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I.

Summary of videos
Engines
A. Rotary engine
At the end of 19th century, the first invented is steam engine but soon later the internal
combustion was implemented. Its the mixture of gasoline and air is ignited to the cylinder. In
rotary engine the cylinder was replaced by a rotor housing and instead of piston and then there is
a triangle or rotor. Then then in combustion chamber, the conventional engine the cylinder
volume changes as the piston goes up and down but in rotary engine the volume, configuration
and position of operating chamber changes as the rotor move in excepted orbit. The rotary has no
valve and gas is enter at the intake port in the outside the housing. When the volume of operating
chamber is near at maximum, the intake port shut off by the rotor and gas is compressed and the
chamber become smaller then ignition and explosion.

B. Reciprocating engine
Reciprocating engine required valve gas intake and exhaust. The mixture of fuel and air
will enter at the intake port by open the valve and pressing the piston. When the valve is closed
the piston push upward and the gas is compressed and the piston push downward by explosion.
And then the closed valve is open and push up the piston by burn gas. And then in combustion
chamber the conventional engine the cylinder volume changes as the piston goes up and down.

C. 2 stroke engine vs. 4 stroke engine


Two stroke and four stroke are derived from their number of stroke of the piston intake to
complete a cycle. For a four stroke engine takings the four piston movements to complete its
engine cycle, the piston lower for the intake stroke drawing in the air and fuel mixture then raises
for the compression stroke, the air/fuel mixture is ignited for the power stroke forcing the piston
down and finally raised for the exhaust stroke forcing the exhaust out of the engine, the cycle
repeats over and over turning the crank shaft. While in two stroke engine completes its engine
cycle in two piston movements. During its power stroke the ignited air fuel charge forces the
piston down until it reaches in opening on the side of the cylinder called the exhaust port, as the
piston continues down if pressure rises the air fuel mixture under the piston that was drawn in the
crank case during the previous compression stroke, an intake transfer port is exposed allowing
the pressurized air and fuel into the cylinder finally as the crank shaft continues to turn the piston
rises closing off the intake and exhaust ports and compressing the air fuel charged inside the
cylinder. The compressed charge is ignited by a spark plug.
The advantage of these two engines the 2 stroke engine is a lightweight, simplicity 30
-50% on its parts and easy to clear of water but it has a disadvantages of increased in fuel
consumption and elevated hydrocarbon emission from its exhaust compared to four stroke. Then
again, in 4 stroke engines had a clean emission, good fuel efficiency, no oil to mix into fuel and it
is quiet.

D. How an engine works (Gasoline and Diesel)


In internal combustion engines designed to convert the chemical energy available in fuel
into mechanical energy. In diesel engine the internal combustion engine in which ignition of the
fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber is initiated by the high temperature
which a gas achieves when greatly compressed. This contrasts with spark-ignition engines such
as a petrol engine or gas engine, which a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. The downward
motion of the piston creates a partial vacuum inside the cylinder. During the compression stroke
both the valves remain closed. This isolated the combustion chamber from the ambient
temperature. At the end of the compression stroke, the fuel injector injects a metered quantity of
fuel in a finely atomized from into the cylinder. Combustion of fuel produces residue gases
having high temperature and pressure. While on a gasoline engine, fuel is mixed with air,
compressed by pistons and ignited by sparks from spark plugs

E. Combustion Chamber
The combustion chamber is a part where combustion takes place and so its design affect
the combustion process and also the level of emissions and transient response or the response to
changing conditions such a fuel flow and air speed.

F. Type of combustion chamber


Hemispherical
This is a chamber intake valve on one side of the chamber and the exhaust valve on the
other. And then it provides cross flow, the other valve is on the right, other on the left and the
spark plug is at the middle making the piston to have lesser distance travel and to positioning the
valves this way leaves room for relatively large valve and ports which helps the engine breathe
than other designs causing rapid and effective combustion, plus this is usually used in passenger
vehicles.

Bath-tub
The Bath-tub is type of combustion chamber design which is oval shaped, just looks like
an inverted bath-tub. The valves are mounted vertically and side by side making them simple to
operate. And then plus is on one side and that creates a short flame path. It all helps increase
turbulence.

Wedge
The wedge is type of combustion chamber design which tapered away from the plug and
the plug is at the thick end of the wedge, the valves are in line and inclined from the vertical.
This design usually has a smaller surface area from the others with less area where fuel droplets
can condense. Less fuel is left unburnt after the combustion which reduces hydrocarbon exhaust
emissions. And since the flame is directed towards the small end of the wedge, damage caused
by detonation is reduced. This builds up significant kinetic energy, which when ignited
contributes to overall power.

