.0458 1.4
139.4 85.7 0.0008 0.0005 0.0003 0.0826 4.1
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Page 60
Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 229 Bending 11.73 0.00 628 628
5.66 284 Bending 21.85 0.00 1065 1065
3.78 340 Bending 44.98 0.00 1065 1065
1.89 395 Bending 34.86 0.00 1065 1065
0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

114.9 41.4 0.0008 0.0007 0.0001 0.0217 3.8


96.7 57.9 0.0006 0.0005 0.0002 0.0373 3.5
159.4 64.7 0.0010 0.0005 0.0005 0.1086 5.0
102.9 70.9 0.0006 0.0006 0.0000 0.0023 2.9
0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 229 Bending 11.73 0.00 628 628
5.66 284 Bending 21.85 0.00 1065 1065
3.78 340 Bending 44.98 0.00 1065 1065
1.89 395 Bending 34.86 0.00 1065 1065
0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 628

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

114.9 41.4 0.0008 0.0007 0.0001 0.0217 3.8


96.7 57.9 0.0006 0.0005 0.0002 0.0373 3.5
159.4 64.7 0.0010 0.0005 0.0005 0.1086 5.0
102.9 70.9 0.0006 0.0006 0.0000 0.0023 2.9
0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Page 61
Height Overall Provided reinf
from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 229 6.13 628 628
5.66 284 24.21 628 628
3.78 340 29.27 628 628
1.89 395 27.65 628 628
0.00 450 0.00 628 628

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

60.1 41.4 0.0004 0.0007 -0.0003 -0.0561 2.0


178.7 47.2 0.0012 0.0008 0.0003 0.0768 4.9
173.1 52.5 0.0011 0.0009 0.0001 0.0309 4.2
136.4 57.3 0.0008 0.0011 -0.0003 -0.0651 2.9
0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Provided reinf


from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
8.55
7.55 229 6.13 628 628
5.66 284 24.21 628 628
3.78 340 29.27 628 628
1.89 395 27.65 628 628
0.00 450 0.00 628 628

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

60.1 41.4 0.0004 0.0007 -0.0003 -0.0561 2.0


178.7 47.2 0.0012 0.0008 0.0003 0.0768 4.9
173.1 52.5 0.0011 0.0009 0.0001 0.0309 4.2
136.4 57.3 0.0008 0.0011 -0.0003 -0.0651 2.9
0.0 61.9 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3204 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 62
DESIGN OF WALL W5 Location: B/W STAIRCASE & SCREEN CHAMBER WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 5.00 BOF: 210.040 GWT: 200.000

BOW: 210.040 TOW: 212.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 2.03 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 2.03 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 2.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 2.46
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 2.46

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: - Page 63


Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 2.46 - - Height above BOF = 2.46


Provided thickness 200 200 - - Taper = Both sides

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS


Page 64
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 2.03
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

2.46
2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.85 0.0129 0.0061 -0.0121 156.3 2.02 0.95 -1.89
1.23 0.0147 0.0099 -0.0101 156.3 2.30 1.54 -1.57
0.62 -0.0088 -0.0025 -0.0050 156.3 -1.38 -0.39 -0.78
0.00 -0.0874 -0.0602 0.0000 156.3 -13.67 -9.41 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 200 240
2.46 0.00 0.00 200 0.00 Bending 240
1.85 -1.89 2.02 200 -1.89 Bending Page 65 240
1.23 -1.57 2.30 200 -1.57 Bending 240
0.62 -1.38 0.00 200 0.00 47 -1.38 Bending 240
0.00 -13.67 0.00 200 0.00 47 -13.67 Bending 240

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 - - 240
1.85 147 2.83 45 - 240
1.23 147 2.36 37 - 240
0.62 147 2.07 0.00 33 - 240
0.00 147 20.50 0.00 333 - 333

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 - - 240
1.85 147 3.03 48 - 240
1.23 147 3.46 54 - 240
0.62 147 0.00 - - 240
0.00 147 0.00 - - 240 Page 66
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 2.03
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

2.46
2.46 0.0270 0.0093 -0.0609 156.3 4.22 1.45 -9.52
1.85 0.0229 0.0102 -0.0595 156.3 3.59 1.59 -9.29
1.23 0.0159 0.0100 -0.0493 156.3 2.48 1.56 -7.70
0.62 0.0027 0.0027 -0.0270 156.3 0.43 0.43 -4.22
0.00 -0.0173 -0.0122 0.0000 156.3 -2.71 -1.91 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 200 240
2.46 -9.52 4.22 200 - 47 -9.52 Bending 240
1.85 -9.29 3.59 200 - 47 -9.29 Bending 240
1.23 -7.70 2.48 200 - 47 -7.70 Bending 240
0.62 -4.22 0.43 200 - 47 -4.22 Bending 240
0.00 0.00 -2.71 200 - 47 0.00 Bending 240
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 67
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 14.28 0.00 229 - 240
1.85 147 13.94 0.00 224 - 240
1.23 147 11.55 0.00 185 - 240
0.62 147 6.33 0.00 100 - 240
0.00 147 0.00 0.00 - - 240

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 - - 240
1.85 147 0.00 - - 240
1.23 147 0.00 - - 240
0.62 147 0.00 - - 240
0.00 147 0.00 - - 240

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
2.46 240 240
2.46 147 0.00 0 240 147 6.33 100 240
1.85 147 0.00 0 240 147 5.38 85 240
1.23 147 0.00 0 240 147 3.72 59 240
0.62 147 0.00 0 240 147 0.64 10 240
0.00 147 4.06 64 240 147 0.00 0 240

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00 Page 68


2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
2.46
2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
1.85 0.0129 0.0061 -0.0121 156.3 2.02 0.95 -1.89 -
1.23 0.0147 0.0099 -0.0101 156.3 2.30 1.54 -1.57 -
0.62 -0.0088 -0.0025 -0.0050 156.3 -1.38 -0.39 -0.78 -
0.00 -0.0874 -0.0602 0.0000 156.3 -13.67 -9.41 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 200 240
2.46 0.00 0.00 200 0.00 Bending 240
1.85 2.02 -1.89 200 -1.89 Bending 240
1.23 2.30 -1.57 200 -1.57 Bending 240
0.62 0.00 -1.38 200 0.00 47 -1.38 Bending 240
0.00 0.00 -13.67 200 0.00 47 -13.67 Bending 240
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 - - 240
1.85 147 2.83 47 - 240
1.23 147 2.36 47 - 240
0.62 147 2.07 0.00 24 - 240
0.00 147 20.50 0.00 342 - 342

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table
Page 69
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 24 - 240
1.85 147 3.03 47 - 240
1.23 147 3.46 47 - 240
0.62 147 0.00 24 - 240
0.00 147 0.00 24 - 240

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
2.46
2.46 0.0270 0.0093 -0.0609 156.3 4.22 1.45 -9.52
1.85 0.0229 0.0102 -0.0595 156.3 3.59 1.59 -9.29
1.23 0.0159 0.0100 -0.0493 156.3 2.48 1.56 -7.70
0.62 0.0027 0.0027 -0.0270 156.3 0.43 0.43 -4.22
0.00 -0.0173 -0.0122 0.0000 156.3 -2.71 -1.91 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 200 240
2.46 -9.52 4.22 200 0.00 47 -9.52 Bending 240
1.85 -9.29 3.59 200 0.00 47 -9.29 Bending 240
1.23 -7.70 2.48 200 0.00 47 -7.70 Bending 240
0.62 -4.22 0.43 200 0.00 47 -4.22 Bending 240
0.00 0.00 -2.71 200 0.00 47 0.00 Bending 240
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 70
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 241
2.46 147 14.28 0.00 241 - 241
1.85 147 13.94 0.00 217 - 240
1.23 147 11.55 0.00 192 - 240
0.62 147 6.33 0.00 95 - 240
0.00 147 0.00 0.00 - - 240

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 - - 240
1.85 147 0.00 - - 240
1.23 147 0.00 - - 240
0.62 147 0.00 - - 240
0.00 147 0.00 - - 240

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
2.46 240 240
2.46 147 6.33 95 240 147 0.00 0 240
1.85 147 5.38 95 240 147 0.00 0 240
1.23 147 3.72 47 240 147 0.00 0 240
0.62 147 0.64 24 240 147 0.00 0 240
0.00 147 0.00 0 240 147 4.06 71 240

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
2.46 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
2.46 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
1.85 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
1.23 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
0.62 240 240 08-180+10-180 08-180+10-180
Page 71
0.00 333 342 08-180+10-180 08-180+10-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.00 1.00

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
2.46 240 241 240 240
2.46 240 241 240 240
1.85 240 240 240 240
1.23 240 240 240 240
0.62 240 240 240 240
0.00 240 240 240 240

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
2.46 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
2.46 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
1.85 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
1.23 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
0.62 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
0.00 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 2.03
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 Side edge - 0.102 6.49 200 147
1.85 Side edge - 0.239 15.19 200 147
1.23 Side edge - 0.376 23.89 200 147
0.62 Side edge - 0.390 24.80 200 147
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.583 -37.06 200 147
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.382 24.29 200 147

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 72
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
2.46
2.46 6.49 9.73 0.066 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK
1.85 15.19 22.79 0.155 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK
1.23 23.89 35.84 0.244 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK
0.62 24.80 37.20 0.253 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK
0.00 37.06 55.59 0.378 716 0.49 1.18 3.50 OK
0.00 24.29 36.44 0.248 716 0.49 1.18 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 Side edge - 0.102 11.12 200 147
1.85 Side edge - 0.239 26.04 200 147
1.23 Side edge - 0.376 40.96 200 147
0.62 Side edge - 0.390 42.51 200 147
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.583 -63.53 200 147
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.382 41.64 200 147

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
2.46
2.46 11.12 16.68 0.114 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
1.85 26.04 39.06 0.266 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
1.23 40.96 61.44 0.418 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
0.62 42.51 63.77 0.434 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
0.00 63.53 95.30 0.648 716 0.49 1.27 3.50 OK
0.00 41.64 62.46 0.425 716 0.49 1.27 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-


Page 73
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 200 Bending 0.00 436 436
1.85 200 Bending 2.02 436 436
1.23 200 Bending 2.30 436 436
0.62 200 Bending 1.38 0.00 716 716
0.00 200 Bending 13.67 0.00 716 716

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 74
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =
Page 75
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 33.0 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1798 0.0


34.1 33.0 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1318 1.1
38.8 33.0 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1251 1.2
14.5 40.0 0.0001 0.0006 -0.0004 -0.0846 0.6
142.9 40.0 0.0011 0.0006 0.0005 0.0963 5.7
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 200 Bending 0.00 436 436
1.85 200 Bending 2.02 436 436
1.23 200 Bending 2.30 436 436
0.62 200 Bending 1.38 0.00 716 716
0.00 200 Bending 13.67 0.00 716 716

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 33.0 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1798 0.0


34.1 33.0 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1318 1.1
38.8 33.0 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0006 -0.1251 1.2
14.5 40.0 0.0001 0.0006 -0.0004 -0.0846 0.6
142.9 40.0 0.0011 0.0006 0.0005 0.0963 5.7
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 76
DESIGN OF WALL W6 Location: B/W STAIRCASE & INLET CHAMBER WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 2.90 BOF: 210.040 GWT: 200.000

BOW: 210.040 TOW: 212.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 1.18 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 1.18 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 2.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 2.46
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 2.46

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: - Page 77


Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 2.46 - - Height above BOF = 2.46


Provided thickness 200 200 - - Taper = Both sides

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS


Page 78
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 1.18
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

2.46
2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.85 0.0041 0.0014 -0.0064 156.3 0.65 0.22 -1.01
1.23 0.0126 0.0071 -0.0067 156.3 1.97 1.12 -1.05
0.62 0.0066 0.0050 -0.0047 156.3 1.03 0.78 -0.74
0.00 -0.0436 -0.0284 0.0000 156.3 -6.81 -4.45 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 200 240
2.46 0.00 0.00 200 0.00 Bending 240
1.85 -1.01 0.65 200 -1.01 Bending Page 79 240
1.23 -1.05 1.97 200 -1.05 Bending 240
0.62 -0.74 1.03 200 0.00 47 -0.74 Bending 240
0.00 -6.81 0.00 200 0.00 47 -6.81 Bending 240

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 - - 240
1.85 147 1.51 24 - 240
1.23 147 1.57 25 - 240
0.62 147 1.11 0.00 17 - 240
0.00 147 10.22 0.00 163 - 240

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 - - 240
1.85 147 0.97 15 - 240
1.23 147 2.95 46 - 240
0.62 147 1.54 24 - 240
0.00 147 0.00 - - 240 Page 80
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 1.18
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

2.46
2.46 0.0133 0.0027 -0.0259 156.3 2.08 0.42 -4.04
1.85 0.0139 0.0044 -0.0309 156.3 2.17 0.69 -4.83
1.23 0.0144 0.0064 -0.0347 156.3 2.26 1.01 -5.43
0.62 0.0027 0.0047 -0.0229 156.3 0.43 0.74 -3.57
0.00 -0.0084 -0.0057 0.0000 156.3 -1.32 -0.89 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 200 240
2.46 -4.04 2.08 200 - 47 -4.04 Bending 240
1.85 -4.83 2.17 200 - 47 -4.83 Bending 240
1.23 -5.43 2.26 200 - 47 -5.43 Bending 240
0.62 -3.57 0.43 200 - 47 -3.57 Bending 240
0.00 0.00 -1.32 200 - 47 0.00 Bending 240
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 81
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 6.07 0.00 96 - 240
1.85 147 7.24 0.00 115 - 240
1.23 147 8.14 0.00 129 - 240
0.62 147 5.36 0.00 85 - 240
0.00 147 0.00 0.00 - - 240

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 - - 240
1.85 147 0.00 - - 240
1.23 147 0.00 - - 240
0.62 147 0.00 - - 240
0.00 147 0.00 - - 240

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
2.46 240 240
2.46 147 0.00 0 240 147 3.12 49 240
1.85 147 0.00 0 240 147 3.25 51 240
1.23 147 0.00 0 240 147 3.38 53 240
0.62 147 0.00 0 240 147 0.64 10 240
0.00 147 1.98 31 240 147 0.00 0 240

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00 Page 82


2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
2.46
2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
1.85 0.0041 0.0014 -0.0064 156.3 0.65 0.22 -1.01 -
1.23 0.0126 0.0071 -0.0067 156.3 1.97 1.12 -1.05 -
0.62 0.0066 0.0050 -0.0047 156.3 1.03 0.78 -0.74 -
0.00 -0.0436 -0.0284 0.0000 156.3 -6.81 -4.45 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 200 240
2.46 0.00 0.00 200 0.00 Bending 240
1.85 0.65 -1.01 200 -1.01 Bending 240
1.23 1.97 -1.05 200 -1.05 Bending 240
0.62 1.03 -0.74 200 0.00 47 -0.74 Bending 240
0.00 0.00 -6.81 200 0.00 47 -6.81 Bending 240
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 - - 240
1.85 147 1.51 24 - 240
1.23 147 1.57 24 - 240
0.62 147 1.11 0.00 24 - 240
0.00 147 10.22 0.00 167 - 240

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table
Page 83
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 24 - 240
1.85 147 0.97 24 - 240
1.23 147 2.95 47 - 240
0.62 147 1.54 24 - 240
0.00 147 0.00 24 - 240

