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INTRODUCTION

Varanasi: The Union cabinet has approved the 4-lane project of National Highway-
56 between Sultanpur and Lucknow. The Nation Highway Authority of India
(NHAI) has already started conversion of existing NH-56 between Varanasi and
Sultanpur.

NHAI project director Rajeev Agrawal, who will assumed charge of regional
officer of UP unit at Lucknow on Friday, disclosed it to TOI on Thursday. On
Wednesday, the Union cabinet approved the lane conversion of 125-km road
between Sultanpur and Lucknow. The decision was taken when the NHAI
chairman Raghav Chandra was holding a review meeting with officials here on
Wednesday to review the progress of on-going as well as proposed projects of
highways in east UP.

The tender process and awarding of work to the construction company will be
completed within two months. After it, five months would be required to complete
other basic works including land acquisition. The cost of construction of Lucknow-
Sultanpur four-lane highway is being estimated as Rs 1,875 crore.

The proposal to convert 4-lane NH-56 is in pipeline for more than a decade.
Initially, the Congress-led UPA government at Centre gave approval for it in 2013.
Despite beginning basic work on Varanasi-Sultanpur patch, the NHAI could not
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proceed further. With the change in guard at the Centre in 2014, the process of land
acquisition and other basic works for the project started between Varanasi-
Sultanpur. But, the proposal to 4-lane the highway between Lucknow and
Sultanpur was sent again to the government for approval.

The officials said that construction between Lucknow and Sultanpur would start
latest by January 2017 and it would take 30 months to complete it. With the
completion of this project, driving on the four-lane highway may become safe. The
journey between Varanasi and Lucknow could be completed within four hours, the
officials said.

At present, road journey between Varanasi and Lucknow is time taking due to
overloaded two-lane road, a large number of railway crossings and crowded
markets of townships situated along the existing highway.

Keeping the ground realities in view, the NHAI has proposed measures like
bypasses, railway over bridges (ROB), vehicle underpass (VUP), pedestrian
underpass and service roads for slow moving vehicles near populated areas
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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Following are the objectives of the study:

Widening of Road
To conduct the necessary topographic and traffic
studies to assess the physical and traffic conditions
and site limitation.
To analyze traffic data make projection to understand
present and future requirement from traffic point of
view.
To design the section and prepare traffic
management plan.
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PLANNING
It means the managerial function which decided by a
person What to do a job.

RAW MATERIAL:

Regular supply of raw material in proper quantity must be


ensured. The regular supply required a long from
planning. In the absence if proper supply of material at
site of construction of project may be wintered.

ORGANIZATION:

Organization depends upon the type and volume of the


work as well as method of execution. An organization
setup carefully and should be simple and balanced.

JOINT EFFORTS:
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A good joint effortsis also necessary between various


agencies working together in the project.

ESTIMATING:

Before starting the project work a proper


estimating of the project should be made so that in future
problems may be avoided.

COMMUNICATION:

For execution of project and effective communication of


institution order or any changes in the plan design is
must essential in an organization.

TRANSPORTATION:

There should be good transport facility for transportation


to the materials at site. Transportation should be timely
so that work may not stop. Development of project can
possible where there is a good transportation.
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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DUE TO


HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION
The environmental impact of roads (both positive and negative) include
the local effects of highways (public roads) such as on noise, water
pollution, habitat destruction/disturbance and local air quality; and the
wider effects which may include climate change from vehicle emissions.
The design, construction and management of roads, parking and other
related facilities as well as the design and regulation of vehicles can
change the impacts to varying degrees.

Air quality
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Roads can have both negative and positive effects on air quality.

Negative impacts
Main article: Motor vehicle emissions
Air pollution from fossil powered vehicles can occur wherever vehicles
are used and are of particular concern in congested city street conditions
and other low speed circumstances. Emissions include particulate
emissions from diesel engines, NOx, volatile organic compounds,
Carbon monoxide and various other hazardous air pollutants including
benzene.
Concentrations of air pollutants and adverse respiratory health effects
are greater near the road than at some distance away from the road. Road
dust kicked up by vehicles may trigger allergic reactions. Carbon
dioxide is non-toxic to humans but is a major greenhouse gas and motor
vehicle emissions are an important contributor to the growth of CO2
concentrations in the atmosphere and therefore to global warming.

Positive impacts
The construction of new roads which divert traffic from built-up areas
can deliver improved air quality to the areas relieved of a significant
amount of traffic. The Environmental and Social Impact Assessment
Study carried out for the development of the Tirana Outer Ring Road
estimated that it would result in improved air quality in Tirana city
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centre.

A new section of road being built near Hindheadto replace a four-mile


section of the A3 road, and which includes the new Hindhead Tunnel, is
expected by the government to deliver huge environmental benefits to
the area including the removal of daily congestion, the elimination of air
pollution in Hindhead caused by the congestion, and the removal of an
existing road which crosses the environmentally sensitive Devil's
Punchbowl area of outstanding natural beauty.

Noise
Motor vehicle traffic on roads will generate noise.

Negative impacts
Road noise can be a nuisance if it impinges on population centres,
especially for roads at higher operating speeds, near intersections and on
uphill sections. Noise health effects can be expected in such locations
from road systems used by large numbers of motor vehicles. Noise
mitigation strategies exist to reduce sound levels at nearby sensitive
receptors. The idea that road design could be influenced by acoustical
engineering considerations first arose about 1973.
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Speed bumps, which are usually deployed in built-up areas, can increase
noise pollution. Especially if large vehicles use the road and particularly
at night.

Positive impacts
New roads can divert traffic away from population centres thus relieving
the noise pollution. A new road scheme planned in Shropshire, UK
promises to reduce traffic noise in Shrewsbury town centre.

Water pollution
Urban runoff from roads and other impervious surfaces is a major source
of water pollution. Rainwater and snowmelt running off of roads tends
to pick up gasoline, motor oil, heavy metals, trash and other pollutants.
Road runoff is a major source of nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are created as
combustion by products of gasoline and other fossil fuels.
De-icing chemicals and sand can run off into roadsides, contaminate
groundwater and pollute surface waters. Road salts (primarily chlorides
of sodium, calcium or magnesium) can be toxic to sensitive plants and
animals.Sand can alter stream bed environments, causing stress for the
plants and animals that live there.

Habitat fragmentation
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Roads can act as barriers or filters to animal movement and lead to


habitat fragmentation. Many species will not cross the open space
created by a road due to the threat of predation and roads also cause
increased animal mortality from traffic.This barrier effect can prevent
species from migrating and recolonising areas where the species has
gone locally extinct as well as restricting access to seasonally available
or widely scattered resources.
Habitat fragmentation may also divide large continuous populations into
smaller more isolated populations. These smaller populations are more
vulnerable to genetic drift, inbreeding depression and an increased risk
of population decline and extinction.
Another negative effect is the amount of space roads take up. When
cutting through forests, they prevent the growth of many trees as trees
cannot grow through paved roads. On unpaved roads, vehicle tires and
foot traffic compact soil and prevent plant growth. As trees take up CO2
and as they also house animals, this increases the environmental damage
inflicted.

