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Mobile Network Architecture

Fundamentals
Orange - Education Program
Laurentiu Spiridon
CSE, SP Mobility EMEA
November 2013

2010 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 1
Mobile Internet Trends
Evolution of Mobile Networks
3GPP
2G Networks
3G Networks
4G LTE and EPC
PCC Architecture
Voice and SMS in LTE
Small Cell Architectures
Licensed Small Cells
Unlicensed Small Cells
Integration into EPC

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 3
2012: Did you know that the numbers of
smartphones sold exceeded PCs sold last year
globally?

tablets
Business Insider, 2012: http://www.businessinsider.com/the-future-of-mobile-deck-2012-3

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Source: Internet Trends D11 Conference, Mary Meeker - KPCB

C97-687701-00 | 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 5
12 11.2 EB

10
Exabytes per Month

8 7.4 EB

6
4.7 EB

4
2.8 EB

2 1.6 EB
0.9 EB

0
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Source: Cisco VNI Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast, 20122017

C97-687701-00 | 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 6
134X More than all IP traffic generated in 2000
134 Exabytes
is equal to: 30 Trillion images (e.g., MMS)
3 Trillion video clips (e.g., YouTube)

Source: Cisco VNI Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast, 20122017

C97-687701-00 | 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 7
More Mobile
Connections

More Mobile
Users

Faster Mobile
Speeds

More Mobile
Video

Source: Cisco VNI Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast, 20122017

C97-687701-00 | 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 8
Smartphone Tablet

% Data Consumption % Data Consumption


Video / Communications 45% 50%

Information 12% 17%

Web Browsing 6% 7%

Social Networking 7% 3%

Music/Audio Streaming 4% 3%

System 16% 13%

Other 10% 7%

Source: Cisco Data Meter, Sep 2012Dec 2012

C97-687701-00 | 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 9
Mobile Internet Trends
Evolution of Mobile
Networks
3GPP
2G Networks
3G Networks
4G LTE and EPC
PCC Architecture
Voice and SMS in LTE
Small Cell Architectures
Licensed Small Cells
Unlicensed Small Cells
Integration into EPC
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CDMA (3GPP2 Track)
2G 2.5G 3G
1xEV-DO 1xEV-DO
IS95A IS95B 1xRTT
Rev 0 Rev A
cdmaONE cdma2000
Heavily deployed in North America

GSM (3GPP Track)


UMTS
GSM/ (HSPA) LTE/SAE
IS136 GPRS
PCS EDGE
2G 2.5G 4G
2.75G 3G
Widely deployed in Europe and the rest of the world

Circuit Circuit/Packet Packet

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Rel. 99 Rel. 5 Rel. 6 Rel. 7/8 Rel. 8 Rel. 10
UMTS HSDPA HSUPA HSPA+ LTE LTE
HSPA Advanced

DL: 384 Kbps* DL: 14.4 Mbps, DL: 14.4 Mbps DL: 21Mbps, DL: 300 Mbps,
DL: 3 Gbps
QPSK, 16QAM UL: 5.7 Mbps 64QAM OFDMA,
UL: 384 Kbps* Carrier
64QAM, 20
W-CDMA, FDD UL: 384 Kbps UL : 11 Mbps, aggregation,
MHz, MIMO
or TDD 16 QAM MIMO 8x8
4x4
*in urban areas DL 42 Mbps, UL: 1,5 Gpbs,
UL: 170 Mpbs,
64AM + MIMO MIMO 4x4
SC-FDMA
2x2

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4%
10 2-2.5G
3-3.5G
4G
Exabytes per Month

51%
6

2 45%
10%
76%
14%
0
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Source: Cisco VNI Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast, 20122017

C97-687701-00 | 2011 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 13
Mobile Internet Trends
Evolution of Mobile
Networks
3GPP
2G Networks
3G Networks
4G LTE and EPC
PCC Architecture
Voice and SMS in LTE
Small Cell Architectures
Licensed Small Cells
Unlicensed Small Cells
Integration into EPC
2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 14
Mobile Switching Home Location Service Control
Center Register (HLR) Point (SCP)
EIR
Um BSC MSC Gr
A-bis A
GSM VLR
Mobile
Station (MS) Base Station
BTS Controller