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
2.46
2.46 0.0133 0.0027 -0.0259 156.3 2.08 0.42 -4.04
1.85 0.0139 0.0044 -0.0309 156.3 2.17 0.69 -4.83
1.23 0.0144 0.0064 -0.0347 156.3 2.26 1.01 -5.43
0.62 0.0027 0.0047 -0.0229 156.3 0.43 0.74 -3.57
0.00 -0.0084 -0.0057 0.0000 156.3 -1.32 -0.89 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 200 240
2.46 -4.04 2.08 200 0.00 47 -4.04 Bending 240
1.85 -4.83 2.17 200 0.00 47 -4.83 Bending 240
1.23 -5.43 2.26 200 0.00 47 -5.43 Bending 240
0.62 -3.57 0.43 200 0.00 47 -3.57 Bending 240
0.00 0.00 -1.32 200 0.00 47 0.00 Bending 240
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 84
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 6.07 0.00 95 - 240
1.85 147 7.24 0.00 119 - 240
1.23 147 8.14 0.00 119 - 240
0.62 147 5.36 0.00 95 - 240
0.00 147 0.00 0.00 - - 240

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 240
2.46 147 0.00 - - 240
1.85 147 0.00 - - 240
1.23 147 0.00 - - 240
0.62 147 0.00 - - 240
0.00 147 0.00 - - 240

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
2.46 240 240
2.46 147 3.12 47 240 147 0.00 0 240
1.85 147 3.25 47 240 147 0.00 0 240
1.23 147 3.38 47 240 147 0.00 0 240
0.62 147 0.64 24 240 147 0.00 0 240
0.00 147 0.00 0 240 147 1.98 24 240

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
2.46 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
2.46 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
1.85 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
1.23 240 240 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
0.62 240 240 08-180+10-180 08-180+10-180
Page 85
0.00 240 240 08-180+10-180 08-180+10-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.00 1.00

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
2.46 240 240 240 240
2.46 240 240 240 240
1.85 240 240 240 240
1.23 240 240 240 240
0.62 240 240 240 240
0.00 240 240 240 240

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
2.46 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
2.46 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
1.85 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
1.23 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
0.62 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
0.00 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150 00-000+10-150
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 1.18
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 Side edge - 0.026 1.66 200 147
1.85 Side edge - 0.153 9.69 200 147
1.23 Side edge - 0.279 17.72 200 147
0.62 Side edge - 0.328 20.87 200 147
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.466 -29.58 200 147
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.267 16.95 200 147

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 86
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
2.46
2.46 1.66 2.49 0.017 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK
1.85 9.69 14.54 0.099 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK
1.23 17.72 26.59 0.181 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK
0.62 20.87 31.30 0.213 524 0.36 1.03 3.50 OK
0.00 29.58 44.38 0.302 716 0.49 1.18 3.50 OK
0.00 16.95 25.42 0.173 716 0.49 1.18 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 Side edge - 0.026 2.84 200 147
1.85 Side edge - 0.153 16.61 200 147
1.23 Side edge - 0.279 30.38 200 147
0.62 Side edge - 0.328 35.77 200 147
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.466 -50.71 200 147
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.267 29.05 200 147

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
2.46
2.46 2.84 4.26 0.029 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
1.85 16.61 24.92 0.170 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
1.23 30.38 45.57 0.310 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
0.62 35.77 53.66 0.365 524 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
0.00 50.71 76.07 0.517 716 0.49 1.27 3.50 OK
0.00 29.05 43.57 0.296 716 0.49 1.27 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-


Page 87
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 200 Bending 0.00 436 436
1.85 200 Bending 1.01 436 436
1.23 200 Bending 1.97 436 436
0.62 200 Bending 1.03 0.00 716 716
0.00 200 Bending 6.81 0.00 716 716

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 88
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =
Page 89
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 33.0 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1798 0.0


16.9 33.0 0.0001 0.0009 -0.0008 -0.1560 0.5
33.1 33.0 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1331 1.0
10.7 40.0 0.0001 0.0006 -0.0005 -0.0898 0.4
71.2 40.0 0.0005 0.0006 0.0000 -0.0046 2.9
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 90
DESIGN OF WALL W7 Location: SCREEN CHAMBER INTERNAL WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 5.00 BOF: 210.040 GWT: 200.000

BOW: 210.040 TOW: 212.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 2.03 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 2.03 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 2.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 2.46
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 2.46

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side 0.60 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 0.60 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 1.79 on Fill 2 face: 1.79


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 1.79 on Fill 2 face: 1.79

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: - Page 91


Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 2.46 - - Height above BOF = 2.46


Provided thickness 400 400 - - Taper = Both sides

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS


Page 92
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 2.03
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

2.46
2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.85 0.0129 0.0061 -0.0121 156.3 2.02 0.95 -1.89
1.23 0.0147 0.0099 -0.0101 156.3 2.30 1.54 -1.57
0.62 -0.0088 -0.0025 -0.0050 156.3 -1.38 -0.39 -0.78
0.00 -0.0874 -0.0602 0.0000 156.3 -13.67 -9.41 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 400 480
2.46 0.00 0.00 400 0.00 Bending 480
1.85 -1.89 2.02 400 -1.89 Bending Page 93 480
1.23 -1.57 2.30 400 -1.57 Bending 480
0.62 -1.38 0.00 400 0.00 147 -1.38 Bending 480
0.00 -13.67 0.00 400 0.00 147 -13.67 Bending 480

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 480
2.46 347 0.00 - - 480
1.85 347 2.83 19 - 480
1.23 347 2.36 16 - 480
0.62 347 2.07 0.00 14 - 480
0.00 347 20.50 0.00 137 - 480

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 480
2.46 347 0.00 - - 480
1.85 347 3.03 20 - 480
1.23 347 3.46 23 - 480
0.62 347 0.00 - - 480
0.00 347 0.00 - - 480 Page 94
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 2.03
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

2.46
2.46 0.0270 0.0093 -0.0609 156.3 4.22 1.45 -9.52
1.85 0.0229 0.0102 -0.0595 156.3 3.59 1.59 -9.29
1.23 0.0159 0.0100 -0.0493 156.3 2.48 1.56 -7.70
0.62 0.0027 0.0027 -0.0270 156.3 0.43 0.43 -4.22
0.00 -0.0173 -0.0122 0.0000 156.3 -2.71 -1.91 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 400 480
2.46 -9.52 4.22 400 - 147 -9.52 Bending 480
1.85 -9.29 3.59 400 - 147 -9.29 Bending 480
1.23 -7.70 2.48 400 - 147 -7.70 Bending 480
0.62 -4.22 0.43 400 - 147 -4.22 Bending 480
0.00 0.00 -2.71 400 - 147 0.00 Bending 480
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 95
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 480
2.46 347 14.28 0.00 95 - 480
1.85 347 13.94 0.00 93 - 480
1.23 347 11.55 0.00 77 - 480
0.62 347 6.33 0.00 42 - 480
0.00 347 0.00 0.00 - - 480

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 480
2.46 347 0.00 - - 480
1.85 347 0.00 - - 480
1.23 347 0.00 - - 480
0.62 347 0.00 - - 480
0.00 347 0.00 - - 480

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
2.46 480 480
2.46 347 0.00 0 480 347 6.33 42 480
1.85 347 0.00 0 480 347 5.38 36 480
1.23 347 0.00 0 480 347 3.72 25 480
0.62 347 0.00 0 480 347 0.64 4 480
0.00 347 4.06 27 480 347 0.00 0 480

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00 Page 96


2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
2.46
2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
1.85 0.0129 0.0061 -0.0121 156.3 2.02 0.95 -1.89 -
1.23 0.0147 0.0099 -0.0101 156.3 2.30 1.54 -1.57 -
0.62 -0.0088 -0.0025 -0.0050 156.3 -1.38 -0.39 -0.78 -
0.00 -0.0874 -0.0602 0.0000 156.3 -13.67 -9.41 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 400 480
2.46 0.00 0.00 400 0.00 Bending 480
1.85 2.02 -1.89 400 -1.89 Bending 480
1.23 2.30 -1.57 400 -1.57 Bending 480
0.62 0.00 -1.38 400 0.00 147 -1.38 Bending 480
0.00 0.00 -13.67 400 0.00 147 -13.67 Bending 480
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 480
2.46 347 0.00 - - 480
1.85 347 2.83 20 - 480
1.23 347 2.36 20 - 480
0.62 347 2.07 0.00 10 - 480
0.00 347 20.50 0.00 140 - 480

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table
Page 97
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 480
2.46 347 0.00 10 - 480
1.85 347 3.03 20 - 480
1.23 347 3.46 20 - 480
0.62 347 0.00 10 - 480
0.00 347 0.00 10 - 480

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
2.46
2.46 0.0270 0.0093 -0.0609 156.3 4.22 1.45 -9.52
1.85 0.0229 0.0102 -0.0595 156.3 3.59 1.59 -9.29
1.23 0.0159 0.0100 -0.0493 156.3 2.48 1.56 -7.70
0.62 0.0027 0.0027 -0.0270 156.3 0.43 0.43 -4.22
0.00 -0.0173 -0.0122 0.0000 156.3 -2.71 -1.91 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 400 480
2.46 -9.52 4.22 400 0.00 147 -9.52 Bending 480
1.85 -9.29 3.59 400 0.00 147 -9.29 Bending 480
1.23 -7.70 2.48 400 0.00 147 -7.70 Bending 480
0.62 -4.22 0.43 400 0.00 147 -4.22 Bending 480
0.00 0.00 -2.71 400 0.00 147 0.00 Bending 480
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 98
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 480
2.46 347 14.28 0.00 100 - 480
1.85 347 13.94 0.00 90 - 480
1.23 347 11.55 0.00 80 - 480
0.62 347 6.33 0.00 40 - 480
0.00 347 0.00 0.00 - - 480

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 480
2.46 347 0.00 - - 480
1.85 347 0.00 - - 480
1.23 347 0.00 - - 480
0.62 347 0.00 - - 480
0.00 347 0.00 - - 480

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
2.46 480 480
2.46 347 6.33 40 480 347 0.00 0 480
1.85 347 5.38 40 480 347 0.00 0 480
1.23 347 3.72 20 480 347 0.00 0 480
0.62 347 0.64 10 480 347 0.00 0 480
0.00 347 0.00 0 480 347 4.06 30 480

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
2.46 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
2.46 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
1.85 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
1.23 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
0.62 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
Page 99
0.00 480 480 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
2.46 480 480 480 480
2.46 480 480 480 480
1.85 480 480 480 480
1.23 480 480 480 480
0.62 480 480 480 480
0.00 480 480 480 480

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
2.46 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
2.46 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
1.85 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
1.23 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
0.62 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
0.00 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-160
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 2.03
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 Side edge - 0.102 6.49 400 347
1.85 Side edge - 0.239 15.19 400 347
1.23 Side edge - 0.376 23.89 400 347
0.62 Side edge - 0.390 24.80 400 347
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.583 -37.06 400 347
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.382 24.29 400 347

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 100
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
2.46
2.46 6.49 9.73 0.028 491 0.14 0.58 3.50 OK
1.85 15.19 22.79 0.066 491 0.14 0.58 3.50 OK
1.23 23.89 35.84 0.103 491 0.14 0.58 3.50 OK
0.62 24.80 37.20 0.107 491 0.14 0.58 3.50 OK
0.00 37.06 55.59 0.160 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK
0.00 24.29 36.44 0.105 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 Side edge - 0.102 11.12 400 347
1.85 Side edge - 0.239 26.04 400 347
1.23 Side edge - 0.376 40.96 400 347
0.62 Side edge - 0.390 42.51 400 347
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.583 -63.53 400 347
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.382 41.64 400 347

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
2.46
2.46 11.12 16.68 0.048 491 0.14 0.75 3.50 OK
1.85 26.04 39.06 0.113 491 0.14 0.75 3.50 OK
1.23 40.96 61.44 0.177 491 0.14 0.75 3.50 OK
0.62 42.51 63.77 0.184 491 0.14 0.75 3.50 OK
0.00 63.53 95.30 0.275 628 0.18 0.83 3.50 OK
0.00 41.64 62.46 0.180 628 0.18 0.83 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-


Page 101
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 400 Bending 0.00 628 628
1.85 400 Bending 2.02 628 628
1.23 400 Bending 2.30 628 628
0.62 400 Bending 1.38 0.00 628 628
0.00 400 Bending 13.67 0.00 628 628

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 102
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =
Page 103
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 57.8 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.2775 0.0


9.8 57.8 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2625 0.2
11.2 57.8 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2604 0.2
6.7 57.8 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2672 0.1
66.4 57.8 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.1761 1.4
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 400 Bending 0.00 628 628
1.85 400 Bending 2.02 628 628
1.23 400 Bending 2.30 628 628
0.62 400 Bending 1.38 0.00 628 628
0.00 400 Bending 13.67 0.00 628 628

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 57.8 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.2775 0.0


9.8 57.8 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2625 0.2
11.2 57.8 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2604 0.2
6.7 57.8 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.2672 0.1
66.4 57.8 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.1761 1.4
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 104
DESIGN OF WALL W8 Location: SCREEN CHAMBER OUTER WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 8.30 BOF: 210.040 GWT: 200.000

BOW: 210.040 TOW: 215.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 214.500 4.46 4.46 1.86 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Earth 214.500 4.46 4.46 1.86 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 5.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 4.46
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 5.46

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: - Page 105


Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 5.46 - - Height above BOF = 5.46


Provided thickness 450 200 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS


Page 106
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 1.86
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

5.46
4.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 931.5 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.35 0.0124 0.0054 -0.0109 931.5 11.59 5.07 -10.14
2.23 0.0156 0.0100 -0.0094 931.5 14.49 9.32 -8.80
1.12 -0.0047 -0.0003 -0.0050 931.5 -4.34 -0.31 -4.66
0.00 -0.0793 -0.0540 0.0000 931.5 -73.90 -50.30 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
5.46 200 240
4.46 0.00 0.00 246 0.00 Bending 295
3.35 -10.14 11.59 297 -10.14 Bending Page 107 356
2.23 -8.80 14.49 348 -8.80 Bending 417
1.12 -4.66 0.00 399 0.00 146 -4.66 Bending 479
0.00 -73.90 0.00 450 0.00 172 -73.90 Bending 540

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 295
4.46 193 0.00 - - 295
3.35 244 15.21 145 - 356
2.23 295 13.20 104 - 417
1.12 346 6.99 0.00 47 - 479
0.00 397 110.84 0.00 661 - 661

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 295
4.46 208 0.00 - - 295
3.35 259 17.39 156 - 356
2.23 310 21.74 163 - 417
1.12 361 0.00 - - 479
0.00 412 0.00 - - 540 Page 108
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 1.86
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

5.46
4.46 0.0259 0.0079 -0.0544 931.5 24.12 7.35 -50.71
3.35 0.0224 0.0089 -0.0551 931.5 20.91 8.28 -51.33
2.23 0.0160 0.0094 -0.0473 931.5 14.90 8.80 -44.09
1.12 -0.0014 -0.0009 -0.0270 931.5 -1.35 -0.83 -25.15
0.00 -0.0159 -0.0109 0.0000 931.5 -14.80 -10.14 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
5.46 200 240
4.46 -50.71 24.12 246 - 70 -50.71 Bending 295
3.35 -51.33 20.91 297 - 95 -51.33 Bending 356
2.23 -44.09 14.90 348 - 121 -44.09 Bending 417
1.12 -25.15 -1.35 399 - 146 -25.15 Bending 479
0.00 0.00 -14.80 450 - 172 0.00 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 109
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 993
4.46 193 76.07 0.00 993 - 993
3.35 244 77.00 0.00 766 - 766
2.23 295 66.14 0.00 532 - 532
1.12 346 37.73 0.00 254 - 479
0.00 397 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 295
4.46 208 0.00 - - 295
3.35 259 0.00 - - 356
2.23 310 0.00 - - 417
1.12 361 0.00 - - 479
0.00 412 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
5.46 295 414
4.46 193 0.00 0 295 208 36.17 414 414
3.35 244 0.00 0 356 259 31.36 284 356
2.23 295 0.00 0 417 310 22.36 167 417
1.12 346 2.02 13 479 361 0.00 0 479
0.00 397 22.20 129 540 412 0.00 0 540

