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INTRODUCTION

We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are
in Form 5.This year the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has prepared
four tasks for us.We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of interest.This
project can be done in groups or individually, and I gladly choose to do this individually.Upon
completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work,we are to gain valuable experiences and
able to :
• Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving
strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems
• Experience classroom environments which are
challenging, interesting and meaningful and hence
improve their thinking skills
• Experience classroom environments where
knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in
solving real-life problems.
• Experience classroom environments where expressing
ones mathematical thinking,reasoning and
communication are highly encouraged and expected
• Experience classroom environments that stimulates
and enhances effective learning.
• Acquire effective mathematical communication
Through oral and writing,and to use the language of
mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly
and precisely
• Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and
skills through problem-solving in ways that increase
interest and confidence
• Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future
undertakings and in workplace
• Realise that mathematics is an important and
powerful tool in solving real-life problems and hence
develop positive attitude towards mathematics
• Train ourselves not only to be independent learners
but also to collaborate, to cooperate, and to share
knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment
• Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and
effectively
• Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of
mathematics and to become more creative and
innovative
• Realize the importance and the beauty of
mathematics
APPRECIATION
Alhamdullilah,thank you to Allah for giving the will to me to complete this Additional Mathematics
project.Secondly, I would like to thank the principle of Sekolah Menengah Raja Dr. Nazrin Shah, Mr. Hj.
Omar Bin Bakar A.M.P,P.P.T for giving me the permission to do my this Additional Mathematics Project
Work. I also like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher, Sir Rafhan for the guide and giving useful
and important information for me to complete this project work. Besides that, I would like to thank my
parents for their support and encouragement. Lastly, a special thanks to all my friends for their help and
cooperation in searching for information and completing this project work.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF STATISTICS


By the 18th century, the term "statistics" designated the

systematic collection of demographic and economic data by states. In the early 19th century, the meaning of
"statistics" broadened, then including the discipline concerned with the

collection, summary, and analysis of data. Today statistics is widely employed in government, business, and all
the sciences. Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation, and have allowed statisticians to
develop "computer-intensive" methods.

The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical theories of probability and statistical inference,

which are used in statistical practice. The relation between statistics and probability theory developed rather late,

however. In the 19th century, statistics increasingly used probability theory, whose initial results were found in

the17th and 18th centuries, particularly in the analysis of games of chance (gambling). By 1800, astronomy

used probability models and statistical theories, particularly the method of least squares, which was invented by

Legendre and Gauss. Early probability theory and statistics was systematized and extended by Laplace;

following Laplace, probability and statistics have been in continual development. In the 19th century, social

scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of experimental

psychology and sociology; physical scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the
new sciences of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The development of statistical reasoning was

closely associated with the development of inductive logic and the scientific method.

Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an autonomous mathematical science, like computer science or

operations research. Unlike mathematics, statistics had its origins in public administration and maintains a

special concern with demography and economics. Being concerned with the scientific method and inductive

logic, statistical theory has close association with the philosophy of science; with its emphasis on learning from

data and making best predictions, statistics has great overlap with the decision science and microeconomics.

With its concerns with data, statistics has overlap with information science and computer science.

STATISTICS TODAY
During the 20th century, the creation of precise instruments for agricultural research, public health

concerns (epidemiology, biostatistics, etc.), industrial quality control, and economic and social

purposes (unemployment rate,econometry, etc.) necessitated substantial advances in statistical

practices.

Today the use of statistics has broadened far beyond its origins. Individuals and organizations use

statistics to understand data and make informed decisions throughout the natural and social sciences,

medicine, business, and other areas.

Statistics is generally regarded not as a subfield of mathematics but rather as a distinct, albeit

allied, field. Many universities maintain separate mathematics and statistics departments. Statistics

is also taught in departments as diverse as psychology, education, and public health.


PART 1
The prices of goods sold in shops vary from one shop to another.Shoppers tend to buy goods which are not
only reasonably priced but also give value for their money. You are required to carry out a survey on four
different items based on the following categories i.e. food, detergent and stationery.The survey should be
done in three different shops.

QUESTION

a) Collect pictures,newspaper cuttings or photos on items that you


have chosen.Design a collage to illustrate the chosen items

Answer:

FOOD

DE
TERGENTS
(b)
Record
the
items
and
their
prices
systema
tically
as in
Table
1.Since
items
maybe
differen
tly
packed,
be sure
to use
consiste
nt
measur
ements
for each
item
selected
so that
compari
son can
be done
easily
and
accurat
ely.