Facilitation of poaching of flora and fauna


Main articles: Bush meat, Wildlife trade and Illegal logging
Roads that run through forests that house edible animals may encourage
or facilitate poaching. Especially in poor areas, the construction of roads
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has promoted not only poaching for personal consumption but also for
sale (for consumption or as a pet) to third parties.

Similarly, the construction of roads in forested areas has also promoted


illegal logging as it becomes easier for illegal loggers to transport the
wood.

Recycling
Materials removed from a road can be reused in construction within the
same project or in other locations. Road construction can also use waste
materials from other industries.

Asphalt pavement is one of the most recycled materials in the United


States. It is estimated that over 80% of asphalt pavement removed from
roadways is reused as construction aggregate. It can be mixed into new
pavement or used as a subbase or fill material. Similarly, concrete from
road or building demolition can be an excellent source of aggregate.

Common examples of waste products used in road building include coal


fly ash (used to make concrete stronger), asphalt shingles and shredded
tires (used in asphalt pavement), ground glass and steel mill slag (used
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as aggregates).

In 2012, US asphalt plants used an estimated 68.3 million tons of


reclaimed asphalt pavement, 1.86 million tons of recycled asphalt
shingles, and over 1 million tons of other recycled materials to produce
new asphalt.

After study of this, we came on this point that the


advantages of this construction project are much
in the comparison of disadvantages. So our
construction project are valid in the point of
environmental issue.

SURVEY
RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY:
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In this survey we draw roughly sketch of the


proposed site. The topography of site is in the level.

PRELICINARY SURVEY:

In this survey we select the site for building. We marked


the area about 1 km. on the select site and consider the
approach road.

DETAILED SURVEY:

1 PLANE TABLE SURVEY:

In detailed survey, first we do plane table


survey then we do orientation by back sight method. We
marked all the main objects or details. In this survey
following apparatus are used-

i. Plane table with tripod.


ii. Plumb Bob.
iii. Alidade.
iv. U-fork etc.

2 L-SECTION AND CROSS SECTION:


We prepare the L- section and cross section
survey finding of reduced level of about 1 km. in
contouring survey we selected the main station at the
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distance of about 30 m. In this survey the following


apparatus are use used-
i. Dumpy level.
ii. Tape.
iii. Tripod.
iv. Leveling staff.
v. Pegs etc.

DRAWING:

Through survey we prepare the L-section, cross section


of bituminous road for calculation of earthwork
bituminous road.

TYPE OF SOIL:

The soil of selected site is sandy alluvial and its


bearing capacity is 30 T/m2.

ELECTRICITY:

There is no electric problem because Indira Nagar has a


super power station which can bear the load of
electricity.

WATTER SUPPLY:
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There is no problem for water supply construction of


road.

SURVEY RESULT:

In my opinion this is good site for construction because


soil is good and there is no problem of electricity and
water supply and no problem at all.

Traffic Density of Sunday

SL.N Time Vehicle Per Hour


o.
1 4:30 am to 5:30 317
am
2 8:30 am to 9:30 859
am
3 12:30 pm to 1:30 934
pm
4 2:30 pm to 3:30 993
pm
5 8:00 pm to 9:00 1072
pm
6 11:00 pm to 587
12:00 am
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Table 1: Hourly Classified Traffic Volume in Gosainganj


crossing

MONDAY

Time To T1 T2 T2 T3 T3S2
0-1 142 210 53 10 21 10
1-2 173 315 60 18 59 12
2-3 165 418 65 150 136 15
3-4 401 817 121 160 312 17
4-5 1010 915 340 201 314 19
5-6 1190 1015 409 251 319 20
6-7 1290 3010 550 230 352 22
7-8 1520 4501 620 212 316 41
8-9 2001 4987 468 215 366 30
9-10 2901 6813 235 218 416 31
10-11 2601 6813 217 213 412 17
11-12 1449 5967 281 225 400 15
12-13 1031 3283 105 172 312 29
13-14 1205 2850 131 180 386 29
14-15 2487 2213 214 185 385 23
15-16 1650 2120 319 200 395 12
16-17 9017 4851 351 230 301 16
17-18 503 6803 387 215 250 12
18-19 390 6986 214 213 265 10
19-20 195 4831 65 150 211 11
20-21 186 5213 60 130 243 18
21-22 101 3421 58 73 132 7
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22-23 100 1364 40 80 86 7


23-24 87 832 20 62 69 6

T0 Two wheeler

T1 PCU (auto or car, jeep)

T2 Both axles single tyre, commercial vehicle as tractor


pick up

T2 front axel single tyre, rare axel dual tyre(bus, truck)

T3 - Truck tandem axel fitted 8 tyre

T3S2 Semi trailer tractor combinations

Yearly Growth rate of vehicles


Year Growth rate
2001 7.05
2002 7.13
2003 7.15
2004 7.21
2005 7.29
2006 7.31
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2007 7.81
2008 8.00
2009 8.13
2010 8.16
2011 8.65
2012 8.93
2013 9.37
2014 9.67
2015 9.77
2016 9.83

Average Growth=131.46/16=8.22%

SERIES OF LEVEL FOR PLOTTING OF X-


SECTION OF BITUMINOUS ROAD
stati BS IS FS HI RL
on
1 0.585 _ _ 215.505 215
C0 2.705 212.800
L1.5 2.905 212.600
L8.5 3.080 212.425
L12 3.055 212.450
L15 4.54 210.965
R1.5 2.905 212.6
R8.5 3.080 212.425
R12 3.055 212.450
R15 4.54 210.965
BS=0.505 FS=4.54

(FS -BS)= (first L1-last L1)

(4.54-0.505)=(215-210.965)
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4.035=4.035

METHODOLOGY
The study of methodology consist of following-

Field survey.
Traffic survey.
1. FIELD SURVEY:

In order to meet the objectives of the study following


field surveys were conducted for specific objectives-

INVENTORY SURVEY:

Reconnaissance survey and preliminary inventory survey


was carried out in order to appreciate the importance of
the study area in respect of city road network and have
field situation in order to plan and conduct the detailed
field survey. During the survey it was observed that the
existing road four lane wide and is being developed as six
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lane divided carriageway with 45m. row to 60m. row at


various locations.

TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY:

The covered intersection area up to 300 m. length along


all the intersecting road from center of intersection in
each direction covering the strip of road up to building
line or ring of way whichever was more the survey
covered all the existing feature at the ground such as
pavement, median shoulder, footpath, drain island,
electric pole telephone pole/boxes, water line, man holes
etc. The survey also gave the details of levels at every
25 m interval along road and cross section levels at
every 5 m interval at all these location. The survey was
done to prepare the map of existing topographic features
for design into consideration all limitation and typical
feature of the ground at theses intersections.

