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Damage of Highway Bridges Due to The 2011

off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management


Road Department,
Bridge and Structures Division
Research Center for Disaster Risk Management,
Earthquake Disaster Prevention Division
Public Works Research Institute
Center for Advanced Engineering Structural Assessment and Research
CAESAR
Missions of NILIM/PWRI Bridge Reconnaissance Team
Mission 1: Technical Supports for Highway Administrators
Tohoku Regional Development Bureau,
Local Governments (Iwate Pref., Ibaraki Pref., Chiba City, Kitakami City, etc.)

STEP. 1
tion
Inspec- Temporary

Emergency Inspection Follow-up Inspection

STEP. 2 STEP. 3
Repairs

Planning of Temporary
Temporary Repairs Repairs
Reconnaissance

STEP. 4 STEP. 5
(TEC-FORCE)

Technical Supports
Reconnaissance
Philosophy of
(Damage Mechanism)

Perma-
Repairs
Permanent

Permanent Repairs
nent
Repairs

Technical Technical
Supports Supports

NILIM / PWRI, CAESAR

Mission 2: Damage Evaluation and Verification of Design Code


Reconnaissance Activity for Highway Bridges
Reconnaissance Targets (148 Bridges, as of Apr. 25, 2011)
Area Map Damage Due to Ground Motion Effect
Damage Due to Tsunami Effect
Damage Due to Soil Liquefaction Effect

Reconnaissance Teams
NILIM Total of 34 PersonDay
CAESAR Total of 79 PersonDay
Categorization of Damage to Highway Bridges
2. Effect of Tsunami

1. Effect of Ground Motion

3. Effect of Soil Liquefaction


Damage Due to Effect of Ground Motion
Bridges Designed Based on Pre-1980 Specifications

Damage to RC Columns at Section of Cut-off of Longitudinal Rebars

Shear cracks following flexural failure at section of cut-off of longitudinal rebars


Damage Due to Effect of Ground Motion
Bridges Designed Based on Pre-1980 Specifications

Damage to RC Pier Wall with Small Amount of Reinforcement


Damage Due to Effect of Ground Motion
Bridges Designed Based on Pre-1980 Specifications

Damage to Steel Bearings

Damage of Fix Bearing

Subsidence of Deck End


Resulting from Broken
Movable Bearing
Damage Due to Effect of Ground Motion
Bridges Designed Based on Pre-1980 Specifications

Damage to Damage of
Attachment of Superstructure-side
Bearings Attachment

Damage to Pier Top Damage to Pier Top


Damage Due to Effect of Ground Motion
Bridges Designed Based on Pre-1980 Specifications

Collapse of Bridge with


Pile-bent Columns
Damage Due to Effect of Ground Motion
Bridges Designed Based on Pre-1980 Specifications

Damage of Steel Bridge

Slight Buckling and


Crack Observed in
Lower Chord
Member

Damage to Upper Lateral


Bracing in Langer Bridge
Retrofitted/Unretrofitted Bridge Piers Located Close
Retrofitted Unretrofitted
(3-span cont. + 4-span cont. (3-span cont. + 3-span cont.

about
400m Damage to Cut-off
Section of Long. Rebars

Shear Crack
Failure of Movable
Steel Bearing

No Damage to Piers
and Bearings
Damage Due to Effect of Ground Motion
Bridges Designed Based on Post-Kobe EQ Specifications

Damage of Lateral Displacement Stopper


(Expansion Joint Protector)

Subsidence of Backfill soil for Abutment


Damage Due to Effect of Ground Motion
Bridges Designed Based on Post-Kobe EQ Specifications

Rupture of Elastomeric Rubber Bearings


Damage Due to Effect of Ground Motion

Subsidence of Embankment for Approaching to Bridge

Cross-railway Bridge

Cross-river Bridge

Subsidence of
20 cm

Subsidence of
40 cm
Damage Due to Effect of Tsunami
Wash Away of All Spans of Girders and Backfill soil of Abutments

Dampers
Installed for
Seismic
Retrofit Rupture of
Elastomeric
Bearings
Damage Due to Effect of Tsunami
Wash Away of All Spans of Girders and Backfill soil of Abutments

Displacement Stoppers and Anchor Bars


without Damage

Backfill soil of
abutment was
completely
washed away.
Damage Due to Effect of Tsunami
Wash Away of All Spans of Girders, one substructure and Backfill soil of Abutments

Wash Away
of Backfill soil Wash Away of
for Abutment Substructure Scour of
Wash Away of Steel Foundation
Girder Upstream
Damage Due to Effect of Tsunami
Wash Away of Some Spans of Girders and Backfill soil of Abutments

Wash Away of Backfill soil

Deformation of Side
Block of Steel Bearing
Damage Due to Effect of Tsunami
Wash Away of Some Spans of Girders
(Photo Provided from Tohoku Regional Development Bureau, MLIT)

Upside-down
Concrete Girder
Damage Due to Effect of Tsunami
Backfill soil of abutments was
washed away due to tsunami
attack but bridge structure was
not washed away.
Damage Due to Effect of Tsunami
Backfill soil of abutments was
washed away due to tsunami Before Earthquake
attack but bridge structure was
not washed away.

(Photo Provided from Tohoku


Regional Development Bureau, MLIT)

Scour of Pile
Foundation Temporary Repair
by Barry Bridge

(Photo Provided from Tohoku


Regional Development Bureau, MLIT)
Damage Due to Effect of Tsunami
Bridge girders were affected by
tsunami attack but bridge
structure was not washed away.
Damage Due to Effect of Soil Liquefaction
Narrowing
Deck-end Gap
Resulting from
Movement of
Abutment

Subsidence of Soil
Subsidence of Soil
Damage Due to Effect of Soil Liquefaction
Failure of Embankment
near Bridge

Crack at Seat Subsidence of Backfill soil


on Abutment of Abutment (50-80cm)
Preliminary Summary of Damage to Highway Bridges
1. Damage Due to Effect of Ground Motion
Unretrofitted Bridges Designed Based on Pre-1980 Specifications
Damage to RC Columns at Section of Cut-off of Longitudinal Rebars
Damage to RC Pier Wall with Small Amount of Reinforcement
Damage to Steel Bearings
Damage to Attachment of Bearings
Collapse of Pile-bent Column
Bridges Designed Based on Post-Kobe Earthquake Specifications
Almost No Damage except an Example of Rupture of Elastomeric Bearings
Embankment for Approaching to Bridge
Subsidence of Backfill soil of Abutment
2. Damage Due to Effect of Tsunami
Wash Away of Superstructures
Wash Away of Backfill soil of Abutment
Scour of Foundation
3. Damage Due to Effect of Soil Liquefaction
Damage to Steel Bearings and Crack to Parapet Wall
Narrowing Deck-end Gap Resulting from Movement of Abutment
Subsidence of Backfill soil for Abutment
Acknowledgment

Damage investigation was supported by a number of


organizations. Special appreciation is extended to Iwate Pref.,
Ibaraki Pref., Chiba City, Kitakami City, Tohoku Regional
Development Bureau, Kanto Regional Development Bureau
and Headquarter of MLIT.