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1.

THE NOTION OF TRANSLATION

Translation a process of conveying or rendering the meaning (content) of SL units in the TL as well as the
result of this process.
There are 2 forms of translation: 1) in writing and 2) in viva voce (orally).
Translation conveys the meaning of the following language units:

The phoneme is a speech sound, the smallest 1-facet language unit, it has a form but has no meaning.
Phonemes are graphically represented by letters. Phonemes usually do not take part in the process of translation,
but they are used in translation of proper names, geographical names, internationalisms, neologisms and units of
specific national lexicon.
a, ----- - I-v-a-n-o-v

The morpheme is the smallest indivisible 2-facet language unit (has both form and meaning). It is the smallest
sense unit.
superprofit , cloudless

The word is the basic 2-facet language unit. The word is the smallest independent sense unit. Words are
divisible (for morphemes).
blackboard , strawberry , dog

The word group/word-combination is the largest 2-facet lexical unit comprising more that 1 word.
first night

The sentence is a 2-facet unit of speech which conveys a more or less complete thought.
Every dark cloud has a silver lining. .
A cat may look at a king. .

The text is the largest 2-facet language unit, consisting of sentences bound by the same idea.
Two languages are involved into translation process.
The Source language (SL) is the language of the original / the language from which the process of translation is
performed.
The Target language (TL) is the language of the translation / the language into which the process of translation
is performed.

Translation may imply any sense-to-sense substitution of a SL unit for its semantic (=having the same meaning)
equivalent in the TL.
I live in Kiev
first night
pretty woman -

Translation may imply any sense-to-sense conveying even if the lexical meaning of the constituents which make
up a SL unit is not replaced with the identical lexical meaning in the TL.
First night -
pretty woman -
Translation may imply any functional substitution at the text level. It is aimed at recreating the function of a SL
unit. Is used in the translation of titles and stylistic devices.
The Village (the title was changed for marketing purposes)
Some like it hot
Over the hedge

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SIGNIFICANCE OF TRANSLATION

The importance of translation in the modern society has long been recognized. Not a single contact at the
international level or between 2 foreign persons can be established without the help of translation. Translation is
important for functioning of different international bodies. Numerous branches of national economies can be kept
up with the modern development thanks to the everyday translation. The other branches of human activity
dealing with the translation are: nuclear science, exploration of outer space, ecology, mining, medicine,
electronics etc. The social and political role of translation has been the most felt in the XX-XXI century when it
provided the dissemination (=spreading) of political ideas. Translation is a perfect means of sharing
achievements and enriching the national languages, literatures and cultures. Finally, whatever the type of
matter is translated, the linguistic and social significance of translation remains unchanged because it
promotes the enrichment of lexicon in the target language.

2. TRANSLATION AS A MEANS OF INTERLINGUAL COMMUNICATION

Translation makes possible an exchange of information between users of different languages by producing the TL
text which has an identical communicative value with the SL text.
However, the TLT is not fully identical with the SLT as to its form or meaning/content due to the limitations
imposed by the formal and semantic differences between the SL and the TL. But the users of the translation
(translation receptors) identify the TLT with the SLT functionally, semantically and structurally. There are 3 types
of identification:

The functional identification the TLT (the translation) functions as if it were the SLT (quoted, published, cited
etc.).

The structural identification the structure of translation (of the TLT) should follow that of the original. There
should be no change in the sequence of narration or in the arrangement of the segments in the text (not the
structure of every sentence!)

The semantic identification the TLT (the translation) should have the same meaning as the SLT (the original)
(the meaning of the whole text, not every word, otherwise it would be word-for-word translation, not literary
artistic/proper).
The translator is allowed to resort to different translation transformations if direct translation is impossible for
some reasons.

3-6. WAYS OF TRANSLATION

Literal translation is used at the level of separate words, which have the same lexical meaning and similar form
in the SL and in the TL.
There are 2 ways of performing literal translation: transcription and transliteration.
Transcription is the substitution of sounds in the process of translation.
New-Castle -
impeachment (but not )
leader
Transliteration is the substitution of letters in the process of translation.
London (but not )
Dublin -
bank
club -

Literal translation renders the meaning of the following words: 1) proper names ( Ivanov), 2)
geographical names ( Dnipro), 3)international words (football ), 4)units of specific national
lexicon ( varenyky), 5)neologisms (metrosexual ).
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The translators false friends are those words that have similar form but different meaning in the SL and in the
TL.
magazine (but not )
lunatic , (but not )
artist , (but not )

Verbal translation is used at the level of separate words, which have the same lexical meaning but different
lingual form in the SL and in the TL.
Verbal translation renders sometimes the morphological structure of the SL words (ex. helpless ,
superprofit ).
In most cases, the morphological structure is not preserved because of the differences in the morphological
systems of the SL and the TL.
bomber
manager
Verbal translation permits the choice of variants, which is practically impossible in literal translating:
minister (literal), , (verbal)
bank (literal), (), , , / (verbal)
Verbal translation, however, does not provide a faithful conveying of sense/content at other than word level.
When employed at the level of word-combinations or sentences it may often make the language units
ungrammatical and pervert or completely ruin their sense:
I am reading now is not but
to take measures is not but

Word-for-word translation/ consecutive verbal translation ( ) is used at the level of


word-combinations and sentences, which have the same structure, word order, and the same lexical meanings of
the constituents in the SL and the TL.
Who took my book? ?
Word-for-word translation is often used at the initial stage of translation. It does not always work with
phraseological units (cold as a cucumber ) except some cases when a phraseological unit is taken
from a third language Latin or Greek (to cross the Rubicon ).