G. Sub - system
Making of engine blocks
The engine block is the most intricate part in a car. Engine blocks are used to be made of
iron today most are made of a lightweight aluminum alloy for fuel efficiency, an engine block is
a one-piece component cast from a sand mold. This sand mold can withstand the intense heat of
molten metal but only for one casting.

Common Rail Fuel Injection System


Common rail refers that all fuel injectors are supplied by a common fuel rail which is a
fuel accumulator where fuel is stored at a very high pressure leading up to 29000psi. This kind of
fuel injection system injects fuel better that older designs. It features a high-pressure fuel rail
feeding individual valves, as opposed to a low-pressure fuel pump feeding unit injectors (or
pump nozzles). The common rail fuel injection system in particular gives engine developers the
freedom they need to reduce exhaust emissions even further, and especially to lower engine
noise.

How car cooling system works


The cooling system in most cars consists of the radiator, fan, water pump coolant
reservoir, thermostat, heating core and necessary plumbing for both the radiator and heater core.
The cooling system works by sending a liquid coolant through passages in the engine block and
heads. As the coolant flows through these passages, it picks up heat from the engine. The heated
fluid then makes its way through a rubber hose to the radiator in the front of the car.

How car lubrication system works


An oil strainer is submerged in a sump of oil to collect and filter it. And then the oil is
sucked out into the pump from the sump, as a heart of the system, then forced between the oil
filter and pressure is fed to the main bearings and also to the oil pressure gauge. Additionally the
oil passes through the main bearings feed- holes into the drilled passages which is in the
crankshaft and on to the bearings of the connecting rod. After the process, the oil is now directed
back downwards to the sump.

How car exhaust system works


The exhaust system of an automobile consists of an exhaust manifold, catalytic converter,
resonator, muffler, tail pipe and gas exit exhaust system. The exhaust system is comprised mainly
of pipes in several different shapes, each designed to connect to one another, and each shaped to
conform to a specific part of the underside of the car.

How car Ignition system works


When the ignition switch is turned on, current flows from the battery to the ignition coil.
The ignition system remains to generate a very high voltage from the car's 12 volt battery, and to
send this to each sparkplug in turn, igniting the fuel-air mixture in the engine's combustion
chambers.

Starter operation
The engine will start if it must be turned at some speed, so that it pulls fuel and air into
the cylinders, and compresses it. And then powerful electric starter motor does the turning. Its
shaft carries a small pinion or gear wheel which engages with a large gear ring around the rim of
the engine flywheel. Also, if the engine starts and the starter motor stays engaged, the engine will
spin the starter so fast that can cause a huge damaged.

Charging operation
Electricity supplied to the battery causes a chemical reaction that deposits extra lead on
one set of plates. When the battery supplies electricity, exactly the opposite happens: the extra
lead dissolves off the plates in a reaction that produces an electric current. If the power came
from an ordinary battery, it would soon run down. So a car has a rechargeable battery and a
charging system to keep it topped up. The battery is charged by an alternator on modern cars, or
by a dynamo on earlier ones. Both are types of generator, and are driven by a belt from the
engine.

II. Discuss the relative complexity of the engine system as a technology. Focus on the
completeness and the synchronization of parts
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical
energy. Heat engines, including internal combustion engines and external combustion engines
such as steam engines, burn a fuel to create heat, which then creates a force. Electric motors
convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air and
others such as clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy.
The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can
occur. The spark must happen at just the right moment for things to work properly.
The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out
exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the
combustion chamber is sealed.
A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder.
Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge
of the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes are they prevent the fuel/air mixture and
exhaust in the combustion chamber from leaking into the sump during compression and
combustion. They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it
would be burned and lost.
The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that
its angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.
The crankshaft turns the piston's up and down motion into circular motion just like a
crank on a jack-in-the-box does.
The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which collects in the
bottom of the sump (the oil pan).

III. Describe the possible improvements of the sub-systems and parts


Fuel injection is a system for introducing fuel into internal combustion engines, and into
automotive engines, in particular. On diesel engines, fuel injection is a necessity, whilst on petrol
engines fuel injection is an alternative to the carburetor. Direct injection before direct injection,
the fuel was mixed with air in the car's intake manifold. Now, with direct injection, the fuel is
mixed with air inside the cylinder, allowing for better control over the amount of fuel used, and
variations depending on demand. This makes the engine more fuel efficient. A turbocharger is a
turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency
and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a
naturally aspirated engine's output results because the turbine can force more air, and
proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone.