You are on page 1of 19

# Arrow Diagram Method

Note

## Forward pass a : Early Start (ES)A

b : Late Start (LS)A
c : Early Finish (EF)A = (ES)B
d : Late Finish (LF)A = (EF)B

## a A c B e : Early Finish (EF)B

1 2 d 2 e d : Late Finish (LF)B
b X Y f X : Duration of activity A
Y : Duration of activity B

## Forward pass Backward pass

Backward pass
a = 0 f = e
c = a + X d = f Y
e = c + Y b = d - X

## Estimating Project Duration using Arrow Diagram Method (ADM)

FINISH ACT A
START ACT A FINISH ACT B
START ACT A

A ESB B
ESA EFA EFB
1 2 2
LSA X LFA Y LFB
LSB

## ES : Earliest Start Time (Masa Mula Paling Awal)

Masa mula paling awal aktiviti itu boleh dijalankan
EF : Earliest Finish Time (Masa Siap Paling Awal)
Masa paling awal aktiviti boleh disiapkan
(EF = ES + D)
LF : Latest Finish Time (Masa Siap Akhir)
Masa Paling lewat aktiviti boleh disiapkan tanpa menganggu tempoh
siap projek
LS : Latest Start Time (Masa Mula Akhir)
Masa paling lewat aktiviti boleh dimulakan tanpa
menganggutempoh siap projek
2
Example 1

A 3 -
B 5 A
C 3 B
D 4 -
E 4 A
F 10 E,D
G 9 C,F
Example 1

## ACTIVITY DURATION(DAY) PREDECESSOR

A 3 -

B 5 A

C 3 B

D 4 -

E 4 A

F 10 E,D

G 9 C,F

B
2 3
5
C
A 3
3 E
4 G
1 5 6
9
D F

4 10
4
Example 1

Forward Pass

B
2 3
Early Start Box 5
C
A 3
3 E
4 G
0 5 6
1
9
D F

4 10
4

Late Start Box Make forward pass through the network by adding duration
times.
Example 1

Forward Pass
0+3=3

3 B
2 3 8
5
C
A 3
3+4=7
3 E
4 G
0 5 6
1
9
D F

4 10
7
4

Larger=7

If two or more activities terminate at a junction node, place the larger sum at ES box.
Example 1

Forward Pass

3 B
2 3 8
8+3=11
5
C
A 3
3 E
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
9
D F

4 10
7
4
7+10=17

Early Start of 26 in the node 6 shows that it will take 26 days to complete the project.
Therefore, 26 days represents Late Finish of the project.
Example 1

Backward Pass

3 B
2 3 8
5 14
C
A 3
3 E
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
17 9 26
D F

4 10
7
4

26-9=17

Enter 26 into Late Finish box at the node 6, and make a backward pass to
establish LF for each activity by deducting the durations.
Example 1

Backward Pass

14-5=9

3 B
2 3 8
3 5 14
Smaller=3 C
A 3
3 E 7-4=3
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
17 9 26
0 D F

4 10
7
4
7

## In the case of junction nodes (with two or more activities), place

the smaller value in the LF box of that node.
Example 1

Completed

3 B
2 3 8
3 5 14
C
A 3
3 E
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
17 9 26
0 D F

4 10
7
4
7
Float (Apungan)

## Juga dikenali sebagai slack

Ia merupakan masa mula aktiviti yang boleh
dilewatkan tanpa melewatkan keseluruhan
tempoh projek
i. Total float
ii. Free float
iii. Independent float
iv. Interference float
Dalam praktis, 2 jenis apungan yang biasanya
diambil kira,iaitu total float dan free float.
Total Float : Jumlah masa yang boleh dilewatkan
untuk memulakan kerja sesuatu aktiviti tanpa
mengubah tempoh projek.

TF = LF D ES

## Free Float : Jumlah masa yang dilewatkan bagi

memulakan aktiviti tanpa menganggu ES aktiviti
FF = EF D ES
Example 1

Total Float

= 3-3-0 2
3 B
3 8
=0 3 5 14
C TFC=6
A 3
TFA=0
3 E TFE=0
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
17 9 26
0 D F

4 7
10 TFG=0
4
TFD=3 7 TFF=0

Example 1

Critical Path

TFB=6
3 B
2 3 8
3 5 14
C TFC=6
A 3
TFA=0
3 E TFE=0
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
17 9 26
0 D F

4 7
10 TFG=0
4
TFD=3 7 TFF=0

Summary

EF = ES + D
LS = LF D
TF = LF D ES
FF = EF D ES

## FORWARD PASS = MAXIMUM

BACKWARD PASS = MINIMUM
FOR DUMMY, DURATION = 0

15
Example 2

3 6

E dummy I
B
5 7 0 2

1 A 2 C 5 H 7
0 3 8 6

D F
8
15
4

16
Example 2

FORWARD PASS

3 6
8 26
E dummy I
B
5 7 0 2

1 A 2 C 5 H 7
0 3 3 8 26 6 32

D F 28,32
26,11,15
8
15
4
18

17
Example 2

BACKWARD PASS

3 6
8 19 26 30
E dummy I
B
5 7 0 2

1 A 2 C 5 H 7
0 0 3 3 3 8 26 26 6 32 32

3,18,14 D F
30,26
8
15
4
18 18

18
Example 2

COMPLETE

3 6
8 19 26 30
E dummy I
B
5 7 0 2

1 A 2 C 5 H 7
0 0 3 3 3 8 26 26 6 32 32

3,18,14 D F
30,26
8
15
4
18 18

19