Interlinear translation is used for a faithful rendering of the meaning (but not structure) expressed by word-
combinations and sentences, which are different in structure, at the level of some text. The sense of
phraseological units is not conveyed.
Interlinear translation may be practically applied to all speech units (sentences, passages etc.)
It is used at the higher level of translators activity. It is performed with transformations when there is no
identical form in the TL.
Interlinear translation offers more variants than word-for-word translation.
Who took my book? ?/ ?
Various transformations in interlinear and literary translations are inevitable because of grammatical/structural,
stylistic and other divergences in the SL and in the TL.
She said she would come. , .
Transformations are also inevitable when there is no direct equivalent for the SL units in the TL.
a trip , to ski
Interlinear translation is widely practiced at the intermediary and advanced stages of studying a foreign language.
But it doesnt convey the literary merits/artistic features and beauty of the original (e.g. translation of a stanza or
passage)

Literary translation represents the highest level of a translators activity. It can be either literary artistic or
literary proper depending on the type of the matter under translation.
Literary artistic translation ( ) is used to translate prose or poetry and faithfully conveys
the content and artistic merits of belles-lettres /belletr/ texts or passages of the literary text.

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Literary proper translation ( ) is used to translate some texts that may include scientific or
technical matter, business correspondence, newspapers and documents. In short, any printed or recorded matter
devoid of artistic merits (epithets, metaphors etc.).
Literary translations are always performed with many transformations because of stylistic differences between
the SL and the TL. Transformations are necessary to convey the meaning of the original, and to achieve ease and
beauty of the original composition.
Literary proper/artistic translation of a larger passage often requires some additional research or linguistic,
historical and other enquiries in order to clarify the obscure places (historic events, units of specific national
lexicon, neologisms, archaisms etc.). Sometimes even the title of a work may require a philological or historical
inquiry.
Ex. - A word about Ihors Regiment (in a word-for-word translation, which
doesnt correspond to the real meaning)
The Tale/ lay of the Host of Ihor, The Song of Igors Campaign, Prince Igors Raid against the
Polovtsi (which corresponds to the real meaning of the title , ,
)
(.) And Quiet Flows the Don or The Don Flows home to the Sea (a word-for
word translation The Quiet Don or The Still Don would not convey the poetic flavour of the original
title)
These variants could have been suggested by the translator only after a deep inquiry into the novels content, into
its main idea and into the whole system of images of these works.

7. KINDS OF TRANSLATION

The sense of a language unit (the content of a whole matter) can be conveyed in the TL either in writing or in
viva voce (orally). Depending on the form of conveying the sense/content, the following kinds of translating/
interpreting (oral translating) are to be distinguished:

1. The written translation/-ing from a written matter/source is a faithful conveying of a matter translating
in writing from one language into another. It represents a literary or any other faithful sense-to-sense
translation from or into a foreign language. It may also be a free interpreting performed in writing. The matter
under translation may be different, ex. a belles-lettres passage (prose or poetry work), a scientific or technical,
newspaper passage, article or even separate words (in a list) etc.

2. The oral translation/-ing from an oral matter/source is a faithful conveying of a speech or recording
( ).
It can proceed/ be performed in 2 ways:
in succession - after the whole matter or a part of it was heard. Then it is consecutive translation
(). There is a possibility to interrupt or stop the speaker or recording in order to clarify some
obscure places. As a result, consecutive interpreting can take more or a little less time then the SL speech
or recording lasts.
simultaneously (with its sounding) the process of translation takes quite the same amount of time as the
SL matter lasts and the interpreter faithfully conveys the meaning/content (). It is usually
performed with some special equipment, technical devices (microphone, headphones)

3. The oral translation/-ing from a written matter/source is interpreting at sight. It can also proceed either
simultaneously with the process of getting acquainted with the content of the written matter, or in succession
(after each part of the matter is first read through and comprehended (, ). The former
way of interpreting, if carried out faithfully and exactly on time with the consecutive conveying of the matter,
may be considered simultaneous too. Usually it is a regular prepared beforehand kind of interpreting.

4. The written translation/-ing from an orally presented matter/source is a rare occurrence, because a natural
speech flow is too fast for putting it down in the TL (except for a shorthand presentation, which would be then
a regular translation i.e. (that is to say) interpretation from a written matter). Translating from an oral
speech/recording is now and than resorted to for training practices. When the matter to be rendered is produced

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at a slower speed than the written translation, this matter/speech can naturally be performed and put down in
the TL.

8-10. DESCRIPTIVE, ANTONYMIC AND MACHINE TRANSLATION

The process of translation may be viewed as a number of manipulations with the form or content of the original
(SLText) as a result of which the translator creates the TLText.