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00 Page 110


2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
5.46
4.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 531.8 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
3.35 0.0124 0.0054 -0.0109 531.8 6.62 2.89 -5.79 -
2.23 0.0156 0.0100 -0.0094 531.8 8.27 5.32 -5.02 -
1.12 -0.0047 -0.0003 -0.0050 531.8 -2.48 -0.18 -2.66 -
0.00 -0.0793 -0.0540 0.0000 531.8 -42.18 -28.71 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
5.46 200 240
4.46 0.00 0.00 246 0.00 Bending 295
3.35 6.62 -5.79 297 -5.79 Bending 356
2.23 8.27 -5.02 348 -5.02 Bending 417
1.12 0.00 -2.66 399 0.00 161 -2.66 Bending 479
0.00 0.00 -42.18 450 0.00 187 -42.18 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 295
4.46 208 0.00 - - 295
3.35 259 8.68 80 - 356
2.23 310 7.53 56 - 417
1.12 361 3.99 0.00 29 - 479
0.00 412 63.28 0.00 357 - 540

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table
Page 111
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 295
4.46 193 0.00 18 - 295
3.35 244 9.93 100 - 356
2.23 295 12.41 94 - 417
1.12 346 0.00 10 - 479
0.00 397 0.00 9 - 540

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
5.46
4.46 0.0259 0.0079 -0.0544 531.8 13.77 4.19 -28.95
3.35 0.0224 0.0089 -0.0551 531.8 11.93 4.73 -29.30
2.23 0.0160 0.0094 -0.0473 531.8 8.51 5.02 -25.17
1.12 -0.0014 -0.0009 -0.0270 531.8 -0.77 -0.47 -14.36
0.00 -0.0159 -0.0109 0.0000 531.8 -8.45 -5.79 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
5.46 200 240
4.46 -28.95 13.77 246 0.00 85 -28.95 Bending 295
3.35 -29.30 11.93 297 0.00 110 -29.30 Bending 356
2.23 -25.17 8.51 348 0.00 136 -25.17 Bending 417
1.12 -14.36 -0.77 399 0.00 161 -14.36 Bending 479
0.00 0.00 -8.45 450 0.00 187 0.00 Bending 540
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 112
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 502
4.46 208 43.42 0.00 502 - 502
3.35 259 43.96 0.00 397 - 397
2.23 310 37.75 0.00 283 - 417
1.12 361 21.54 0.00 135 - 479
0.00 412 0.00 0.00 - - 540

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 295
4.46 193 0.00 - - 295
3.35 244 0.00 - - 356
2.23 295 0.00 - - 417
1.12 346 0.00 - - 479
0.00 397 0.00 - - 540

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
5.46 295 295
4.46 193 20.65 256 295 208 0.00 0 295
3.35 244 17.90 172 356 259 0.00 0 356
2.23 295 12.76 106 417 310 0.00 0 417
1.12 346 0.00 0 479 361 1.16 10 479
0.00 397 0.00 0 540 412 12.67 67 540

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
5.46 295 295 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180
4.46 356 295 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180
3.35 417 356 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180
2.23 479 417 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180
1.12 540 479 12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180
Page 113
0.00 661 540 12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.20

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
5.46 993 502 295 414
4.46 993 502 295 414
3.35 766 397 356 356
2.23 532 417 417 417
1.12 479 479 479 479
0.00 540 540 540 540

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
5.46 16-160+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
4.46 16-160+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
3.35 16-160+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
2.23 16-160+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-160
1.12 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-160
0.00 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-160 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-160
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.20

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 1.86
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 Side edge - 0.087 18.27 246 193
3.35 Side edge - 0.223 46.60 297 244
2.23 Side edge - 0.359 74.93 348 295
1.12 Side edge - 0.380 79.28 399 346
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.563 -117.61 450 397
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.361 75.36 450 397

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 114
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
5.46
4.46 18.27 27.41 0.142 1964 1.02 1.46 3.50 OK
3.35 46.60 69.90 0.287 1964 0.81 1.21 3.50 OK
2.23 74.93 112.39 0.381 1964 0.67 1.12 3.50 OK
1.12 79.28 118.92 0.344 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK
0.00 117.61 176.42 0.444 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK
0.00 75.36 113.04 0.285 1414 0.36 0.86 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 Side edge - 0.087 10.43 246 208
3.35 Side edge - 0.223 26.60 297 259
2.23 Side edge - 0.359 42.77 348 310
1.12 Side edge - 0.380 45.26 399 361
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.563 -67.14 450 412
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.361 43.02 450 412

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
5.46
4.46 10.43 15.65 0.075 707 0.34 1.09 3.50 OK
3.35 26.60 39.90 0.154 707 0.27 0.99 3.50 OK
2.23 42.77 64.16 0.207 707 0.23 0.91 3.50 OK
1.12 45.26 67.89 0.188 707 0.20 0.86 3.50 OK
0.00 67.14 100.71 0.244 628 0.15 0.78 3.50 OK
0.00 43.02 64.53 0.157 628 0.15 0.78 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-


Page 115
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 246 Bending 0.00 707 628
3.35 297 Bending 10.14 707 628
2.23 348 Bending 8.80 707 628
1.12 399 Bending 4.66 0.00 1414 628
0.00 450 Bending 73.90 0.00 1414 628

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Page 116
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =
Page 117
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 43.6 0.0000 0.0006 -0.0006 -0.1362 0.0


63.1 49.3 0.0004 0.0007 -0.0004 -0.0839 1.7
45.0 54.6 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0006 -0.1430 1.1
10.3 80.6 0.0001 0.0005 -0.0004 -0.0987 0.3
142.1 87.2 0.0008 0.0005 0.0003 0.0780 4.3
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 246 Bending 0.00 628 707
3.35 297 Bending 11.59 628 707
2.23 348 Bending 14.49 628 707
1.12 399 Bending 2.66 0.00 628 1414
0.00 450 Bending 42.18 0.00 628 1414

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 44.9 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1258 0.0


76.2 49.9 0.0005 0.0008 -0.0003 -0.0624 1.9
79.1 54.5 0.0005 0.0009 -0.0004 -0.0939 1.8
12.4 58.4 0.0001 0.0010 -0.0009 -0.2250 0.3
171.6 62.1 0.0010 0.0011 -0.0002 -0.0380 3.3
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Page 118
Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 246 Bending 50.71 0.00 1964 707
3.35 297 Bending 51.33 0.00 1964 707
2.23 348 Bending 44.09 0.00 1964 707
1.12 399 Bending 25.15 0.00 628 707
0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 707

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

151.1 65.6 0.0010 0.0002 0.0008 0.1527 8.3


119.5 75.4 0.0007 0.0002 0.0005 0.1065 5.7
84.2 84.3 0.0005 0.0003 0.0002 0.0510 3.6
122.3 56.2 0.0007 0.0011 -0.0004 -0.0991 2.5
0.0 60.4 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3218 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 246 Bending 28.95 0.00 707 1964
3.35 297 Bending 29.30 0.00 707 1964
2.23 348 Bending 25.17 0.00 707 1964
1.12 399 Bending 14.36 0.00 707 628
0.00 450 Bending 0.00 0.00 707 628

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

213.5 47.9 0.0014 0.0006 0.0008 0.1604 6.9


171.8 52.4 0.0011 0.0007 0.0004 0.0830 4.7
122.4 56.6 0.0007 0.0008 0.0000 -0.0112 2.9
59.7 62.0 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0005 -0.1292 1.3
0.0 66.4 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.2491 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Page 119
Height Overall Provided reinf
from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 246 24.12 707 707
3.35 297 20.91 707 707
2.23 348 14.90 707 707
1.12 399 0.00 707 628
0.00 450 0.00 707 628

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

177.6 46.9 0.0012 0.0006 0.0006 0.1144 5.6


122.5 52.3 0.0008 0.0007 0.0001 0.0182 3.3
72.5 57.2 0.0004 0.0008 -0.0003 -0.0786 1.8
0.0 62.0 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.2126 0.0
0.0 66.4 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.2491 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at middle

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Provided reinf


from thickness Moment M Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of D As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 246 13.77 707 707
3.35 297 11.93 707 707
2.23 348 8.51 707 707
1.12 399 0.00 628 707
0.00 450 0.00 628 707

section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm

109.2 43.5 0.0007 0.0006 0.0000 0.0082 3.4


74.2 49.2 0.0004 0.0007 -0.0003 -0.0687 2.0
43.5 54.4 0.0003 0.0008 -0.0006 -0.1453 1.1
0.0 56.2 0.0000 0.0011 -0.0011 -0.2780 0.0
0.0 60.4 0.0000 0.0012 -0.0012 -0.3218 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 120
DESIGN OF WALL W9 Location: INLET CHAMBER OUTER LONG WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 3.55 BOF: 210.040 GWT: 200.000

BOW: 210.040 TOW: 215.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 214.500 4.46 4.46 0.80 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Earth 214.500 4.46 4.46 0.80 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 5.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 4.46
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 5.46

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side - - - - -
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side - - - - -

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: - Page 121


Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Earth) = 0.333
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 0.333

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Earth 0.333 30 16 0.2 250 38 122.65

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 5.46 - - Height above BOF = 5.46


Provided thickness 250 175 - - Taper = One side

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS


Page 122
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.8
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

5.46
4.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 931.5 0.00 0.00 0.00
3.35 0.0012 0.0000 -0.0026 931.5 1.10 0.00 -2.38
2.23 0.0057 0.0026 -0.0036 931.5 5.34 2.38 -3.31
1.12 0.0072 0.0034 -0.0032 931.5 6.69 3.14 -2.97
0.00 -0.0260 -0.0163 0.0000 931.5 -24.24 -15.17 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
5.46 175 210
4.46 0.00 0.00 189 0.00 Bending 226
3.35 -2.38 1.10 204 -2.38 Bending Page 123 245
2.23 -3.31 5.34 219 -3.31 Bending 263
1.12 -2.97 6.69 235 0.00 64 -2.97 Bending 282
0.00 -24.24 0.00 250 0.00 72 -24.24 Bending 300

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 226
4.46 136 0.00 - - 226
3.35 151 3.57 55 - 245
2.23 166 4.96 69 - 263
1.12 182 4.45 0.00 57 - 282
0.00 197 36.36 0.00 441 - 441

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 226
4.46 151 0.00 - - 226
3.35 166 1.65 23 - 245
2.23 181 8.01 103 - 263
1.12 197 10.04 119 - 282
0.00 212 0.00 - - 300 Page 124
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.8
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

5.46
4.46 0.0049 0.0012 -0.0090 931.5 4.58 1.10 -8.40
3.35 0.0086 0.0022 -0.0132 931.5 7.97 2.03 -12.30
2.23 0.0106 0.0034 -0.0192 931.5 9.83 3.14 -17.89
1.12 0.0042 0.0032 -0.0143 931.5 3.95 2.97 -13.31
0.00 -0.0054 -0.0034 0.0000 931.5 -5.00 -3.14 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
5.46 175 210
4.46 -8.40 4.58 189 - 41 -8.40 Bending 226
3.35 -12.30 7.97 204 - 49 -12.30 Bending 245
2.23 -17.89 9.83 219 - 57 -17.89 Bending 263
1.12 -13.31 3.95 235 - 64 -13.31 Bending 282
0.00 0.00 -5.00 250 - 72 0.00 Bending 300
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 125
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 226
4.46 136 12.61 0.00 219 - 226
3.35 151 18.45 0.00 290 - 290
2.23 166 26.84 0.00 386 - 386
1.12 182 19.96 0.00 259 - 282
0.00 197 0.00 0.00 - - 300

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 226
4.46 151 0.00 - - 226
3.35 166 0.00 - - 245
2.23 181 0.00 - - 263
1.12 197 0.00 - - 282
0.00 212 0.00 - - 300

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
5.46 226 226
4.46 136 0.00 0 226 151 6.87 106 226
3.35 151 0.00 0 245 166 11.95 168 245
2.23 166 0.00 0 263 181 14.74 190 263
1.12 182 0.00 0 282 197 5.93 70 282
0.00 197 7.50 88 300 212 0.00 0 300

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00 Page 126


2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
5.46
4.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 531.8 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
3.35 0.0012 0.0000 -0.0026 531.8 0.63 0.00 -1.36 -
2.23 0.0057 0.0026 -0.0036 531.8 3.05 1.36 -1.89 -
1.12 0.0072 0.0034 -0.0032 531.8 3.82 1.79 -1.69 -
0.00 -0.0260 -0.0163 0.0000 531.8 -13.84 -8.66 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
5.46 175 210
4.46 0.00 0.00 189 0.00 Bending 226
3.35 0.63 -1.36 204 -1.36 Bending 245
2.23 3.05 -1.89 219 -1.89 Bending 263
1.12 3.82 -1.69 235 0.00 79 -1.69 Bending 282
0.00 0.00 -13.84 250 0.00 87 -13.84 Bending 300
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 226
4.46 151 0.00 - - 226
3.35 166 2.04 21 - 245
2.23 181 2.83 38 - 263
1.12 197 2.54 0.00 35 - 282
0.00 212 20.76 0.00 232 - 300

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table
Page 127
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 226
4.46 136 0.00 25 - 226
3.35 151 0.94 23 - 245
2.23 166 4.57 63 - 263
1.12 182 5.73 76 - 282
0.00 197 0.00 18 - 300

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 18.0 k' for Fill 2 = 0.333

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
5.46
4.46 0.0049 0.0012 -0.0090 531.8 2.62 0.63 -4.80
3.35 0.0086 0.0022 -0.0132 531.8 4.55 1.16 -7.02
2.23 0.0106 0.0034 -0.0192 531.8 5.61 1.79 -10.21
1.12 0.0042 0.0032 -0.0143 531.8 2.26 1.69 -7.60
0.00 -0.0054 -0.0034 0.0000 531.8 -2.85 -1.79 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
5.46 175 210
4.46 -4.80 2.62 189 0.00 56 -4.80 Bending 226
3.35 -7.02 4.55 204 0.00 64 -7.02 Bending 245
2.23 -10.21 5.61 219 0.00 72 -10.21 Bending 263
1.12 -7.60 2.26 235 0.00 79 -7.60 Bending 282
0.00 0.00 -2.85 250 0.00 87 0.00 Bending 300
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 128
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 226
4.46 151 7.20 0.00 116 - 226
3.35 166 10.53 0.00 148 - 245
2.23 181 15.32 0.00 194 - 263
1.12 197 11.40 0.00 142 - 282
0.00 212 0.00 0.00 - - 300

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
5.46 226
4.46 136 0.00 - - 226
3.35 151 0.00 - - 245
2.23 166 0.00 - - 263
1.12 182 0.00 - - 282
0.00 197 0.00 - - 300

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
5.46 226 226
4.46 136 3.92 77 226 151 0.00 0 226
3.35 151 6.82 116 245 166 0.00 0 245
2.23 166 8.42 126 263 181 0.00 0 263
1.12 182 3.38 38 282 197 0.00 0 282
0.00 197 0.00 0 300 212 4.28 49 300

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
5.46 226 226 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
4.46 245 226 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
3.35 263 245 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
2.23 282 263 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
1.12 300 282 12-180+10-180 00-000+10-180
Page 129
0.00 441 300 12-180+10-180 00-000+10-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.20

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
5.46 226 226 226 226
4.46 226 226 226 226
3.35 290 245 245 245
2.23 386 263 263 263
1.12 282 282 282 282
0.00 300 300 300 300