GSM Global System for Mobile Communications


Designed to improve network capacity compared to previous analog systems, also to
increase network security and facilitate roaming to other GSM networks.
Voice oriented architecture, supported data services up to 9.6 Kbps, circuit switched
technology, should present ISDN compatibility
Supported SMS which will be widely deployed later on in future systems
Network transport based on TDM

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MS BTS BSC MSC

Layer 3
(messages)

Layer 2

Layer 1

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Packet Control Unit Mobile Switching Home Location Service Control
(PCU) Center Register (HLR) Point (SCP)
Um EIR
BSC MSC Gr
A-bis A
GSM VLR
Mobile
Base Station Gb
Station (MS) Gs CS Domain
BTS Controller
PS Domain

SGSN Gn GGSN Gi Internet


GTP IP Corp
Serving GPRS Gateway GPRS
Support Node Support Node

General Packet Radio Service is packet based data for GSM (GPRS), uses same air
interface than GSM (TDMA GMSK TSs), multi-slot classes for higher data rates (171Kbps)
Packet switched technology introduced (Packet Core), SGSN/GGSN new elements
New PCU at BSC offloads data to PS domain
Frame Relay and IP interface to SGSN
Enhanced Data-rates for Global Evolution for GSM (EDGE), new modulation -8PSK
triples data rate (473Kbps)
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IP based mobile apps
GTP protocol for
IP mobility

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 18
Mobile Internet Trends
Evolution of Mobile
Networks
3GPP
2G Networks
3G Networks
4G LTE and EPC
PCC Architecture
Voice and SMS in LTE
Small Cell Architectures
Licensed Small Cells
Unlicensed Small Cells
Integration into EPC
2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 19
Packet Control Unit Mobile Switching Home Location Service Control
(PCU) Center Register (HLR) Point (SCP)
Um
EIR
BSC MSC Gr
A-bis A
GSM VLR
Mobile
Base Station Gb
Station (MS) Gs CS Domain
BTS Controller
PS Domain
Uu Iu-CS
UMTS Iub RNC Iu-PS SGSN Gn GGSN Gi Internet
(UP)
GTP IP Corp
Iu-PS (CP)
NodeB Radio Network Serving GPRS Gateway GPRS
User Equipment Support Node
(UE) Controller Support Node
Iu-PS (UP)
Direct Tunnel

UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is the first 3G release introduced


by 3GPP in Rel. 99 as an evolution of the GSM network
Employs new air interface based on WCDMA technology, but leverages many aspects of
the GSM architecture and is designed to co-exist with GSM
Iu Interface is using ATM technology
Rel. 4 introduces IP core and splits MSC function in CP and UP (MSC-S and CS-MGW)
Rel. 5, 6, and 7 improve data rates with HSDPA, HSUPA, and HSPA+
Direct Tunnel introduced to offload SGSN from heavy user plane traffic

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Standard Control Planes

SGSN

UMTS RNC GGSN

NodeB

Control Planes with SGSN offloaded from heavy


Direct Tunnel user plane packet processing
SGSN

UMTS RNC GGSN


GTP-U
NodeB

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 21
Mobile Internet Trends
Evolution of Mobile
Networks
3GPP
2G Networks
3G Networks
4G LTE and EPC
PCC Architecture
Voice and SMS in LTE
Small Cell Architectures
Licensed Small Cells
Unlicensed Small Cells
Integration into EPC
2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 22
GERAN CS Network

UTRAN PS Network
(GPRS/UMTS)

IP Services
Evolved
E-UTRAN / Internet
Packet Core
(LTE)
(EPC)

Non-3GPP
Access

EPS = Evolved Packet System


LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the 3GPP WI that defined the E-UTRAN
SAE (System Architecture Evolution) is the 3GPP WI that defined the EPC

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 23
Performance Requirements were defined
Data Rate
Instantaneous downlink peak data rate of 100 Mbps in a 20 MHz downlink
spectrum
Instantaneous uplink peak data rate of 50 Mbps in a 20 MHz uplink spectrum
Cell Range
5 km - optimal size
30 km sizes with reasonable performance
up to 100 km cell sizes supported with acceptable performance
Control Plane Cell Capacity
up to 200 active users per cell (5 MHz)
Mobility
E-UTRAN should be optimized for low mobile speed from 0 to 15 km/h
Higher mobile speed between 15 and 120 km/h should be supported with high
performance
Mobility across the cellular network shall be maintained at speeds from 120 km/h to
350 km/h (or even up to 500 km/h depending on the frequency band)