Translation transformations are operations with the SLT aimed at conveying its meaning with maximum (-al)
faithfulness in strict compliance with the standards of the TL.

Descriptive translation is a complex transformation which is used to explain the meaning of SL units, often
with the help of hierarchically different TL units. For example, a word may be translated as a word-combination
or vice versa.

Descriptive translation may be used:


1) to render the meaning of equivalent-lacking units, for instance:
units of specific national lexicon:
The Ukrainian Parliament (Descriptive), Verkhovna Rada (Literal), Supreme Council
(word-for-word), Supreme Rada (mixed)
a traditional Ukrainian dish, mea or fruit dumplings (Descriptive), varenyky (literal)
neologisms:
stepwife the current wife of a womens ex-husband or the ex-wife of a current husband (
)
leather spinster a successful heterosexual woman who is happily unmarried (
, )
Delhi belly a disordered/ upset stomach ( )
himbo a man who is good-looking but unintelligent or superficial ( , ,
)
bimbo a girl of the same qualities ( ,
)
gaydar an intuitive sense that enables someone to identify whether another person is gay (
() ()
2) to render the meaning of phraseological units or idioms:
as mad as a hatter
to have light fingers
to rain cats and dogs
burn not your house to rid it of the mouse ,
( )
3) in footnotes to explain obscure places in narration
spiritual ,
Within the text the word metrosexual may be referred to as or in a footnote explained
,

Antonymic translation is a complex transformation in which an affirmative in sense or structure SL unit is


rendered as a negative in sense or structure but identical in meaning TL unit or vice versa.
It is a complex transformation, which describes the situation from the opposite point of view. (2nd definition)
Take it easy. . (an affirmative SL unit corresponds to a negative TL unit)
. Every dark cloud has a silver lining.
I mean it! !
Antonymic translation is used:
1. when there is no direct equivalent for the SL units in the TL:
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He was in (his) short-sleeves. . (to be in (ones) short-sleeves means not wearing a
jacket, it has no direct equivalent in Ukrainian language and is translated automatically - )
, . I think he will fail the exam./ I dont think he will pass the exam.
The defeat of the team was the result of its inferiority.
.
Do you mind
2. when a SL unit has 2 negations which create an affirmation:
She was by no means non-elegant. . (This sentence contains 2 negations: by
no means and non-elegant, which corresponds to an affirmation )
The door was not unlocked. .
3. to achieve a necessary expressiveness:
A bomb fell close. .
No, it makes all the difference in the world. , !
I dont think it will hurt you. , . (I dont think , will hurt you -
)
I hope you will stay. .
She was a woman of character. . ( )
4. to avoid the repetition of the same structure close to each other in the same text:
She didnt utter a word and he said nothing. .

Machine translation is a procedure in which a computer program analyzes a SLT and produces a TLT without
further human intervention.
Human interference into machine translation is represented with pre-editing, proof-reading and post-editing
practice.
Machine translating has made considerable progress in recent years. Nevertheless, its employment remains
restricted because machine translation can be performed only on the basis of programs elaborated by
linguistically trained operators.
Machine translation may be successful at the level of separate words, sometimes word-combinations and simple
sentences and quite seldom at the level of text.
Advantages of machine translation are: its speed and rich lexicon of its dictionaries, which can be useful for
translation at the level of words.
Disadvantages: preparing programs for any matter is connected with great difficulties and takes much time, when
the quality of translation is far from being always satisfactory even at the lexical level at the level of words,
which have direct equivalent lexemes in the TL.
ex. London is the capital of GB.
Greater difficulties are connected with morphological elements (endings, suffixes, prefixes) and syntactic units
(word combinations, sentences) with various means of connection between their parts. There are frequent
violations of syntactic agreement and government between the parts of the sentence in the machine translated
texts. Neither can the machine translator select in its memory the correct order of words in word-combinations
and sentences in the TL.
As a result, any machine translation needs a thorough proof-reading and editing, which can take even more time
than the hand-made translation.

11-12. UNITS OF TRANSLATION

Since the formal description of any language is based on distinguishing a system of interrelated language units, it
is possible to assume that the process of translation may be viewed on the basis of distinguishing certain units
(units of translation). There are different approaches to distinguishing units of translation.

APPROACH # 1

The unit of translation is the smallest unit of the SL text, functioning in the process of translation more or less
independently. The units of translation may be different for different languages and different kinds of translation.
There are 2 kinds of translation: written and oral.
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In written translation the unit of translation is usually represented by a sentence or sometimes 2 consecutive
sentences if one of them is structurally or semantically incomplete. These sentences usually contain all the
information necessary to recreate the structure of a corresponding sentence in the TL. The sentence is a speech
unit which contains a more or less complete thought and that is why it may function more or less independently
in the process of translation.
ex. After all they all have day jobs. Not so Seed. , , . (the 2nd
sentence is incomplete)
Your presence at the meeting is not necessary. Nor is it desirable.
.