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
5.46 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-180
4.46 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-160 00-000+10-180
3.35 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-180
2.23 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-120 00-000+10-180
1.12 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
0.00 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+10-180
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2 1.20 4.40

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.8
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 Side edge - 0.006 1.24 189 136
3.35 Side edge - 0.105 22.02 204 151
2.23 Side edge - 0.205 42.81 219 166
1.12 Side edge - 0.265 55.31 235 182
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.366 -76.39 250 197
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.201 41.94 250 197

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 130
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
5.46
4.46 1.24 1.85 0.014 491 0.36 1.05 3.50 OK
3.35 22.02 33.03 0.219 942 0.62 1.29 3.50 OK
2.23 42.81 64.21 0.386 942 0.57 1.21 3.50 OK
1.12 55.31 82.96 0.457 628 0.35 0.95 3.50 OK
0.00 76.39 114.58 0.582 1065 0.54 1.12 3.50 OK
0.00 41.94 62.90 0.319 1065 0.54 1.12 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 Side edge - 0.006 0.71 189 151
3.35 Side edge - 0.105 12.57 204 166
2.23 Side edge - 0.205 24.44 219 181
1.12 Side edge - 0.265 31.57 235 197
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.366 -43.61 250 212
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.201 23.94 250 212

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
5.46
4.46 0.71 1.06 0.007 436 0.29 1.01 3.50 OK
3.35 12.57 18.86 0.114 436 0.26 0.99 3.50 OK
2.23 24.44 36.65 0.202 436 0.24 0.94 3.50 OK
1.12 31.57 47.36 0.241 436 0.22 0.91 3.50 OK
0.00 43.61 65.41 0.309 436 0.21 0.88 3.50 OK
0.00 23.94 35.91 0.169 436 0.21 0.88 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-


Page 131
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 189 Bending 0.00 436 436
3.35 204 Bending 2.38 436 436
2.23 219 Bending 3.31 436 436
1.12 235 Bending 3.82 0.00 1065 436
0.00 250 Bending 24.24 0.00 1065 436

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 38

Page 132
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =
Page 133
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 30.3 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1704 0.0


38.8 31.9 0.0003 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1356 1.1
48.8 33.5 0.0003 0.0010 -0.0007 -0.1377 1.3
21.8 50.2 0.0001 0.0004 -0.0003 -0.0536 0.9
126.8 52.5 0.0008 0.0004 0.0004 0.0789 4.9
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Fill 2 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 189 Bending 0.00 436 436
3.35 204 Bending 1.36 436 436
2.23 219 Bending 5.34 436 436
1.12 235 Bending 6.69 0.00 436 1065
0.00 250 Bending 13.84 0.00 436 1065

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 33.4 0.0000 0.0008 -0.0008 -0.1318 0.0


20.1 34.9 0.0001 0.0008 -0.0007 -0.1215 0.6
72.3 36.3 0.0005 0.0009 -0.0004 -0.0711 1.9
83.6 39.4 0.0006 0.0009 -0.0004 -0.0694 2.2
159.8 40.5 0.0010 0.0010 0.0001 0.0134 4.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 1 - Fill 1 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Page 134
Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 189 Bending 8.40 0.00 491 436
3.35 204 Bending 12.30 0.00 942 436
2.23 219 Bending 17.89 0.00 942 436
1.12 235 Bending 13.31 0.00 628 436
0.00 250 Bending 0.00 0.00 628 436

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

136.8 31.7 0.0009 0.0008 0.0001 0.0241 4.5


95.5 43.1 0.0006 0.0004 0.0002 0.0418 4.1
125.5 45.5 0.0008 0.0004 0.0004 0.0751 5.1
125.9 40.5 0.0008 0.0007 0.0001 0.0187 3.9
0.0 42.2 0.0000 0.0007 -0.0007 -0.1579 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Checking crack width - Case 2 - Fill 2 - Horizontal moments at edge

Data for check of crack width

Height Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf


from thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
T' T"
bottom of D Tension M Tension T As As'
2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
5.46
4.46 189 Bending 4.80 0.00 436 491
3.35 204 Bending 7.02 0.00 436 942
2.23 219 Bending 10.21 0.00 436 942
1.12 235 Bending 7.60 0.00 436 628
0.00 250 Bending 0.00 0.00 436 628

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

78.8 33.6 0.0006 0.0008 -0.0002 -0.0356 2.4


104.6 36.6 0.0007 0.0008 -0.0001 -0.0157 3.2
138.7 37.9 0.0009 0.0009 0.0001 0.0133 3.9
94.7 38.3 0.0006 0.0009 -0.0003 -0.0565 2.4
0.0 39.5 0.0000 0.0010 -0.0010 -0.1920 0.0
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 135
DESIGN OF WALL W10 Location: B/W SCREEN CHAMBER &INLET CHAMBER WALL

DESIGN DATA

b = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) TOW = Top of wall (m)
GWT = Ground water table (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)

Length b: 2.20 BOF: 210.040 GWT: 200.000

BOW: 210.040 TOW: 212.500

Surcharge (in term of equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = 0.00

Top edge restraint: No Redistribution of moments with adjoining wall: No

TOF = Top of respective fill


HOF = Height of respective fill Design HOF a = Max of both the HOFs

TOF HOF Design


Fill Type b/a Design Methodology
m m HOF a
Fill 1 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 0.89 3 Edges Fixed Wall
Fill 2 Water 212.500 2.46 2.46 0.89 3 Edges Fixed Wall

Height of wall from BOF (m) = 2.46 Design Height of Wall (m) = 2.46
Height of wall from BOW (m) = 2.46

Details of Adjoining Walls Type for Direct Do redistribution /


Case Wall Length b BOW HOF a Tension D-tension transfer
Case 1 - - - No
Case 2 - - - No

Moment redistribution/Direct tension is optional and subject to same BOW & HOF for both walls
Adjoining wall towards the fill will cause direct tension in this wall
Adjoining wall away from fill will cause direct compression in this wall

Detail of Walkways Width Th Addl DL LL T Load


2 2 2
m mm kN/m kN/m kN/m
Cantilever walkway on Fill 2 Side 1.20 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95
Cantilever walkway on Fill 1 Side 1.20 150.00 1.20 5.00 9.95

Additional DL on walkway as above excludes Self weight


2
T Load = Total Load / m = (25*Th/1000) + Addl DL + LL

Walkway moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 7.16 on Fill 2 face: 7.16


Additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): - on Fill 2 face: -

Walkway on Fill 2 side will cause moment on Fill 1 side and vice-versa
Walkway moment = T Load * Width^2/2

Moment on Fill 1 face means moment causes tension on fill 1 face and vice-versa
Total additional moment = Walkway moment + Additional moment

Total additional moment on Fill 1 face (kN-m/m): 7.16 on Fill 2 face: 7.16

Direct tension in Vertical wall from Suspended slab: - Page 136


Shear at the edge of suspended slab will appear as direct tension in wall in vertical direction

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

k= coefficient of active earth pressure k (Fill 1 = Water) = 1.000


k (Fill 2 = Water) = 1.000
c=Clear cover to reinforcement
3 3
r=Density kN/m r w = Density of sewage water (kN/m ) = 10.5
3
r d = Density of dry soil (kN/m ) = 18.0
3
r sat = Density of saturated soil (kN/m ) = 20.0
r sub = Density of submerged soil = r sat - 10 = 10.0
f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s = Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Revised values of k for Fill 1 and Fill 2

Revised value of k is calculated for fill 1 or fill 2 ,as required to equalize the height of both fills.

k' (Fill 1) = k (Fill 1) * HOF1^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000


k' (Fill 2) = k (Fill 2) * HOF2^2/(MAX(HOF1,HOF2)^2) = 1.000

Value of k' for earth is furher revised to take into account the effect of water table, if applicable

k' c f w s c' acr


Fill Type
mm mm mm mm mm mm
Fill 1 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77
Fill 2 Water 1.000 45 16 0.2 250 53 127.77

ASSUMED THICKNESS OF WALL AT VARIOUS LEVELS

Height from bottom 0.00 2.46 - - Height above BOF = 2.46


Provided thickness 175 175 - - Taper = Both sides

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

DESIGNING FOR VERTICAL MOMENTS


Page 137
3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.89
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

2.46
2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00
1.85 0.0016 0.0000 -0.0037 156.3 0.25 0.00 -0.58
1.23 0.0073 0.0037 -0.0047 156.3 1.14 0.58 -0.74
0.62 0.0076 0.0042 -0.0036 156.3 1.18 0.65 -0.56
0.00 -0.0303 -0.0190 0.0000 156.3 -4.74 -2.98 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1


Total moment on Fill 1 face = Maximum of the -ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Maximum of the +ve BM at a reference height + Addl moments, if any

Direct tension (T) acting in vertical direction, if any is due to suspended slab. Refer Design Data
Direct tension (T) from suspended slab is assumed to act for a distance of 1/4th of height of fill.

Modified moments are calculated for Fill 1 face to check whether the section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness d = Effective depth = D - c'


d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 1 Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 175 210
2.46 0.00 0.00 175 0.00 Bending 210
1.85 -0.58 0.25 175 -0.58 Bending Page 138 210
1.23 -0.74 1.14 175 -0.74 Bending 210
0.62 -0.56 1.18 175 0.00 35 -0.56 Bending 210
0.00 -4.74 0.00 175 0.00 35 -4.74 Bending 210

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5

Section in Bending
M1 u = M1 * 1.5 ; Tu = T * 1.5
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of M1u/bd is taken from SP-16
Required reinforcement for Tu = Tu / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX((Ast for Mu + Ast for Tu) , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on excess tensile face T' = 0.5 * T + M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T'u = T' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T'u = T'u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T'u , Min reinf)

Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 210
2.46 122 0.00 - - 210
1.85 122 0.87 16 - 210
1.23 122 1.11 21 - 210
0.62 122 0.84 0.00 16 - 210
0.00 122 7.12 0.00 137 - 210

Section in Bending
Mu = M * 1.5 (For Fill 2)
2
Required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd is taken from SP-16
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for Mu , Min reinf)

Section in Tension
Tension on less tensile face T'' = 0.5 * T - M * 1000 / (d - c - 0.5 * f)
T''u = T'' * 1.5 Required reinforcement for T''u = T''u / 0.87*fy
Total required reinforcement = MAX(Ast for T''u , Min reinf)

Fill 2 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 210
2.46 122 0.00 - - 210
1.85 122 0.37 7 - 210
1.23 122 1.71 32 - 210
0.62 122 1.78 34 - 210
0.00 122 0.00 - - 210 Page 139
DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Moment coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 3 for b/a = 0.89
Multiplier = k' * r * HOF^3
Calculated moments at edge and middle are considered for design.

3
r for Fill 1 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 1 = 1.000
Respective coefficients are multiplied by multiplier to get values of bending moment

Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m


Ht from
bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall (m) Mid-point point
Edge Mid-point
point
Edge

2.46
2.46 0.0069 0.0016 -0.0133 156.3 1.08 0.25 -2.09
1.85 0.0097 0.0026 -0.0179 156.3 1.52 0.40 -2.80
1.23 0.0117 0.0042 -0.0239 156.3 1.83 0.65 -3.74
0.62 -0.0017 0.0036 -0.0170 156.3 -0.26 0.56 -2.66
0.00 -0.0062 -0.0042 0.0000 156.3 -0.96 -0.65 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 1

Direct tension (T) is due to shear in adjoining wall. Refer design of Adjoining wall for shear

Modified moments calculated for edge moments to check whether section is in tension or bending.
This is required because crack width calculation formulae are difference for these two cases.
No change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending
Change in sign of moment M indicates that the section is primarily in bending

Modified moment at edge is calculated by transferring direct tension to tensile face (Fill 1 face)

D = Overall thickness
d - 0.5 * D = Distance of tensile reinf from centre of section
Modified moment M1 = Total moment - T * (d - 0.5 * D)

Minimum reinforcement has been been calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 Part 2 - 2009

Redistributed / Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
Direct
wall Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 175 210
2.46 -2.09 1.08 175 - 35 -2.09 Bending 210
1.85 -2.80 1.52 175 - 35 -2.80 Bending 210
1.23 -3.74 1.83 175 - 35 -3.74 Bending 210
0.62 -2.66 -0.26 175 - 35 -2.66 Bending 210
0.00 0.00 -0.96 175 - 35 0.00 Bending 210
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to that for Vertical reinforcement Page 140
Edge - Fill 1 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 210
2.46 122 3.13 0.00 60 - 210
1.85 122 4.20 0.00 80 - 210
1.23 122 5.61 0.00 107 - 210
0.62 122 4.00 0.00 76 - 210
0.00 122 0.00 0.00 - - 210

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1, Fill 2 face

Edge - Fill 2 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 210
2.46 122 0.00 - - 210
1.85 122 0.00 - - 210
1.23 122 0.00 - - 210
0.62 122 0.00 - - 210
0.00 122 0.00 - - 210

Mu, Fill 1 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1, Fill 1 face for section in bending

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
2.46 210 210
2.46 122 0.00 0 210 122 1.61 31 210
1.85 122 0.00 0 210 122 2.28 43 210
1.23 122 0.00 0 210 122 2.75 52 210
0.62 122 0.39 7 210 122 0.00 0 210
0.00 122 1.44 27 210 122 0.00 0 210

CASE 2: FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Designing for Vertical Moments

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Surcharge (equivalent earth height) on Fill 2 (m) = hs = 0.00 Page 141


2
Surcharge pressure Ps (kN/m ) = k' * r * hs = 0.00

Surcharge moment (kN-m/m) = 0.5 * Ps * (HOF - h) ^ 2


where h = height from top of fill

Ht from Coefficients Unfactored moments kN-m/m Surcharge


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter- moments
wall (m) Mid-point point Edge Mid-point point Edge kN-m/m
2.46
2.46 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 156.3 0.00 0.00 0.00 -
1.85 0.0016 0.0000 -0.0037 156.3 0.25 0.00 -0.58 -
1.23 0.0073 0.0037 -0.0047 156.3 1.14 0.58 -0.74 -
0.62 0.0076 0.0042 -0.0036 156.3 1.18 0.65 -0.56 -
0.00 -0.0303 -0.0190 0.0000 156.3 -4.74 -2.98 0.00 -

Negative moments implies that tension face is Fill 2

Total moment on Fill 1 face = Max of +ve BM at reference point = Addl moment, if any
Total moment on Fill 2 face = Max of -ve BM at reference point + Addl moment + Surcharge moments

Refer Case 1 for explanation of the calculation done in the following table

Total Moments M Modified moments M1


(unfactored) (unfactored)
Ht from Provided Section in
Direct
bottom of Fill 1 face Fill 2 face thickness d - 0.5*D Fill 2 face Tension / Min Reinf
Tension T
wall D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 175 210
2.46 0.00 0.00 175 0.00 Bending 210
1.85 0.25 -0.58 175 -0.58 Bending 210
1.23 1.14 -0.74 175 -0.74 Bending 210
0.62 1.18 -0.56 175 0.00 35 -0.56 Bending 210
0.00 0.00 -4.74 175 0.00 35 -4.74 Bending 210
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments and tensions ; Load Factor = 1.5
Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 1 for explanation of the following table

Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 210
2.46 122 0.00 - - 210
1.85 122 0.87 28 - 210
1.23 122 1.11 28 - 210
0.62 122 0.84 0.00 28 - 210
0.00 122 7.12 0.00 144 - 210

Refer Case 1 - Calculation of reinf for Fill 2 for explanation of the following table
Page 142
Fill 1 Face
Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 210
2.46 122 0.00 28 - 210
1.85 122 0.37 28 - 210
1.23 122 1.71 28 - 210
0.62 122 1.78 28 - 210
0.00 122 0.00 28 - 210

DESIGNING FOR HORIZONTAL MOMENTS

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Refer Case 1 for explanation of moment coefficients and multiplier


