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SCHEME OF PAPER 1 / SKEMA KERTAS I

1. C 26. A
2. B 27. C
3. A 28. C
4. C 29. B
5. C 30. C
6. B 31. C
7. B 32. B
8. A 33. C
9. B 34. D
10. B 35. A
11. B 36. D
12. C 37. C
13. C 38. B
14. D 39. D
15. B 40. C
16. C 41. B
17. B 42. B
18. C 43. B
19. C 44. B
20. A 45. C
21. C 46. B
22. C 47. C
23. A 48. B
24. C 49. C
25. D 50. D

[Lihat sebelah
4551/1 SULIT

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 1

Structured Question:
No. 1
Item No. Suggested Answers: Marks

1 (a) Organelle X : Chloroplast 1


Organelle Y : Mitocondrion 1

(b) Organelle X : Absorbs sunlight for photosynthesis 1


Organelle Y : Site of aerobic cellular respiration 1

(c) i. Organelle X : Mesophyll palisad/spongy/guard cells 1


Organelle Y : Sperm Cell / muscle cell 1

ii. Organelle X - Photosynthesis cannot be carried out by the cells 1


Organelle Y – Energy cannot be generated by the cells 1

(d) Organelle X absorbs carbon dioxide and releases oxygen while 1


Organelle Y absorbs oxygen and releases carbon dioxide
Oranelle X use energy to synthesise glucose while Organelle Y breaks 1
down glucose to produce energy
Organelle X carries out the synthesis/anabolic process whereas 1
Organelle Y carries out the break down/katabolic process
Organelle X forms organic compound while Organelle Y breaks down 1
organic compound
(Any two)
Maximum 2
(e) - Have cellulose cell wall
- often have a large central vacuole ( Any two ) 1
- have fixed shape 1
- absence of centrioles 1
Maximum 1
2
TOTAL 12

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 2

No. 2
Item No. Suggested Answers: Marks

2 (a)(i) P – substrate/ sucrose 3√- 2 marks


R – enzyme / sucrase 2√- 1 mark
S – product / glucose / fructose 1√- 0 mark
Maximum 2

(ii) 1. act specifically 1


2. can be reused 1
3. do not destroyed after the reaction (any two) 1
Maximum 2

(b)(i) ‘Lock and key’ hypothesis 1

(ii) - R/The enzyme/Sucrase will combine with P/substrate (at the


active site) to form a complex enzyme-substrate 1
- S/the products will leave the active site of R/the enzyme and
R/enzyme remain unchange 1

(c) i Soften / tenderise the meat 1

(c)ii - Rate of reaction decreases. 1


- This is because most enzyme protease have been denatured at
higher temperature /more than 60ºC 1

(d) - The enzyme reaction is most effective at a temperature of 1


30ºC - 40ºC
- The low temperature /cold water makes the enzyme inactive. 1

TOTAL 12

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 3

No. 3
Item No. Suggested answers Marks

3 (a) (i) Euthrophication. 1

(ii) - The waste disposal contains a lot of organic matter / 1


- Enrichment of nutrient in freshwater 1
- Very suitable for algae growth. 1
Maximum 2

(b) - The algae layer prevents the penetration of sunlight to the 1


submerged plants in the pond.
- The algae uses a lot of oxygen for respiration and results in less 1
oxygen in the pond water. ( Any one )
Maximum 1

(c) - The decomposers / microorganisms use more oxygen to decompose 1


the dead plants / organic materials (due to absence of sunlight)
- result in less oxygen / increasing in BOD level 1

(d)(i) To determine / compare the BOD value of water from sample P and Q. 1

(ii) Bacteria 1
Protozoa / Paramecium / Amoeba 1

(iii) Sample P is - more polluted 1


- contains less oxygen. 1

(iv) The higher the BOD value, the higher the degree of pollution. 1

TOTAL 12

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 4

No. 4
Item No. Suggested answers Marks

4(a) - Heart / Pump 1


- Blood vessels 1
- Blood / medium 1

(b)(i) P : Vena cava 1


Q : Pulmonary vein 1
R : Pulmonary artery 1
S : Aorta 1
# Accept any two correct vessels even though P, Q, R or S are not
mentioned.
Maximum 2
(ii) Q and S 2

(c)(i) This is because blood flows through the heart twice in one complete 1
circulation

(ii) - Pulmonary circulation 1


- Systemic circulation 1

(iii) F 1- prevents the mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood. 1