In oral translation, especially synchronized translation, the unit of translation is usually represented by a sense
group (a group of words, which expresses the main idea) or a sentence, especially if elements important for
understanding are located at the end of the sentence.
ex. Mediators from 3 west African ECOWAS nations planned today to visit rebels in Ivory Coast as France flew
in 70 more soldiers to assist the Ivorian government. 3 -
-.
70 .
(This sentence represents 2 units of translation, since it consists of 2 sence groups. The 1st unit of tr. is ..., the 2nd
- )

APPROACH # 2 (= LEVELS OF TRANSLATION)

The unit of translation is the smallest SL unit which is translated as a whole. It means that in the TLT it is
impossible to discover TL units reproducing the meaning of the constituents, which make up the SL unit.
ex. pretty woman ( )
help yourself (translated as a whole)
Each unit of translation belongs to a certain language level. So, every translation is performed at a definite
language level.

The phoneme level


The phoneme is a speech sound, the smallest 1-facet language unit, it has a form but has no meaning. This unit
of translation is mainly relevant to the translation of proper names, geographical names, internationalisms, units
of specific national lexicon and neologisms.
Bush ( ), hryvnia, dollar ,
computer , varenyky

The morpheme level


The morpheme is the smallest indivisible 2-facet language unit (has both form and meaning). It is the smallest
sense unit.
superprofit , cloudless

The word level


The word is the basic 2-facet language unit. The word is the smallest independent sense unit. Words are
divisible (for morphemes).
blackboard ( - if translated at a word level, if translated as it is a morpheme level)
strawberry , dog

The word-combination level


The word-combination is the largest 2-facet lexical unit comprising more that 1 word.
first night
to come up roses

The sentence level


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The sentence a 2-facet speech unit which conveys a more or less complete thought.The sentence may express a
statement,a command or a question.
Every dark cloud has a silver lining. .
A cat may look at a king. .
! Bless you!

The text level


The text is the largest 2-facet language unit, consisting of sentences bound by the same idea. This unit of
translation may function in poetry.

13. EQUIVALENCE IN TRANSLATION (TRANSLATION EQUIVALENCE)

Translation equivalence is a measure of semantic similarity between the SLT and TLT. The degree of semantic
similarity between the texts involved in the process of translation may vary /veeri/. The equivalence between the
SLT and TLT may be based on the reproduction of different parts of the ST contents. So, several types of
translation equivalents can be distinguished:

1st type of Translation Equivalence implies retention (, ) in the translation of the purport
(=the purpose, the general intent, the intention) of communication.
Ex. there is some chemistry between us that doesnt mix , ,
velvet paws hide sharp claws ,
A dissimilarity of language units is accompanied by the absence of any obvious logical link between the SLT and
TLT. But the information retained in the translation (=the purport of com.) is enough to ensure an adequate
communication. (It is the lowest type/level only the purport of communication is preserved).

2nd type of TE implies retention in the tr.of the purport of communication and the identification of the situation
(=there are 2 meaningful components) Ex. he answered the phone
Most of the words and syntactical structures of the original have no direct correspondences in the translation. But
the SLT and TLT are based on the same situation which is described differently.

3rd type of TE implies retention in the translation of the purport of communication, the identification of the
situation and the method of describing the situation. The translation retains the same basic notions as the original.
The translation may be viewed as a semantic paraphrase of the original which preserves its basic notions and
allows their free reshuffle/rearrangement in the sentence.
Ex. scrubbing makes me bad-tempered

4th type of TE implies retention in the translation of the purport of communication, the identification of the
situation, the method of describing the situation and (the invariant meaning of) the syntactical structure.
Ex. I dont think that I need to convince you (Sentences look dif
but syntactic structure is the same,
here the Eng. subordinate object
clause corresponds to the Ukr.object)
He was sitting with his arms crossed (The Propositional Nominative Participial
Construction with his arms crossed
corresponds to the adverbial modifier
in the Ukr. sentence)

5th type of TE implies retention in the translation of the purport of communication, the identification of the
situation, the method of describing the situation, invariant meaning of the syntactical structure and word
semantics (lexical meaning of words). (It is the highest type/level of TE)
Ex. The president signed a very important agreement .

Every translation can be regarded as belonging to a certain type of translation equivalence. Since each
subsequent type of translation equivalence implies a higher degree of semantic similarity, every translation is
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performed at a certain level of translation equivalence. The level hierarchy doesnt imply the idea of
disapprobation and approbation because a good translation can be made at any level of translation equivalence.

14. TRANSLATION EQUIVALENTS

Since language units often function in their accepted meanings, many SL units have regular equivalents in the
TL.
Regular equivalents are divided into permanent and non-permanent (variable).

Some SL units have permanent equivalents, it means there is a one-to-one correspondence between such units
and their equivalents in the TL.
(ex. phoneme - ). This type of correspondence is found with proper and geographical names, technical
terms and similar words whose meaning is more or less independent of any context.
Ex. London , Ukraine
Other SL units may have several equivalents each, they are called non-permanent equivalents. This type of
one-to-many correspondence is usual for the most regular equivalents. The existence of non-permanent
equivalents implies the necessity of selecting one of them in the process of translation.
Ex. execution , (here the word execution has at least two non-permanent equivalents
, )

According to the type of the language units involved, regular equivalents are divided into:
Lexical - it can be both permanent and non-permanent
Ex. Mazepa, the Ukr. word has a permanent equivalent in the Eng. language - Mazepa)
The choice of a non-permanent equivalent depends on the context in which the SL unit is used in the SLT. There
are 2 types of context:

1. The linguistic context is made up by the other SL units in the SLT.


Ex. politics, policy (The Ukr.word is translated as policy in the context
foreign policy,
politics in the context
to go to politics)

2. The situational context is made up by circumstances under which the SLT was produced.
Ex. he gave me a ring /

Phraseological units also have permanent and non-permanent equivalents.