2. TRAFFIC SURVEY:
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Following traffic surveys were conducted in order


understand and appreciate traffic characteristics each
of these intersections-

TRAFFIC VOLUME SURVEY:

Classified traffic volume survey was conducted


at all these intersection on a normal working day during
month of Feb 2017. This survey was conducted for 12
hours at Sultanpur road. The classified count of each
vehicle such as cars, two wheelers, auto rickshaw, light
commercial vehicles (LCV), buses, trucks, slow moving
vehicle (SMV) such as cycle rickshaw bicycles were taken
separately for each direction of flow on each approach
roads of the intersections at every 1Hr. interval for entire
duration of survey was conducted using pre design field
performs seats. This survey was conducted to assess the
daily traffic volume hourly variation peak hour volume
and turning movement along with traffic composition and
these intersection in order to account it for in the design.

SPEED AND DELAY SURVEY:


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Speed and delay survey was carried out on the


study of NH 56. The survey was conducted during peak
periods of traffic on normal working days. These runs by
test car were made on the entire stretch in both direction
of flow while driver was as to drive the vehicle.

GEOMETRIC DESIGN OF ROAD


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The geometric design of roads is the branch of highway


engineering concerned with the positioning of the
physical elements of the roadway according to standards
and constrains. The basic objectives in geometric design
are to optimize efficiency safety while minimizing cost
and environmental damage. Geometric design also
affects an emerging fifth objective called livability,
which is defined as designing roads to foster broader
community goals, including providing access to
employment, schools, businesses and residences,
accommodate a range of travel modes such as walking,
bicycling, transit and automobiles and minimizing fuel
use, emissions and environmental damage.

Geometric roadway design can be broken into three main


parts

Alignment
Profile
Cross section

Combined they provide a three dimensional layout for a


roadway.
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The alignment is the route of the road, defined a as


series of horizontal tangents and curves.

The profile is the vertical aspect of the road, including


crest and sag curves, and straight grade lines
connecting them.

The cross section shows the position and number of


vehicle and bicycle lanes sidewalks, along with their
cross slope or banking. Cross section also shows
drainage features, pavement structure and other items
outside the category of geometric design.

Design standards

Roads are designed in conjunction with design guidelines


and standards. These are adopted by state and national
authorities. Design guidelines take into account speed,
vehicle type, road grade (slope), view obstructions and
stopping distance. With proper application of guidelines,
along with good engineering judgment, an engineer can
design a roadway that is comfortable, safe and appealing
to eye.
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Profile

The profile of a road consists of road slopes, called grades


connected by parabolic vertical curves. Vertical curves
are used to provide a gradual change from one road slope
to another, so that vehicles may smoothly navigate grade
changes as they travel.

Sag vertical curves are those that have a tangent slope


at the end of the curve that is higher than that of the
beginning of the curve. When driving on a road, a sag
curve would appear as a valley, with the vehicle first
going downhill before reaching the bottom of the curve
and continuing uphill or level.

Crest vertical curves are those that have a tangent


slope at the end of the curve that is lower than that of
beginning of the curve. When driving on crest curve, the
road appears as hill, with the vehicle first going uphill
before reaching the top of the top of the curve and
continuing downhill.
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The profile also affects road drainage. Very flat roads


and sag curves may have poor drainage and steep
roads have high velocity flows.

Terminology

BVC = Beginning of vertical curve

EVC = End of vertical curve

g1= initial roadway grade, expressed in percent

g2 = final roadway grade, expressed in percent

A = absolute value of the difference in grades (initial


minus final), expressed in percent

h1 = height of eye above roadway, measured in meters


or feet

h2 = height of object above roadway, measured in


meters or feet

L = curve length (along the x- axis)


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PVI = point of vertical interception (intersection of initial


and final grades)

Tangent elevation = elevation of a point along the initial


tangent

X = horizontal distance from BVC

Y (offset) = vertical distance from the initial tangent to a


point on the curve

Y = curve elevation = tangent elevation - offsets

SAG CURVES

Sag vertical curve which when viewed from the side, are
concave upward. This includes vertical curves at valley
bottoms, but it also includes locations where an uphill
grade becomes steeper or a downhill grade becomes
less steep.

The most important design criterion for these curves is


headlight sight distance. When a driver is driving on sag
curve atnight, the sight distance is limited by the higher
grade in front of vehicle. This distance must be long
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enough that the driver can see any obstruction on the


road and stop the vehicle with in the headlight sight
distance. The headlight sight distance (S) is determined
by the angle of headlight and angle of the tangent slope
at the end of curve. By first finding the headlight sight
distance (S) and then solving for the curve length (L) in
each of the equations below, the correct curve length
can be determined. If the curve length is greater than
the headlight sight distance (S<L), then this number
can be used if it is smaller, this value cannot be used.
Similarly, if the curve length is smaller than the
headlight sight distance(S>L), then this number can be
used if it larger, this value cannot be used.

(S<L) (S>L)

A S2 120+ 3.5 S
L= 120+ 3.5 S L = 2S - A
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These equation assume that the headlights are 600mm


(2.0ft) above the ground and the headlight beam diverges
1 above the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

CREST CURVES

Crest vertical curves are curves which, when viewed from


sight, are convex upward. This includes vertical curves at
hill crests, but it also includes locations where an uphill
grade becomes less steep, or a downhill grade becomes
steeper.

The most important design criterion for these curves is


stopping sight distance. This is the distance a driver can
see over the crest of the curve. If the driver cannot see
any obstructions in the road way, such as stalled vehicle
or animal, the driver may not be able to stop the vehicle
in time to avoid a crash. The desired stopping sight
distance(S) is determined by the speed of traffic on a
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road. By first finding the stopping sight distance(S) and


then solving for curve length (L) in each of the equations
below, the correct curve length can be determined. The
proper equation depends on whether the vertical curve is
shorter or longer than available sight distance. Normally,
both equations are solved, and then the results are
compared to curve length.

Sight distance > curve length (S>L)

2
200 ( h1+ h2)
L = 2S - A

Sight distance < curve length (S<L)

2
AS
L = 100 ( 2 h1 + 2 h2)
2

Alignment
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Horizontal alignment in road design consists of straight


sections of road, known as tangents, connected by
circular horizontal curves. Circular curves are defined by
radius (tightness) and deflection angle (extent). The
design of a horizontal curve entails the determination of a
minimum radius (based on speed limit), curve length and
objects obstructing the view of the driver.

