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PERIOD 8:
19451980
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Key Concept 8.1: The United States responded to an uncertain


Related Thematic and unstable postwar world by asserting and working to
Learning Objectives

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
(Focus of Exam maintain a position of global leadership, with far-reaching
Questions) domestic and international consequences.

WXT-2.0: Explain I. United States policymakers engaged in a Cold War with the authoritarian
how patterns of Soviet Union, seeking to limit the growth of Communist military power and
exchange, markets, ideological influence, create a free-market global economy, and build an
and private enterprise international security system.
have developed,
and analyze ways A) As postwar tensions dissolved
that governments the wartime alliance between
have responded to Western democracies and the
economic issues. Soviet Union, the United States
WOR-2.0: Analyze developed a foreign policy
the reasons for, based on collective security,
and results of, U.S. international aid, and economic
diplomatic, economic, institutions that bolstered
and military initiatives non-Communist nations.
in NorthAmerica
and overseas. B) Concerned by expansionist
Communist ideology and
Soviet repression, the United
States sought to contain
communism through a
variety of measures, including
major military engagements
in Korea and Vietnam.

C) The Cold War fluctuated


between periods of direct and
indirect military confrontation
and periods of mutual
coexistence (or dtente).

D) Postwar decolonization and


the emergence of powerful
nationalist movements in
Asia, Africa, and the Middle
East led both sides in the
Cold War to seek allies among
new nations, many of which
remained nonaligned.

E) Cold War competition extended


to Latin America, where the
U.S. supported non-Communist
regimes that had varying levels
of commitment to democracy.

Period 8: 19451980 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 8.1
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 77
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Key Concept 8.1: The United States responded to an uncertain


Related Thematic and unstable postwar world by asserting and working to
Learning Objectives

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
(Focus of Exam maintain a position of global leadership, with far-reaching
Questions) domestic and international consequences.

NAT-3.0: Analyze how II. Cold War policies led to public debates over the power of the federal
ideas about national government and acceptable means for pursuing international and domestic
identity changed goals while protecting civil liberties.
in response to U.S.
involvement in A) Americans debated policies
international conflicts and methods designed
and the growth of to expose suspected
the United States. communists within the
GEO-1.0: Explain United States even as
how geographic both parties supported
and environmental the broader strategy of
factors shaped the containing communism.
development of
various communities, B) Although anticommunist
and analyze how foreign policy faced little
competition for domestic opposition in
and debates over previous years, the Vietnam
natural resources War inspired sizable and
have affected both passionate antiwar protests
interactions among that became more numerous
different groups and as the war escalated, and
the development of sometimes led to violence.
government policies.
C) Americans debated the
WOR-2.0: Analyze
merits of a large nuclear
the reasons for, arsenal, the military-
and results of, U.S. industrial complex, and
diplomatic, economic, the appropriate power
and military initiatives of the executive branch
in NorthAmerica in conducting foreign
and overseas. and military policy.

D) Ideological, military,
and economic concerns
shaped U.S. involvement
in the Middle East, with
several oil crises in the
region eventually sparking
attempts at creating a
national energy policy.

Period 8: 19451980 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 8.1
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 78
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Related Thematic Key Concept 8.2: New movements for civil rights and liberal
Learning Objectives
(Focus of Exam
efforts to expand the role of government generated a range of

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
Questions) political and cultural responses.

NAT-1.0: Explain I. Seeking to fulfill Reconstruction-era promises, civil rights activists and
how ideas about political leaders achieved some legal and political successes in ending
democracy, freedom, segregation, although progress toward racial equality was slow.
and individualism
found expression A) During and after
in the development WorldWarII, civil
of cultural values, rights activists and
political institutions, leaders, most notably
and American identity. MartinLutherKingJr.,
NAT-2.0: Explain combatted racial
how interpretations discrimination utilizing
of the Constitution a variety of strategies,
and debates over including legal challenges,
rights, liberties, direct action, and
and definitions of nonviolent protest tactics.
citizenship have
affected American B) The three branches of
values, politics, the federal government
and society. used measures including
desegregation of the
NAT-4.0: Analyze armed services, Brown
relationships among v. Board of Education,
different regional, and the Civil Rights
social, ethnic, and Act of 1964 to promote
racial groups, and greater racial equality.
explain how these
groups experiences C) Continuing resistance slowed
have related to U.S. efforts at desegregation,
national identity. sparking social and political
POL-2.0: Explain how unrest across the nation.
popular movements, Debates among civil
reform efforts, and rights activists over the
activist groups have efficacy of nonviolence
sought to change increased after 1965.
American society
and institutions.

Period 8: 19451980 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 8.2
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 79
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Related Thematic Key Concept 8.2: New movements for civil rights and liberal
Learning Objectives
(Focus of Exam
efforts to expand the role of government generated a range of

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
Questions) political and cultural responses.