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 24
Subscription
Base Station HSS PCRF Data
UE: User for LTE Radio
Equipment

MME

C-Plane
U-Plane

eNodeB S-GW P-GW PDN


E-UTRAN EPC
Flat Architecture, fully IP based
Separated Control Plane and User Plane for independent scaling
No MSC like entity

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LTE utilizes User Equipment categories or classes to define the
performance specifications an enable base stations to be able to
communicate effectively with them knowing their performance
levels
UE Category 1 2 3 4 5
Downlink Mbps 10 50 100 150 300

Uplink Mbps 5 25 50 50 75
DL Modulation QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

UL Modulation QPSK, 16QAM QPSK,


16QAM,
64QAM
2 Rx Diversity Assumed in performance requirements across all LTE UE categories

2x2 MIMO Not Supported Mandatory

4x4 MIMO Not Supported Mandatory


LTE UE Characteristics

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 26
NAS NAS
Relay

RRC S1 -AP
RRC S1 -AP

PDCP PDC P SCTP SCTP

RLC RLC IP IP

MAC MAC L2 L2

L1 L1 L1 L1

S1 -MME
LTE - Uu
UE eNodeB MME

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Application

IP IP

Relay Relay
PDCP GTP-U
PDCP GTP-U GTP-U
GTP-U

RLC RLC UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP UDP/IP

MAC MAC L2 L2 L2 L2

L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L1

LTE-Uu S1-U S5/S8 SGi


a
UE eNodeB Serving GW PDN GW

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Three kind of bearers in LTE
Radio bearers
S1 bearers
S5/S8 bearers

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Update Bearer

MME SGW

HO Request
HO Request Ack.
HO Command Data forwarding using eNB
eNB tunnel between eNBs
Source HO Target
Confirm
Measurement
Reports
Data forwarding over X2 interface during handover
Fully eNB controlled, the network is notified at the end
Better performance than S1 based handover, but requires additional
connectivity in the RAN

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 31
Mobile Internet Trends
Evolution of Mobile Networks
3GPP
2G Networks
3G Networks
4G LTE and EPC
PCC Architecture
Voice and SMS in LTE
Small Cell Architectures
Licensed Small Cells
Unlicensed Small Cells
Integration into EPC

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 32
Customize in real time both the
end user experience, and
network resource utilization

Fair Usage
Enforcement, a widely
deployed example of
mobile policy

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 33
Session request
Rx AF
PCRF

Notifications
Event & Gx Rules
Access Info
UE eNB SGW PGW
S5

Multiple services, each with a different QoS requirement compete for radio and core
resources.
Policy management is critical for limiting network congestion, improve use experience
and monetize services.
Policy management is carried out on bearers, all data flows (SDFs) within a bearer have
the same QoS level
A bearer has QoS parameters:
QoS Class Indicator (QCI) User Plane treatment
Allocation Retention Priority (ARP) Control Plane treatment
GBR and MBR Real time services only
AMBR

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 34
Mobile Internet Trends
Evolution of Mobile Networks
3GPP
2G Networks
3G Networks
4G LTE and EPC
PCC Architecture
Voice and SMS in LTE
Small Cell Architectures
Licensed Small Cells
Unlicensed Small Cells
Integration into EPC

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
Fall back to 2G/3G network (CSFB) as initial/interim solution due to poor LTE
coverage
IMS based VoIP (VoLTE) as target solution, voice call continuity for handover to
CS network (2G/3G)
CSFB and SR-VCC introduced in 3GPP Rel.8, further voice over LTE
improvements in later releases (CS core requires adaptations)
Voice strategy is also dependent from UE availability and features

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
LTE
MME

MT/MO Call
SGs
Fall back to
CS network Voice
MSC SS7/TDM
HLR
2G/3G

Leverages in the existing circuit switched network


When the CSFB capable UE attaches to LTE network, the MME
registers the UE also on the CS network via SGs interface
UE is redirected to 2G/3G fall back- to originate or terminate
voice calls, requires longer call setup times
CSFB specified in 3GPP Rel. 8 and enhanced in Rel. 9