3
r for Fill 2 (kN/m ) = 10.5 k' for Fill 2 = 1.000

Ht from Coefficients Bending Moment kN-m/m


bottom of Quarter- Multiplier Quarter-
wall Mid-point Edge Mid-point Edge
point point
2.46
2.46 0.0069 0.0016 -0.0133 156.3 1.08 0.25 -2.09
1.85 0.0097 0.0026 -0.0179 156.3 1.52 0.40 -2.80
1.23 0.0117 0.0042 -0.0239 156.3 1.83 0.65 -3.74
0.62 -0.0017 0.0036 -0.0170 156.3 -0.26 0.56 -2.66
0.00 -0.0062 -0.0042 0.0000 156.3 -0.96 -0.65 0.00

Negative moments implies tension face is Fill 2

Redistributed/ Modified moments M1


Ht from unfactored moments (unfactored)
bottom of Provided Section in
wall Direct
Edge Middle thickness d-0.5D Edge Tension / Min Reinf
Tension
D Bending
2
m kN-m/m kN-m/m mm kN/m mm kN-m/m mm
2.46 175 210
2.46 -2.09 1.08 175 0.00 35 -2.09 Bending 210
1.85 -2.80 1.52 175 0.00 35 -2.80 Bending 210
1.23 -3.74 1.83 175 0.00 35 -3.74 Bending 210
0.62 -2.66 -0.26 175 0.00 35 -2.66 Bending 210
0.00 0.00 -0.96 175 0.00 35 0.00 Bending 210
Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Procedure adopted for calculation of reinforcement is similar to Case 1

Page 143
Edge - Fill 2 Face
Secion in Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Tension Ast for Ast for Tu /
bottom of d = D - c' Reqd reinf
M1u Tu T' T'u M1u T'u
wall
Factored Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 210
2.46 122 3.13 0.00 57 - 210
1.85 122 4.20 0.00 86 - 210
1.23 122 5.61 0.00 115 - 210
0.62 122 4.00 0.00 86 - 210
0.00 122 0.00 0.00 - - 210

Edge - Fill 1 Face


Bending Section in Tension
Ht from
Moment Tension Tension Ast for
bottom of d = D - c' Ast for T"u Reqd reinf
Mu T'' T''u Mu
wall
Factored Unfactor Factored
2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m mm mm mm
2.46 210
2.46 122 0.00 - - 210
1.85 122 0.00 - - 210
1.23 122 0.00 - - 210
0.62 122 0.00 - - 210
0.00 122 0.00 - - 210

Mu, Fill 1 = (Positive redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5


Mu, Fill 2 = (Negative redistributed moment at middle) * 1.5
Procedure adopted for calculation of reinf is similar to Case 1

Middle - Fill 1 & Fill 2 Face


Fill 1 face Fill 2 face
Ht from
Moment Moment
bottom of
d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast d = D - c' Mu Ast for Mu Reqd Ast
wall
Factored Factored
2 2 2 2
m mm kN-m/m mm mm mm kN-m/m mm mm
2.46 210 210
2.46 122 1.61 28 210 122 0.00 0 210
1.85 122 2.28 57 210 122 0.00 0 210
1.23 122 2.75 57 210 122 0.00 0 210
0.62 122 0.00 0 210 122 0.39 28 210
0.00 122 0.00 0 210 122 1.44 28 210

Summary of Vertical Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Reqd reinf Provided reinforcement


Ht from
bottom of
wall Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
2.46 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
2.46 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
1.85 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
1.23 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
0.62 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
Page 144
0.00 210 210 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
Curtail at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

Summary of Horizontal Reinforcement (Provided)

Maximum of the required reinforcement as calculated for Case 1 and Case 2 are tabulated below.

Required horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle portion
Ht from
bottom of Fill 1 Fill 2 Fill 1 Fill 2
wall
2.46 210 210 210 210
2.46 210 210 210 210
1.85 210 210 210 210
1.23 210 210 210 210
0.62 210 210 210 210
0.00 210 210 210 210

Provided horizontal reinforcement


Edge Middle Portion
Ht from
Fill 1Extra reinf (b) + Fill 2Extra reinf (b)
bottom of Fill 1Thru' reinf (a) Fill 2Thru' reinf (a)
Thru' reinf (a) +Thru' reinf (a)
wall
2.46 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160
2.46 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160
1.85 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160
1.23 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160
0.62 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160
0.00 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160
Break at - Fill 1 - Fill 1 - Fill 2 - Fill 2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

3 Edges Fixed Wall -

Shear coefficients are taken from IS 3370 - Part IV, Table 8 for b/a = 0.89
Shear = coefficient * k' * r * HOF^2 ; k' and r are for the respective fills

CASE 1 FILL 1 ACTING ; FILL 2 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 Side edge - 0.008 0.50 175 122
1.85 Side edge - 0.119 7.57 175 122
1.23 Side edge - 0.231 14.65 175 122
0.62 Side edge - 0.289 18.36 175 122
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.402 -25.51 175 122
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.221 14.02 175 122

Negative sign indicates that reaction acts in the direction of load.


This will not cause direct tension in adjoining wall. Page 145
Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V tv = Vu * 1000 / (1000 * d)
Ast = provided tension reinf - Horizontal for side edge & Vertical for bottom edge
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
2.46
2.46 0.50 0.75 0.006 314 0.26 0.93 3.50 OK
1.85 7.57 11.36 0.093 314 0.26 0.93 3.50 OK
1.23 14.65 21.97 0.180 314 0.26 0.93 3.50 OK
0.62 18.36 27.55 0.226 314 0.26 0.93 3.50 OK
0.00 25.51 38.27 0.314 436 0.36 1.08 3.50 OK
0.00 14.02 21.03 0.172 436 0.36 1.08 3.50 OK

CASE 2 FILL 2 ACTING ; FILL 1 NOT ACTING

Ht from Effective
Pressure
bottom of Location Coeff Shear V Depth D depth d =
of fill
wall h D - c'
2
m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 Side edge - 0.008 0.86 175 122
1.85 Side edge - 0.119 12.98 175 122
1.23 Side edge - 0.231 25.11 175 122
0.62 Side edge - 0.289 31.48 175 122
0.00 Corner - bottom edge - -0.402 -43.74 175 122
0.00 Mid pt - bottom edge - 0.221 24.04 175 122

Ht from Nominal Shear


Factored Provided Maximum Check for
bottom of Shear V shear % Ast Strength
Shear Vu Ast tc,max Shear
wall h stress tv Factor * tc
2 2 2 2
m kN/m kN/m N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
2.46
2.46 0.86 1.29 0.011 314 0.26 0.96 3.50 OK
1.85 12.98 19.48 0.160 314 0.26 0.96 3.50 OK
1.23 25.11 37.67 0.309 314 0.26 0.96 3.50 OK
0.62 31.48 47.22 0.387 314 0.26 0.96 3.50 OK
0.00 43.74 65.61 0.538 436 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK
0.00 24.04 36.05 0.296 436 0.36 1.12 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-


Page 146
Check for crack width is done for following locations:

(a) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 1 Face


(b) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Vertical Moments Fill 2 Face
(c) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 1 Face
(d) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Edge Fill 2 Face
(e) Case 1 (Only Fill 1 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 2 Face
(f) Case 2 (Only Fill 2 Acting) - Horizontal Moments at Middle Fill 1 Face

Procedure for calculating crack width has been explained while doing calculations for Srl (a)
Crack width calculations for Srl (b) to Srl (f) has not been made part of design calculations, because none of the
moments and tensions exceed the following values, which are every small
Moment = 10 kN-m/m Tension = 10 kN/m

Checking crack width - Fill 1 - Vertical moments

Data for check of crack width


Height
Overall Section in Forces on section Section in Tension Provided reinf
from
thickness Bending / Moment Direct Ast Fill 1 Ast Fill 2
bottom of T' T"
D Tension M Tension T As As'
wall 2 2
m mm kN-m/m kN/m kN/m kN/m mm mm
2.46
2.46 175 Bending 0.00 436 436
1.85 175 Bending 0.58 436 436
1.23 175 Bending 1.14 436 436
0.62 175 Bending 1.18 0.00 436 436
0.00 175 Bending 4.74 0.00 436 436

Moment M and Direct tension T are the forces acting on the section
Procedure for checking whether the section is bending or tension is explained earlier
T' = tension on excess tensile face ; T" = tension on less tensile face
T' and T" are calculated only if the section is in tension
Procedure for calculating T' and T" in case section is in tension has also been explained earlier.
As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm) = 53
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre = 53

Page 147
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Tension

Stress in reinf near excess tensile face fs = T' * 1000 / As

Stress in reinf near less tensile face fs' = T" * 1000 / As'

es = Strain in reinf near excess tensile face =

Strain gradient =

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre = es + strain gradient x d'

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2


Crack width w =
Page 148
Gross area of concrete Ac = 1000 * D + (m - 1) * (As + As')
Direct Tension in concrete fct = T * 1000/Ac

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5
2
Direct tension in concrete fct (N/mm ) = 3.6
Crack width w (mm) = 0.2

section in bending section in tension crack width calculations check


fs x fs fs' e1 e2 em w fc/fct
2 2 2 2
N/mm mm N/mm N/mm mm N/mm

0.0 30.5 0.0000 0.0009 -0.0009 -0.1557 0.0


12.0 30.5 0.0001 0.0009 -0.0008 -0.1389 0.4
23.4 30.5 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1227 0.8
24.3 30.5 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1215 0.9
97.2 30.5 0.0008 0.0009 -0.0001 -0.0186 3.5
ALL OK ALL OK ALL OK

Page 149
DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS

Page 150
Foundation for Wall: W1 Location: PIPE GALLERY OUTER LONG WALL

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
3
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 213.98 BOF: 213.98 NGL: 213.98

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill 3 Case
m kN/m kN-m/m
Fill 1 Earth 0.30 18.0 Case 1 0.05
Fill 2 Earth 0.52 18.0 Case 2 0.14

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 5.7 Length LW (m) = 8.30

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.075 G2 = 0.075

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 151
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

2
Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120
Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 0.2

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 122.7 kN/m
2

3
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Earth Earth


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 150
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 150 0.30 0.30 150
information only. 150 -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.30 150 150 0.30 150 150

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 0.75

Page 152
GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

GF1 = 0.150 m GF2 = 0.150 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 1.13 kN/m WF2 = 1.13 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.150 m WCF = 0.56 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 0.05
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 1.62 0.60 -0.97
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 1.13 0.60 -0.68
d = LB - GF1

Page 153
V = WF2 Refer Calculations above
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 1.13 0.15 -0.17
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 0.56 0.38 -0.21
d = 0.5 * LCF

V = Refer design data


Self weight of wall 5.70 0.38 -2.14
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 0.05


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 4.16
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 89.07

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 10.13 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 4.12 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.41 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.41 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) -0.03 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
2
Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 16.90 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
2
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 14.19 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 12.83 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 10.12 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 4.66 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.15 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) 0.31 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 3.44 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.14 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 154
= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)
Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 0.33
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Bottom 1.92 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 2.32 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 0.05
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -0.14 -0.14
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 1.62 0.15 0.60 0.24
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 2.81 0.60 1.68 0.15 1.68
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 1.13 0.15 0.17 0.60 0.17
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 1.13 0.60 0.68 0.15 0.68
Self weight of central portion of footing 0.56 0.38 0.21 0.38 0.21
Self weight of wall 5.70 0.38 2.14 0.38 2.14
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.45 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.45 0.00 0.30 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.38 0.00 0.38 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 0.14 0.14


Total resisting moments 4.88 5.17
Check for overturning 34.72 36.78

Total vertical load (kN/m) 11.32 12.94


Net moment (kN-m/m) 4.74 5.03
Distance resultant from respective point 0.42 0.39
Distance of resultant from S 0.33 0.36
Eccentricity 0.04 0.01
Base Pressure at P 9.85 OK 15.40 OK
Base Pressure at Q 14.05 OK 16.88 OK
Base Pressure at R 16.14 OK 17.62 OK
Base Pressure at S 20.33 OK 19.11 OK

Page 155
Total base pressure P-Q 3.58 4.84
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.14 0.15
Moment at Q (base) 0.34 0.30
Total base pressure R-S 5.47 5.51
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.16 0.15
Moment at R (base) 0.26 0.25

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 2.46 Q 3 Bottom 2.10
R 2 Bottom 1.54 R 3 Bottom 1.58

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 0.30 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 0.34 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 0.25 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 0.33 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
2
Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
2 2 2
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 0.30 0.46 150 112 0.036 0.008 9 180 180

Page 156
Q - Bot 0.34 0.51 150 112 0.040 0.009 10 180 180
R - Top 0.25 0.37 150 112 0.030 0.007 8 180 180
R - Bot 0.33 0.49 150 112 0.039 0.009 10 180 180

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.3 m ; 150 - 150 mm 0.3 m ; 150 - 150 mm


00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
279 279
Fill 1 = Earth Fill 2 = Earth
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
P 279 279 Q R 279 279 S
180 180 Top 180 180
08-180 279 Distribution 180 279 08-180
180 180 Bottom 180 180
00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180 00-000+08-180
279 279 279 279
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
Q 2 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
Q 3 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
R 1 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
R 2 Bottom Earth 150 38 112
R 3 Bottom Earth 150 38 112

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 157
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
2 2 2 2
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
Q-1 1.92 2.88 112 0.026 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
Q-2 2.46 3.69 112 0.033 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
Q-3 2.10 3.15 112 0.028 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
R-1 2.32 3.48 112 0.031 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
R-2 1.54 2.31 112 0.021 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK
R-3 1.58 2.36 112 0.021 279 0.25 0.96 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2 2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 150 0.30 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279
Q - Bot 150 0.34 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279
R - Top 150 0.25 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279
R - Bot 150 0.33 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 279 279

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 158
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm
Q - Top 10.5 24.6 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.1470 0.3
Q - Bot 11.6 24.6 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.1456 0.4
R - Top 8.5 24.6 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.1493 0.3
R - Bot 11.3 24.6 0.0001 0.0011 -0.0010 -0.1460 0.3
All OK All OK All OK

Page 159
Foundation for Wall: W2 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP OUTER LONG WALL

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
3
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 206.95 BOF: 206.95 NGL: 213.98

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill 3 Case
m kN/m kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 7.55 10.5 Case 1 72.63
Fill 2 Earth 7.55 18.0 Case 2 41.46

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 73.5 Length LW (m) = 4.45

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.181 G2 = 0.269

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 160
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

2
Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120
Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 7.4

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 253.7 kN/m
2

3
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Earth


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat Top Flat Bottom
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 400
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 400 0.80 0.60 200
information only. 250 -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.80 400 250 0.60 400 200

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.85

Page 161
GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

GF1 = 0.431 m GF2 = 0.333 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 6.50 kN/m WF2 = 4.50 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.450 m WCF = 4.50 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 72.63
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 63.42 1.45 -91.96
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 1.42 -9.22
d = LB - GF1

Page 162
V = WF2 Refer Calculations above
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 4.50 0.33 -1.50
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 0.83 -3.71
d = 0.5 * LCF

V = Refer design data


Self weight of wall 73.50 0.87 -63.85
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 72.63


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 170.25
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.34

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 152.42 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 97.61 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.64 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.64 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.28 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
2
Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 6.35 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
2
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 72.11 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 109.11 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 158.43 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 31.38 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.29 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -18.72 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 80.26 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.32 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 163
= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)
Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 24.36
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 38.54 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 75.76 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 72.63
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -41.46 -41.46
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 63.42 0.40 1.45 -91.96
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 81.54 1.55 126.39 0.30 -24.46
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 0.43 2.80 1.42 -9.22
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 4.50 1.52 6.83 0.33 -1.50
Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 1.03 4.61 0.83 -3.71
Self weight of wall 73.50 0.98 72.12 0.87 -63.85
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.80 0.00 1.05 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 1.25 0.00 0.60 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.98 0.00 0.87 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 41.46 72.63