Permanent equivalents may be based on the same image or different images.
Ex. to cross the Rubicon and the Ukr.equivalent (is an example of the phraseological units
based on the same image)
to sink or swim (is an example of the phraseological units based on the different images)
Non-permanent equivalents: Ex.velvet paws hide sharp claws , ; ,
;

There are practically no permanent grammatical equivalents. Non-permanent equivalents in the sphere of
grammar are usually analogous forms or different forms with similar meaning.
Ex. He was a guest of honor at the reception given by the embassy

(here the Eng. Participle given may be translated as a Ukr. Participle or
a subordinate attributive clause ?)
The use of occasional equivalents is much more common in grammar than in vocabulary.
Ex. He was a guest of honor at the reception given by the embassy
.

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15. TRANSLATION OF EQUIVALENT-LACKING UNITS

Since language units often function in their accepted meanings, many SL units have regular equivalents in the
TL. A number of SL units have no regular equivalents in the TL. The absence of regular equivalents makes the
translator resort to occasional equivalents.

Equivalent-lacking words may be translated in one of the following ways:

1. by imitating the form of a SL word/word group through transcription, transliteration or loan translation. In the
course of time such occasional formations may get the status of regular equivalents:
Ex. impeachment ( transcription), inauguration (transliteration), brain wash
(loan translation)

2. by using approximate substitutes, i.e. TL words with similar meaning which is extended to convey some
additional information
Ex. drug store (drug store sells medicine as well as other goods, so the choice of the variant depends
on the context)

3. using lexical transformations (ex. The word exposure is equivalent-lacking in the meaning of the medical
condition caused when smb has been exposed to severe weather conditions, so its meaning is modulated in the
process of translation. Accordingly the sentence He died of exposure may be translated as
/ )
or the same word drugstore may be translated as , so its meaning may be generalized.
4. by using an explanation (landslide , )

Equivalent-lacking phraseological units are translated in one of the following ways:


1. by word-for word translation (ex. people who live in glass shouldnt throw stones ,
)
2. by explaining their figurative meaning (ex. to dine with duke Humphrey , white
elephant , )

Equivalent-lacking grammatical units are translated in one of the following ways:

1. by using zero translations the meaning of an equivalent-lacking unit is not rendered because it is practically
identical to the meaning of some other SL units
Ex. By that time he had already left (Here the Past Perf. Tense is equivalent-
lacking, the meaning of the Past Perf.
Tense (priority - ) is not conveyed by the verb left, because it is identical to the word
already and by that time).

2. by using approximate translations TL units with similar meaning


Ex. I heard him playing the piano (Here a complex object clause him playing
corresponds to a subordinate object
clause (Objective Participial
Construction)

3. by using grammatical transformations


Ex. Your presence is not obligatory. Nor is it desirable
(it represents integration)

16-18. MODELS OF TRANSLATION

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A model is a conventional representation of the translating process describing mental operations by which the ST
or some part of it may be translated, irrespective of whether these operations are actually performed by the
translator.
Translation models can be oriented either toward the situation reflected in the ST or toward the meaningful
components of the ST. Every translation model postulates the existence of some interlingual level of equivalence.

The situational (referential) model is based on the identity of the situations described in the original text and in
the translation. The intermediate level is extralinguistic. The process of translating consists of two stages:
1) the break-through to the situation (the translator understands the actual situation described in the ST);
2) the description of this situation in the TL (the translator says the same thing in the TL).
Wet paint. , . Keep off the grass. .
Make yourself at home. .

The transformational model is based on the identity of nuclear structures in the SL and the TL. The immediate
level is linguistic (structural). The model postulates the existence of nuclear structures common to the SL and the
TL. The process of translating consists of three stages:
1) the stage of analysis (the transformation of the original structures into the nuclear structures within the SL);
2) the stage of translation proper (the replacement of the SL nuclear structures with the equivalent nuclear
structures in the TL);
3) the stage of synthesis (the development of the TL nuclear structures into the terminal structures in the TL).

1)They heard a bomb explode. A bomb exploded. They heard.


2)A bomb exploded. . They heard. ().
3) . (). (), . .

The semantic model is based on the identity of basic notions in the SL and TL. The intermediate level is
linguistic (semantic). The model postulates the existence of deep semantic categories common to the SL and the
TL. The process of translating consists of three stages:
1) the stage of analysis (the reduction of the original semantic units to the basic semantic categories within the
SL);
2) the stage of translation proper (the replacement of the SL basic semantic categories with the equivalent basic
semantic categories in the TL);
3) the stage of synthesis (the development of the TL basic semantic categories into the terminal notions in the
TL).