Terminology

R = Radius

PC = Point of Curvature (point at which the curve begins)

PT = Point of Tangent (point at which the curve ends)

PI = Point of Intersection (point at which the two tangents


intersect)

T = Tangent Length

C = Long Chord length(straight line between PC and PT)

L = Curve Length
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M = middle Ordinate, known as HSO Horizontal Sightline


Offset (distance from sight obstructing object to the
middle of the outside lane)

E = External Distance

fs = Coefficient of Side Friction

u = Vehicle Speed

= Deflection Angle

Geometry


2
T=R ()
tan


sin( )
C = 2R 2



L=R 180


cos( )
M = R (1 - 2 )
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2

E=R(
cos
- 1)
1

Curve Sight Distance

28.65 S
cos( )
M = R (1 - R

Cross-section

The cross- section of a roadway can be considered a


representation of what one would see if an excavator dug
a trench across a roadway, showing the number of lanes,
their widths and cross slopes, as well as the presence or
absence of shoulders, curbs, sidewalks, drains, ditches
and other roadway features.

Lane width

The selection of lane width affects the cost and


performance of highway. Typical lane widths range from 3
meters (9.8ft) to 3.6 meters (12ft). Wider lanes and
shoulders are usually used on roads with higher speed
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and higher volume traffic and significant numbers of


trucks and other large vehicles. Narrower lanes may be
used on roads with lower speed or lower volume traffic.

Narrow lanes cost less to build and maintain, but also


reduce the capacity of a road to convey traffic. On rural
roads, narrow lanes are likely to experience higher rates
of run- off road and head on collisions. Wider roads
increase the time needed to walk across, and increase
storm water runoff.

Cross slope

Cross slope describes the slope of a roadway


perpendicular to the centerline. If a road were completely
level, water would drain off it very slowly. This would
create problems with hydroplaning and ice accumulation
in cold weather.

In tangent (straight) sections, the road surface cross


slope is commonly 1- 2% to enable water to drain from
the roadway. Cross slopes of this size, especially when
applied in both directions of travel with a crown point
along the centerline of a roadway are commonly referred
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to as normal crown and are generally imperceptible to


traveling motorists.

Sight distance

Road geometry affects the sight distance available to the


driver. Sight distance, in the context of road design, is
defined as the length of roadway ahead visible to the
driver. Sight distance is how far a road user (usually a
vehicle driver) can see before the line of sight is blocked
by a hill crest, or an obstacle on the inside of a horizontal
curve or intersection. Insufficient sight distance can
adversely affect the safety or operations of a roadway or
intersection.

The sight distance needed for a given situation is the


distance travelled during the two phases of driving
maneuver: perception reaction time (PRT), and maneuver
time (MT). Perception reaction time takes for a road user
to realize that a reaction is needed to a road condition,
decided what maneuver is appropriate, and starts the
maneuver. Maneuver time is the time it takes to complete
the maneuver. The distance driven during perception
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reaction time and maneuver time is the sight distance


needed.

During highway design and traffic safety investigations,


highway engineers compare the available sight distance
to how much sight distance is needed for situation.
Depending on situation, one of three types of distance
will be used.

Stopping sight distance

Stopping sight distance is the distance travelled during


perception reaction time (while the vehicle driver
perceives a situation requiring a stop, realizes that
stopping is necessary, and applies the break), and
maneuver time (while the driver de-accelerate and comes
to stop). Actual stopping distances are also affected by
road condition, the mass of the car, the inclination of the
road and numerous other factor. For design, a
conservative distance is needed to allow a vehicle
travelling at design speedto stop before reaching a
stationary object in its path.

Decision sight distance


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Decision sight distance is used when driver must make


decision more complex than stop or dont stop. It is
longer than stopping sight distance to allow for the
distance traveled while making a more complex decision.
The decision sight distance is distance required for a
driver to detect an unexpected or otherwise difficult to
perceive information source or hazard in a roadway
environment that may be visually cluttered, recognize the
hazard its threat potential, select an appropriate speed
and path and initiate and complete the required
maneuver safely and efficiently. Ideally, roads are
designed for the decision sight distance, using 6 to 10
seconds for perception reaction time and 4 to 5 seconds
to perform the right maneuver.

Intersection sight distance

Intersection sight distance is the sight distance needed to


safely proceed through an intersection. The distance
needed depends on the type of traffic control at the
intersection (uncontrolled, yield sign, stop sign or signal)
and the maneuver (left turn, right turn or proceeding
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straight). All way stop intersections need the least and


uncontrolled intersections require the most.

Design speed

The design speed is a tool used to determine geometric


features of new road during road design. Contrary to the
words implication, a road design speed is not necessarily
its maximum safe speed that can be higher or lower.

Geometric features

The design speed chosen for a highway is a major factor


in choosing superelevation rates and radii of curves, sight
distance and the length of crest and sag vertical curves.
Roads with higher travel speeds require sweeping curves,
steeper curve banking, longer sight distances and gentler
hill crests and valleys. Lower speed roads can have
sharper curves, less banking, less sight distance and
sharper hill crests and valleys.

While a roads design speed is sometimes used to


determine an initial speed limit, it is an imperfect
measure of the maximum speed at which a motor vehicle
can be operated for reasons including:
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It is only a theoretical or laboratory measurement


created before a road is even built.
The highest design speed for a road or segment is
the design speed of its least favorable part.
For example, given a road segment with a 60 mph
design speed except for a curve with a 45 mph
design speed, the entire segment would have a 45
mph design speed.
In reality the road may have a 45 mph advisory
speed on the curve and higher safe operating
speeds elsewhere.
The design speed may be higher than legislated
speed limit caps, so it would not be legal to sign
some roads at their design speed.
It is based on the capabilities of vehicle and
roadways that existed at or before the design speed
was determined. Vehicular and roadway
technologies generally improve over time. Therefore,
as time elapses from when a roadways original
design speed was determined, it is increasingly likely
that a design speed will underestimate the
maximum safe speed.
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Recognizing the limitations on the use of the design for


speed limit determination, operating speeds and even
posted speed limits can be higher than design speeds
without necessarily compromising safety.

Stopping sight distance

Stopping distance redirects here. Stopping distance


may also refer to breaking distance.

Stopping sight distance is one of several types of sight


distance used in road design. It is a near worst case
distance a vehicle driver needs to be able to see in order
have room to stop before colliding with something in the
roadway, such as a pedestrian in a crosswalk, a stopped
vehicle, or road debris. Insufficient sight distance can
adversely affect the safety or operations of a roadway or
intersection.

Stopping sight distance is the distance traveled during


the two phases of stopping a vehicle: perception reaction
time and maneuver time. Perception reaction time is the
time it takes for a road user to realize that a reaction is
needed due to a road condition, decided what maneuver
NH- 56

is appropriate and start the maneuver (taking the foot off


the accelerator and depressing the brake pedal).
Maneuver time is the time it takes to complete the

Maneuver (decelerating and coming to a stop). The


distance driven during perception reaction time and
maneuver time is the sight distance needed.

The values of stopping sight distance used in design


represent a near worst case situation. For design a
conservative distance is needed to allow a vehicle
travelling at design speed to stop before reaching a
stationary object in its path. A generous amount of time is
given for the perception reaction process and a fairly low
rate of deceleration is used. The design sight distance
allows a below average driver to stop in time to avoid a
collision in most cases.

