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Unsteady

Lift due to the Inter


DAGA 2017 Kiel
Turbulence with an
Unsteady Lift due to the Interaction of Incidence Turbulence with an Airfoil
1 Sparsh Sharma ; Ennes Sarradj2;
1 2 1
Sparsh Sharma , Ennes Sarradj , 1Heiko Schmidt
Fachgebiet Technische Akustik, Brandenburgische Tech
1 2Fachgebiet Technische Akustik, Techni
Fachgebiet Technische Akustik, BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, 03046 Cottbus, E-Mail:sparsh.sharma@b-tu.de
2
Fachgebiet Technische Akustik, TU Berlin, 10587 Berlin, E-Mail: ennes.sarradj@tu-berlin.de
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION
Dieser Beitrag zeigt den ersten Schritt The acoustic signature from =an/ airfoil downstream an incoming To mathema
Introduction der an der Brandenburgischen turbulent flow is a complex mathematical phenomenon which flow1 and Pa
Technischen Universitt Cottbus - where k is reduced
requires solving frequency,
the nonlinear cgoverning is the chord
equations length and u the
with higher least assump
The acoustic signature from an airfoil downstream an
Senftenberg durchgefhrten resolutions.
flow speed. This Theparameter
problem is illustrated in Fig. 1. With
is a measure the advent
of unsteadiness.
incoming turbulent flow is a complex mathematical
Forschungsarbeit "Stochastische of high computing resources, it's possible, but at a cost of higher
When calculation
an oscillating airfoil sheds a vortical wake with a
1. finite thi
phenomenon which requires solving theModellierung von
nonlinear governing certain process,
wavelength,
time. For the preliminary analysis in the design
the reduced frequency compares
2. high sub
Vorderkantenschall". a method is needed to calculate unsteady-lift due to the this 3. deforma
equations with higher resolutions. The problem is illustrated
Die fr die Schallentstehung an der airfoil-turbulence
wavelength with the interaction
airfoil withchord
the following
because characteristics:
during one 4. cross win
in Fig. 1. With the advent of high computing resources, it's
Vorderkante verantwortlichen
oscillation a vortex shed from the trailing edge travels the
Schwankungen der Auftriebskraft 1. fast and accurate Fig. 3 and Fig
possible, but at a cost of higher calculation time. For the
(Druckschwankungen) werden dabei distance2. u/w.
need This minimum means, computing the resources
higher the reduced frequency Sources and
preliminary analysis in the design process, a method is needed
mit der Theorie eines Tragflgels in 3. compares
the smaller the wavelength. more characteristics trade-off using the He
to calculate unsteady-lift due to the airfoil-turbulence
instationrer Strmung berechnet. unsteady pre
Dazu wird die klassische Hess- und - Steady state aerodynamics, k = 0 further, be u
interaction with the following characteristics:
Smith-Panel-Methode fr analogies, as
instationre Strmungsverhltnisse - Quasi-steady aerodynamics, 0 k 0.05
- fast and accurate erweitert, wobei der Tragflgel in Leading Edge

Aircraft
Spannweitenrichtung in Scheiben - Unsteady aerodynamics, k > 0.05 [k > 0.2 is
- need minimum computing resources (Panels) mit aerodynamischen
Quellen und Wirbelstrken als considered highly unsteady Boundary Layer Growth

- compares more characteristics trade-off or


Singularitten diskretisiert wird. Die Incoming Turbulence Vortex Shedding

parametric study Methodology


in Wake: Wind Turbines
vorliegende Arbeit legt damit den Interaction of Incoming Turbulence
with Leading Edge:
Tonal Noise

Grundstein fr den nchsten Broadband Noise

geplanten Schritt, bei dem die To mathematically derive the problem, Potential theory for
Airfoil Noise

akustischen Analogien integriert unsteady flow3 and Panel method4 is used. The nobility Submarines of the
werden sollen, um die akustische
Signatur eines Tragflgels
Leading Edge work is to have the least assumptions
Figure 1. Incidence turbulence interacting with the leading edge of and account for: Figure
Aircraft
modellieren zu knnen. an airfoil
- finite thickness of the airfoil
- high subsonic speeds ATIN
Incoming Turbulence Vortex Shedding

Interaction of Incoming Turbulence


in Wake:
Tonal Noise
Wind Turbines
Aerodynamics Acoustics (Airfoi
Turbulen
with Leading Edge:
Broadband Noise - deformation of the airfoil Interacti
Noise
Airfoil Noise