1) ) , ( )
) , ( )
) , ( )
) , ( )
2) ) , ( ) a male (not relevant)
) , ( ) studies
) , ( ) goes to college or university
) , ( ) one person
3) a person who is studying at a university or college - student

19. ROMANIZATION OF THE UKRAINIAN ALPHABET

Romanization is the representation of a word or language with Roman (Latin) alphabet or a system for doing
so.
Romanization includes 2 methods: transcription and transliteration.
Transcription is the substitution of sounds in the process of translation.
Transliteration is the substitution of letters in the process of translation.
In most cases Romanization involves a compromise between transcription and transliteration.
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There are 2 official systems of Romanization in Ukraine:
I. The Ukrainian National Transliteration System was adopted by the Ukrainian Legal Terminology
Commission on the 19th of April 1996.
This system is based on English orthography (only English letters) and is widely used to represent Ukrainian
geographical names, which were romanized from Russian before Ukrainian independence in 1991.

Provisions:
1) The use of the approved system is binding for the transliteration of Ukrainian names into English in official
and legislative acts.

2) This system itself is not mandatory for the transliteration of foreign names into Ukrainian (it has only one-way
direction Ukr-Eng).

3) Transliteration must be performed directly between Ukrainian and English without the use of any intermediary
languages
ex. Odessa (from Russian) Odesa (from Ukrainian)

4) This system allows a number of simplifications:


softening and apostrophe marks (/) may be omitted in transliteration, except for = o / = i
Ukrainian letters which correspond to 2 Latin letters, if doubled in Ukrainian, may be transliterated as 1
Ukrainian letter
ex. Zaporizhzhya Zaporizhya

5) The system includes a short list of official spellings:


Ukraine, Crimea (without the, not Ukrayina)
the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov

6) In certain cases, traditional forms may be given in parentheses () after the official variants:
ex. The traditional form Dnieper may be given after the official variant Dnipro: Dnipro (Dnieper)

Ukrainian English Notes Examples


letters letters
A
B
V
H, Gh H in most cases, Gh when
recreating in combination

G
D
E
Ye, ie Ye at the beginning, ie in Yeltsin
other position
Zh
Z
Y
I

12
Yi, i Yi at the beginning, i in other
position
Y, i Y at the beginning, i in other
position
K
L
M
N
O
P
R
S
T
U
F
Kh
Ts
Ch
Sh
Sch
may be omitted
Yu, iu Yu at the beginning, iu in Yushchenko
other position
Ya, ia Ya at the beginning, ia in Yanukovych
other position
may be omitted

II. The Ukrainian Official Transliteration System for Personal Names in Ukrainian Passports was
adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers in 2007 (on 26 of June?).

According to this system:


The Ukrainian letters and are transliterated as G
Ie (irrespective of the position) I - Shch
Iu (irrespective of the position) I is not transliterated (ignored)
Ia (irrespective of the position) I is not transliterated (ignored)

20. THE TRANSLATORS FALSE FRIENDS

The translators false friends are words and expressions which have similar form but different meaning in the SL
and in the TL. Their formal similarity is deceptive () and may lead to translation mistakes.

The translators false friends are divided into 2 groups:


1. words similar in form but absolutely different in meaning (The Eng. magazine and the Ukr. , lunatic
- )
2. words similar in form but partially different in meaning (student,,,
(of); bank , ())

The translators false friends are not interchangeable due to the following factors:

1. the semantic factor which results from different historical development of such words in the SL and in the TL
minister , ,

13
2. the stylistic factor which results from the difference in connotation (an ability to evoke negative/positive
emotion) of such words in the SL and in the TL
ambitious - (The Eng. ambitious is positive and the Ukr. used to be/was negative )
3. The colocability factor/ valency factor which results from the difference in combinability rules in the SL and
the TL
defects (The Eng. defects and the Ukr. defects in the election campaign /
, but not )

4. The pragmatic factor which results from the difference in background knowledge in the SL and the TL
speech communities
American Revolution
coup detat

aspirant , decade , 10
presidential ~ - census
orale intelligence , ,
velvet integrity
the Emancipation Proclamation . extravagant , (
. .)
the Am. Revolution . militia ,
Premier assembly ( )
~ Khrushchev , ..( pathetic
) partisan ,
the Cuban Missile Crisis invalid , ,
accord ,
Dutch guerilla ,
adept , catholic
ammunition execution

21. NEOLOGISMS

22. TRANSLATION OF UNITS OF SPECIFIC NATIONAL LEXICON ()

Units of specific national lexicon are words and phrases standing for ( ) specific national
phenomena, namely notions of material and spiritual life. They are: customs and traditions (Thanksgiving Day,
Ivana Kupala), administrative and political systems (Verkhovna Rada, Congress, primaries), public bodies
( ), monetary systems (hryvnia, dollar), clothes (vyshyvanka), food (varenyky), drinks (Horilka),
systems of weights and measures (English mile, Ukrainian verstva, pud), proper names (Klychko, Sergii) etc.
In the course of time such words may get the status of internationalisms, if they are important for
communication (Coca-Cola, jeans, vodka, champagne, whisky, pizza).