Driver perception reaction distance is calculated by:

dPRT = 0.278Vt(metric)

dPRT = 1.47Vt(US customary)

where:
NH- 56

dPRT = driver perception reaction time (m)

V = design speed (KMPH)

t = brake reaction time (S)

Based on the results of many studies, 2.5 seconds has


been chosen for a perception reaction time. This time will
accommodate approximately 90 percent of all drivers
when confronted with simple to moderately complex
highway situations. Greater reaction time should be
allowed in situations that are more complex.

Braking distance is calculated by:

dMT= 0.039V2/a (metric)

dMT = 1.075 V2/a (US customary)

where:

dMT = braking distance (m)

V = design speed (kmph)

a = deceleration rate (m/s 2)


NH- 56

Actual braking distances are affected by the vehicle type


and condition, the inclination of road, the available
traction and numerous other factors.

A deceleration rate of 3.4 m/s2 is used to determine


stopping sight distance. Approximately 90 percent of all
drivers decelerate at rates greater than that. These
values are within most drivers ability to stay within his or
her lane and maintain steering control. Also most wet
pavement surfaces and most vehicle braking system are
capable of providing enough braking force to exceed this
deceleration rate.

Stopping sight distance(SSD) is the sum of reaction


distance and breaking distance.

SSD = dPRT + dMT

SSD = 0.278Vt + 0.039Vt/a (metric).


NH- 56

ROAD SPECIFICATION

GENERAL SPECIFICATION OF MODERN


ROAD

1. Sub grade shall be well consolidated and


compacted each with a camber of 1 in 60.
NH- 56

2. Soling shall be 30 cm winder than the


metaled width of the road surface and may be either
of :
I. Over burnt bricks laid flat or edge well packed and
joints filled up with sand and the surface blinded with
2.3 cm thick earth and lightly roller.
II. Split stone boulder 15 cm thick laid well packed and
the surface blinded with earth and rolled with roller.

3. Inner coat Shall be stone ballast or over


burnt brick ballast of 12 cm thick layer and
consolidated and compacted by road roller to 8 cm.
4. Top coat Shall be of stone ballast laid in 12
cm thick layer and consolidated and compacted by
road roller to 8 cm.
5. First coat of bituminous painting Shall
be with asphalt or road tar No. 3 and stone grit of 20
mm gauge at 220 kg asphalt and 1.35 cu m of stone
grit per 100 sq m.
6. Second coat of bituminous painting
Shall be with asphalt or tar No. 3A and stone grit of
12mm gauge at 120 kg of asphalt and 0.75 cu m of
stone grit per 100 sq m.
NH- 56

7. Brick edging Brick edging with straight over


burnt bricks shall be provided on both sides.
8. If traffic is heavy, instead of bituminous painting
the wearing surface may be provided with
bituminous carpet or cement concrete.
9. If sub grade is soft or weak, a thick sub base of
cheap and inferior materials well compacted should
be used.

Detailed specification of road work

1. Over burnt bricks- I class over burnt bricks


made from good brick earth shall be used. The brick
earth shall be free from gravel, kankar and other
materials. All brick shall be over burnt of copper
color, no jhama or under brick shall be used.
2. Over burnt brick ballast- I class bricks
ballast of 50 mm gauge broken at site from well over
burnt bricks of copper color shall be used. No jhama
or under burnt ballast should be used. Brick ballast
shall be homogeneous in texture and roughly cubical
in shape. Ballast shall be clean and free from dust
and shall be stacked 30 cm high on the leveled side
NH- 56

berm along the road having the section as required


per meter length for the full width of metaling. The
stack should be continuous without any gap. For 3.7
meter wide road and 12 cm loose layer the stack
may be trapezium section of 1 m width, 1.48 m
bottom width and 30 cm height.
3. Stone ballast - Hard rough and durable
granite stone ballast 60 mm gauge, should be used.
Ballast should not absorb water and should not be
affected by weather action and shall be clean and
free from dust, dirt etc. Ballast should be stacked 30
cm high on the leveled side berm of the road in a
continuous stack along the road having the section
as required per meter length of the road. Size of
stack may be similar as for brick ballast.
4. Kankar Good hard bichwakankar 65mm to
20mm gauge, free from earth dust should be used.
Kankar should show a bluish surface on fracture.
Kankar shall be stacked 32 cm high on the leveled
side berm along the road and measured as 30 cm
high. Kankar should be cleaned and broken to gauge
at the quarry then carried to the road side, and
NH- 56

cleaned again before stacking and the stack should


be made continuous without having any gap. The top
width and bottom width of stack may be 1 m and
1.48m respectively and the height will be 32 cm.
5. Laying and consolidation of road
metal, stone ballast or brick ballast- Laying
and consolidation shall be done during early rainy
season so that sufficient water is available for
consolidation, and during the later part of the ballast
gets fully compacted. The surface shall be made to a
camber of 1 in 48 as specified and two mud walls 20
cm wide and 15cm high shall be made along the
outer edges for the metaling and ballast spread
evenly hand packed to the required camber with
template and bigger pieces of metal placed at the
bottom. The ballast shall first be dry rolled
longitudinally with 10 tonne roller commencing from
the edge and working towards the center and dry
rolling continued until the metal is thoroughly
compacted. The metal shall then be fully saturated
with water rolled until thoroughly compacted and no
mark of roller left on surface. Rolling should be done
NH- 56

slowly without any jerk. For checking consolidation a


few pieces of stone shall be placed over the surface
and roller passed over them, the stone shall not sink
if consolidation is perfect. The surface shall then be
thinly blinded with sandy earth and water and rolled.
Finally the side mud walls shall be rolled and pressed
flush to the surface. The surface should be the
required camber by placing template at regular
intervals. The road shall be opened to traffic when
dry but damp and the traffic be spread over the full
width by traffic diversion. The side berm shall be
repaired with earth to a slop of 1 in 36.

6. Laying and consolidation of kankar


metal- Laying and consolidation of kankar shall be
done during the early rain so that sufficient water is
available for consolidation and during rain later part
of kankar metal gets fully compacted. The kankar
stack shall be opened before rain starts and sorted in
three rows as follows:
NH- 56

(I) Larges kankar (size 63 mm to 40mm) to be used


at the bottom.
(II) Medium size kankar (size 40mm to 25mm) to be
used in the middle.
(III) Smallest size kankar (25mm and below) to be
used at top.