E 1- blood of high concentration of oxygen is supplied to the targeted
organs 1
F 2- the blood pressure is generated by the strong contraction of the left
ventricle 1
E 2- ensures that blood is been supplied to all parts of the body at an
appropriate level. 1
F1+E1=2
Or F 2 + E 2 = 2
Maximum 2
TOTAL 12

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 5

No. 5
Item No Suggested Answer Marks

5(a) P : Arch
Q : Whorl All 4 √ - 2 marks
R : Loop 3 or 2 √ - 1 mark
S : Composite 1 √ - 0 mark
Maximum 2

(b)(i) Genetic factor 1

(ii) - The exchange of genetic materials between chromatids during the 1


crossing over
- Independent assortment of chromosomes (Any two) 1
- Random fertilisation 1
- Mutation 1

Maximum 2

(c)(i) - Continuous variation, examples – height/weight 2


- Discontinuous variation, examples - ear lobe/blood group. 2
Maximum 4

(ii) - Continuous variation influence by genetic factor and environmental


factor while Discontinuous variation influence by genetic factor 1
- The differences in continuous variation are not distinctive / with
intermediate characters where as the differences in discontinuous
variation in a characters are distinctive / no intermediate characters 1
- Any acceptable answer
Maximum 1

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 6

# Able to represent
the variation shown
in the form of bar
chart

(d)

- 2 axes correctly labelled


- correct chart ( bar chart )

TOTAL
1
1

12

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 7

Essay Questions :
No. 6

6 (a) i.  Open burning produces smoke, dirt and fine particles in the air. 1
 Haze will form when these substances combine with the water
vapour in the atmosphere. 1
Total 2

ii.  Irritates the lungs, nose and eyes. 1


 Damages the respiratory tracts and lungs. 1
 Causes conjunctivitis, sore throats, influenza, asthma and
bronchitis. 1
 Reduces the light intensity which may cause the decrease in the
rate of photosynthesis 1
 subsequently reduce the yield from the crops. 1
 Fine particles deposit on the leaves and block the gaseous
exchange which may also lower the rate of photosynthesis of the
crops. 1
Total 6

iii.  Stop open burning 1


 Use well- designed furnaces for the complete burning of fossil fuel. 1
Total 2

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 8

6 (b) F1-The flow of insecticides into the rivers, ponds and lakes may
poison the aquatic organisms and subsequently kill them. 1
E1-Residents that depend on the river, pond or lakes lost their food /
income sources 1
E2-Residents that depend on the river, pond or lakes as their water
supply will face with polluted water sources and suffer a lot of
diseases 1
E3-This will distrupt the food web of the ecosystem. 1

F2-Deforestation is carried out to develop the new residential area


and improve the infrastructures 1
E1- this activity may result in :
-soil erosion causes water pollution /
-flash floods cause the damages of properties /
crops and animals (any 3 3
-landslides cause the damages of properties / answers)
crops and animals
-severe climate changes cause decreasing in crop yield
-loss of biodiversity cause distruption of food chains / food webs
-disruption of carbon cycle leads to global warming and green
house effect

F3-Combustion of fossil fuels from the factories and vehicles releases


sulphur dioxide , nitrogen oxide , carbon dioxide, lead and fine
particles which make a large portion of the air pollutants. 1
E1-Sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen dissolve in the rain to form

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 9

No. 7 acid rain. 1


E2-Smoke, dirt and fine particles lead to haze formation,
7 (a) Fact 1 : Oogenesis
subsequently causeisthe
thediseases
process of
of eyes,
ovum nose
formation in the ovary.
and lungs 11
Explanation 1: It begins
E3-It also reduces in the
the light ovary which
intensity of a female foetus.
will lower down the rate of 1
E2: The primordial
photosynthesis andgerm cells of
the yields divide repeatedly through mitosis to form
crops. 1
diploid oogonia (2n). Maximum 101
E3: Each oogonium grows and develops into a primary oocyte (2n). 1
E4: - The primary oocyte undergoes meiosis I and completes meiosis I
at puberty and 1
- forms two haploid cells;- a secondary oocyte and polar body. 1
F2: During ovulation, the secondary oocyte is released from ovary. 1
F3: When fertilisation occurs, the secondary oocyte undergoes meiosis
II and forms an ovum (n) and a polar body (n). 1
E5: - The first polar body also undergoes meiosis II 1
- to form another two haploid polar bodies. 1
F4: All three polar bodies will eventually degenerate. 1
Maximum 10