Taking into account various peculiarities of meaning and form of units of specific national lexicon, several ways
of conveying their meaning can be distinguished:

1. transcription/ transliteration (if the meaning of these units of specific national lexicon is already familiar to
the translation receptor and does not require any additional explanation):
Lord
Hryvnia

2. transcription/ transliteration and description (when the unit of specific national lexicon is introduced in
the TL for the 1st time or it is not yet known to the general public; the explanation may be given either in the TT
or in a footnote):
Tower of London
Downing Street -
Khreshchatyk (the main street of Kyiv)
14
varenyky (dumplings/ a traditional Ukrainian dish)

3. description only (when transcription/ transliteration is not helpful or could bring about unnecessary
ambiguity (, ):
The Union Jack
to get married

4. word-for-word translation and additional explanation (description) (due to the complexity of meaning):
Inner Cabinet ( ,
)
The Gulf War

5. word-for-word translation (when constituents have transparent lexical meaning):


collective farm
wall newspaper
Yaroslav the Wise Order

6. translation by means of semantic analogies (TL units analogous or similar in meaning):


prince, graduation essay/project
Mr miss
Mrs ms /miz/ - ,

Ex. Wall Street -, -/-


Threadneedle Street - ( )
The Diamond State ,
The Lone-Star State ,
The Depression

23. TRANSLATION OF PHRASEOLOGICAL UNITS (IDIOMS)

Phraseological units are structurally ( , ), lexically (


, ) and semantically (. . ,
) stable language units (word-combinations or sentences), the meaning of which is not made up by the sum
of meanings of their component parts.
Ph. units cant be freely made up in speech but they are reproduced as ready-made units ().

Taking into account various peculiarities of meaning and form of ph.units, several ways of rendering their
meaning can be distinguished:

1. By choosing absolute or complete equivalents


This is the method of translating when every componential part of the SL idiom is retained unchanged in the
TL. This method works when an idiom originates from Greek or other mythology (Augean stables
, Pandoras box ), ancient history or literature (to cross the Rubicon -
), the Holy Scripture (a lost sheep ), literary or historical sources (the fifth column
) or any other language (Eng. time is money -, Fr. after us the deluge
), also some expressions belonging to English and American writers and politicians (the cold war
, iron curtain )

2. Translation of idioms by choosing near equivalents


A considerable number of ph.units originating in the SL and the TL from a common source may have one or
more of their components different.
Ex. bakers dozen
as pale as paper
love is the mother of love
15
measure twice, cut once ,

3. Translation by choosing (genuine idiomatic) analogies


A number of SL ph.units have idiomatic analogies in the TL. As a rule these ph.units are based on different
images and may have quite different structures. Nevertheless such units are very close in their meaning and may
be used interchangeably in the process of translation. Usually these are proverbs and sayings. A number of such
ph.units may have several/ two or more analogies in the TL.
Ex. like mistress, like maid
dont teach your grandmother to suck eggs , ,

4. Translating idioms by choosing approximate analogies


? Some idioms may have a peculiar nature of their componental parts and there is no genuine phraseological
analogies for the units in the TL. Therefore the lexical meaning can be expressed by means of approximate
analogies or in a descriptive way. These analogies are slightly similar to the SL but no less picturesque (to lose
ones breath , to come off scot free ).
_Some SL ph.units are only partly/partially similar in their meaning to certain TL idioms. So they can be used
interchangeable as translation equivalents only in certain contexts.
Ex. to be born with a silver spoon in ones mouth (means to be born lucky) ,
(=)
( , .)
a jack of all trades (but master of nons) (negative meaning) (positive meaning)

5. Descriptive translating of ph.units


The meaning of a considerable number of ph.units can be rendered only in descriptive way.
Depending on the complexity of meaning of the SL idiom, it can be expressed in the TL in following ways:
by single word (to pall and peal , to go aloft )
with the help of word-combination or sentence (to shoot Niagara , well-
day )

Ex. a kid-glove policy , carrot and stick diplomacy


.-
scorched-earth policy .- the common touch
( ) ( )
wait-and-see policy .- to strike the middle ground ,
to play politics . ()
dollar diplomacy

24-26. COMPLEX SUBJECT, OBJECT

27-29. TRANSLATION TRANSFORMATIONS

The process of translation may be viewed as a number of manipulations with the form or content of the
original (SLText) as a result of which the translator creates the TLText.
Translation transformations are operations with the SLT aimed at conveying its meaning with maximum (-al)
faithfulness in strict compliance with the standards of the TL.
The type of the operation/ transformation is identified by comparing the SLT and the TLT.
Translation transformations may be classified according to different criteria. These classifications offer an
overlap and are rather conventional.