The surface should be brought to required camber and


two mud walls 20cm wide 15 high shall be made along
the outer edges of metaling and the surface cleaned, and
then kankar spread in three operations, first the big size
kankar then the medium size kankar and finally at the
small size kankar and the surface brought to camber with
template placed at 10 m apart kankar is then fully
saturated with water and consolidated with rammers of 5
to 8 kg weight and 16 rammers shall be used for 3.7 m
wide road. The ramming shall be done first at the side to
width of 1m on each side working along the road then the
central portion working across the road. The ramming is
continued until the metal has been thoroughly compacted
and no marks are left by the rammers or by any traffic
movingover the new surface. When the consolidation is
completed, the mud wall shall be rammed flat with the
NH- 56

metal surface and the surface blinded with sandy soil. No


blinding should be done on kankar surface during
consolidation.

The road shall be opened to traffic when the surface is


dry but still damp. The traffic shall be spread over the full
width by traffic diversion. The side berms shall be
repaired with earth to a slop 1 in 36.

7. First coat of painting or surface


dressing with bitumen The surface shall be
dry and absolutely free from dust, dirt, cow dung etc.
The cleaning shall be done first by wire brushes then
by hard brush brooms and then with soft brush, so as
to expose clean metal surface to a depth of 6mm to
12 mm without loosening the stone. Finally,
immediately before painting, all dust, dirt should be
blown away of blowing with gunny bags.
Road tar no 3 heated to a temperature of 200 0F to
2250F or asphalt 80/100 heated to 350 0F to 3750F,
shall be applied to road surface uniformly along the
road with pouring cans or with hose pipe directly
connected with tar boiler and brushed evenly over
NH- 56

the surface with brush brooms or rubber squeegees


working from edge to the crown of the road. For
proper control and uniformity of spreading of tar, the
surface area which can be covered by one can
marked with chalk or length which can be covered by
one drum of tar should be marked. About 220 kg of
tar of asphalt are required per 100 sq m surface.
As soon as the paint (tar or asphalt) has been
applied, stone grits 20mm to 6mm gauge should be
spread evenly on the surface. The grit should be
screened into two portions, bigger and smaller pieces
beforehand. The bigger grits shall be spread first and
then the smaller grits at the top. The surface shall
then be rolled slowly and lightly with light road roller
just to press the grits into the paint and to give a
uniform smooth surface. The quantity of stone grits
should be 1.35 cum per 100sq m. if any sign of
bleeding is developed anywhere on the surface the
spot should be covered with small stone or coarse
sand and lightly compacted. Road may be opened to
traffic after 12 hours of rolling.
NH- 56

8. Second coat of painting or surface


dressing with bitumen The second coat of
painting shall be applied when all loose grits to the
first coat have been absorbed and the surface shows
a mosaic appearance. The second coat of shall be
done with asphalt of 80/100 penetration heated to
3500F to 3750F and 120 kg of asphalt should be
applied per 100sq m of surface and 0.75 cum stone
grits of 12 mm gauge shall be used per 100sq m of
surface. The penetration of surfaces, the applications
as for the first cost of painting

Pre coated grits Stone grits used for 1st and 2nd coat
surface painting may be pre coated in advance with
bitumen, pre coating prevents separation and
disintegration of grits and improves the life of the road.
For pre coating stone grit 12 kg 16kg of asphalt or road
tar per cum of grit may be used.

9. 2 cm premix chips carpet or pre coated


chip surface dressing First a tack coat should
be applied on the clean surface and immediately
after that premix carpet should be laid, which should
NH- 56

be compacted by rolling and then followed by sand


flushing. The stone chips and sand used should be
dry. The detailed operations are as follows:

Preparation of base- The surface should be done dry


and must be absolutely free from dust, dirt and mud.
Cleaning should be done first by wire brushes, then by
hard brush brooms and then with soft brush broom and
finally blowing with a blower or dusting with bags. Pot
holes or ruts in the surface should be filled with premix
chipping and well rammed about a week before the
carpet is laid.

TACK COAT

Binder heated to a temperature of 320 0F to 340 0F should


be applied on the cleaned surface uniformly at the rate of
100 kg per sq m. Application should be made with
sprayer but if this is not available, with pouring can and
brushed evenly. The tack coat should be applied just
ahead of spreading carpet.
NH- 56

CARPET

Preparation of premix Two parts of stone chips 12mm


size and one part of stone chips 10mm size shall be
loaded in drum mixer and thoroughly mixed dry. The
stone chips should be angular, hard tough and durable
and perfectly clean. Stone chips need not be heated but
should be perfectly dry.

The binder @ 56 kg per cum of chips, shelmac or shelspra


heated to a temperature of 320 F to 340
0
Fshall be
0

poured into the mixer and thoroughly mix until the stone
chips are thoroughly coated with binder.

The mix shall then be discharged from the mixer on wheel


borrows or stretchers and carried to the site.

For 100sq m of premix carpet surface 1.8 cum of 12mm


size stone chips, 0.9 cum of 10mm size stone chips and
155 kg of bitumen shall be required.

If mechanical mixer is used, larger quantity can be mixed


at a time.
NH- 56

Spreading of premix- Immediately after applying the


tack coat to the road surface. The hot premix shall be
spread evenly with rakes to the desired thickness and to
the correct camber and checked by template. Any
unevenness on the surface shall be adjusted by adding
premix before rolling commences.

Rolling As soon as surface length of premix has been


laid, rolling should be started with 7 to 8 tonne roller.
Rolling should commence at the edges and progress
towards the center. After light rolling high spots or
depressions which become apparent should be corrected
by removing or adding premix and the rolled to through
compaction. Excessive rolling should be avoided. Roller
wheel should be kept damp to prevent the premix from
adhering and picking up.

SAND FLUSHING

Over this compacted surface immediately after rolling,


dry coarse sand should be spread at the rate of 0.3 cum
NH- 56

per sqm and rolledagain until a smooth surface is


obtained. Sand should be coarse, clean, hard durable and
free dust, dirt and organic matter.

Traffic may be allowed on the carpet surface after 24


hours of completion of rolling.

Seal coat A seal coat shall be applied as soon as


found necessary but not later than 1.5 years after laying
the carpet. The binder shelspra or shelmac should be
heated and mixed with dry coarse sand and then spread
on the road surface uniformly and rolled. The quantity of
sand binder should be at the rate 0.75cum of sand.

Instead of seal coat of premix and binder, a coat of


surface dressing may be applied as in second coat of
painting.

Cold mix and Hot mix premix carpeting

Cold mix- The above specification of premix bituminous


road is for cold mix type in which stone chips or
NH- 56

aggregates are not required to be heated. Bitumen should


be best of the quality and grade such that the bitumen
when mixed with cold and dry stone chips, they will be
well coated and form a good mix and will not harden by
the time. The mix is applied on the road surface and
rolled.

Hot- mix Hot mix type may be used with suitable


quantity and grade of asphalt where both the binder and
the aggregate shall have to be heated separately mixed
together and then carried and applied on the road surface
while hot and roller.
NH- 56

DESIGN

IRC method of design of flexible


pavements

Overview

Indian roads congress has specified the design


procedures for flexible pavements based on CBR values.
The Pavement designs given in the previous edition
IRC:37-1984 were applicable to design traffic upto only 30
million standard axles (msa). The earlier code is empirical
in nature which has limitations regarding applicability and
extrapolation. This guidelines follows analytical designs
and developed new set of designs up to 150 msa in
IRC:37-2001.