7 (b) i. F1-After ovulation, if the ovum is not fertilised, the ovum will break
followed by the thick endometrium 1
E1-The excess blood and the endometrium tissue together with the
unfertilised ovum will leave the uterus through the vagina 1
E2-This process is called menstruation 1
E3-It usually last from three to seven days. 1
Maximum 3
ii. F1-After ovulation, if the ovum is fertilised, the endometrium continues
to thicken 1
E1-due to the increasing progesterone level produced by the corpus
luteum. 1
E2-The zygote continues to develop until it is implanted into the
thickened endometrium. 1
E3-It then develops into an embryo, then foetus and born as baby.
1
Maximum
3

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 10

7(c) Functions of placenta:


 Allows dissolved food substances (glucose, amino acid, mineral
salts) and oxygen to diffuse from the mother’s blood into foetal
blood. 1
 Allows metabolic waste products (urea, and carbon dioxide) to
diffuse from the foetal blood into the mother’s blood. 1
 Allows antibodies from the mother’s blood to diffuse into the foetal
blood to protect the foetus from diseases. 1
 Produces progesterone and oestrogen to maintain the thickness of
the endometrium so that the embryo is allowed to attach firmly in
the uterus. 1
Maximum 4

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 11

No. 8

8 (a) i.

Drawing – neat and tidy 1


Label - 4-5 √ - 3 marks
- 2-3 √ - 2 marks
- 1 √ - 1 mark

Maximum 4

(a) ii.  Less enzyme erepsin / peptidase /maltase / sucrase / lactase / 1


lipase is produced.
 The rate of food digestion is slow. 1
 Glucose/ galactose/ fructose /amino acids / glycerol and fatty
acid / vitamin / mineral ions are less / slow to absorb from the villi
into the blood capillary. 1
 The rate of absorption of digestive food is slow. 1
 The patient becomes tired easily because less glucose is
absorbed into the blood / body. 1
 Patient faces the problem of late healing of wound. 1
 Because less new cells are formed due to less absorption of
amino acid / fatty acids and glycerol. 1
Maximum 6

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 12

8(b)  Cow and rabbit are herbivores while humans are omnivores. 1
 The main food source for the cow and the rabbit is plant while the
food sources for human are plants and animals. 1
 In the digestive systems of the cow and rabbit, there are
symbiotic bacteria or protozoa whereas there is none in the
human digestive system. 1
 Cellulase is produced by the symbiotic bacteria or protozoa in the
digestive system of cow and rabbit, no enzyme cellulase is
produced in human. 1
 Thus cellulose is hydrolysed or broken down by the enzyme
cellulase in the digestive system of the cow and the rabbit while
this form of hydrolysis does not occur in the human digestive
tract. 1
 Glucose is produced from cellulose in the digestive system of the
cow and the rabbit. In human, fibre, an equivalent of cellulose is
not digested but taken to prevent constipation. 1
 Cow has 4 stomach chambers while human and rabbit have only
1 stomach chamber each. 1
 Only the cow regurgitates the foods that have entered the
reticulum / stomach into the mouth to be rechewed and then into
the other stomach chambers to be hydrolysed. 1
 Rabbit has a large caecum which both human and cow do not.
 The rabbit eats again its soft faeces to be redigested, while 1
human and cow do not.
Maximum 1
10

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 13

No. 9

9(a)  The parent’s genotypes are RR and rr in which RR represents


homozygous for round seed and rr represents homozygous for
wrinkled seed. 1
 Through meiosis , gametes produced are R from parent RR and r
from parent rr. 1
 Fertilisation produces offspring with genotype Rr. 1
 All offsprings have round seeds due to the presence of the
dominant allele R. 1
Maximum 4

9 (b)  Let R represents allele for red flowers / r represents allele for
white flowers. T represents allele for tall plant / t represents allele 1
for short plant.
Parents :
Phenotype: Tall plant Short plant 1
red flower X white flower
1
Genotype: TTRR ttrr

1
Gametes TR tr

1
Offspring TtRr
Genotype

1
Phenotype: Tall plant red flowers

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 14

Maximum

9(c)  Diagram 9.2 is a cross between a homozygous dominant for


purple flower plant and a homozygous recessive plants for white
flower plant. 1
 Let P represents the allele for purple flowers / p represents the 1
allele for white flowers

Parents : 1
Phenotype: Purple flowers White flowers 1
Genotype PP pp

1
P p
Gametes:

Offspring 1
Genotype: Pp
1
Phenotype: Purple flowers

( any 5 )
Maximum 5

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Skema jawapan Biologi percubaan SPM 2009 15