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
LTE
MME

SGs SMS
MSC SS7/TDM
HLR
2G/3G

Uses existing circuit switched infrastructure to deliver SMS


Usually deployed as first step to deliver SMS over LTE before IMS
is implemented
Uses SGsAP protocol between MME and MSC SGs i/f
SMS over SGs specified in 3GPP Rel.8

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
IMS (SIP)
Client PCRF
EPC (SIP) PCSCF
Default bearer (SIP Signaling) IMS
PGW AGW
Dedicated Bearer (Voice) (RTP)

MME
APN IMS
CS network
Sv

A dedicated IMS APN provide access to the IMS network


Default bearer always active for SIP signaling, dedicated bearers
established only for the duration of the voice/video call
Dedicated Bearers activation initiated by the PCRF, based on the QoS
indicated by the P-CSCF from SIP session requirement.
Supports mid-call handover to 2G/3G CS network when losing LTE
coverage
SRVCC standardized in Rel. 8 but further enhanced in Rel. 9/10/11

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
Mobile Internet Trends
Evolution of Mobile Networks
3GPP
2G Networks
3G Networks
4G LTE and EPC
PCC Architecture
Voice and SMS in LTE
Small Cell Architectures
Licensed Small Cells
Unlicensed Small Cells
Integration into EPC

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
Macrocell layer Macrocells: large area, ubiquitous coverage
Larger cell means more users/cell (lower spatial reuse)
Hence lower average rate per user
Macrocell count ~ several 104

Radius ~ 1-10 km

Metrocells/picocells/femtocells: Small/local coverage area


Small cell layer

Smaller cell means fewer users/cell (higher spatial reuse)
Hence higher average rate per user
Numbers could become ~ 105+ (huge)

Radius ~ 10-300 m

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 41
Dedicated low power and low capacity
licensed radio access point (3G/LTE) that
connects with existing mobile core network
via an existing broadband connection
Macro Network Existing Mobile Core
(MSC, MPC, EPC) Small cell benefits
Standard Architecture, interoperability
Improved indoor coverage for higher voice
quality and data rates
Self-organizing and self-managing
UE Management Ubiquitous service and mobility with macro
System network
Cost reduction with macro network and
Iu/S1 backhaul offload
New services (homezone, enterprise
integration)
Multiple target segments with all having
ISP/ specific requirements
Internet
CPE/
Small Cell RGW SeGW Residential (Femtocell) initial specification
(3G, LTE) H(e)NBGW SMB
Enterprise
Public venues

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
Mobile Internet Trends
Evolution of Mobile Networks
3GPP
2G Networks
3G Networks
4G LTE and EPC
PCC Architecture
Voice and SMS in LTE
Small Cell Architectures
Licensed Small Cells
Unlicensed Small Cells
Integration into EPC

2013 Cisco and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
Cellular Mobility Experience on Wi-Fi

GSM NGH
Turn on phone and Turn on phone and
get get
secure cellular secure Wi-Fi
connectivity connectivity

Automatic. Secure. EAP-Based.

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3GPP first focused on an Interworking solution with WLAN technology
in Release 6 (2004) including support for access to IMS (IP
Multimedia Subsystem) and PS (Packet Services) over WLAN access
More complete incorporation of WLAN as part of non-3GPP
connection to the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) in Release 8 (2008)
In Release 10 (2010), the EPS architecture was enhanced with
support for non-seamless WLAN offload, which allows the operator to
dynamically or statically configure the UE with inter-system routing
policies that assist a dual-radio UE in selecting an IP interface with
per-flow granularity
Policy and QoS enhancements for WLAN access to the EPC (in co-
operation with BBF) in Release 11 (2011)
Support of trusted WLAN access without UE impacts in Release 11
(2011)

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3GPP AAA HSS
DIAMETER

RADIUS / CoA
OCS OFCS PCRF

CAPWAP
AP WLC
WAG
eNodeB/NodeB
SGi
GTPv2/v1 GTPv2/v1

SGW/MME/SGSN
PGW

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Thank you.