Scope
NH- 56

These guidelines will apply to design of flexible


pavements for Expressway, National Highways, State
Highways, Major District Roads, and other categories of
roads. Flexible pavements are considered to include the
pavements which have bituminous surfacing and granular
base and sub-base courses conforming to IRC/ MOST
standards. These guidelines apply to new pavements.

Design criteria

The flexible pavements has been modeled as a three


layer structure and stresses and strains at critical
locations have been computed using the linear elastic
model. To give proper consideration to the aspects of
performance, the following three types of pavement
distress resulting from repeated (cyclic) application of
traffic loads are considered:
1.Vertical compressive strain at the top of the sub-grade
which can cause sub-grade deformation resulting in
permanent deformation at the pavement surface.
NH- 56

2. Horizontal tensile strain or stress at the bottom of the


bituminous layer which can cause fracture of the
bituminous layer.
3. Pavement deformation within the bituminous layer.

While the permanent deformation within the bituminous


layer can be controlled by meeting the mix design
requirements, thickness of granular and bituminous
layers are selected using the analytical design approach
so that strains at the critical points are within the
allowable limits. For calculating tensile strains at the
bottomof the bituminous layer, the sti_ness of dense
bituminous macadam (DBM) layer with 60/70 bitumen
has beenused in the analysis.

Failure Criteria

A and B are the critical locations for tensile strains (e t)


Maximum value of the strain is adopted for design. C is
the critical location for the vertical subgrade strain (ez)
since the maximum value of the (ez) occurs mostly at C.
NH- 56

Fatigue Criteria:

Bituminous surfacings of pavements display flexural


fatigue cracking if the tensile strain at the bottom of the
bituminous layer is beyond certain limit. The relation
between the fatigue life of the pavement and the tensile
strain in the bottom of the bituminous layer was obtained
as

1 1
et E
Nf = 2.2110-4 -(1)

in which, Nfis the allowable number of load repetitions to


control fatigue cracking and E is the Elastic modulus of
bituminous layer. The use of equation (1) would result in
fatigue cracking of 20% of the total area.

Rutting Criteria
NH- 56

The allowable number of load repetitions to control


permanent deformation can be expressed as

1
ez
Nr = 4.165610-8 -(2)

Nr is the number of cumulative standard axles to produce


rutting of 20 mm.

Design Procedure

Based on the performance of existing designs and using


analytical approach, simple design charts and a
catalogueof pavement designs are added in the code. The
pavement designs are given for subgrade CBR values
ranging from 2% to 10% and design traffic ranging from 1
msa to 150 msa for an average annual pavement
temperatureof 35 C. The later thicknesses obtained from
the analysis have been slightly modified to adapt the
designs to tage construction. Using the following simple
input parameters, appropriate designs could be chosen
for the given trafficc and soil strength:
NH- 56

Design traffic in terms of cumulative number of


standard axles; and
CBR value of subgrade.

Design traffic

The method considers traffic in terms of the cumulative


number of standard axles (8160 kg) to be carried by the
pavement during the design life. This requires the
following information:
1. Initial traffic in terms of CVPD
2. Traffic growth rate during the design life
3. Design life in number of years
4. Vehicle damage factor (VDF)
5. Distribution of commercial traffic over the carriage way.

Initial traffic
NH- 56

Initial traffic is determined in terms of commercial


vehicles per day (CVPD). For the structural design of the
pavement only commercial vehicles are considered
assuming laden weight of three tonnes or more and their
axle loading will be considered. Estimate of the initial
daily average traffic flow for any road should normally be
based on 7-day 24-hour classified traffic counts (ADT). In
case of new roads, traffic estimates can be made on the
basis of potential land use and traffic on existing routes in
the area.

Traffic growth rate

Traffic growth rates can be estimated (i) by studying the


past trends of traffic growth, and (ii) by establishing
econometric models. If adequate data is not available, it
is recommended that an average annual growth rate of
7.5 percent may be adopted.

Design life
NH- 56

For the purpose of the pavement design, the design life is


defined in terms of the cumulative number of standard
axles that can be carried before strengthening of the
pavement is necessary. It is recommended that
pavements for arterial roads like NH, SH should be
designed for a life of 15 years, EH and urban roads for 20
years and other categories of roads for 10 to 15 years.

Vehicle Damage Factor

The vehicle damage factor (VDF) is a multiplier for


converting the number of commercial vehicles of different
axle loads and axle configurations to the number of
standard axle-load repetitions. It is defined as equivalent
number of standard axles per commercial vehicle. The
VDF varies with the axle configuration, axle loading,
terrain, type of road, and from region to region. The axle
load equivalency factors are used to convert different
axle load repetitions into equivalent standard axle load
repetitions. For these equivalency factors refer IRC: 37
NH- 56

2001. The exact VDF values are arrived after extensive


field surveys.

Vehicle distribution

A realistic assessment of distribution of commercial traffic


by direction and by lane is necessary as it directly affects
the total equivalent standard axle load application used
in the design. Until reliable data is available, the following
distribution may be assumed-
Single lane roads:Traffic tends to be more
channelized on single roads than two lane roads and
to allow for this concentration of wheel load
repetitions, the design should be based on total
number of commercial vehicles in both directions.

Two-lane single carriageway roads:The design


should be based on 75 % of the commercial vehicles
in both directions.
Four-lane single carriageway roads:The design
should be based on 40 % of the total number of
commercial vehicles in both directions.
NH- 56

Dual carriageway roads:For the design of dual


two-lane carriageway roads should be based on 75 %
of the number of commercial vehicles in each
direction. For dual three-lane carriageway and dual
four-lane carriageway the distribution factor will be
60 % and 45 % respectively.

Pavement thickness design charts

For the design of pavements to carry traffic in the range


of 1 to 10 msa, use chart 1 and for traffic in the range 10
to 150 msa, use chart 2 of IRC:37 2001. The design
curves relate pavement thickness to the cumulative
number standard axles to be carried over the design life
for different sub-grade CBR values ranging from 2 % to
10%.The design charts will give the total thickness of the
pavement for the above inputs. The total thickness
consists of granular sub-base, granular base and
bituminous surfacing. The individual layers are designed
based on the recommendations given below and the
subsequent tables.
NH- 56

Pavement composition

Sub-base

Sub-base materials comprise natural sand, gravel,


laterite, brick metal, crushed stone or combinations
thereof meeting the prescribed grading and physical
requirements. The sub-base material should have a
minimum CBR of 20 % and 30 % for traffic upto 2 msa
and traffic exceeding 2 msa respectively. Sub-base
usually consist of granular or WBM and the thickness
should not be less than 150 mm for design traffic less
than 10 msa and 200 mm for design traffic of 1:0 msa
and above.