 Diagram 9.3 is a cross between a heterozygous purple flower


plant and a homozygous recessive white flower plant.
 Let P represents the allele for purple flowers / p represent the
allele for white flowers 1
1
Parents :
Phenotype: Purple flowers x White flowers
1
Genotype: Pp pp
1

Gametes: P p p
1

Offspring:
Genotype:
Pp pp
1
Phenotype: Purple flowers White flowers
1

Maximum 5

Total (Maximum) 10

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Skema jawapan biologi 1

MARKING SCHEME : PAPER THREE – TRIAL BIOLOGY 2008


Question 1 : 1(a)
Score Explanation
Able to record all readings of lengths of air column correctly.
Initial = 6.4 cm
3 P = 5.7 cm
Q = 6.0 cm
R = 6.2 cm
2 Able to record any three lengths.
1 Able to record any two lengths.
0 No response or wrong response

1(b)(i)
Score Explanation
Able to state two correct observations based on following criteria.
C1 – levels of vigorous activity
C2 – The lengths of air column.
3
Sample Answer:(either 2):
1. For activity level P the length of air column after treatment with KOH is 5.7 cm
2 . For activity level R the length of air column after treatment with KOH is 6.2 cm

2 Able to state one correct observation and one inaccurate response.


1 Able to state one correct observation or two inaccurate response or idea.
0 No response or wrong response (response like hypothesis)

1(b) (ii)
Score Explanation
Able to state two reasonable inferences for the observation.

Sample answer:
3
1. More carbon dioxide is absorbed by KOH because activity P is more vigorous.
2. Less carbon dioxide is absorbed by KOH because activity R is less vigorous.

2 Able to state one correct inference and one inaccurate inference.


1 Able to state one correct inference or two inaccurate inference or idea.
0 No response or wrong response (inference like hypothesis)

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Skema jawapan biologi 2

1(c)
Score Explanation
Able to state all the variables and the method to handle variable correctly
(√) for each variable and method
Manipulated Variable: Levels of vigorous activity (√)
Method to handle: The athlete is asked to perform different levels of vigorous
activity (√)

Responding Variable: The length of air column after treatment with KOH/ the
percentage of carbon dioxide released. (√)

Method to handle: Measure and record the lengths of air column using
3 ruler. / calculate the percentage of carbon dioxide released
using formulae:
Percentage of carbon dioxide = change in length of air column X 100%
Initial length of air column (√)

Controlled variable : duration for athlete to perform the activities/ the same
athlete. (√)
Method to handle: fix the duration for each activity/ ask the same athlete perform
all activities. (√)
Able to get 6 √
2 Able to get 4 – 5 √
1 Able to get 2 – 3 √
0 No response or wrong response

1(d)
Score Explanation
Able to state the hypothesis correctly based on the following criteria:
V1 – State the level of vigorous activity.
V2 – State the length of air column / percentage of carbon dioxide.
R - State the relationship between V1 and V2.
3
As the level of vigorous activity increases, the length of air column decreases. //
As the level of vigorous activity increases the percentage of carbon dioxide
increases.
2 Able to state the hypothesis but less accurate.
1 Able to state the idea of the hypothesis
0 No response or wrong response

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1(e)(i)
Score Explanation
Able to construct a table and record the result of the experiment with the
following criteria:
– State all three levels of vigorous activities. (√)
– Transfer all data correctly. (√)
– Calculate the percentage of carbon dioxide with unit. (%) (√)
If without unit (x).

- Title with correct unit


Tajuk dengan unit yang betul

- Initial length and final length of air column


Panjang awal dan panjang akhir turus udara

3 - Change in the length of column


Perubahan panjang turus udara

- Percentage of carbon dioxide released


Peratus karbon dioksida yang dibebaskan

Levels of Length of air Change in the


Percentage of carbon
vigorous column / cm length of air
dioxide released / %
activity Initial Final column / cm
P 6.4 5.7 0.7 10.94/ 11.0
Q 6.4 6.0 0.4 6.25/ 6.3
R 6.4 6.2 0.2 3.13/ 3.1

2 Able to construct a table and record any two criteria


1 Able to construct a table and record any one criteria
0 No response or wrong response

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Skema jawapan biologi 4

1(e)(ii)
Score Explanation
Able to draw a bar chart of percentage of carbon dioxide released against the level
of vigorous activity.
Axes (A) – both axis are labeled with units, uniform scales, independent
variable on horizontal axis. (√)
Point (P) – All points are correctly plotted. (√)
Shape (S) – All bars are correctly drawn (√).

2 Graph with any two criteria.


1 Graph with any one criteria.
0 No response or wrong response.

1(f)
Score Explanation
Able to explain the relationship between the level of vigorous activity and the
percentage of carbon dioxide released correctly.
3
When the level of vigorous activity increases the percentage of carbon dioxide
increases due to the increase in the rate of respiration.
Able to explain briefly the relationship between the level of vigorous activity and
2
the percentage of carbon dioxide released
Able to explain the idea the relationship between the level of vigorous activity and
1
the percentage of carbon dioxide released
0 No response or wrong response

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Skema jawapan biologi 5

1(g)
Score Explanation
Able to state the definition of exhaled air correctly, based on the following criteria.

C1 – the content of carbon dioxide


C2 – the effect on length of air column after treatment with KOH.
3
C3 – influence by vigorous activity

Exhaled air is air that contains carbon dioxide that will cause the length of air
column to decrease after treatment with KOH solution
2 Able to state the definition of transpiration based one of the two criteria.
1 Able to state the idea of exhaled air.
0 No response or wrong response

1(h)
Score Explanation
Able to predict correctly and explain the prediction based on the following item:

C1 – the length of air column.


C2 – duration of activity
C3 – rate of respiration
3
The length of air column is less than 5.7 cm because the longer the time taken to
perform the activity the more carbon dioxide is released due to the increase in the
rate of respiration.

2 Able to predict based on any two criteria.


1 Able to predict based on any one criteria.
0 No response or wrong response

1(i)
Score Explanation

Able to classify the levels of vigorous activity and the rate of respiration.

Levels of vigorous activity Rate of respiration


Tahap kecergasan aktiviti Kadar respirasi
3 P High
Q Medium
R Low

Able to classify all the levels of vigorous activity and the rate of respiration
correctly.

Able to classify two of the levels of vigorous activity correctly.


2
Able to classify one of the levels of vigorous activity correctly.
1
0 No response or wrong response

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Skema jawapan biologi 6

Question 2 :

Aspect Sample Answer Remarks

Aim/objective To investigate the effect of different quantities of water intake on



urine output.

Problem Do different quantities of water intake affect the volume of urine


3 marks
statement output?

KB061201
Hypothesis
The more the volume of water intake, the larger the volume of urine 3 marks
output.

Variables Manipulative variable: quantity of water intake


Responding variable: quantity of urine output
Fixed variable: types of drink

Only two correct variables
Only one correct variable

Apparatus Materials : mineral water All present – 3


and materials marks
Apparatus : drinking cup, containers for collecting urine and 1 materials
KB061205 measuring cylinders. and 2 app – 2
marks
– 1 mark

Technique Measure and record the volume of urine collected with a measuring
used cylinder. B

Procedure 1. Four students of same gender, age and size are selected
as the respondents.- KP,KF
KB061204 2. The respondents are not allowed to consume any food or 8 - 9P – 3 m
drinks 3 hours before the experiment.- KP,KF
3. The respondents are instructed to empty their bladders 6 - 7P – 2 m
before the beginning of the experiment.- KP
4. During the experiment the respondents are asked to drink 3 - 5P – 1 m
100ml, 300ml, 500ml and 700ml respectively.- KMV
5. A stop watch is started immediately after consuming the 3 marks
water.- KP
6. At the interval of half an hour, until two hours , the 
respondents will empty their bladder and collect the urine
sample.- RRV
7. Measuring cylinders are used to measure the volume of
urine collected.- KRV
8. After each sampling the urine sample are discarded into the
toilet bowl.- KP
9. The results are tabulated.- KP
10. Make sure all urine collected is measured.- KC
KP – Step 1,2,3,5,8,9 (any 4)
KMV – Step 4
KRV – Step 6,7
KF – Step 1,2
KC – Step 10

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Skema jawapan biologi 7

Presentation Able to draw a complete table to record the relevant data base on
of data the 3 criteria:
 Volume of water intake
 Volume of urine released
 The units in ml or cm
3

Sample Answer

Volume of water intake (ml)

100 300 500 700 

Volume of B
urine
produced
(ml)

Total volume
(ml)

Conclusion The larger the volume of water intake, the larger the volume of
urine output.

Hypothesis accepted.

Planning Able to state correctly


KB061203 8 – 9 aspects (correct) - 3 marks
6 – 7 aspects (correct) - 2 marks 3 marks
3 – 5 aspects (corect) - 1 mark
<3 - 0 mark

Report Able to state correctly:


 presentation of data and
 technique.
2 marks
2 correct - 2 marks
1 correct - 1 mark

END OF MARKING SCHEME

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