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Arrow Diagram Method

Note

Forward pass a : Early Start (ES)A


b : Late Start (LS)A
c : Early Finish (EF)A = (ES)B
d : Late Finish (LF)A = (EF)B

a A c B e : Early Finish (EF)B


1 2 d 2 e d : Late Finish (LF)B
b X Y f X : Duration of activity A
Y : Duration of activity B

Forward pass Backward pass


Backward pass
a = 0 f = e
c = a + X d = f Y
e = c + Y b = d - X

Estimating Project Duration using Arrow Diagram Method (ADM)


FINISH ACT A
START ACT A FINISH ACT B
START ACT A

A ESB B
ESA EFA EFB
1 2 2
LSA X LFA Y LFB
LSB

ES : Earliest Start Time (Masa Mula Paling Awal)


Masa mula paling awal aktiviti itu boleh dijalankan
EF : Earliest Finish Time (Masa Siap Paling Awal)
Masa paling awal aktiviti boleh disiapkan
(EF = ES + D)
LF : Latest Finish Time (Masa Siap Akhir)
Masa Paling lewat aktiviti boleh disiapkan tanpa menganggu tempoh
siap projek
LS : Latest Start Time (Masa Mula Akhir)
Masa paling lewat aktiviti boleh dimulakan tanpa
menganggutempoh siap projek
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Example 1

ACTIVITY DURATION(DAY) PREDECESSOR


A 3 -
B 5 A
C 3 B
D 4 -
E 4 A
F 10 E,D
G 9 C,F
Example 1

ACTIVITY DURATION(DAY) PREDECESSOR

A 3 -

B 5 A

C 3 B

D 4 -

E 4 A

F 10 E,D

G 9 C,F

B
2 3
5
C
A 3
3 E
4 G
1 5 6
9
D F

4 10
4
Example 1

Forward Pass

B
2 3
Early Start Box 5
C
A 3
3 E
4 G
0 5 6
1
9
D F

4 10
4

Late Start Box Make forward pass through the network by adding duration
times.
Example 1

Forward Pass
0+3=3

3 B
2 3 8
5
C
A 3
3+4=7
3 E
4 G
0 5 6
1
9
D F

4 10
7
4

Larger=7

If two or more activities terminate at a junction node, place the larger sum at ES box.
Example 1

Forward Pass

3 B
2 3 8
8+3=11
5
C
A 3
3 E
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
9
D F

4 10
7
4
7+10=17

Early Start of 26 in the node 6 shows that it will take 26 days to complete the project.
Therefore, 26 days represents Late Finish of the project.
Example 1

Backward Pass

3 B
2 3 8
5 14
C
A 3
3 E
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
17 9 26
D F

4 10
7
4

26-9=17

Enter 26 into Late Finish box at the node 6, and make a backward pass to
establish LF for each activity by deducting the durations.
Example 1

Backward Pass

14-5=9

3 B
2 3 8
3 5 14
Smaller=3 C
A 3
3 E 7-4=3
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
17 9 26
0 D F

4 10
7
4
7

In the case of junction nodes (with two or more activities), place


the smaller value in the LF box of that node.
Example 1

Completed

3 B
2 3 8
3 5 14
C
A 3
3 E
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
17 9 26
0 D F

4 10
7
4
7
Float (Apungan)

Juga dikenali sebagai slack


Ia merupakan masa mula aktiviti yang boleh
dilewatkan tanpa melewatkan keseluruhan
tempoh projek
Ia terbahagi kepada ;
i. Total float
ii. Free float
iii. Independent float
iv. Interference float
Dalam praktis, 2 jenis apungan yang biasanya
diambil kira,iaitu total float dan free float.
Total Float : Jumlah masa yang boleh dilewatkan
untuk memulakan kerja sesuatu aktiviti tanpa
mengubah tempoh projek.

TF = LF D ES

Free Float : Jumlah masa yang dilewatkan bagi


memulakan aktiviti tanpa menganggu ES aktiviti
FF = EF D ES
Example 1

Total Float

TFA = LF-D-ES TFB=6


= 3-3-0 2
3 B
3 8
=0 3 5 14
C TFC=6
A 3
TFA=0
3 E TFE=0
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
17 9 26
0 D F

4 7
10 TFG=0
4
TFD=3 7 TFF=0

Total Float (TF) =LF-D-ES


Example 1

Critical Path

TFB=6
3 B
2 3 8
3 5 14
C TFC=6
A 3
TFA=0
3 E TFE=0
4 17 G 26
0 5 6
1
17 9 26
0 D F

4 7
10 TFG=0
4
TFD=3 7 TFF=0

Activities on critical path : A,E,F and G.


Summary

EF = ES + D
LS = LF D
TF = LF D ES
FF = EF D ES

FORWARD PASS = MAXIMUM


BACKWARD PASS = MINIMUM
FOR DUMMY, DURATION = 0

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Example 2

3 6

E dummy I
B
5 7 0 2

1 A 2 C 5 H 7
0 3 8 6

D F
8
15
4

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Example 2

FORWARD PASS

3 6
8 26
E dummy I
B
5 7 0 2

1 A 2 C 5 H 7
0 3 3 8 26 6 32

D F 28,32
26,11,15
8
15
4
18

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Example 2

BACKWARD PASS

3 6
8 19 26 30
E dummy I
B
5 7 0 2

1 A 2 C 5 H 7
0 0 3 3 3 8 26 26 6 32 32

3,18,14 D F
30,26
8
15
4
18 18

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Example 2

COMPLETE

3 6
8 19 26 30
E dummy I
B
5 7 0 2

1 A 2 C 5 H 7
0 0 3 3 3 8 26 26 6 32 32

3,18,14 D F
30,26
8
15
4
18 18

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