Base

The recommended designs are for unbounded granular


bases which comprise conventional water bound
macadam
NH- 56

(WBM) or wet mix macadam (WMM) or equivalent


conforming to MOST specifications. The materials should
be of good quality with minimum thickness of 225 mm for
traffic up to 2 msaan 150 mm for traffic exceeding 2 msa.

Bituminous surfacing

The surfacing consists of a wearing course or a binder


course plus wearing course. The most commonly used
wearing courses are surface dressing, open graded
premix carpet, mix seal surfacing, semi-dense bituminous
concrete and bituminous concrete. For binder course,
MOST specifies, it is desirable to use bituminous
macadam (BM) for traffic upto o 5 msa and dense
bituminous macadam (DBM) for traffic more than 5 msa.
NH- 56

CBR TEST RESULT OF SOIL


Penetration Load
mm kg
1 9
1.5 50
2 60
2.5 75
3 90
3.5 110
4 120
4.5 130
5 140
5.5 150
6 160
6.5 170
7 180
8 190
9 190
9.5 210
10 220
10.5 240
11 240
12 240

CALCULATION

Load sustained by the specimen at 2.55 mm penetration




CBR =

CBR value=(90/1370)*100=6.57%
NH- 56

CBR value=(150/2055)*100=7.31%

CALCULATION OF MILLION STANDARD


AXLE(msa)

Calculation

Sunday Monday

T0 = 25930 T0 =
31795

T1 = 72359 T1 =
74163

T2 = 5331 T2 =
5379

T2 = 3824 T 2 =
3993

T3 = 5604 T3 =
6454
NH- 56

T3S2 = 453 T 3S2 = 435

P F A
31795+ 25930
T0 (av) = 2 = 28863.5 0.00015

36370
74163+73359
T1(av) = 2 = 73261 0.0036

92314
5331+5379
T2(av) = 2 = 5355 4.676

6748
3993+ 3824
T2(av)= 2 = 3908.5 0.5

4926
5604 +6454
T3(av)= 2 = 5729 2.4

7219
NH- 56

453+435
T3S2(av) = 2 = 444 34

560

A = P(1+r)X

= P(1+0.0801)3

N= Cummulative number of standard axles

(1+0.0801)
365 [ 151] AF D
= 0.0801

794.45 70720 0.15


= 0.0801 10
6

= 105.2 msa
NH- 56
NH- 56

Graph -1 between Penetration and load for


CBR TEST
NH- 56
NH- 56

Graph -2 between thickness of pavement and traffic

TOTAL THICKNESS OF PAVEMENT FROM


GRAPH -2

D= 660mm

Thickness of granular sub base = 210mm>200

Thickness of granular base = 250mm(250mm as per


IS:37-2001)

Thickness of dense bitumen macadam = 150mm

Thickness of bitumen framework = 50 mm


NH- 56
NH- 56
NH- 56

Pavement design catalogue -1


NH- 56

Pavement design catalogue -

Figure - 1 CROSS SECTION OF ROAD


NH- 56
NH- 56

Figure -2

Estimation

No. Descriptio No Size Quantit


n . y
st
1. 1 -
construction
layer
a. Earth work in 2 3.51.7350103
filling and 605500m3
NH- 56

compaction.
2. 2nd granular
sub base
coat
a. Preparation at 2 (3.5+.15)50103 365000
base ,camber m2
and
compaction
b. Formation of 2 (3.5+.15).2150
granular sub 103 76650m3
base with
sand, soil,
gravel with
CBR>7
c. Construction of 2 50103 100*103m
kerb
3. 3rd granular
base coat
a. Construction of 2 3.5.2550103 87500m3
granular base
with crushed
stone and
aggregate with
NH- 56

CBR value not


less than 30.
b. Construction of 2 50103 100*103m
shoulder with
1:20 slop
4. Dense
bituminous
macadam
coat
a. DBM with 2 3.5.1550103 52500m3
60/70 grade
bitumen
5. Bituminous
concrete coat
a. BC with 60/70 2 503.5103 350000m2
bitumen
concrete
50mm thick
6. Land
acquisition
a. 5 m wide strip 2 550103 500000m2
for widening
both side
NH- 56

7. Other work
a. Preparation the 2 5501000 500000m2
land for
widening
b. Sign board,
traffic, survey
work
c. Tree plantation

COSTING

Rate analysis of bituminous road

NO Item Quanti Rate Uni Amount


. ty t
1. 1st-
constructio
NH- 56

n layer
a. Earth work 605500m 264/- m3 159852000/-
in filling and 3

compaction
2. 2nd
granular
sub base
coat
a. Preparation 365000 88/- m2 32120000/-
at base m2
,camber and
compaction
b. Formation of
granular sub 76650m 3
1100/- m3 84315000/-
base with
sand, soil,
gravel with
CBR>7
c. Construction 100000m 144/- m 14400000/-
of kerb
3. 3rd granular
base coat
a. Construction 87500m3 1250/- m3 109375000/-
NH- 56

of granular
base with
crushed
stone and
aggregate
with CBR
value not
less than
30.
b. Construction 100.0km 60000/- km 6000000/-
of shoulder
with 1:20
slop
4. Dense
bituminous
macadam
coat
a. DBM with 52500m3 1250/- m3 65625000/-
60/70 grade
bitumen
5. Bituminous
concrete
NH- 56

coat
a. BC with 350000m 300/- m2 105000000/-
60/70 2

bitumen
concrete
50mm thick
6. Land
acquisition
a. 5 m wide 50.0hct 53821313 hct 2691065650
strip for /- /-
widening
both side
7. Other work
a. Preparation 500000m 200/- m2 100000000/-
the land for 2

widening
b. Sign board, 40000/-
traffic,
survey work
c. Tree 80000/-
plantation
Total cost 3367872650/-
NH- 56

1% water supply = 33678726.5/-

2% work charge and 3% for contingency =


168393632.5/-

10% contract profit =


336787265/-

Grand
total = 3906632274/-
NH- 56

FUTURE SCOPE
NH- 56

The future scope of this project is very bright. This project


is worked for a long life span of 15 years. By itpeople
would be travelled easily and comfortably. The traffic
problem would be solved in great strength.

There is also a development of this area in future by


construction of markets inside the road.

And there is no problem of communication in it. It will


give luxury life to people.

After development of this area, people will try to live in


this area, so traffic problem would be created in future, so
to overcome this, there is also scope of construction of
overbridges in future. It will create more development in
future.
NH- 56

CONCLUSION
This project is worked on widening of existing pavement
from four lane to six lane at NH56 lko to sultanpur road.
To do this we include in our project planning,survey,
methodology,geometric design, specification, estimation
and abstract of cost. The widening of pavement is done
for a length of 50 km. The estimation cost for it is Rs.
3906632274/-.

The traffic problem would be solved by ittomuch extent.


People would be travelled easily and comfortably.