I group imitation translation transformations are characterized by imitation of the form of a SL word
/word group in the TL.
This group includes:

1) transcription (phonetic imitation) is a substitution of sounds in the process of translation, i.e. (that is to say)
the replacement of SL sounds with the corresponding sounds of the TL.
16
New-Castle -
impeachment
leader

2) transliteration (graphic imitation) the substitution of letters in the process of translation, i.e. the replacement
of SL letters with the corresponding letters of the TL.
London (but not )
Dublin -
club -
Transcription and transliteration are often used to translate proper names, including geographical names, streets,
the names of newspapers and magazines, as well as internationalisms, neologisms and units of specific national
lexicon.
Bush
General Motors
The Financial Times
gaydar
In recent decades there has been a tendency to transcribe rather then transliterate proper names.

3) loan translation (ways of translation equivalent-lacking units) , - is the creation


of words and word-combinations from the material (of=) available in the TL but according to SL patterns by
way of word-for-word or morpheme-for-morpheme translation.
organized crime
world market
The United Nations Organization
collective farm (kolkhoz)
superpfofit (morpheme-for-morpheme translation)
superpower (morpheme-for-morpheme translation)
Loan translation is used to translate proper names, internationalisms, neologisms and units of specific national
lexicon.
Richard the Lionheart(ed) ( - transliteration)
Chingachgook the Big Serpent (Chingachgook transliteration from one of the
native American languages)
In loan translation the word order of a word-combination may be changed.
The United Nations Organization (, but not )
The World Trade Organization (, but not )
Transcription and transliteration may go together with loan translation.
petrodollar
superpower ( - transliteration, =loan translation)

II group Lexical translation transformations involve various/ different/ certain semantic changes.
This group includes:

- Specialization (, ) is the choice of a more specific TL word or word-combination,


which gives a more detailed description of the notion designated to be the SL unit.
It is frequently used in the English-Ukrainian translation because English often uses/ makes use of general
terms/ words to describe quite definite notions.
to say/ tell , , ,
to come , ,
to go , , ,
meal ( )
hand ( )
My bedroom was changed. And I was to lie a long way off. .
/

- Generalization () is the use of an equivalent with a more general meaning.


17
This transformation is more often used in the Ukrainian-English translation.
to say
to give (She was given a box of chocolate.)
hand ( )
I packed my two Gladstones. . (Gladstone , )
(p.s. Gladstones (loan translation), - (transcription)
(.. , , ex. Rolex - )

- Modulation ( ) is the creation of an equivalent by logical deducing its meaning


from the SL unit.
The window was full of clothes I wouldnt want to be seen dead in. ,
.
A fiesta of tropical bounds ( generalization, .
=modulation)

- Addition () is the introduction of some additional lexical components to the TL text.


He began a new book. / / ( ,
)
oil countries -
They signed a cease(-)fire. .

- Omission (, ) is the reduction of some excessive elements in the process of


translation.
. I feel well.
cease-fire
pollution and environmental damage , (pollution omission,
- addition)
bold and courageous struggle (.. , . -=>1
, -)

III group Grammatical translation transformations involve various grammatical changes.

This group includes:

1) Transposition () is the rearrangement of language units in the TLT in comparison with their
arrangement in the SLT.
. I met a great guy at the party yesterday/ Yesterday
I met a great guy at the party.
The most common case of transposition is the change of the word order in a sentence or rearrangement of
clauses.
Russian President signed a limited partnership agreement in Rome on Friday.
.
, .
The Iraqi Kurds have been striving for/ seeking (for) independence since the Gulf war ended.
3) Substitution () is the change of grammatical units in the process of translation. It includes:

1. The change of the grammatical form of a word.


. I like strawberries. (here the Ukrainian word used in the singular
corresponds to/ is translated as the English word strawberries, used in the
plural)
outskirts , , . On the outskirts .
money
Mr. Bush says (here the English verb says used in the Present may be translated as the
Ukrainian verb used in the Past).

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2. The change of the part of speech.
The Ukrainian President (here the English adjective Ukrainian is translated as/
corresponds to the Ukr. noun ).
. I am a light eater.

3. The change of the parts of a sentence/ of the syntactical function.


The statement says (Here the Ukrainian adverbial modifier is translated as the
English subject statement).
The terrorist was killed by a/the US Marine. .
subject
(Here the English subject terrorist is translated as/ corresponds to the Ukrainian object )
predicate
(Here the English object Marine corresponds to the Ukrainian subject ) object
, attribute
adverbial modifier

4. The change of the number of sentences or clauses. It includes:


Partitioning () is breaking an original sentence into several parts (sentences) in the
translation, or replacing a simple sentence in the original with a complex one in the translation.
. Your presence at the
meeting is not necessary. Nor is it desirable.
I saw you dancing. . (dancing object or complex subject)
Integration (, ) is combining 2 or more original sentences into 1 in the
translation, or replacing a complex sentence in the original with a simple one in the translation.
Your presence is not obligatory. Nor is it desirable.
.
Though it was pretty late, the bar was full of people.
. ( - adverbial modifier)

30. COMPLEX TRANSLATION TRANSFORMATIONS

Complex translation transformations involve a number of changes of both lexical and grammatical nature.
This group includes:
1. Descriptive translation
2. Antonymic translation
3. Compensation is a deliberate introduction of some elements in order to compensate/ make up for the
loss of similar elements at the same or an earlier stage of translation.
Im nothing to you not so much as them slippers. Those slippers.
- , . !

19