NAT-4.0: Analyze II. Responding to social conditions and the African American civil rights
relationships among movement, a variety of movements emerged that focused on issues of
different regional, identity, social justice, and the environment.
social, ethnic, and
racial groups, and A) Feminist and gay
explain how these and lesbian activists
groups experiences mobilized behind claims
have related to U.S. for legal, economic,
national identity. and social equality.
POL-2.0: Explain how
popular movements, B) Latino, American Indian, and
reform efforts, and Asian American movements
activist groups have continued to demand social
sought to change and economic equality and
American society a redress of past injustices.
and institutions.
C) Despite an overall affluence
CUL-3.0: Explain how
in postwar America,
ideas about womens advocates raised concerns
rights and gender about the prevalence and
roles have affected persistence of poverty
society and politics. as a national problem.
CUL-4.0: Explain
how different group D) Environmental problems
identities, including and accidents led to a
racial, ethnic, class, growing environmental
and regional identities, movement that aimed to
have emerged and use legislative and public
changed over time. efforts to combat pollution
and protect natural
GEO-1.0: Explain resources. The federal
how geographic government established
and environmental new environmental
factors shaped the programs and regulations.
development of
various communities,
and analyze how
competition for
and debates over
natural resources
have affected both
interactions among
different groups and
the development of
government policies.

Period 8: 19451980 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 8.2
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 80
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Related Thematic Key Concept 8.2: New movements for civil rights and liberal
Learning Objectives
(Focus of Exam
efforts to expand the role of government generated a range of

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
Questions) political and cultural responses.

POL-1.0: Explain how III. Liberalism influenced postwar politics and court decisions, but it came under
and why political ideas, increasing attack from the left as well as from a resurgent conservative movement.
beliefs, institutions,
party systems, and A) Liberalism, based on
alignments have anticommunism abroad and
developed and changed. a firm belief in the efficacy of
POL-2.0: Explain how government power to achieve
popular movements, social goals at home, reached
reform efforts, and a high point of political
activist groups have influence by the mid-1960s.
sought to change
American society B) Liberal ideas found expression in
and institutions. Lyndon Johnsons Great Society,
which attempted to use federal
POL-3.0: Explain how
legislation and programs to end
different beliefs about racial discrimination, eliminate
the federal governments poverty, and address other social
role in U.S. social issues. A series of Supreme
and economic life Court decisions expanded civil
have affected political rights and individual liberties.
debates and policies.

C) In the 1960s, conservatives


challenged liberal laws and court
decisions and perceived moral
and cultural decline, seeking
to limit the role of the federal
government and enact more
assertive foreign policies.

D) Some groups on the left also


rejected liberal policies, arguing
that political leaders did too
little to transform the racial and
economic status quo at home and
pursued immoral policies abroad.

E) Public confidence and trust


in governments ability to
solve social and economic
problems declined in the
1970s in the wake of economic
challenges, political scandals,
and foreign policy crises.

F) The 1970s saw growing


clashes between conservatives
and liberals over social and
cultural issues, the power
of the federal government,
race, and movements for
greater individual rights.

Period 8: 19451980 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 8.2
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 81
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Related Thematic Key Concept 8.3: Postwar economic and demographic changes
Learning Objectives
(Focus of Exam
had far-reaching consequences for American society, politics,

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
Questions) andculture.

WXT-3.0: Analyze I. Rapid economic and social changes in American society fostered a sense of
how technological optimism in the postwar years.
innovation has
affected economic A) A burgeoning private sector,
development federal spending, the baby
and society. boom, and technological
MIG-1.0: Explain the developments helped
causes of migration to spur economic growth.
colonial North America
and, later, the United B) As higher education
States, and analyze opportunities and new
immigrations effects technologies rapidly
on U.S. society. expanded, increasing social
mobility encouraged the
MIG-2.0: Analyze migration of the middle class
causes of internal to the suburbs and of many
migration and patterns Americans to the South and
of settlement in West. The Sun Belt region
what would become emerged as a significant
the United States, political and economic force.
and explain how
migration has affected C) Immigrants from around
American life. the world sought access
to the political, social, and
economic opportunities in
the United States, especially
after the passage of new
immigration laws in 1965.

Period 8: 19451980 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 8.3
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 82
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Related Thematic Key Concept 8.3: Postwar economic and demographic changes
Learning Objectives
(Focus of Exam
had far-reaching consequences for American society, politics,

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
Questions) andculture.

POL-2.0: Explain how II. New demographic and social developments, along with anxieties over the
popular movements, Cold War, changed U.S. culture and led to significant political and moral
reform efforts, and debates that sharply divided the nation.
activist groups have
sought to change A) Mass culture became
American society increasingly homogeneous
and institutions. in the postwar years,
CUL-1.0: Explain how inspiring challenges to
religious groups and conformity by artists,
ideas have affected intellectuals, and
American society rebellious youth.
and political life.
B) Feminists and young people
CUL-2.0: Explain how who participated in the
artistic, philosophical, counterculture of the 1960s
and scientific ideas rejected many of the social,
have developed economic, and political
and shaped society values of their parents
and institutions. generation, introduced
CUL-3.0: Explain how greater informality into
ideas about womens U.S. culture, and advocated
rights and gender changes in sexual norms.
roles have affected
society and politics. C) The rapid and substantial
growth of evangelical
Christian churches
and organizations was
accompanied by greater
political and social
activism on the part of
religious conservatives.

Period 8: 19451980 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 8.3
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 83
2015 The College Board