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Laminar versus bluff body flow

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Objectives: To study the flow patterns over streamlined and bluff bodies.

Theory:

In a moving body, there are two kinds of drag offered to their motion, frictional drag

and pressure drag. Pressure drag is caused by the air particles being more compressed

(pushed together) on the front-facing surfaces and more spaced out on the back

surfaces. Friction force refers to forces acting opposite to the relative motion of any

object by the fluid moving with respect to a surrounding fluid. Some bodies have higher

frictional drag while others have greater pressure drag. A streamlined body is the one

which lowers the friction drag between a fluid and itself when moving in the fluid. Bluff

body is the one which when moving in a fluid offers more of pressure drag due to

separation of flow in between.

Apparatus:

1. Smoke tunnel: Open circuit type wind tunnel. Fan produces high velocity flow.

Ahead of it is a big settling chamber which reduces the disturbances generated

by the fan. Honeycomb structured screens makes the flow uniform and further

reduce its turbulence level.

2. Smoke generator: Kerosene is heated such that the vapour formed is mixed

with cooler air stream to produce the appropriate mist. Rake is used to introduce

smoke in the flow.

3. Angle changing Mechanism: A hollow rod is connected with the model. Rod is

connected to a gear which in turn is driven by a motor for changing the angle of

attack.

4. Models: Symmetric air foil, cambered air foil (streamlined body), Isosceles

triangle, cylinder (bluff body).

5. Measuring scale, Angle measuring device.

6. Smoke rake

Procedure:

1. Mount model in test section.

2. Measure angle which it makes with the flow.

3. Start smoke generator.

4. Change the flow velocity using dial setting.

5. Visualize the flow and take the photograph of the same.

6. Change the angle and observe the changes in the flow. Observe keenly the angle

where the flow separates and measure it.

Observation:

Flow is moving from left to right.

Measurements:

2. Cambered airfoil: 30 cm chord length.

3. Diameter of cylinder: 15 cm.

4. Side length of Isosceles triangle: 16 cm, 16 cm, 22.5 cm.

Reynolds number= (Density*Velocity of flow*D)/Viscosity of fluid

1. Symmetric airfoil: 51890 (for D=.4 m i.e. chord of the symmetric airfoil)

2. Cambered airfoil: 38918 (for D=.3 m i.e. chord of the cambered airfoil)

3. Cylinder: 19459 (for D=.15 m i.e. diameter of the cylinder)

4. Isosceles triangle: 25360 (for D=.195 m i.e. height of the isosceles triangle)

2. Symmetric airfoil model placed at an angle 29 degrees (flow separation).

3. Symmetric airfoil model placed at an angle -29.1 degrees (flow separation).

Flow separation

2. Cambered airfoil model placed at an angle 37 degrees (flow separation).

3. Cambered airfoil model placed at an angle -7.3 degrees (flow separation).

In both the streamlined flow, flow separates happens only at high angle else the floe remains

streamlined. Thus the body offers low drag which is due to friction drag.

Bluff body (Cylinder) is placed in the flow path. In the first case, the flow separates at 60 degrees

while the flow separates at an angle 78 degrees in the second case. It has a pin attached to its

surface which delays the flow separation.

2. Stagnation point shifts downwards with respect to the vertex of the triangle (21.3 degrees).

In both the bluff bodies (Cylinder and Isosceles triangle), the flow separates in a small distance and

vortices are formed behind. Thus if offers a high drag due to large pressure drag.

Potential flows are irrotational, non-viscous flow whereas real flows have viscosity and are

rotational.

Result:

Reynolds number of flow varies in the range of 19459-51890. It is in the range of

turbulent flow.

Streamlined body shows low pressure drag and high frictional drag whereas bluff

bodies higher pressure drag and low frictional drag.

Experiment 1 (b): Dye flow visualization over

Streamlined and bluff Bodies in Hele-Shaw Apparatus.

Objectives:

To study the potential flow patterns over streamlined and bluff bodies.

2. To study the viscous flow at low Reynolds number (Re)

Theory:

Reynolds number depends on density, velocity, body dimensions and the

viscosity of the fluid. Flow separation occurs at smaller angle of attack for flow

with high Reynolds number and vice versa. First part of the experiment deals

with flow with high Reynolds number and its effects are observed. Now flow

with low Reynolds needs to be analysed.

Apparatus:

Model (Cambered airfoil in my case), Hele-Shaw apparatus, Water and Dye mixture,

Measuring cylinder, Stopwatch, Measuring scale.

Procedure:

Two parallel glass plated 2 mm distance apart is placed and the model in between it.

From the top, dye and water mixture is poured from two different containers with rake.

Below the glass plate is placed a tube which could be controlled using valve. Ten open

the tap and the bottom, take images, and measure the volume flow rate. Repeat the

experiment changing angle of attack and volume flow rate and finally get the Reynolds

number.

Observations:

Hele-Shaw apparatus dimension: 2mmX85mmX100mm. KMnO4 is used as dye.

We observe the flow to be streamlined for even a high angle of attack. This is due to

very low Reynolds number.

Calculations:

10 ml of fluid pours in the cylinder in 100 sec.

Result:

Reynolds number is 17.64. Flow is laminar. Therefore unlike in the previous experiment, flow

remains streamlined even at high angle of attack.

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