- cross wind effects


Submarines Airfoil interaction Lighthills, FWH, LEE
Fig. 2 showswith nonuniform
the steps taken to model the incidence
flow, unsteady Lift Octave band &
Figure 1: Incidence turbulence interacting with the leading turbulence.Vortex-source
Sources and vortices are used as the singularities. This
Power Spectral
section s
Python, and it
edge of an airfoil The wakemethod for unsteady
is modelled using the Helmholtz Density (PSD) circulation then develop
Keywords: leading edge noise, turbu- 5 flow analogies
theorem . This leads to the calculation of unsteady pressure the airfoil disc
Unsteady Effects lence, unsteady lift, broadband noise
fluctuation on the surface of the airfoil, which can further, be around the ai
experimental
By the definition, an unsteady flow is one where the flow field Figure: 2 Roadmap for calculating the noise from an airfoil
used to calculate the noise parameters using the acoustic facility
variables at any point are changing with time which means all analogies.
the aerodynamic parameters fluctuate with time too, and are
certainly the inhibitors of all the disturbances which causes
Distribute sources & vortices
the generation of noise from an airfoil. It is instructive to on the panels
recall the major historical development in the unsteady
References:
aerodynamics. Standard work by Karman, Sears, Amiet etc.
1. TH. Von Karman. Airfoil Theory for Non-Uniform Apply the Flow-Tangency
shows that the presence of unsteady lift or pressure fluctuation
Motion, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Vol.
5, No. 10 (1938), pp. 379-390 (Neumann Condition !" # $%" = 0)
over the lifting surface is the main 2.cause of The
Smith, A.M.O., thePanelnoise
Method: Its Original
Development. In Applied Computational Aerody-
generation. In 1922, Prandtl1 suggested namics,to neglect the
Vol. 125
3. Katz, Plotkin: Low-Speed Aerodynamics, 2 nd

influence of viscosity while treating edition, the Cambridge


problem of
University Press Enforce the Kutta-Condition
incompressible flow past an oscillating airfoil, and thus to !E # 8%E = !H # 8I
H
take Laplace equation as governing equation. It was pointed
out that every change in the lift must be accompanied by the
detachment of a vortex from the airfoil's trailing edge. Calculate the Influence coefficients, source
strengths (q1, q2,...,qN), vorticity strength
As it is shown in Fig-1 that the incoming turbulent eddies
upstream the airfoil strikes with the leading edge of the airfoil
and this is heard as noise; whereas because of the boundary Use the last step to calculate Cp
Contact:
layer growth chordwise, the vortex shedding takes place followed by Cl
Sparsh Sharma
which is another source of noise. An important parameter,
Fachgebiet Technische Akustik,
Brandenburgische
2 Technische Figure 3. Flowchart of the steps
reduced frequency, k, was introduced by Birnbaum , Figure 2: Flowchart of the steps
Universitt Cottbus-Senftenberg
Email: sparsh.sharma@b-tu.de
Phone: +49 (0) 355 69 4098
Website: www.aeroakustik.de Figure 5. (to
1 tunnel, stream
Airfoil interaction
with nonuniform
Lighthills, FWH, LEE STEADY-STATE RESULTS
flow, unsteady Lift Octave band & This section shows the steady-state results. The entire code is written in
DAGA 2017 Kiel
Vortex-source Power Spectral Python, and it is planned to write the steady code in the first phase and
method for unsteady Density (PSD) then develop it for the unsteady-flow conditions. Following figures show
noise, turbu- flow analogies the airfoil discretization, streamlines around the airfoil, and pressure field
dband noise
around the airfoil. The
Steady-State computations will be validated using the
Results
experimental data from the wind tunnel tests at the universitys acoustic
Figure: 2 Roadmap for calculating the noise from an airfoil facility
This section shows the steady-state results. The entire code is
written in Python, and it is planned to write the steady code in
Figure 3: Representation of smooth airfoil with nodes and
the first phase and then develop it for the unsteady-flow
e to the Interaction of Incidence
panels
Distribute sources & vortices
Figure 3 illustrates the representation
conditions. Following figures show the airfoil discretization,
streamlines around the airfoil, and pressure field around the
on the panels of a smooth surface by
lence with an AirfoilThe numbering system starts at the
a series of line segments. airfoil. The computations will be validated using the
lower surface trailing edge and proceeds forward, around the experimental data from the wind tunnel tests at the
leading edge and aft Apply the Flow-Tangency
y for Non-Uniform to the upper surface trailing edge. N+1 universitys acoustic facility.
utical Sciences, Vol.
ma ; Ennes Sarradj ; Heiko Schmidt1
1 points 2
define
ethod: Its Original
N (Neumann Condition !
panels. "#$
%" = 0)
andenburgische
putational Aerody- Technische Universitt
D Cottbus-Senftenberg

ische Akustik, Technische
erodynamics, 2
= ) + Universitt
nd
+ Berlin ln -
ress Enforce the Kutta-Condition
2 2
!E # 8%ECEF I
= !=>?@A C
H#8 H

METHODOLOGY
n incoming TheToapproach (depicted
mathematically in Fig.
derive the 4) isPotential
problem, to theory for unsteady
non which Calculate the Influence coefficients, source
flow1 and Panel method2 is used. The nobility of the work is to have the
with higher least strengths (q1, q2,...,qN), vorticity strength
1. assumptions
break upand
theaccount
surface
for: into straight line segments,
the advent
st of higher 1. 2.finite
assume
thicknessthe source
of the airfoil strength is constant over each line
the design 2. high subsonic speeds
segment (panel) but has a different value for each
3. deformation of Use the last step to calculate Cp
the airfoil
Stagnation line
at the trailing edge
due to the
teristics: 4. cross panel
wind effects followed by Cl
Stagnation line
kustik, 3.3 and
Fig. theFig.vortex strength
4 show the is constant
steps taken to model theand equalturbulence.
incidence over each at the leading edge

ische Sources panel Figure 3.


and vortices are usedFlowchart of the steps
as the singularities. The wake is modelled
tenberg using the Helmholtz circulation theorem3. This leads to the calculation of
b-tu.de Roughly,
unsteady think
pressure offluctuation
the constant
on thevortices
surface ofas theadding up tocanthe
airfoil, which
further, be used to calculate the noise parameters using the acoustic
098 circulation to satisfy the Kutta condition. The sources are
analogies, as shown in Fig. 2 Figure 5.5:(top to bottom) Airfoil discretization into panels, acoustic wind
tik.de required to satisfy flow tangency on the surface (thickness). Figure Streamlines around the airfoil (top), pressure
tunnel, streamlines around the airfoil, pressure contour around the airfoil
Aircraft
contour around the airfoil (bottom)
y >BC >BE >BG >BF

x
Wind Turbines
(t)

!( j+ j >BF >BC Reference:


1 *+$,- / [1] Prandtl, L.: Uber die Enstehardt von Wirbeln in der
)01234, 56783692861$ (;< )>
!1386468? 56783692861$ @>
idealen Flussigkeit, mit Anwendung auf die
Submarines
Trgflugeltheorie und andere Aufgaben, Hydro und
ding edge of Figure 4. Extension of the panel method for unsteady-flow Aerodynamik, Berlin, Julius Springer Verlag, pp. 18-33,
Figure 4: Extension of the panel method for unsteady-flow
1924
Flow tangency boundary condition
ATIN [2] Birnbaum, W.: Das eben Problem des schlagenden
cs A constant vortex strength will be added to each panel (all
(Airfoil
Turbulence
Flugels, Zeitschrift fur angewandte Mathematik und
panels have the same, constant vortex-sheet strength). The
Interaction
Noise)
Mechanik (ZAMM), Vol. 4, pp. 277-292, 1924
flow tangency boundary condition is applied at every panel
[3] TH. Von Karman. Airfoil Theory for Non-Uniform
WH, LEE center: STEADY-STATE RESULTS Motion, Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, Vol. 5,
& This section shows the steady-state results. The entire code is written in No. 10 (1938), pp. 379-390
ral Python, and it is 0 = to
planned write
J = the steady
code
ML ,
in ML
the first phase and
) L
then develop it for the unsteady-flow conditions. Following figures show [4] Smith, A.M.O., The Panel Method: Its Original
the airfoil discretization, streamlines around the airfoil, and pressure field Development. In Applied Computational Aerody-
Enforcing the Kutta Condition
around the airfoil. The computations will be validated using the
experimental data from the wind tunnel tests at the universitys acoustic namics, Vol. 125
n airfoil In case of steady flow, the Kutta condition is expressed as the
facility
zero velocity at the trailing edge or no vortex sheet or no [5] Katz, Plotkin: Low-Speed Aerodynamics, 2nd edition,
pressure difference at the wake region. Cambridge University Press
In case of unsteady flow, however, there is a nonzero velocity
at the trailing edge and non-zero vortex sheet at the near wake.
Therefore, the unsteady Kutta condition is expressed as the
zero-pressure difference at the wake:
)
>
+ Q , + Q , = 0

S