Total resisting moments 212.75 236.17
Check for overturning 5.13 3.25

Total vertical load (kN/m) 170.54 233.96


Net moment (kN-m/m) 171.29 163.54
Distance resultant from respective point 1.00 0.70
Distance of resultant from S 0.85 0.70
Eccentricity 0.08 0.23
Base Pressure at P 68.45 OK 33.77 OK
Base Pressure at Q 88.98 OK 113.94 OK
Base Pressure at R 100.52 OK 159.03 OK
Base Pressure at S 115.92 OK 219.16 OK

Page 164
Total base pressure P-Q 62.97 59.08
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.38 0.33
Moment at Q (base) 21.69 -8.41
Total base pressure R-S 64.93 113.46
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.31 0.32
Moment at R (base) -5.72 10.18

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 56.47 Q 3 Top 10.84
R 2 Top 21.11 R 3 Bottom 27.42

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 18.72 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 21.69 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 5.72 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 24.36 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
2
Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
2 2 2
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 18.72 28.08 400 347 0.233 0.054 188 480 480

Page 165
Q - Bot 21.69 32.54 400 362 0.248 0.058 209 480 480
R - Top 5.72 8.58 400 362 0.065 0.015 55 480 480
R - Bot 24.36 36.53 400 362 0.279 0.065 235 480 480

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.8 m ; 250 - 400 mm 0.6 m ; 400 - 200 mm


12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180
1414 628
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
P 628 628 Q R 628 628 S
480 480 Top 480 480
10-180 436 Distribution 360 436 10-180
480 480 Bottom 480 480
00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160
628 628 1414 1414
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 400 53 347
Q 2 Bottom Earth 400 38 362
Q 3 Top Water 400 53 347
R 1 Bottom Earth 400 38 362
R 2 Top Earth 400 38 362
R 3 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 166
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
2 2 2 2
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
Q-1 38.54 57.80 347 0.167 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK
Q-2 56.47 84.70 362 0.234 628 0.17 0.62 3.50 OK
Q-3 10.84 16.26 347 0.047 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK
R-1 75.76 113.64 362 0.314 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK
R-2 21.11 31.66 362 0.087 628 0.17 0.62 3.50 OK
R-3 27.42 41.13 362 0.114 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2 2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 400 18.72 Water 53 38 0.2 250 628 628
Q - Bot 400 21.69 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 628 628
R - Top 400 5.72 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 628 1414
R - Bot 400 24.36 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 628

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 167
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm
Q - Top 90.8 56.5 0.0005 0.0011 -0.0006 -0.1459 1.9
Q - Bot 100.9 59.0 0.0006 0.0010 -0.0004 -0.1014 2.1
R - Top 26.6 58.5 0.0002 0.0010 -0.0009 -0.2059 0.5
R - Bot 51.6 83.6 0.0003 0.0004 -0.0001 -0.0272 1.7
All OK All OK All OK

Page 168
Foundation for Wall: W3 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP OUTER SCREEN CHANNEL SIDE W

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
3
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 206.95 BOF: 208.24 NGL: 213.98

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill 3 Case
m kN/m kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 6.26 10.5 Case 1 51.52
Fill 2 Water 6.26 10.5 Case 2 51.52

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 73.5 Length LW (m) = 4.45

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.181 G2 = 0.269

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 169
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

2
Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120
Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 7.4

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 253.7 kN/m
2

3
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Water


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat Top Flat Bottom
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 400
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 400 0.80 0.60 200
information only. 250 -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.80 400 250 0.60 400 200

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.85

Page 170
GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

GF1 = 0.431 m GF2 = 0.333 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 6.50 kN/m WF2 = 4.50 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.450 m WCF = 4.50 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 51.52
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 71.16 1.45 -103.18
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 1.42 -9.22
d = LB - GF1

Page 171
V = WF2 Refer Calculations above
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 4.50 0.33 -1.50
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 0.83 -3.71
d = 0.5 * LCF

V = Refer design data


Self weight of wall 73.50 0.87 -63.85
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 51.52


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 181.47
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 3.52

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 160.16 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 129.94 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.81 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.81 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.11 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
2
Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 54.66 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
2
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 82.26 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 97.79 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 118.49 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 54.77 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.37 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -10.43 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 64.88 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.31 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 172
= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)
Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 18.88
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 22.89 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 60.38 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 51.52
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -51.52 -51.52
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 71.16 0.40 1.45 28.46
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 53.37 1.55 82.72 0.30 82.72
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 0.43 2.80 1.42 2.80
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 4.50 1.52 6.83 0.33 6.83
Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 1.03 4.61 0.83 4.61
Self weight of wall 73.50 0.98 72.12 0.87 72.12
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.80 0.00 1.05 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 1.25 0.00 0.60 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.98 0.00 0.87 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 51.52 51.52


Total resisting moments 169.09 249.08
Check for overturning 3.28 4.83

Total vertical load (kN/m) 142.37 213.53


Net moment (kN-m/m) 117.56 197.55
Distance resultant from respective point 0.83 0.93
Distance of resultant from S 1.02 0.92
Eccentricity -0.10 0.00
Base Pressure at P 101.73 OK 115.36 OK
Base Pressure at Q 80.30 OK 115.41 OK
Base Pressure at R 68.25 OK 115.44 OK
Base Pressure at S 52.19 OK 115.49 OK

Page 173
Total base pressure P-Q 72.81 92.31
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.42 0.40
Moment at Q (base) 27.87 6.06
Total base pressure R-S 36.13 69.28
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.29 0.30
Moment at R (base) -6.85 3.57

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 66.31 Q 3 Bottom 14.65
R 2 Top 21.74 R 3 Bottom 11.41

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 10.43 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 27.87 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 6.85 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 18.88 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
2
Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
2 2 2
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 10.43 15.64 400 347 0.130 0.030 104 480 480

Page 174
Q - Bot 27.87 41.80 400 362 0.319 0.074 269 480 480
R - Top 6.85 10.28 400 347 0.085 0.020 68 480 480
R - Bot 18.88 28.33 400 362 0.216 0.050 181 480 480

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.8 m ; 250 - 400 mm 0.6 m ; 400 - 200 mm


12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160
1414 1414
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
P 628 628 Q R 628 628 S
480 480 Top 480 480
10-180 436 Distribution 360 436 10-180
480 480 Bottom 480 480
12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160
1414 1414 1414 1414
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 400 53 347
Q 2 Bottom Earth 400 38 362
Q 3 Bottom Earth 400 38 362
R 1 Bottom Earth 400 38 362
R 2 Top Water 400 53 347
R 3 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 175
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
2 2 2 2
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
Q-1 22.89 34.34 347 0.099 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK
Q-2 66.31 99.47 362 0.275 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK
Q-3 14.65 21.97 362 0.061 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK
R-1 60.38 90.57 362 0.250 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK
R-2 21.74 32.61 347 0.094 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK
R-3 11.41 17.11 362 0.047 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2 2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 400 10.43 Water 53 38 0.2 250 628 1414
Q - Bot 400 27.87 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 628
R - Top 400 6.85 Water 53 38 0.2 250 628 1414
R - Bot 400 18.88 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 628

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 176
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm
Q - Top 50.5 54.7 0.0003 0.0011 -0.0008 -0.2065 1.0
Q - Bot 59.0 83.6 0.0004 0.0004 -0.0001 -0.0169 1.9
R - Top 33.2 54.7 0.0002 0.0011 -0.0009 -0.2318 0.7
R - Bot 40.0 83.6 0.0002 0.0004 -0.0002 -0.0432 1.3
All OK All OK All OK

Page 177
Foundation for Wall: W4 Location: RAW SEWAGE SUMP INTERNAL WALL

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
3
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 206.95 BOF: 206.95 NGL: 213.98

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill 3 Case
m kN/m kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 7.55 10.5 Case 1 72.63
Fill 2 Water 7.55 10.5 Case 2 72.63

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 69.46875 Length LW (m) = 4.45

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.225 G2 = 0.225

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 178
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

2
Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120
Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 7.4

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 253.7 kN/m
2

3
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Water


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat Top Flat Top
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - -
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 400 0.80 0.80 400
information only. 250 250

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.80 400 250 0.80 400 250

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 2.05

Page 179
GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

GF1 = 0.431 m GF2 = 0.431 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 6.50 kN/m WF2 = 6.50 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.450 m WCF = 4.50 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 72.63
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 63.42 1.65 -104.64
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 1.62 -10.52
d = LB - GF1

Page 180
V = WF2 Refer Calculations above
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 6.50 0.43 -2.80
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 1.03 -4.61
d = 0.5 * LCF

V = Refer design data


Self weight of wall 69.47 1.03 -71.21
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 72.63


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 193.79
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.67

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 150.39 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 121.15 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.81 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.81 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.22 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
2
Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 26.25 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
2
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 63.02 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 83.70 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 120.47 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 35.71 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.35 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -15.44 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 81.67 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.42 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 181
= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)
Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 32.23
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 34.21 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 75.17 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 72.63
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -72.63 -72.63
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 63.42 0.40 1.65 25.37
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 63.42 1.65 104.64 0.40 104.64
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 6.50 0.43 2.80 1.62 2.80
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 6.50 1.62 10.52 0.43 10.52
Self weight of central portion of footing 4.50 1.03 4.61 1.03 4.61
Self weight of wall 69.47 1.03 71.21 1.03 71.21
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.80 0.00 1.25 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 1.25 0.00 0.80 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 1.03 0.00 1.03 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 72.63 72.63


Total resisting moments 193.79 291.79
Check for overturning 2.67 4.02

Total vertical load (kN/m) 150.39 213.81


Net moment (kN-m/m) 121.15 219.15
Distance resultant from respective point 0.81 1.03
Distance of resultant from S 1.24 1.03
Eccentricity -0.22 0.00
Base Pressure at P 120.47 OK 104.30 OK
Base Pressure at Q 83.70 OK 104.30 OK
Base Pressure at R 63.02 OK 104.30 OK
Base Pressure at S 26.25 OK 104.30 OK

Page 182
Total base pressure P-Q 81.67 83.44
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.42 0.40
Moment at Q (base) 32.23 5.61
Total base pressure R-S 35.71 83.44
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.35 0.40
Moment at R (base) -15.44 5.61

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 75.17 Q 3 Bottom 13.52
R 2 Top 34.21 R 3 Bottom 13.52

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 15.44 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 32.23 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 15.44 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 32.23 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
2
Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
2 2 2
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 15.44 23.17 400 347 0.192 0.045 155 480 480

Page 183
Q - Bot 32.23 48.34 400 362 0.369 0.086 312 480 480
R - Top 15.44 23.17 400 347 0.192 0.045 155 480 480
R - Bot 32.23 48.34 400 362 0.369 0.086 312 480 480

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.8 m ; 250 - 400 mm 0.8 m ; 400 - 250 mm


12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160
1414 1414
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
P 628 628 Q R 628 628 S
480 480 Top 480 480
10-180 436 Distribution 390 436 10-180
480 480 Bottom 480 480
12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160
1414 1414 1414 1414
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 400 53 347
Q 2 Bottom Earth 400 38 362
Q 3 Bottom Earth 400 38 362
R 1 Bottom Earth 400 38 362
R 2 Top Water 400 53 347
R 3 Bottom Earth 400 38 362

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 184
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
2 2 2 2
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
Q-1 34.21 51.32 347 0.148 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK
Q-2 75.17 112.75 362 0.311 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK
Q-3 13.52 20.28 362 0.056 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK
R-1 75.17 112.75 362 0.311 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK
R-2 34.21 51.32 347 0.148 628 0.18 0.64 3.50 OK
R-3 13.52 20.28 362 0.056 1414 0.39 0.90 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2 2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 400 15.44 Water 53 38 0.2 250 628 1414
Q - Bot 400 32.23 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 628
R - Top 400 15.44 Water 53 38 0.2 250 628 1414
R - Bot 400 32.23 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 628

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 185
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm
Q - Top 74.8 54.7 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.1709 1.5
Q - Bot 68.2 83.6 0.0004 0.0004 0.0000 -0.0041 2.2
R - Top 74.8 54.7 0.0004 0.0011 -0.0007 -0.1709 1.5
R - Bot 68.2 83.6 0.0004 0.0004 0.0000 -0.0041 2.2
All OK All OK All OK

Page 186
Foundation for Wall: W5 Location: B/W STAIRCASE & SCREEN CHAMBER WALL

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
3
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 210.04 BOF: 210.04 NGL: 213.98

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill 3 Case
m kN/m kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 1 13.67
Fill 2 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 2 13.67

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 12.3 Length LW (m) = 5.20

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.100 G2 = 0.100

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 187
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

2
Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120
Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 4.1

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 194.5 kN/m
2

3
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Water


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 200
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 200 0.60 0.60 200
information only. 200 -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.60 200 200 0.60 200 200

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.40

Page 188
GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

GF1 = 0.300 m GF2 = 0.300 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 3.00 kN/m WF2 = 3.00 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.200 m WCF = 1.00 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 13.67
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 15.50 1.10 -17.05
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.00 1.10 -3.30
d = LB - GF1

Page 189
V = WF2 Refer Calculations above
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 0.30 -0.90
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 1.00 0.70 -0.70
d = 0.5 * LCF

V = Refer design data


Self weight of wall 12.30 0.70 -8.61
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 13.67


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 30.56
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.24

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 34.80 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 16.89 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.49 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.49 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.21 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
2
Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 2.00 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
2
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 21.59 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 28.12 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 47.72 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 7.08 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.22 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -4.01 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 22.75 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.33 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 190
= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)
Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 6.51
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 11.42 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 19.75 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 13.67
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -13.67 -13.67
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 15.50 0.30 1.10 4.65
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 15.50 1.10 17.05 0.30 17.05
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.00 0.30 0.90 1.10 0.90
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 3.00 1.10 3.30 0.30 3.30
Self weight of central portion of footing 1.00 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70
Self weight of wall 12.30 0.70 8.61 0.70 8.61
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.60 0.00 0.80 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.80 0.00 0.60 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.70 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 13.67 13.67


Total resisting moments 30.56 48.87
Check for overturning 2.24 3.58

Total vertical load (kN/m) 34.80 50.30


Net moment (kN-m/m) 16.89 35.21
Distance resultant from respective point 0.49 0.70
Distance of resultant from S 0.91 0.70
Eccentricity -0.21 0.00
Base Pressure at P 47.72 OK 35.93 OK
Base Pressure at Q 28.12 OK 35.93 OK
Base Pressure at R 21.59 OK 35.93 OK
Base Pressure at S 2.00 OK 35.93 OK

Page 191
Total base pressure P-Q 22.75 21.56
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.33 0.30
Moment at Q (base) 6.51 0.92
Total base pressure R-S 7.08 21.56
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.22 0.30
Moment at R (base) -4.01 0.92

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 19.75 Q 3 Bottom 3.06
R 2 Top 11.42 R 3 Bottom 3.06

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 4.01 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 6.51 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 4.01 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 6.51 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
2
Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
2 2 2
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 4.01 6.02 200 147 0.279 0.065 95 240 240

Page 192
Q - Bot 6.51 9.77 200 162 0.372 0.087 141 240 240
R - Top 4.01 6.02 200 147 0.279 0.065 95 240 240
R - Bot 6.51 9.77 200 162 0.372 0.087 141 240 240

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.6 m ; 200 - 200 mm 0.6 m ; 200 - 200 mm


08-180+10-180 08-180+10-180
716 716
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
P 436 436 Q R 436 436 S
240 240 Top 240 240
08-160 314 Distribution 240 314 08-160
240 240 Bottom 240 240
00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
436 436 436 436
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 200 53 147
Q 2 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
Q 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
R 1 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
R 2 Top Water 200 53 147
R 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 193
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
2 2 2 2
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
Q-1 11.42 17.13 147 0.117 436 0.30 0.96 3.50 OK
Q-2 19.75 29.63 162 0.183 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK
Q-3 3.06 4.59 162 0.028 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK
R-1 19.75 29.63 162 0.183 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK
R-2 11.42 17.13 147 0.117 436 0.30 0.96 3.50 OK
R-3 3.06 4.59 162 0.028 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2 2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 200 4.01 Water 53 38 0.2 250 436 436
Q - Bot 200 6.51 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 436 436
R - Top 200 4.01 Water 53 38 0.2 250 436 436
R - Bot 200 6.51 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 436 436

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 194
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm
Q - Top 67.4 31.5 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0005 -0.0949 2.0
Q - Bot 99.2 34.5 0.0007 0.0008 -0.0001 -0.0206 2.9
R - Top 67.4 31.5 0.0004 0.0009 -0.0005 -0.0949 2.0
R - Bot 99.2 34.5 0.0007 0.0008 -0.0001 -0.0206 2.9
All OK All OK All OK

Page 195
Foundation for Wall: W7 Location: SCREEN CHAMBER INTERNAL WALL

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
3
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 210.04 BOF: 210.04 NGL: 213.98

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill 3 Case
m kN/m kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 1 13.67
Fill 2 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 2 13.67

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 24.6 Length LW (m) = 5.40

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.200 G2 = 0.200

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 196
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

2
Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120
Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 4.1

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 194.5 kN/m
2

3
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Water


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 200
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 200 0.50 0.50 200
information only. 200 -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.50 200 200 0.50 200 200

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.40

Page 197
GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

GF1 = 0.250 m GF2 = 0.250 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 2.50 kN/m WF2 = 2.50 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.400 m WCF = 2.00 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 13.67
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 12.92 1.15 -14.85
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 2.50 1.15 -2.88
d = LB - GF1

Page 198
V = WF2 Refer Calculations above
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 0.25 -0.63
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 2.00 0.70 -1.40
d = 0.5 * LCF

V = Refer design data


Self weight of wall 24.60 0.70 -17.22
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 13.67


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 36.97
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.71

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 44.52 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 23.31 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.52 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.52 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.18 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
2
Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 7.75 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
2
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 24.93 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 38.67 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 55.84 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 8.17 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.21 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -2.17 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 23.63 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.27 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 199
= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)
Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 5.64
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 7.25 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 21.13 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 13.67
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -13.67 -13.67
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 12.92 0.25 1.15 3.23
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 12.92 1.15 14.85 0.25 14.85
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 2.50 0.25 0.63 1.15 0.63
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 1.15 2.88 0.25 2.88
Self weight of central portion of footing 2.00 0.70 1.40 0.70 1.40
Self weight of wall 24.60 0.70 17.22 0.70 17.22
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.90 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.50 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.70 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 13.67 13.67


Total resisting moments 36.97 53.87
Check for overturning 2.71 3.94

Total vertical load (kN/m) 44.52 57.43


Net moment (kN-m/m) 23.31 40.20
Distance resultant from respective point 0.52 0.70
Distance of resultant from S 0.88 0.70
Eccentricity -0.18 0.00
Base Pressure at P 55.84 OK 41.02 OK
Base Pressure at Q 38.67 OK 41.02 OK
Base Pressure at R 24.93 OK 41.02 OK
Base Pressure at S 7.75 OK 41.02 OK

Page 200
Total base pressure P-Q 23.63 20.51
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.27 0.25
Moment at Q (base) 5.64 1.27
Total base pressure R-S 8.17 20.51
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.21 0.25
Moment at R (base) -2.17 1.27

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 21.13 Q 3 Bottom 5.10
R 2 Top 7.25 R 3 Bottom 5.10

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 2.17 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 5.64 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 2.17 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 5.64 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
2
Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
2 2 2
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 2.17 3.25 200 147 0.151 0.035 51 240 240

Page 201
Q - Bot 5.64 8.46 200 162 0.322 0.075 122 240 240
R - Top 2.17 3.25 200 147 0.151 0.035 51 240 240
R - Bot 5.64 8.46 200 162 0.322 0.075 122 240 240

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.5 m ; 200 - 200 mm 0.5 m ; 200 - 200 mm


00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180
628 628
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
P 436 436 Q R 436 436 S
240 240 Top 240 240
08-160 314 Distribution 240 314 08-160
240 240 Bottom 240 240
00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
436 436 436 436
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 200 53 147
Q 2 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
Q 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
R 1 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
R 2 Top Water 200 53 147
R 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 202
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
2 2 2 2
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
Q-1 7.25 10.87 147 0.074 436 0.30 0.96 3.50 OK
Q-2 21.13 31.69 162 0.196 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK
Q-3 5.10 7.64 162 0.047 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK
R-1 21.13 31.69 162 0.196 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK
R-2 7.25 10.87 147 0.074 436 0.30 0.96 3.50 OK
R-3 5.10 7.64 162 0.047 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2 2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 200 2.17 Water 53 38 0.2 250 436 436
Q - Bot 200 5.64 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 436 436
R - Top 200 2.17 Water 53 38 0.2 250 436 436
R - Bot 200 5.64 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 436 436

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 203
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm
Q - Top 36.4 31.5 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1347 1.1
Q - Bot 85.9 34.5 0.0006 0.0008 -0.0002 -0.0369 2.5
R - Top 36.4 31.5 0.0002 0.0009 -0.0007 -0.1347 1.1
R - Bot 85.9 34.5 0.0006 0.0008 -0.0002 -0.0369 2.5
All OK All OK All OK

Page 204
Foundation for Wall: W8 Location: SCREEN CHAMBER OUTER WALL

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
3
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 210.04 BOF: 210.04 NGL: 213.98

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill 3 Case
m kN/m kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 4.46 10.5 Case 1 73.90
Fill 2 Earth 4.46 18.0 Case 2 42.18

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 44.3625 Length LW (m) = 8.75

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.171 G2 = 0.279

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 205
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

2
Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120
Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 4.2

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 196.3 kN/m
2

3
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Earth


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat Top Flat Bottom
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 300
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 300 1.20 0.80 200
information only. 200 -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
1.20 300 200 0.80 300 200

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 2.45

Page 206
GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

GF1 = 0.640 m GF2 = 0.427 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 7.50 kN/m WF2 = 5.00 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.450 m WCF = 3.38 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 73.90
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 56.20 1.85 -103.96
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 7.50 1.81 -13.58
d = LB - GF1

Page 207
V = WF2 Refer Calculations above
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 5.00 0.43 -2.14
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 3.38 1.03 -3.46
d = 0.5 * LCF

V = Refer design data


Self weight of wall 44.36 1.08 -47.89
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 73.90


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 171.02
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.31

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 116.43 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 97.13 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.83 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.83 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.39 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
2
Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 2.04 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
2
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 46.60 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 63.30 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 93.01 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 29.18 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.42 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -25.76 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 62.53 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.43 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 208
= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)
Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 24.73
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 34.52 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 57.53 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 73.90
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -42.18 -42.18
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 56.20 0.60 1.85 -103.96
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 64.22 2.05 131.66 0.40 -25.69
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 7.50 0.64 4.80 1.81 -13.58
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 5.00 2.02 10.12 0.43 -2.14
Self weight of central portion of footing 3.38 1.43 4.81 1.03 -3.46
Self weight of wall 44.36 1.37 60.80 1.08 -47.89
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 1.20 0.00 1.25 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 1.65 0.00 0.80 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 1.37 0.00 1.08 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 42.18 73.90


Total resisting moments 212.18 238.89
Check for overturning 5.03 3.23

Total vertical load (kN/m) 124.46 180.66


Net moment (kN-m/m) 170.00 165.00
Distance resultant from respective point 1.37 0.91
Distance of resultant from S 1.08 0.91
Eccentricity 0.14 0.31
Base Pressure at P 33.27 OK 17.45 OK
Base Pressure at Q 50.44 OK 72.59 OK
Base Pressure at R 56.88 OK 93.26 OK
Base Pressure at S 68.33 OK 130.02 OK

Page 209
Total base pressure P-Q 50.23 54.03
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.56 0.48
Moment at Q (base) 23.88 -12.12
Total base pressure R-S 50.08 89.31
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.41 0.42
Moment at R (base) -6.91 10.13

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 42.73 Q 3 Top 9.67
R 2 Top 19.14 R 3 Bottom 20.09

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 25.76 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 23.88 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 6.91 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 24.73 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
2
Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
2 2 2
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 25.76 38.64 300 247 0.633 0.149 369 360 369

Page 210
Q - Bot 23.88 35.82 300 262 0.522 0.123 321 360 360
R - Top 6.91 10.37 300 262 0.151 0.035 92 360 360
R - Bot 24.73 37.09 300 262 0.540 0.127 333 360 360

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

1.2 m ; 200 - 300 mm 0.8 m ; 300 - 200 mm


12-160+12-160 00-000+12-180
1414 628
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+12-150 00-000+12-150 00-000+12-150 00-000+12-150
P 754 754 Q R 754 754 S
369 369 Top 360 360
10-180 436 Distribution 300 436 10-180
360 360 Bottom 360 360
00-000+12-180 00-000+12-180 12-160+12-160 12-160+12-160
628 628 1414 1414
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 300 53 247
Q 2 Bottom Earth 300 38 262
Q 3 Top Water 300 53 247
R 1 Bottom Earth 300 38 262
R 2 Top Earth 300 38 262
R 3 Bottom Earth 300 38 262

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 211
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
2 2 2 2
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
Q-1 34.52 51.77 247 0.210 754 0.31 0.80 3.50 OK
Q-2 42.73 64.10 262 0.245 628 0.24 0.72 3.50 OK
Q-3 9.67 14.50 247 0.059 754 0.31 0.80 3.50 OK
R-1 57.53 86.29 262 0.329 1414 0.54 1.02 3.50 OK
R-2 19.14 28.71 262 0.110 754 0.29 0.78 3.50 OK
R-3 20.09 30.14 262 0.115 1414 0.54 1.02 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2 2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 300 25.76 Water 53 38 0.2 250 754 628
Q - Bot 300 23.88 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 628 754
R - Top 300 6.91 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 754 1414
R - Bot 300 24.73 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1414 754

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 212
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm
Q - Top 148.5 51.0 0.0009 0.0007 0.0002 0.0432 4.1
Q - Bot 154.9 50.2 0.0010 0.0008 0.0002 0.0395 3.9
R - Top 37.6 53.9 0.0002 0.0006 -0.0004 -0.0856 1.0
R - Bot 73.3 69.6 0.0005 0.0003 0.0001 0.0289 2.8
All OK All OK All OK

Page 213
Foundation for Wall: W9 Location: INLET CHAMBER OUTER LONG WALL

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
3
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 210.04 BOF: 210.04 NGL: 213.98

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill 3 Case
m kN/m kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 4.46 10.5 Case 1 24.24
Fill 2 Earth 4.46 18.0 Case 2 13.84

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 29.00625 Length LW (m) = 3.80

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.107 G2 = 0.143

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 214
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

2
Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120
Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 4.1

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 194.5 kN/m
2

3
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Earth


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 200
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 200 0.70 0.50 200
information only. 200 -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.70 200 200 0.50 200 200

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.45

Page 215
GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

GF1 = 0.350 m GF2 = 0.250 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 3.50 kN/m WF2 = 2.50 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.250 m WCF = 1.25 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 24.24
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 32.78 1.10 -36.06
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.50 1.10 -3.85
d = LB - GF1

Page 216
V = WF2 Refer Calculations above
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 0.25 -0.63
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 1.25 0.63 -0.78
d = 0.5 * LCF

V = Refer design data


Self weight of wall 29.01 0.64 -18.64
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 24.24


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 59.96
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 2.47

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 69.04 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 35.72 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.52 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.52 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.21 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
2
Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 6.70 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
2
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 46.20 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 60.31 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 88.52 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 18.52 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.26 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -7.83 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 37.21 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.27 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 217
= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)
Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 9.26
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 17.77 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 34.71 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 24.24
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -13.84 -13.84
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 32.78 0.35 1.10 -36.06
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 40.14 1.20 48.17 0.25 -10.04
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 3.50 0.35 1.23 1.10 -3.85
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 1.20 3.00 0.25 -0.63
Self weight of central portion of footing 1.25 0.83 1.03 0.63 -0.78
Self weight of wall 29.01 0.81 23.42 0.64 -18.64
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.75 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.95 0.00 0.50 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.81 0.00 0.64 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 13.84 24.24


Total resisting moments 76.84 83.83
Check for overturning 5.55 3.46

Total vertical load (kN/m) 76.40 109.18


Net moment (kN-m/m) 63.00 59.59
Distance resultant from respective point 0.82 0.55
Distance of resultant from S 0.63 0.55
Eccentricity 0.10 0.18
Base Pressure at P 30.95 OK 19.46 OK
Base Pressure at Q 51.94 OK 73.37 OK
Base Pressure at R 59.43 OK 92.62 OK
Base Pressure at S 74.43 OK 131.13 OK

Page 218
Total base pressure P-Q 29.01 32.49
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.32 0.28
Moment at Q (base) 8.07 -3.53
Total base pressure R-S 33.46 55.94
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.26 0.26
Moment at R (base) -1.98 4.13

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 25.51 Q 3 Top 3.79
R 2 Top 9.18 R 3 Bottom 13.30

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 7.83 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 8.07 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 1.98 Earth 38 53
kN-m/m Base 9.26 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
2
Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
2 2 2
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 7.83 11.75 200 147 0.544 0.128 188 240 240

Page 219
Q - Bot 8.07 12.11 200 162 0.461 0.108 175 240 240
R - Top 1.98 2.97 200 162 0.113 0.026 42 240 240
R - Bot 9.26 13.90 200 162 0.530 0.124 201 240 240

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.7 m ; 200 - 200 mm 0.5 m ; 200 - 200 mm


12-180+10-180 00-000+10-180
1065 436
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Earth
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160
P 314 314 Q R 314 314 S
240 240 Top 240 240
10-160 491 Distribution 240 491 10-160
240 240 Bottom 240 240
00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180 12-180+10-180 12-180+10-180
436 436 1065 1065
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 200 53 147
Q 2 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
Q 3 Top Water 200 53 147
R 1 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
R 2 Top Earth 200 38 162
R 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 220
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
2 2 2 2
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
Q-1 17.77 26.65 147 0.181 314 0.21 0.82 3.50 OK
Q-2 25.51 38.27 162 0.236 436 0.27 0.91 3.50 OK
Q-3 3.79 5.69 147 0.039 314 0.21 0.82 3.50 OK
R-1 34.71 52.06 162 0.321 1065 0.66 1.34 3.50 OK
R-2 9.18 13.76 162 0.085 314 0.19 0.79 3.50 OK
R-3 13.30 19.95 162 0.123 1065 0.66 1.34 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2 2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 200 7.83 Water 53 38 0.2 250 314 436
Q - Bot 200 8.07 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 436 314
R - Top 200 1.98 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 314 1065
R - Bot 200 9.26 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 1065 314

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 221
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm
Q - Top 181.0 27.9 0.0012 0.0013 -0.0001 -0.0244 4.6
Q - Bot 122.8 34.0 0.0009 0.0008 0.0000 0.0079 3.5
R - Top 41.8 33.7 0.0003 0.0011 -0.0008 -0.1476 1.2
R - Bot 59.6 47.9 0.0004 0.0003 0.0001 0.0197 2.7
All OK All OK All OK

Page 222
Foundation for Wall: W10 Location: B/W SCREEN CHAMBER &INLET CHAMBER WALL

Type If the same foundation is to be analyzed for more than one


1 condition, it is indicated by Type No.

DESIGN DATA

LW = Length of wall (m) BOW = Bottom of wall (m) BOF = Bottom of fill (m)
3
HOF = Height of fill (m) r = Density of fill (kN/m ) NGL = Natural Ground Level

BOW: 210.04 BOF: 210.04 NGL: 213.98

HOF r Overturning moment


Fill 3 Case
m kN/m kN-m/m
Fill 1 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 1 4.74
Fill 2 Water 2.46 10.5 Case 2 4.74

Weight of wall per RM (kN/m) = 10.7625 Length LW (m) = 2.38

Distances of CG of wall from edges (m) G1 = 0.088 G2 = 0.088

Additional Loads & Moments


Location V M L' X
Fill 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Fill 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Top 0.00 0.00 0.00

Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall


V and M = Total Vertical Load (kN) and moment (kN-m)
L' = Length over which loads and moments are distributed
X = Distance of loads from the edges of load as per sketch
Details of additional loads & moments acting on the wall
Downward load and clock-wise moments are +ve

Additional load / m = Total load / L'

DESIGN PARAMETERS

fck = 30 fy = 500 m = 9.33 Es = 2.00E+05


2 2 2
N/mm N/mm N/mm

c = Clear cover to reinforcement


f = Dia of reinforcement c' = Effective cover = c + 0.5 * f
w = Permissible crack width s= Spacing of reinforcement
acr = maximum spacing of tensile bar from outer edge of concrete (mm)

Page 223
Note that the crack width is calculated for the above values of dia f, spacing s, effective cover c'
and acr

Fill c f c' w s acr


Water 45 16 53 0.2 250 127.77
Earth 30 16 38 0.2 250 122.65

SAFE BEARING CAPACITY

2
Net safe bearing capacity (kN/m ) = 120
Depth below NGL (m) = NGL - BOW = 4.1

Gross bearing capacity = Net SBC + Depth below NGL * rd = 194.5 kN/m
2

3
rd = Dry density of earth = 18 kN/m

DIMENSIONING AND CALCULATIONS

Th1F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near wall Water Water


Th2F1 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge
Th1F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 2 near wall
Th2F2 = Thicness of footing Fill 1 near edge

L1 = Length of footing Fill 1 side


L2 = Length of footing Fill 2 side

Boxes on left and right side gives thickness of Flat T & B Flat T & B
footing near wall and edge (mm) and Length of - 200
footing (m). Flat top / bottom is indicated for 200 0.50 0.50 200
information only. 200 -

L1 Th1F1 Th2F1 L2 Th1F2 Th2F2


m mm mm m mm mm
0.50 200 200 0.50 200 200

Total length of base (m) LB = L1 + L2 + G1 + G2 = 1.18

Page 224
GF1 = CG of footing on Fill 1 side from P ; GF2 = CG of footing on Fill 2 side from S
GF1 and GF2 are calculated using following formulae for CG of trapezium

GF1 = 0.250 m GF2 = 0.250 m

WF1 = Weight of footing on Fill 1 side = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th2F1) * L1 * 25


WF2 = Weight of footing on Fill 2 side = 0.5 * (Th1F2 + Th2F2) * L2 * 25

WF1 = 2.50 kN/m WF2 = 2.50 kN/m

Width of central portion of footing under wall = LCF = G1 + G2


Weight of central portion of footing = WCF = 0.5 * (Th1F1 + Th1F2) * (G1 + G2) * 25
CG of cenral portion of footing is assumed to be at the centre
LCF = 0.175 m WCF = 0.88 kN/m

Footing is analyzed for the following load case -


Case 1 = Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Moments are calculated about point S
Case 2 = Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Moments are calculated about point P
Case 3 = Both Fills acting Moments are calculated about point S
Clock-wise moments are +ve
Calculations have been explained for Case 1. Calculations for Case 2 & 3 are done on similar lines.
Envelope moments and shears are calculated from the above cases for further calculations

CASE 1 Fill 1 acting ; Fill 2 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve

Load /m Distance
Moment
along length from S
Description Explanation
V d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m
Overturning moment. Refer design
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 4.74
data
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 Fill 2 not acting

V = HOF1 * r * L1
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 12.92 0.93 -11.95
d = LB - 0.5 * L1

Weight of Fill 2 on footing Fill 2 not acting

V = WF1 Refer Calculations above


Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 2.50 0.93 -2.31
d = LB - GF1

Page 225
V = WF2 Refer Calculations above
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 0.25 -0.63
d = GF2

V = WCF Refer Calculations above


Self weight of central portion of footing 0.88 0.59 -0.51
d = 0.5 * LCF

V = Refer design data


Self weight of wall 10.76 0.59 -6.32
d = G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = X1 + G1 + G2 + L2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = L2 - X2

Refer design data for load = V/L'


Additional vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.00 0.00
d = G2 + L2

Additional moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Additional moment on top of wall 0.00 Refer design data for moment = M/L'

Total overturning moments (Adding +ve moments) kN-m/m 4.74


Total resisting moments (Adding -ve moments) kN-m/m 21.72
Check for overturning = Overturning / resisting moments 4.58

Total vertical load P (kN/m) 29.55 Addition of vertical loads


Net moment (kN-m/m) 16.98 Algebraic addition of moments

Distance resultant from respective point (m) 0.57 Resultant from the point about which moments are calculated = N

Distance of resultant from S (m) 0.57 Distance of resultant from S


Eccentricity e (m) 0.01 = 0.5 * LB - Distance of resulatnt from S
2
Base Pressure at P (kN/m ) 23.48 = (P/LB) - (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK
2
Base Pressure at Q (kN/m ) 24.90 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at R (kN/m ) 25.40 Interpolated between P and S OK
2
Base Pressure at S (kN/m ) 26.83 = (P/LB) + (1 - (6 * e/LB)) OK

Total base pressure P-Q (kN/m) 12.09 = 0.5 * (P + Q) * L1 = Total pressure from P to Q
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q (m) 0.25 Using formulae as given earlier
= (Total base pressure P-Q * CG from Q) - WF1 * (L1 - GF1) -
Moment at Q (base) (kN-m/m) -0.86 Weight of Fill 1 on footing * 0.5 * L1
-ve moments indicate tension at top
Total base pressure R-S (kN/m) 13.06 = 0.5 * (R + S) * L2 = Total pressure from R to S
CG of base pressure R-S from R (m) 0.25 Using formulae as given earlier

Page 226
= Total base pressure R-S * CG from R - WF2 * (L2 - GF1)
Moment at R (base) (kN-m/m) 2.67
-ve moments indicate tension at top

Shear at Q and R for Case 1

V
Point Case Tension at Explanation
kN/m
Q 1 Top 3.32 = Total base pressure P-Q - Weight of Fill 1 - WF1
R 1 Bottom 10.56 = Total base pressure R-S - WF2
Ast for calculating permissible shear stress is based on the tension reinforcement

CASE 2 Fill 2 acting ; Fill 1 not acting Clock-wise moments are +ve
CASE 3 Both Fills acting

Case 2 Case 3
Load /m
Moment Moment
along length Distance Distance
Description about P about S
V from P d from S d
V*d V*d
kN/m m kN-m/m m kN-m/m
Horizontal pressure Fill 1 4.74
Horizontal pressure Fill 2 -4.74 -4.74
Weight of Fill 1 on footing 12.92 0.25 0.93 3.23
Weight of Fill 2 on footing 12.92 0.93 11.95 0.25 11.95
Self weight of footing on Fill 1 side 2.50 0.25 0.63 0.93 0.63
Self weight of footing on Fill 2 side 2.50 0.93 2.31 0.25 2.31
Self weight of central portion of footing 0.88 0.59 0.51 0.59 0.51
Self weight of wall 10.76 0.59 6.32 0.59 6.32
Addl vertical load on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.68 0.00
Addl vertical load on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.68 0.00 0.50 0.00
Addl vertical load at top of wall 0.00 0.59 0.00 0.59 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 1 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on Fill 2 side 0.00 0.00
Addl moment on top of wall 0.00 0.00

Total overturning moments 4.74 4.74


Total resisting moments 21.72 29.69
Check for overturning 4.58 6.26

Total vertical load (kN/m) 29.55 42.47


Net moment (kN-m/m) 16.98 24.95
Distance resultant from respective point 0.57 0.59
Distance of resultant from S 0.60 0.59
Eccentricity -0.01 0.00
Base Pressure at P 26.83 OK 36.14 OK
Base Pressure at Q 25.40 OK 36.14 OK
Base Pressure at R 24.90 OK 36.14 OK
Base Pressure at S 23.48 OK 36.14 OK

Page 227
Total base pressure P-Q 13.06 18.07
CG of base pressure P-Q from Q 0.25 0.25
Moment at Q (base) 2.67 0.66
Total base pressure R-S 12.09 18.07
CG of base pressure R-S from R 0.25 0.25
Moment at R (base) -0.86 0.66

Shear at Q and R for Case 2 Shear at Q and R for Case 3

V Tension V
Point Case Tension at Point Case
kN/m at kN/m
Q 2 Bottom 10.56 Q 3 Bottom 2.66
R 2 Top 3.32 R 3 Bottom 2.66

Envelope moments at Q and R


Top/Base Moment Face c' d'
Envelope unfactored moments at Q Top 0.86 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 2.67 Earth 38 53
Envelope unfactored moments at R Top 0.86 Water 53 38
kN-m/m Base 2.67 Earth 38 53
Moment is towards water / earth face is required to take appropriate value of clear cover.
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Calculating required reinforcement for Limit State of Strength

Unfactored moment M = Calculated moment for fill 1 / fill 2 + Addl moment, if any for fill 1 / fill 2

Reinforcement is calculated for factored moments ; Load Factor = 1.5

M u = M * 1.5 Mu = Factored moments

2
Alternatively, required reinforcement based on the values of Mu/bd can be taken from SP-16

Min reinforcement is calculated as per the provisions of IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009


Percentage of min reinforcement % = 0.24 Surface zone thickness = 0.5 * D (max 250 mm)
2
Min reinforcement (mm ) = reinf % * 1000 * surface zone thickness / 100

Reiforcement required = Max(Ast for Mu, Min reinforcement)

Moment
Moment Mu Provided 2 Ast for Reinf
Location unfactor d = D - c' Mu/bd % Ast Min Reinf
Factor Th D Mu required
M
2 2 2
kN-m/m kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 0.86 1.29 200 147 0.060 0.014 20 240 240

Page 228
Q - Bot 2.67 4.00 200 162 0.153 0.035 57 240 240
R - Top 0.86 1.29 200 147 0.060 0.014 20 240 240
R - Bot 2.67 4.00 200 162 0.153 0.035 57 240 240

Summary of Reinf (Provided) :

Summary of reinforcement as shown below gives the following information:


Outline of footing and wall has been shown using thick lines.
(a) Type of fills on both sides of wall
(b) Length and thickness of footing on either side
(c) Reinforcement in wall on Fill 1 and Fill 2 face
(d) Required reinforcement, provided reinforcement and area of reinforcement for P, Q, R, S
(e) Distribution reinforcement required and provided on both sides of the fill
(f) Requirement of reinforceemnt and provided reinforcement at A, B, C and D, in case of curtailment

0.5 m ; 200 - 200 mm 0.5 m ; 200 - 200 mm


00-000+10-180 00-000+10-180
436 436
Fill 1 = Water Fill 2 = Water
B= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =D
00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160
P 314 314 Q R 314 314 S
240 240 Top 240 240
10-160 491 Distribution 240 491 10-160
240 240 Bottom 240 240
00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160 00-000+08-160
314 314 314 314
A= 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 =C

Check for Shear

Provided Th
Point Case Tension at Face c' d
D
mm mm mm
Q 1 Top Water 200 53 147
Q 2 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
Q 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
R 1 Bottom Earth 200 38 162
R 2 Top Water 200 53 147
R 3 Bottom Earth 200 38 162

Factored Shear Vu = 1.5 * V


Ast = provided tension reinf - Fill 1 reinf for Case 1 & Fill 2 reinf for Case 2
% Ast = Ast (provided) * 100 / (1000 * d)
Shear strength of concrete tc is calculated from table 19 of IS 456 - 2000
Shear strength is multiplied by factor for enhanced shear strength of concrete near support.
Refer clause 40.5 and 40.2.1.1 of IS 456-2000 for enhancement of shear strength
tc is multiplied by 2 for shear strength at edge, because shear stress being very close to support

Page 229
tc is also multiplied by another factor for solid slabs 1.0 to 1.3 depending on thickness of slab
tc, max is as per table 20 of IS 456 - 2000
Check for shear is OK, if tv < Factor *tc and tv < 0.5 * tc,max

Shear
Nominal
Point & Factored Provided Strength Maximum Check for
Shear V d shear stress % Ast
Case Shear Vu Ast Factor * tc,max Shear
tv
tc
2 2 2 2
kN/m kN/m mm N/mm mm N/mm N/mm
Q-1 3.32 4.98 147 0.034 314 0.21 0.82 3.50 OK
Q-2 10.56 15.83 162 0.098 314 0.19 0.79 3.50 OK
Q-3 2.66 3.98 162 0.025 314 0.19 0.79 3.50 OK
R-1 10.56 15.83 162 0.098 314 0.19 0.79 3.50 OK
R-2 3.32 4.98 147 0.034 314 0.21 0.82 3.50 OK
R-3 2.66 3.98 162 0.025 314 0.19 0.79 3.50 OK

CHECK FOR CRACK WIDTH :-

Check for crack width is done for the envelope moments at Q and R

Data for check of crack width

Overall Provided reinf


Location thicknes Moment M Face c' d' w s
D As As'
2 2
mm kN-m/m mm mm mm mm mm mm
Q - Top 200 0.86 Water 53 38 0.2 250 314 314
Q - Bot 200 2.67 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 314 314
R - Top 200 0.86 Water 53 38 0.2 250 314 314
R - Bot 200 2.67 Earth 38 53 0.2 250 314 314

Moment M is the forces acting on the section


As = Reinforcement on tension face ; As' = Reinforcement on compression face / less tensile face

Procedure for calculation of crack width - Section in Bending

Note that the crack width is calculated for values of dia f, spacing s and acr
as given in design parameters.

Calculating depth of NA for the provided reinforcement As and As'

fc = stress in extreme compression fibre


fs and fs' = stress in reinf near tension and compression face respectively
x = Depth of NA
d = Effective depth = D - c' c' = Effective cover (mm)
d' = distance of centre of compression reinforcement from extreme compression fibre

Page 230
Relation between the stresses is as given below:

Net Tension T = Total tensile force T - Total compressive force C

Taking moment about the tension reinforcement

Above equations are solved for the values of fc, fs, fs' and x.

Refer IS 3370 (Part 2) - 2009 for crack width calculations

e1 = Strain in extreme tension fibre =

e2 = Strain due to stiffening effect in concrete =

em = Average surface strain = e1 - e2

Crack width w =

Permissible values
2
Stress in reinforcement (N/mm ) = 0.8 * fy = 400
2
Bending stress in extreme compression fibre fc (N/mm ) = 0.45 * fck = 13.5

Location section in bending crack width calculations check


fs x e1 e2 em w fc
2 2
N/mm mm mm N/mm
Q - Top 19.9 27.6 0.0001 0.0013 -0.0012 -0.2327 0.5
Q - Bot 55.9 30.1 0.0004 0.0012 -0.0008 -0.1353 1.4
R - Top 19.9 27.6 0.0001 0.0013 -0.0012 -0.2327 0.5
R - Bot 55.9 30.1 0.0004 0.0012 -0.0008 -0.1353 1.4
All OK All OK All OK

Page 231